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# EI6402

Electrical Machines

UNIT- I DC MACHINES

## 1. What is an electric motor?

Electric motor is a machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
2. Define DC motor.
DC motor converts d.c. electrical input into mechanical output.
3. What is the basic principle of operation of a dc motor?
The basic principle of operation of a dc motor is that, a current carrying conductor placed in a
magnetic field experiences a force tending to move it.
4. Define back emf.
When a motor rotates, the conductors housed in the armature also rotate and cut the magnetic lines
of force. So an emf is induced in the armature conductors and this induced emf opposes the supply
voltage as per Lenzs law. This induced emf is
called back emf (or) counter emf.

5. What is the nature of the current flowing in the armature conductors of a dc motor?
Alternating current is following through the armature. This alternating current is converted into
dc by using commutator.
6. State Flemings left hand rule.
The direction of rotation is given by Flemings left hand rule. If the thumb, fore finger and
middle finger of the hand are held such that the three fingers are at mutually perpendicular directions,
and if the fore finger indicates direction of the field, and the middle finger, the direction of current
then the thumb points to the direction of rotation.
7. Write down the voltage equation of a d.c. motor.
Voltage equation of a DC motor is given by V= Eb + Ia Ra
where V applied voltage,
Eb back emf
Ia - armature current,
Ra armature resistance

a)
b)

## The types of DC motors are

Separately excited DC motor
Self excited DC motor
Series motor
Shunt motor
Compound motor
Long shunt compound motor
Short shunt compound motor

## 9. What is a separately excited d.c motor?

In this motor, field winding and armature windings are separated. The field winding is
excited by a separate DC source. That is why it is called separately excited DC motor.
10. What is a dc series motor?
In a DC series motor, the field winding is connected in series with the armature. The
field winding should have less number of turns of thick wire.
11. What is a dc shunt motor?
In a dc shunt motor, the field winding is connected across the armature. The shunt field
winding has more number of turns with less cross sectional area.
12. Why a dc shunt motor is also called a constant flux motor or constant speed motor?

In shunt motor, flux produced by field winding is proportional to the field current Ish. Here,
the input voltage is constant and so the flux is also constant. Therefore, DC shunt motor is also called a
constant flux motor or constant speed motor.
13. What is a compound motor?
A dc motor consisting of both series and shunt field windings is called a compound
motor.
14. Why series motor cannot be started without any load?
In dc series motor, flux is directly proportional to armature current. Under no load condition,
the armature current is very low and flux also be less. By using the formula N , where f l u x is less,
the motor speed will be very high. Due to this motor will be damaged. Hence DC series motor should
always be started with some load on the shaft.
15. What is the use of split rings in DC Machines?
For making the flow of current unidirectional in the external circuit the slip rings are
replaced by split rings.
16. What are the characteristics of a DC generator?
OCC
External characteristics
Internal characteristics
17. Distinguish between self excited and separately excited dc generator.
Separately excited
Self Excited
It the field winding of a generator is excited It the field winding of a dc machine
by a separate dc supply then the generator is is supplied from the armature of the dc
called separately excited.
machine itself then it is called self
excited.
18. Write the torque equation of dc motor?
Ta= 0.159 Ia PZ

N-m.

## 19. How is an AC converted into unidirectional DC in DC generator?

Split rings.
20. Name any two methods of a speed control of in DC Shunt motor?
Control method
1. Rheostatic
2. Plugging
21. What are the factors governing the speed of DC motor?
1.
flux/ pole
2.
Rheostatic control
3.
Applied voltage.
22. The outer frame of a DC machine serves double purpose. What are they?
i)
It provides mechanical support for the poles and acts as a
protecting cover for the whole machine.
ii) It carries the magnetic flux produced by the poles.
23. Mention the types of electric braking of a dc motor?
1.
rheostatic
2.
plugging
3.
regenerative braking

## 24.What is the necessity of a starter for starting DC motor?

To avoid flowing of fuses at the time of drawing high current and which limits the starting
current to a Safe value.
25.What is the significance of back emf?
Eb = ZN x (P/A) Back emf depends upon the armature speed. If speed is high Eb is large
hence armature current Ia as seen from the above equation is small. If the Speed is less then Eb is
Less hence more current flows which develops motor torque . So we find that Eb acts like a governor
i.e it makes a motor self regulating so that it draws as much current as is just necessary.
26.What is mean by armature reaction?
Armature reaction is meant the effect of magnetic field set up by armature current on the
distribution of flux under main poles of generator.
27.State any two causes for the failure of the generator to build up?
1.
reversed shunt field connection
2.
reversed citation
3.
reversed residual magnetism.
28.What is the function of dc generator?
An electrical generator is a machine which coverts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
29.What is an electrical generator?
An electrical generator is a machine which mechanical energy to electrical energy.
30. What is the basic principle of a dc generator?
Basic principle of a dc generator is Faradays law electromagnetic induction. i.e., whenever a
conductor is moved in a magnetic field, dynamically induced emf is produced in that conductor.
31.What are the essential parts of a d.c. generator?
a. Magnetic frame or Yoke
b. Poles
c. Armature
d. Commutator, pole, shoes, armature windings, interlopes
e. Brushes, bearings and shaft.
32.What is the purpose of yoke in a d.c. machine?
i.It acts as a protecting cover for the whole machine and provides mechanical support for the
poles.
ii. It carries the magnetic flux produced by the poles. The flux per pole divides at the yoke so
that, the yoke carries only half the flux produced by each pole.
33. Why the core of the armature is laminated in DC machines.
The armature core is made of laminations, in order to reduce the eddy current losses.
34.What are the types of armature windings available in d.c. machine?
a. Lap winding
b. Wave winding.
35.What is the purpose of commutator in a DC generator?
The commutator converts the alternating emf into unidirectional or direct emf.
36.Write down the emf equation of a d.c. generator.
Where Eg - induced emf in generator,
P number of poles
Z- Total number of conductors in armature,
N Speed in rpm.
A- Number of parallel path,
for lab winding A=P
= Flux per pole in web
for wave winding A=2.

## 37. What is a self excited d.c. machine?

If the field winding of a dc machine is supplied from the armature of the dc machine itself then it is
called a self- excited d.c. machine.
38.What are the conditions for buildup of voltage in a shunt generator?
1. The residual magnetism should be present in the poles.
2. The field winding should be properly connected with armature.
3. Under no load condition, the shunt field resistance should be less than the critical
resistance.
4. Under loaded condition, the shunt field resistance should be more than the critical
resistance.
39. Why the air gap is made as small as possible between the armature and the poles in a dc
machine?
The air gap made as small as possible between the armature and the poles in a dc machine in
order to reduce the reluctance of the magnetic path.
40. List out the main parts of stator of DC machine.
1.
Yoke
2. Main Poles
3. Field winding
4. Interpoles
41. What are the conditions to be fulfilled by for a dc shunt generator to build back emf?
The generator should have residual flux, the field winding should be connected in such a manner that
the flux setup by field in same direction as residual flux, the field resistance should be less than
critical field resistance, load circuit resistance should be above critical resistance.
42. Define armature reaction in dc machines?
The interaction between the main flux and armature flux cause disturbance called as armature reaction.
43. What are two unwanted effects of armature reactions?
Cross magnetizing effect & demagnetizing effect.
44. What is prime mover?
The basic source of mechanical power which drives the armature of the generator is
called prime mover.
45. Give the materials used in machine manufacturing
Three materials are used in machine manufacturing.
(i)
steel to conduct magnetic flux
(ii)
copper to conduct electric current
(iii)
Insulation
46. What are the factors on which hysteresis loss depends ?
The hysteresis loss depends on the magnetic flux density, frequency and the volume of the material.
47. What is meant by armature reaction? (NOV/DEC 2009)
Armature reaction is meant the effect of magnetic field set up by armature current on the distribution
of flux under main poles of generator.
48. What is core loss? What is its significance in electric machines?
When a magnetic material undergoes cyclic magnetization, two kinds of power losses occur on it
hysteresis and eddy current loss which together are known as core loss. It is important in determining
heating, temperature rise, rating and efficiency of transformers, machines and other a.c run magnetic
devices.
49. What is eddy current loss?

When a magnetic core carries a time varying flux voltages are induced in all possible paths enclosing
flux. Result is the production of circulating current in core. These induced currents do no useful work are
known as eddy current and have power loss known as eddy current loss.
50. How are hysteresis and eddy current losses minimized?
Hysteresis loss can be minimized by selecting materials for core such as silicon steel & steel alloys
with low hysteresis coefficient and electrical resistivity.Eddy current losses are minimized by laminating
the core.
their moving parts.
51. How will you find the direction of emf using Flemings Right Hand Rule?
The thumb, the forefinger and the middle finger of the right hand are held so that these
fingers
are mutually perpendicular, then Forefinger - Field
Thumb Motion Middle finger- I, current
52. What is the necessity of a starter? (NOV/DEC 2010 )
To avoid flowing of fuses at the time of drawing high current and which limits the starting current to a
Safe value.
53. How will you find the direction of force produced using Flemings Left Hand Rule?
The thumb, forefinger and middle finger of the left hand are held so that those fingers are mutually
perpendicular then Forefinger Field Thumb - Motion(due to force) Middle finger - I, current
54. How are armature windings classified based on the placement of the coil inside the armature
slots?
Single layer winding and
Double layer winding
55. Why the armature core in d.c machines is constructed with laminated steel sheets instead of
solid steel steel?
Steel sheets offer low relutance path for the magnetic field, laminated sheets reduce eddy current loss.
56. Why is commutator employed in d.c machines?
Conduct electricity between armature and fixed brushes
Converts altenating emf into unidirectional emf and vice versa
57. Distinguish between shunt and series field coil constructions.
Shunt field coils are wound with wires of small cross section and have more number of turns. Series
field coils are wound with wires of larger cross section and have less number of turns.
58. How does a d.c motor differ from d.c generator in construction?
Generators are normally placed in closed room , accessible only to skilled operators.
Therefore on ventilation point of view they may be constructed with large opening in the frame.
Motors on the other hand , have to be installed right in the place of use which may
have dust, dampness,inflammable gases, chemical fumes etc . To protect the motors against these
elements , the motor frames are made either partly closed or totally closed or flame proof etc.
59. How will you change the direction of rotation of a d.c motor?
Either the direction of the main field or the direction of current through the armature
conductors is to be reserved.
60. What is back emf in d.c motors ?
As the motor armature rotates , the system of conductor come across alternate North and South pole
magnetic fields causing an emf induced in the conductors. The direction of the emf induced in the
conductors . The direction of the emf induced is in the direction opposite to the current .As this emf
always opposes the flow of current in motor operation it is called back emf.
61. What is the function of a no-voltage release coil provided in a dc motor starter?

As long as the supply voltage is on healthy condition the current through the NVR coil produce
enough magnetic force of attraction and retain the starter handle in the ON position against spring force.
When the supply voltage fails or becomes lower than a prescribed value the electromagnet may not have
enough force and the handle will come back to OFF position due to spring force automatically. Thus a novoltage or under voltage protections given to the motor.
62. Enumerate the factors on which the speed of a dc motor depends.
N = (V-IaRa)/_
The speed of dc motor depends on three factors.
Flux in the air gap
Resistance of the armature circuit
Voltage applied to the armature
63. Under what circumstances does a dc shunt generator fail to generate?
Absence of residual flux.
Initial flux set up by the field winding may be in opposite direction to residual flux
Shunt filed circuit resistance may be higher than its critical field resistance
Load circuit resistance may be less than its critical load resistance.
64. How can one differentiate between long shunt compound generator and short shunt compound
generator?
In a short shunt compound generator the shunt field circuit is shorter i.e. across the armature
terminals. In a long shunt compound generator the shunt field circuit is connected across the load
terminals.
65. Why is the emf not zero when the field current is reduced to zero in a dc generator ?
Even after the field current/magnetizing force is reduced to zero the machine is left out with some
flux as residue. Emf due to this residual flux is available when field current is zero.
66. On what occasions dc generators may not have residual flux?
The generator may be put for its first operation after its construction.
In previous operation the generator would have been fully demagnetized.
67.What are the conditions to be fulfilled for a dc shunt generator to build up emf?
The generator should have residual flux
The field winding should be connected in such a manner that the flux set up by the
field winding should be in the same direction as that of residual flux
The field circuit resistance should be less than critical field resistance
Load circuit resistance should be above its critical load resistance
68. How the critical field resistance of a dc shunt generator is estimated from its OCC?
Critical field resistance can be obtained from OCC by drawing a straight line passing through the
origin and tangent to the initial straight line portion of OCC. The slope of this line gives the value of
critical field resistance for the given speed at which OCC is obtained.
69. Define critical field resistance in dc shunt generator
Critical field resistance is defined as the resistance of the field circuit which will cause the shunt
generator just to build up its emf at a specified field.
70. What is the function of carbon brush used in D.C generator?
The function of carbon brush is to collect current from the commutator and supply to the external
load circuit and to the field circuit..
71. Write the number of parallel paths in a lap and wave connected windings

In a lap wound machine, the number of parallel paths is equal to the number of poles. But in wave
wound machine, the number of parallel paths is always two irrespective of number of poles.
72. What is the basic difference between dc generator and dc motor
Generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Motor converts electrical energy into
mechanical energy. But there is no constructional difference between the two.
73. Mention the two methods of machine excitation in d.c Machines. (APR/MAY 2011)
1.Self excited d.c machines
2.separately excited d.c machines
74. What is the function of commutator in a DC machines?( NOV/DEC 2012)

## Converts altenating emf into unidirectional emf and vice versa

16 MARKS
1. With a neat diagram explain the construction and working principle of a d.c
generator. (APR/MAY 2011)
2. Derive an expression for the emf generated in a dc generator. (NOV/DEC 2011),
(NOV/DEC 2010)
3. Deduce the EMF and TORQUE equation of DC machines. ( NOV/DEC 2012)
4. Explain various types of generators/motors. (NOV/DEC 2009)
5. Explain the characteristics of various types of generators/motors. (APR/MAY 2011)
6. Explain various types of starters
7. Explain various methods of speed control of d.c shunt motor & Series motor with neat circuit
diagram. (NOV/DEC 2009), (NOV/DEC 2011), (NOV/DEC 2010)
8. Draw Speed torque and speed armature current characteristic of DC series motor.
From the characteristics explain why a D.C. series motor can not be started without
load. Also state two applications of D.C. series motor.
9. A lap wound dc shunt generator having 80 slots with 10 conductors per slot generates
an e.m.f
of 400V on no load when running at 1000 rpm. At what speed it should run to generate a voltage of
220 V on open circuit. If instead of lap the winding had been wave at what speed the motor would
have run?
10. A 100 V series motor takes 45 A when running at 750 rpm. Its armature resisitance
is 0.22 ohm & series field resistance is 0.13 ohm, iron & friction losses amount to 750W, find i)
shaft power ii) total torque & iii) shaft torque
11. Explain how armature reaction occurs in a dc generator and the effect it has on the flux distribution of
the machines. (NOV/DEC 2011)
UNIT-II TRANSFORMERS
1. Define a transformer.
A transformer is a static device which changes the alternating voltage from one level to
another.
2. What are turns ratio and transformation ratio of transformer?

## 3. What is staggering in the construction of transformers?

In transformer, the joints in the alternate layers are staggered in order to avoid the
presence of narrow gaps right through the cross-section of the core.
4. What determines the thickness of the lamination or stampings?
1. Frequency 2. Iron loss
5. Classify the transformer according to the construction.
1. Core type transformer
2. Shell type transformer
3.
Berry
type transformer
6. What are the two component in transformers no load current?
1. Active or working component (Iw)

## 2. Reactive or magnetizing component (I )

7. Why is the core of transformer laminated?
The core of transformer is laminated in order to minimize eddy current loss.
8. Why transformer rating is expressed in terms of kVA?
Copper loss depends on current and iron loss depends upon voltage. Hence the total loss in a
transformer depends upon volt-ampere (VA) only not on the phase angle between voltage and current
i.e. it is independent of load power factor. That is why the rating of a transformer is given in kVA and
not in kW.
9. What are the properties of an ideal transformer?
The ideal transformer has the following properties.
1. No winding resistance. i.e., purely inductive.
2. No magnetic leakage flux.
2
3. No I R loss i.e, no copper loss.
4. No core loss.
10. What is the application of equivalent circuit of a single phase transformer.
a. To determine circuit parameters.
b.To predetermine efficiency and voltage regulation.
11.
Why is the effectively of transformer higher than other AC machines?
Since the current of the transformer at portraiture local and pt is defined as the o/p by i/p it has higher
I.
11. What is the condition for obtaining maximum efficiency of a transformer?
CU loss = Iron loss
12. What is the main difference between the core type and shell type transformers
In core type transformers the winding surround considerable part of the core where as in shell
type transformer the core surround a considerable portion of the windings
13. What are the tests to be conducted to estimate the performance of a transformer?
Simper Test, Kappa Diagram.
14. Why transformer rating is expressed in KVA?
CU loss of a transformer depends on current and iron loss on voltage. Hence total transformer
loss on volt ampere KVA and not on phase angle between voltage Thats why it is transformer is in
KVA and not in Kw.
15. What is the method used to minimize the Iron loss in transformer?
The losses are minimized by using steel of high silicon content for the core and by using very
thin lamination.
16. Why is the coreless of a transformer practically same for all load conditions?
Since there is some at in the primary winding ling core loss is practically.
17. Define the term all-day efficiency of a distribution transformer?
Efficiency all day =
Out put

Output +losses.
18. Write the EMF equation of a transformers with refers to primary and secondary windings.
E1 = 4.44fN1 m = .44fN1BmA
E2 = 4.44fN2f BmA.
19. List the advantage of core stepping in the design of a transformer?
Core stepping not only gives high space factor but also results in reduced length of the
2
mean turn and the consequent I R loss.
20. Mention the properties of oil used in transformers.
i) High dielectric strength.
ii) Free from inorganic acid, alkali and corrosive sulphur to prevent injury to
the conductor or insulation.
iii) Low viscosity to provide good heat transfer.
iv) Free from sludging under normal operating conditions.
v) Good resistance to emulsion so that the oil may throw down any moisture
entering the tank instead of holding it in suspense.
21. Define regulation up and regulation down for a transformer.
The change in secondary terminal voltage from no-load to full load is V2NL V2. This
change is divided by V2NL is known as regulation down. If this change is divided by V2, then it is
called regulation up.

## 22. What is an ideal transformer?

100% efficiency of the transformer is called ideal transformer.
23. State the condition for maximum efficiency of a transformer. Then what is the
corresponding output current?
Iron loss = copper loss (or) constant loss = Variable loss
Hence efficiency of a transformer will be maximum when copper losses are equal to iron losses.
The load current corresponding to maximum efficiency is given by
24. Define all day efficiency of a transformer.
The ratio of output in kwh to input in kwh of a transformer over a 24 hour period is known
as all-day efficiency.
Kwh output in 24hours
all-day =
kwh input in 24hours
25. Define regulation and efficiency of a transformer.
The regulation of a transformer is defined as reduction in magnitude of the terminal voltage due to
load, with respect to the no-load terminal voltage.
26. Name the factors on which hysteresis loss depends.
1. Frequency 2. Volume of the core 3. Maximum flux density
27. Why the open circuit test on a transformer is conducted at rated voltage?
The open circuit test on a transformer is conducted at rated voltage because core loss
depends upon the voltage. This open circuit test given only core loss or iron loss of the transformer.

28. Mention the difference between core and shell type transformers?
In core type, the windings surrounded the core considerably and in shell type the core surround the
windings i.e winding is placed inside the core.
29. What is the purpose of laminating the core in a transformer? & Give the emf equation of a
transformer and define each term?
To reduce the eddy current loss in the core of the transformer.
Emf induced in primary coil E1= 4.44fmN1 volt emf
induced in secondary coil E2 =4.44 fmN2.
f--->freq of AC input
m---->maximum value of flux in the core N1,N2--->Number of primary & secondary turns.
30. Full load copper loss in a transformer is 1600W. what will be the loss at half load?
If x is the ratio of actual load to full load then copper loss = x2(F.L copper b loss) here Wc =
(0.5)2 1600=400W.
31. Define all day efficiency of a transformer?
It is computed on the basis of energy consumed during a certain period, usually a day of 24hrs. all
day efficiency=output in kWh/input in kWh tor 24 hrs.
32. Why transformers are rated in kVA?
Copper loss of a transformer depends on current & iron loss on voltage. Hence total losses depends
on Volt-Ampere and not on PF. That is why the rating of transformers are in kVA and not in kW.
33. How transformers are classified according to their construction?
1. Core type
2. Shell type. In core type, the winding (primary and secondary) surround the core
and in shell type, the core surround the winding.
34. Why are breathers used in transformers?
Breathers are used to entrap the atmospheric moisture and thereby not allowing it to pass on to the
transformer oil. Also to permit the oil inside the tank to expand and contract as its temperature increases
and decreases.
35. What is the function of transformer oil in a transformer? and Can the voltage regulation go
ive? If so under what condition?
It provides good insulation & Cooling. Yes, if the load has leading PF.
36. Distinguish power transformers & distribution transformers?
Power transformers have very high rating in the order of MVA. They are used in generating and
receiving stations. Sophisticated controls are required. Voltage ranges will be very high. Distribution
transformers are used in receiving side. Voltage levels will be medium. Power ranging will be small in
order of kVA. Complicated controls are not needed.
37. Mention the difference between core and shell type transformers.
In core type , the windings surround the core considerably and in shell type the core surround the
winding.
38. What is the purpose of laminating the core in a transformers ?
To reduce eddy current loss.
39. Give the emf equation of a transformer and define each term
Emf induced in primary coil E1 = 4.44 f_ mN1 volt
Emf induced in secondary coil E2 = 4.44f_ mN2 volt
Where f is the frequency of AC input
f_ m is the maximum value of flux in the core
N1, N2 are the number of primary and secondary turns.

40. Does the transformer draw any current when secondary is open? Why?
Yes, it (primary) will draw the current from the main supply in order to magnetize the core and to
supply iron and copper losses on no load . There will not be any current in the secondary since secondary
is open.
41. Define voltage regulation of a transformer. (NOV/DEC 2012)
When a transformer is loaded with a constant primary voltage , the secondary voltage decreases for
lagging power factor load, and increases for leading pf load because of its internal resistance and leakage
reactance.
The change in secondary terminal voltage from no load to full load expressed as a percentage of no load
or full load voltage is termed as regulation.
% regulation down = (0V2-V2) x 100/0V2
% regulation up = (0V2-V2) x 100/V2
43. Full load copper loss in a transformer is 1600 watts. What will be the loss at half load?
If x is the ratio of actual load to full load then copper loss = x2(full load copper loss)
Here Wc = (0.5)2 x 1600 = 400 watts
44. Define all day efficiency of a transformer . (APR/MAY 2011)
It is the computed on the basis of energy consumed during a certain period , usually a day of 24 hrs.
all day = output in kWh /input in kWh for 24 hrs.
45. why transformers are rated in kVA ? (NOV/DEC 2009)
Copper loss of a transformer depends on current and iron loss on voltage . Hence total losses depend
on Volt- Ampere and not on the power factor. That is why the rating of transformers are in kVA and not in
kW.
46. What are the typical uses of auto transformer ?
(i) To give small boost to a distribution cable to correct for the voltage drop.
(ii) As induction motor starters.
47. What are the applications of a step-up and step-down transformers ?
Step-up transformers are used in generating stations. Normally the generated voltage will be either 11
kV . This voltage(11 KV) is stepped up to 110 kV or 220 kV or 400 kV and transmitted through
transmission lines. (In short it may Be called as sending end).
Step-down transformers are used in receiving stations. The voltage are again stepped down to 11 kV
or 22 kV and transmitted through feeders.(In short it may be called as receiving end).
Further these 11 kV or 22kV are stepped down to 3 phase 400 V by means of a distribution transformer
and made available at consumer premises.The transformers used at generating stations and receiving
stations are called power transformers.
48. How transformers are classified according to their construction ?
Or
Mention the difference between CORE and SHELL type transformers.
Or
What are the two types of cores used ? Compare them.
Transformers are classified according to their construction as,
(i) Core type (ii) Shell type (iii) Spiral core type.
Spiral core type is a latest transformer and is used in big transformers.
In core type, the windings(primary and secondary)surround the core and in
shell type, the core surround the windings.

## 49. Explain on the material used for core construction.

The core is constructed of transformer sheet steel laminations assembled to provide a continuous
magnetic path with a minimum of air gap included. The steel used is of high silicon content sometimes
heat treated to produce a high permeability and a low hysteresis loss at the usual operating flux densities.
the eddy current loss is minimized by laminating the core, the laminations being insulated from each other
by light coat of core-plate vanish or by an oxide layer on the surface. The thickness of laminations varies
from 0.35 mm for a frequency of 50 Hz and 0.5 mm for a frequency of 25 Hz.
50. When will a Bucholz relay operate in a transformer ?
Bucholz rely is a protective device in a transformer. If the temperature of the coil
exceeds its limit, Bucholz relay operates and gives an alarm.
51. How does change in frequency affect the operation of a given transformer?
With a change in frequency, iron loss, copper loss, regulation, efficiency and heating varies and
thereby the Operation of the transformer is affected.
52. What is the angle by which no-load current will lag the ideal applied voltage?
In an ideal transformer, there are no copper loss and no core loss, (i.e. loss free core). The no load
current is only magnetizing current. Therefore the no-load current lags behind by an angle of 90.
However the windings possess resistance and leakage reactance and therefore the no-load current lags the
applied voltage slightly less than 90.
53. List the advantages of stepped core arrangement in a transformer .
(i) To reduce the space effectively.
(ii) To obtain reduced length of mean turn of the windings.
(iii) To reduce I2R loss.
54. Why are breathers used in transformers ?
Breathers are used to entrap the atmospheric moisture and thereby not allowing it to pass on to the
transformer oil. Also to permit the oil inside the tank to expand and contract as its temperature increases
and decreases.
Also to avoid sledging of oil i.e. decomposition of oil. Addition of 8 parts of water in 1000000
reduces the insulations quantity of oil. Normally silica gel is filled in the breather having pink colour. This
clour will be changed to white due to continuous use, which is an indication of bad silica gel, it is
normally heated and reused.
55. What is the function of transformer oil in a transformer ?
Nowadays instead of natural mineral oil, synthetic oils known as ASKRELS (trade name) are used.
They are non inflammable, under an electric arc do not decompose to produce inflammable gases.
PYROCOLOR oil possess high dielectric strength. Hence it can be said that transformer oil provides, (i)
good insulation and (ii)cooling .
56. A 1100/400 V, 50 Hz single phase transformer has 100 turns on the secondary winding. Calculate
the number of turns on its primary.
We know V1 / V2 = k = N2 / N1
Substituting 400/1100 = 100/N1
N1 = 100/400 x 1100
= 275 turns.
57. What are the functions of no-load current in a transformer ?
No-load current produces flux and supplies iron loss and copper loss on no-load.
59. Can the voltage regulation of a transformer go to negative? If so under what condition?

## Yes. If the load has leading power factor.

60. Distinguish between power transformer and distribution transformer .
Power transformers have very high power ratings in the order of MVA. They are used in generating
and receiving stations. Sophisticated controls are required. Voltage ranges will be very high.
Distribution transformers are used in consumer side. Voltage levels will be medium. Power ranging
will be small in order of kVA. Complicated controls are not needed.
61. What is the purpose of providing taps in transformer and where these are provided?
In order to attain the required voltage , taps are provided. Normally it is provided at low voltage
side.
16 MARKS
1. With a neat diagram explain the construction details of different types of 1-phase transformer.
(NOV/DEC 2009), (NOV/DEC 2010)
2. Explain the working of transformer
3. (i) From the OC and SC test, what are the parameters obtained, explain in detail.
(ii)Draw the equivalent circuit of a transformer from the OC and SC test. (NOV/DEC 2010),
(NOV/DEC 2011), (APR/MAY 2011), NOV/DEC 2012)
4. Explain the testing of a transformer.
5. Derive an expression for voltage regulation in terms of resistance and reactance of the Transformer.
6. For a given single phase transformer, obtain condition for zero regulation and Maximum Regulation
7. What are losses in Transformer? How do they vary with load?
8. Derive the condition for maximum efficiency of the Transformer.
9. Draw equivalent circuit of a Transformer and explain how various parameters in the circuits are
determined.
10. Describe the method obtaining separately the Hysterisis and Eddy Current Losses of a
Transformer.
11. Explain how the efficiency and voltage regulations can be estimated by conducting OC
and SC Test.
12. Draw the phasor diagram when the transformer is loaded with(NOV/DEC 2010)
1. Resistive, 2. Inductive, 3. Capacitative element.
13. (i) Derive the emf equation of a single phase two winding transformer.
(ii) Draw and explain the phasor diagram of an actual transformer on load. (NOV/DEC 2011)

1.

## What are the applications of damper winding in synchronous motor?

When a synchronous motor is used pr deiving a fluctuating load the rotor starts oscillating
about its new position of equilibrium corresponding to the new load. To prevent heating dampers
are employed. This is the application of dampers
winding.
2 . Why is the single phase induction motor made as self starting?
The starting method of single phase induction motor is very simple. An auxillary
winding in the stator is provided in addition to the main winding. Then the induction motor. Starts as a
too phase motor.

o
The main winding axis and auxiliary winding axis are displaced by 90 electrical
degrees. The impedance of the windings differ and class in the main and auxiliary windings are phase
shifted from each other. As a result of this a rotating stator field is produced and the rotor rotates.
3 . What are the reasons for the variation of terminal voltage of an alternator on
Voltage drop due to Ra
1.

2.
3.

## Voltage drop due to XL

Voltage drop due to armature reaction.

## 4 . What are the various method starting of synchronous motor?

By dc source
5 . List the torque associated with a synchronous motor?
1. Starting Tongue 2. running Torque 3. Pull in torque 4. Pull out torque.

## 6 . List out the application of synchronous motor

1. Power factor correction
2. Constant speed, constant load drives
3. Voltage regulation
7 . Write the emf equation of an alternator?
EMF/phase = 4.4 4 Kc kd f T
8.
Define voltage regulation Name two methods used to determine
voltage regulation of alternators.
Voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the rise in voltage when full load is removed
ctield excitation and speed remaining the same divided by the rated terminal voltage.
1. EMF method

2. MMF method
9.

Calculate the distribution factor for a 36 slots 4 pole single layer three phase
winding of a alternator?
o
o
n= 36/4 =9 B= 180 n/9 > 20 m= 36 / 4 x 3= B

1 0 . Define hunting.
When a synchronous motor is used for driving a varying load then condilion known as hunting is
produced.
1 1.
Write the expression for distribution factor of a winding?
Kd = emf with winding in3 slots / pole /phase
emf with minding in 1slot / pole /phase
1 2 . What are the different types of single phase motor?
i. Single phase induction motors
ii. Single phase synchronous motors
iii.
Single phase series (or universal) motors
13.
What are the different types of single phase induction motor?

## i.Resistance start (split phase) induction motor.

ii. Capacitor start induction motor.
iii. Capacitor run induction motor.
iv. Capacitor start capacitor run induction motor.
v. Shaded pole induction motor.
14.
What are the applications, characteristics of split-phase motors?
Applications
i) Fans
ii) Blowers
iii) Centrifugal pumps
Characteristics

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

## The starting torque is 100% to 250% of the rated value.

The breakdown torque is up to 300%.
The power factor of the motor is 0.5 to 0.65.
The efficiency of the motor is 55% to 65%.
The power rating of this motor is in the range of to 1 HP
1 5 . What are the applications and characteristics of capacitor-start motor?
Applications

i) Compressors
ii) Conveyors
iii) Air conditioning equipment
iv)
Pumps
v)
Refrigerator
vi) Washing machine
Characteristics

## i) The starting torque is 250% to 400% of the rated value.

ii) The breakdown torque is up to 350%.
iii) Power factor of the motor is 0.5 to 0.65.
iv) The power rating of the motor is to 1 HP
v)The efficiency of the motor is 55% to 65%.
1 6 . What are the main advantages of capacitor run motor?
i) High power factor at full load
ii) High full-load efficiency
iii) Increased pull-out torque
iv) Low full-load line current
1 7 . What are the applications and characteristics of capacitor run-motor?
Applications

i)
Fans
ii) Blowers
iii) Centrifugal pumps

Characteristics

## i) The starting torque is 100% to 200% of the rated value.

ii) The breakdown torque is up to 250%
iii) The power factor of the motor is in the range of 0.75 to 0.9.
iv) The efficiency of the motor is 60 to 70%
v) The power rating of the motor is to 1 HP.
1 8 . What are the advantages of capacitor start capacitor run motor?
i) High starting torque ii) High efficiency
iii) High power factor
1 9 . What are the applications and characteristics of capacitor- start capacitor run
motor?
Applications
i) Compressors
ii) Pumps
iii) Conveyors
iv) Refrigerators
Characteristics

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

## The starting torque is 200% to 300% of the rated value.

The rated breakdown torque is up to 250%.
The power factor of the motor is 0.75 to 0.9.
The efficiency of the motor is 60 to 70%.
The power rating of the motor is to 1 HP.

20.

## Compare the performance and applications of resistance split phase and

permanent capacitor single induction motors.
Features

## Split phase induction motor

Permanent capacitor
induction motors.

1. Starting torque

Low or medium

High

2. Power factor

Low

High

Low

High

Fans, blowers

Compressors, pumps
conveyors, refrigerators.

3. Efficiency
4. Applications

## 2 1 . Name any two applications of shaded pole induction motors.

i) Turn tables
ii) Hair driers
iii) Fans
iv) Blowers
22.
What are the drawbacks of the presence of the backward rotating field in a single
phase induction motor?
i) Net flux will be zero
ii) No starting torque in the motor.
2 3 . List out four applications of shaded pole induction motor.
i) Fans
ii) Blowers

## iii) Turn tables

iv) Hair driers
2 4 . What is the use of shading coil in the shaded pole motor?
The copper shading coil is used to produce rotating magnetic field moving from the unshaded to
shaded portion of the pole. Hence, the motor produces a starting torque.

2 5 . What are the principal advantages of rotating field system type of construction of
synchronous machines?
Form Stationary connection between external circuit and system of conditions enable the
machine to handle large amount of volt-ampere as high as 500 MVA.
The relatively small amount of power required for field system can be easily supplied to the
rotating field system via slip rings and brushes.
More space is available in the stator part of the machine for providing more insulation to the
system of conductors.
Insulation to stationary system of conductors is not subjected to mechanical stresses due to
centrifugal action.
Stationary system of conductors can easily be braced to prevent deformation.
It is easy to provide cooling arrangement.
26. What are the advantages of salient type pole construction used in synchronous machines?
They allow better ventilation, the pole faces are so shaped radial air gap length increases from
pole center to pole tips so flux distortion in air gap is sinusoidal so emf is also sinusoidal.
27. Define the term voltage regulation of alternator.
The voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the change in terminal voltage from no load to
load condition expressed as a fraction or percentage of terminal voltage at load condition, the speed and
excitation conditions remaining same.
28. What is hunting? & List the different torque in synchronous motor.
When a synchronous motor is used for driving a varying load, then a condition known as
hunting is produced. Hunting may also be caused if supply frequency is pulsating. Starting torque,
Running torque, Pull-in torque and Pull-out torque.
29. Lit the advantages of synchronous motor.
By varying the field excitation, the magnitude of current drawn by the motor can be changed
by any amount. This helps in achieving stepless control of power factor.

The motor windings have high thermal stability to short circuit currents. iii)The faults can be
removed easily.
30. What are the uses of damper windings in a synchronous motor?
A synchronous motor cannot start by itself . In order to make the motor self-starting,a squirrel cage
winding(also called damper winding) is provided on the rotor.The damper winding consists of copper
bars embedded in the pole faces of the salient poles of the rotor. It start the motor like a induction
concept.
31. Explain pull in torque of synchronous motor.
A synchronous motor is started as induction motor till it runs 2 to 5% below the synchronous speed.
Afterwards ,excitation is switched on and the rotor pulls into step with the synchronously rotating stator
field. The amount of torque at which the motor will pull into step is called Pull in torque.
32. Why are alternators rated in KVA and not in KW?
2
As load increases I R loss also increases, as the current is directly related to apparent power
delivered by generator, the alternator has only their apparent power in VA/KVA/MVA as their power
rating.

## 33. Why the sy.impedance method of estimating voltage regulation is is considered as

pessimistic method?
Compared to other method, the value of voltage regulation obtained by this method is always
higher than the actual value so it is called as pessimistic method.
34. Why MMF method of estimating voltage regulation is considered as optiimistic method?
Compared to EMF method, MMF method involves more noof complex calculation steps. Further the
OCC is referred twice and SCC is referred once while predetermining the voltage regulation for each
load condition. Reference of OCC takes core saturation effect. As this method require more effort, final
result is very close to actual value, hence this method is called as optimistic method.
35. Write down the equation for frequency of emf induced in an alternator.
F = PN / 120 Hertz
Where P = No. Of poles
N = Speed in rpm.
36. What are the advantages of salient pole type of construction used for synchronous machines?

## They allow better ventilation.

The pole faces are so shaped radial air gap length increases from the
pole center to the

pole tips so that flux distribution in the air gap is sinusoidal in shape
which will help to generate sinusoidal emf.

## Due the variable reluctance, the machine develops additional

reluctance power, which is independent of excitation.
37. Why do cylindrical rotor alternators operate with steam turbines?
Steam turbines are found to operate at fairly good efficiency only at high speeds. The high-speed
operation of rotor tends to increase mechanical losses, so the rotors should have smooth external surface.
Hence smooth cylindrical type rotors with less diameter and large axial length are used for synchronous
generators driven by steam turbines with either 2 or 4 poles.
38. Which type of synchronous generators are used in Hydroelectric plants and why?
As the speed of operation is low, for hydro turbines used in hydroelectric plants, salient pole type
synchronous generators are used. These allow better ventilation and also have other advantages over
smooth cylindrical type rotor.
39. What is the relation between electrical degree and mechanical degree?
Electrical degree _e and mechanical degree are related to one another by the number of poles P, the
electrical machine has, as given by the following equation. _e = (P/2) _m
40. What is the meaning of electrical degree?
Electrical degree is used to account the angle between two points in rotating electrical machines.
Since all electrical machines operate with the help of magnetic fields, the electrical degree is accounted
with reference to the polarity of magnetic fields. 180 electrical degrees is accounted as the angle between
adjacent North and South poles
41. Why short-pitch winding is preferred over full pitch winding?

## Waveform of the emf can be approximately made to a sine wave and

distorting harmonics can be reduced or totally eliminated.

## Conductor material, copper is saved in the back and front-end

connections due to less coil span.

## Fractional slot winding with fractional number of slots/phase can be

used which in turn reduces the tooth ripples.

## Mechanical strength of the coil is increased.

42. Define winding factor.
The winding factor Kw is defined as the ratio of phasor addition of emf induced in all the coils
belonging to each phase winding of their arithmetic addition.
43. Why are alternators rated in kVA and not in kW?
The continuous power rating of any machine is generally defined as the power the machine or
apparatus can deliver for a continuous period so that the losses incurred in the machine gives rise to a
steady temperature rise not exceeding the limit prescribed by the insulation class.
Apart from the constant loss the variable loss incurred in alternators is the copper loss, occurring in the 3phase winding, which depends on I2R, the square of the current delivered by the generator.
As the current is directly related to apparent power delivered by the generator, the alternators have only
their apparent power in VA/kVA/MVA as their power rating
44. What are the causes of changes in voltage of alternators when loaded?

## Voltage variation due to the armature reaction.

45. What is meant by armature reaction in alternators?
The interaction between flux set up by the current carrying armature conductors and the main field
flux is defined as the armature reaction.
46. What do you mean by synchronous reactance?
It is the sum of the leakage reactance X1 and armature reactance Xa. Xs = X1 + Xa
47. What is synchronous impedance?
The complex addition of resistance R and synchronous reactance jXs is synchronous impedance Zs.
Zs = (R+jXs) = Zs__
Where _ = tan 1(Xs/R)
|Zs| = (R2+jXs2)
48. What is meant by load angle of an alternator?
The phase angle introduced between the induced emf phasor E and terminal voltage phasor V during
the load condition of an alternator is called load angle. The load angle increases with increase in load. It is
positive during generator operation and negative during motor operation.
49. Define the term voltage regulation of alternator.
It is defined as the change in terminal voltage from no load-to-load condition expressed as a function
or terminal voltage at load condition, the speed and excitation conditions remaining same. % Regulation
= (E-V)/V x 100
50. What is the necessity for predetermination of voltage regulation?
Most of the alternators are manufactured with large power rating and large voltage ratings.
Conduction load test is not possible for such alternators. Hence other indirect methods of testing are used
and the performance can be predetermined at any desired load currents and power factors.
51. Why is the synchronous impedance method of estimating voltage regulation is considered as
pessimistic method?
Compared to other methods, the value of voltage regulation obtained by this method is always higher
than the actual value and therefore is called pessimistic method.

52. Why is the MMF method of estimating the voltage regulation is considered as the optimization
method?
Compared to EMF method, MMF method involves more number of complex calculation steps.
Further the OCC is referred twice and SCC is referred once while predetermining the voltage regulation
for each load condition. Reference of OCC takes core saturation effect. As this method requires more
effort, the final result is very close to the actual value. Hence this method is called the optimistic method.
16 MARKS
1. Derive the e.m.f equation for an alternator.(NOV/DEC 2009)
2. Explain the effect of excitation on armature current and power factor and hence
draw the V and inverted V curves & hunting. (NOV/DEC 2009),
(APR/MAY 2011),(NOV/DEC2012)
3. (i) Explain in detail the principle of alternators. (NOV/DEC 2010)
(ii) What are the advantages of alternators over DC generators?
(iii) Derive the emf equation of the alternator.
4. (i) What is the principle of synchronous motor?Explain (NOV/DEC 2010),
(ii) What are the methods employed in starting of synchronous motor?
(NOV/DEC 2011)
5. (i) With the neat sketches, explain the constructional details and principle of
operation of a salient pole type 3-phase alternator. (NOV/DEC 2011)
(ii) Derive an expression for the voltage induced in an alternator. (NOV/DEC
2011), (APR/MAY 2011)

## UNIT-IV INDUCTION MACHINES

1. What is an universal Motor?
A universal motor is defined as a motor which may be operated either on direct or single phase ac
supply at approximately the same speed and output.
2. What are the uses of skewed rotor slots in a squirrel-cage induction motor?
(i) It helps to make the motor rum quietly by reducing the magnetic hum
and
(ii) It helps in reducing the locking tendency of the rotor i.e the tendency of
the rotor teeth to remain under the stator teeth else to direct magnetic attraction between
the two.
3. The single phase induction motor is not a self starting motor why?
When a single phase supply is fed to the stator winding it produces only an alternating flux only is
one which alternates along on space axis only. Due to this starting torque will be Zero. Hence the
motor does not rotate.
4. State any two applications of hysterisis motor?
i) Used for driving an electric clock
ii) It is used in gear train for reducing speed?
5. Name the advantage of brushless alternator?
Brushes, sliprings and commutators are eliminated.
6. What are the types of rotors employed in induction motros?
i)
Squirrel cage rotor.
ii) Phase wound.
7. On what condition maximum tongue of an 7m can be obtained?

R2 = X2

8.

## Define the term slip?

Diff between Ns and actual speed of the rotor is slip.
9. What are the App of split phase motor?
Fan, Blowers.

## 10. Why is IM not self starting motor?

When feal from a 1 phase supply its stator relay produces a flux which is only alternating i.e one
which alternates along one space axis only. It is not a
synchronously revolving flux as in the case of 2 or 3 phase stator well tied from 2 or
3 phase supply. Now an alternating or pulsating flux acting on a stationary squirrel cage motor can
now produce rotation. That is why 1 phase motor is not self starting.
11. What are the app of universal motor.
(i)
Sewing m/c
(ii)
Camera
(iii)
Hair dryer.
12.
What are the 2 types of 3phase induction motor?
Squirrel cage and slip ring induction motor.
13. Write two extra features of slip ring induction motor?
Rotor has 3phase winding. extra resistance can be added in rotor circuit for improving PF with the help
of three slip rings.
14.
Why an induction motor is called as rotating transformer?
The rotor receives same electrical power in exactly the same way as the secondary of a two winding
transformer receiving its power from primary. That is why induction motor is called as rotating
transformer.
15. Why an induction motor never runs at its synchronous speed?
If it runs at synchronous speed then there would be no relative speed between the two, hence no rotor
emf, so no rotor current, then no rotor torque to maintain rotation.
16. What are slip rings?
The slip rings are made of copper alloys and are fixed aroud the shaft insulating it. Through these slip
rings and brushes rotor winding can be connected to external circuit.
17. What are the advantage of cage motor?
Since the rotor have low resistance, the copper loss is low and efficiency is very high. On
account of simple construction of rotor it is mechanically robust, initial cost is less, maintenance
cost is less, simple starting arrangement.
18. Give the condition for maximum torque for 3phase induction motor, when it is
running?
The rotor resistance and rotor reactance should be equal for developing maximum torque i.e. R2 = s X2
where s is the slip.
19. List out the method for speed control of 3phase cage type induction motor?
By changing supply frequency By changing no of poles By operating the two motors in cascade.
20. Can we add extra resistance in series with squirrel cage rotor? State the reason?
We cannot add extra resistance in series with the rotor because all the copper bars of the rotor are
short circuited in both the sides by copper end rings to have a closed circuit.
21. Why an induction motor is called rotating transformer?

The rotor receives electrical power in exactly the same way as the secondary of a two winding
transformer receiving its power from primary. That is why an induction motor can be called as a rotating
transformer i.e., in which primary winding is stationary but the secondary is free to rotate.
22. Why an induction motor will never run at its synchronous speed?
If it runs at synchronous speed then there would be no related speed between the two, hence no rotor
emf, no rotor current so no rotor torques to maintain rotation. That is why the rotor runs at its
synchronous speed.
23. State the difference between slip ring rotor and cage rotor of an induction
motor? (NOV/DEC 2010)
Slip ring rotor has 3-phase windings. Three ends of which are stared and the other three ends are brought
up and connected to 3 slip rings mounted in the shaft. Extra resistance can be added in the rotor circuit.
Squirrel cage rotor has short-circuited copper bars. Extra resistance cant be added as slip ring rotor.
24. Write an expression for the slip of an induction motor.
Percentage slip = (Ns -Nr) / Ns * 100.
25. Define slip of induction motor? (NOV/DEC2009)
Slip is descriptive of the way in which the rotor slips back from synchronism. It is usually expressed as
percentage of synchronous speed.
26. What are the advantages of cage motor?
Since the rotor has very low resistance, the copper loss is low and efficiency is high On the account of
simple construction of rotor, it is mechanically robust. Initial cost is less.
Maintenance cost is less. Simple stating arrangement.
27. What is reason for inserting additional resistance in rotor circuit of a slip ring induction motor?
Introduction of additional resistance in the rotor circuit will increase the starting torque as well as
running torque. Also it limits the starting current.
28. List out the methods of speed control of cage type 3-phase induction motor?
By changing supply frequency
By changing the number of poles
By operating two motors in cascade
29. Mention different types of speed control of slip ring induction motor?
By changing supply frequency
By changing the number of stator poles
By rotor rheostat control
By operating two motors in cascade
30. What are the advantages of 3-phase induction motor?
It was very simple and extremely rugged, almost unbreakable construction
Its cost is very low and it is very reliable
It has been suffiently high efficiency .
No brushes are needed and hence frictional losses are reduced
It requires minimum of maintenance.
PART B
1.(i) Derive the equation for torque under running conditions in a 3-phase induction
motor.
(ii) Draw a1nd explain the slip-ring characteristics of 3-pnase induction motor.
(NOV/DEC 2009)

2. With a neat circuit diagram, explain the starting of slip-ring induction motor. NOV/DEC 2009)
3. (i) Explain in detail the production of rotating magnetic field with a neat phasor
diagram.
(NOV/DEC 2011)
(ii) Explain with a neat diagram the principle of an induction motor.
(NOV/DEC 2010)
4. (i) What are the various starting methods of induction motor ?
(NOV/DEC 2010)
(ii)
What are the various methods of speed control of induction motor? Explain in detail
5. Explain in detail about the various methods of speed control of 3-phase induction
motor? NOV/DEC 2011)

1.

## What is a repulsion motor?

Repulsion motors are similar to series motors except that the rotor and the stator windings
are inductively coupled i.e., the rotor current is obtained by
transformer action from the stator.
2.
What are the disadvantages of repulsion motor?
i)
Speed variations with the variations in load dangerously high at
ii)
Low power factor, except at high speeds.
iii)
Requires frequent maintenance.
iv)
Higher cost.
v)
Sparking at the brushes.
3.
What is a universal motor?
A universal motor is a specially designed series wound motor, that operates at approximately the
speed and output on either dc or ac of approximately same voltage.
4.
What are the applications of universal motor?
i)
Sewing machines
ii)
High speed vacuum cleaners
iii)
Electric typewriters
iv)
Electric shavers
v)
Motion picture projectors
vi)
Portable hand tools
vii)
Hair dryers
v i i i ) Cameras
ix)
Food mixers
5.
What is a hysteresis motor?
It is a single phase motor whose operation depends upon the hysteresis effect (i.e.,
magnetization produced in a ferromagnetic material lags behind the
magnetizing force) and on the presence of continuously revolving magnetic flux.
6.
What are the applications of hysteresis motor?
Due to their quiet operation and ability to drive high- inertia loads, hysteresis motors are used
for driving i) electric clocks ii) timing devices iii) tape decks iv) turn tables and other precision
equipment.
7.
Write some advantages of Hysteresis motor over induction motor.
i)
Here, hysteresis torque remains constant from locked rotor

## to synchronous speed, a hysteresis motor is able to synchronize any load.

ii)
Due to its smooth cylindrical rotor, the motor operates
quietly and does not affected from magnetic pulsations cause by slots/ salient
poles that are present in the rotors of other motors.
8.
What is switched Reluctance Motor?
The switched reluctance motor is a double salient, singly-excited motor. This means that it has
salient poler on both the rotor and the stator, but only one member carries windings. The rotor has no
windings, magnets (or) cage winding. It works on variable reluctance principle.
9.
Why rotor position sensor is essential for the operation of switched
reluctance motor?
It is normally necessary to use a rotor position sensor for commutation and speed feed back.
The turning ON and OFF operation of the various devices of power semiconductor switching circuit are
influenced by signals obtained from rotor position sensor.
10.
List the disadvantages of a switched reluctance motor?
i)
Stator phase winding should be capable of carrying magnetizing
current.
ii)
For high speed operation developed torque has undesirable
ripples
is a result develops undesirable noises (or) acoustic noises.
iii)
For high speed current wave form has undesirable harmonics to
suppress this effect large size capacitor is to be connected.
iv)
It requires a position sensor.
11.
What are the advantages of switched reluctance motor?
i)
Construction is simple and robust.
ii)
Rotor carries no windings, no slip rings, no brushes, less
maintenance.
iii)
There is no permanent magnet.
iv)
Ventilating system is simpler as losses takes place mostly in the
stator.
v)
Power semiconductor switching circuitry is simpler.
vi)
No shoot through fault likely to happen power short circuits.
vii)
Developed torque doesnt depend upon the polarity of current
in the
phase winding.
v i i i ) The operation of the machine can be easily changed from
motoring
mode to generating mode by varying the region of conduction.
ix)
It is possible to get very high speed.
x)
Depending upon the requirement T-w characteristics can be
achieved.
xi)
It is the self starting machine.
xii)
Energy stored in the phase winding is fed back to the supply
through
the feedback diodes during off period.
12.
What are the applications of SRM?
i)
Washing machines.

ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

Vacuum cleaners
Fans
Future auto mobile applications
Robotics control applications
13.
What are the types of permanent magnet DC motor?
i)
PMBL square wave motor
ii)
PMBL sine wave motor
14.
What is permanent magnet DC commutator motor?
A dc motor consists of permanent magnet in the stator and armature winding,
commutator in the rotor. This motor is called permanent magnet DC commutator motor.
15. What are the advantages and disadvantages of brushless dc motor drives?

i)
ii)

## There is no field winding so that field copper loss is neglected.

Length of the motor is very small as there is no

mechanical
commutator, so that size becomes very small.
iii)
Better ventilation because of armature accommodated in the
stator.
iv)
Regenerative braking is possible.
v)
Speed can be easily controllable.
vi)
Motor can be designed for higher voltages subjected to
the
constraint caused by the power semi conductor switching circuit.
vii)
It is possible to have very high speeds.
i) Motor field cannot be controlled
ii) Power rating is restricted because of the maximum
available size of
permanent magnets.
iii) It requires a rotor position sensor.
iv) It requires a power semi conductor switching circuit.

## 16. List the various permanent magnet materials.

Alnico, Rare earth magnet, Ceramic magnet, NdFeB magnet, Sm2CO17 magnet

## 17. Mention some applications of PMBL DC motor.

Power alternators, Automotive applications, Computer and Robotics applications,Textile and Glass
industries
18. Compare conventional DC motor and PMBLDC motor.
Features

Conventional DC motor

PMBL DC motor

1. Mechanical
structure
Maintenance
Winding
connection

## Field magnets on the stator

Maintenance is
high Ring
connection
The simplest: Delta
connection

## Field magnets on the rotor Low maintenance. The

highest grade: D or star- connected 3- connection.
Normal y-connected three phase winding with grounded
neutral point or four-phase connection.

2. Commutation
method

## Mechanical contact between The simplest:

Two-phase connection.
brushes and commutator

3. Detecting
method

Automatically
detected by brushes

## Electronic switching using power semi conductor

devices
i.e transistors, MOSFETS.

4. Reversing
method

By a reverse of
terminal voltage.

## Rotor position can be detected by using sensor

i.e.,Hall sensor; optical encoder. Rearranging logic
sequencer.

## 19. Why is the PMBLDC motor called electronically commutated motor?

The PMBL DC motor is also called electronically commutated motor because the
phase windings of PMBL DC motor is energized by using power semiconductor
switching circuits. Here, the power semiconductor switching circuits
act as a commutator.
21 Compare PMBLDC motor and switched reluctance motor.
PMBLDC
Switched reluctance motor

## 22. What are the features of permanent magnet synchronous motor?

i) Robust, compact and less weight.
ii) No field currents or rotar current in PMSM, unlike in induction motor.
iii) Copper loss due to current flow which is largest loss in motors is
about half that of induction motor.
iv) High efficiency.
23. What are the applications of PMSM?
i) Used as a direct drive traction motor.
ii) Used as high speed and high power drives for compressors, blowers, conveyors,
fans, pumps, conveyors, steel rolling mills, main line traction, ship-propulsion, aircraft test
facilities.
24. What are the merits and demerits of PMSM?

Merits

i)
ii)
iii)

## It runs at constant speed.

No field winding, no field loss, better efficiency.
No sliding contacts. So it requires less maintenance.

Demerits

i)
Power factor of operation cannot be controlled as field winding
cannot be controlled.
ii) It leads to losses and decreases efficiency.
25. Clearly explain the differences between synchronous reluctance motor and PM
synchronous motor.
Synchronous Reluctance
PM Synchronous Motor
Motor
Rotor has no permanent
magnet.

magnet.

Less cost.

High cost.

## 26. Name the two winding of single phase induction motor?

Running and starting winding.
27. What are methods available for making single phase induction motor a self starting?
By slitting the single phase, by providing shading coil in the poles.
28. What is the function of capacitor in single phase induction motor?
i) To make the phase difference between the starting and running winding.
ii). To improve the power factor and to get more torque.
29. State any 4 use of single phase induction motor?
Fans, wet grinders, vacuum cleaner, small pumps, compressors, drills. Explain why single phase
induction motor is not a self starting one? When motor fed supply from single phase, its stator winding
produces an alternating flux, which doesnt develops any torque.
30. What kind of motors used in ceiling fan and wet grinders?
Ceiling fan- Capacitor start and capacitor run single phase induction motor, wet grinders-Capacitor
start capacitor run single phase induction motor.
31. What is the application of shaded pole induction motor?
Because of its small starting torque, it is generally used for small toys, instruments,hair driers,
ventilators..etc.
32. In which direction a shaded pole motor runs?
The rotor starts rotation in the direction from unshaded part to the shaded part.
33. Why single phase induction motor have low power factor?
The current through the running winding lags behind the supply voltage by large angle so only
single phase induction motor have low PF.

34. Differentiate between capacitor start & Capacitor start capacitor run single phase
induction motor?
In capacitor start motor, capacitor is connected in series with the starting winding. But it will be
disconnected fro m the supply, when the motor picks up its speed. But in capacitor start capacitor run
motor the above starting winding and capacitor are not disconnected, but always connected in the
supply .so it has high starting and running torque.
35. What are the two types of 3-phase induction motor?
Squirrel cage induction motor.
Slip ring induction motor.
36. State the advantages of capacitor start run motor over capacitor start motor.
Running torque is more; Power factor during running is more
37. Explain why single-phase induction motor is not self-starting one.
When the motor is fed from a single phase supply its stator winding produces an alternating or
pulsating flux, which develops no torque.
38. What type of motor is used for ceiling fan?
Capacitor start and capacitor run single-phase motor is used for ceiling fans.
39. what is the type of induction motor used in wet grinders?
Capacitor start capacitor run single-phase induction motor.
40. what kind of motor is used in mixie?
Single-phase ac series motor is used in mixie.
41. What is Switched Reluctance Motor?
The switched reluctance motor is a double salient, singly-excited motor. This means that it has salient
pole on both the rotor and the stator, but only one member crries windings. The rotor has no windings,
magnets (or) cage winding. It works on vai1 reluctance principle.
42. What are the types of power controllers used for switched reluctance motor?
i) Using two power semiconductors and two diodes per phase
ii) (n 1) power switching devices and (n + 1) diodes per phase
iii) Phase windings using Bifilar wires
iv) Dump C- converter
v) Split power supply converter
43. Why rotor position sensor is essential for the operation of switched reluctance motor?

It is normally necessary to use a rotor position sensor for commutation and speed feed back. The
turning ON and OFF operation of the various devices of power semiconductor switching circuit are
influenced by signals obtained from rotor position sensor.
44. List are the disadvantages of a switched reluctance motor?
1. Stator phase winding should be capable of carrying magnetizing current.
2. For high speed operation developed torque has undesirable ripples is a est1t
develops undesirable noises (or) acoustic noises.
3. For high speed current wave form has undesirable harmonics to suppress this
effect large size capacitor is to be connected.
4. It requires position sensors.
45. What are the advantages of switched reluctance motor (SRM)?
1. Construction is simple and robust.
2, Rotor carries no windings, no slip rings, no brushes, less maintenance.
3. There is no permanent magnet.
4. Ventilating system is simpler as losses takes place mostly in the stator.
5. Power semi conductor switching circuitry is simpler
6. No shoot through fault likely to happen power short circuits,
7. Developed torque doesnt depends upon the polarity of current in the phase
Winding.
8. The operation of the machine can be easily change from motoring mode to
generating mode
by varying the region of conduction.
9. It is possible to get very high speed.
10. Depending upon the requirement T- characteristics can be achieved.
11. It is the self starting machine.
12. Energy stored in the phase winding is fed back to the supply through the feedback diodes during
off period.
46. What are the applications of SRM
1. Washing machines
2. Vacuum cleaners
3. Fans
4. Future auto mobile applications
5. Robotics control applications
47. What are the two types of current control techniques?
1. Hysteresis type control
2. PWM type control

## 48. What is meant by energy ratio?

This energy ratio cannot be called as efficiency. As the stored energy R is not wasted as a loss but it is
feedback to the source through feed back diodes..
49. What is phase windings?
Stator poles carrying field coils. The field coils of opposite poles are connected in series such that
mmfs are additive and they are called Phase windings of SRM.
50. What are the essential difference between SRM and Stepper Motor?
1. SRM is designed for continuous rotation.
2. SRM requires a rotor-position sensor.
3. Stepper motor is designed to rotate in step by step rotation, It does not require
rotor-position sensor.
51. What is hysteresis current control?
This type of current controller maintains a more or less constant current throughout the
conduction period in each phase. This controller is called hysteresis type controller.
52. What are the advantages and disadvantages of brushless de motor drives?
1. There is no field winding so that field copper loss is neglected.
2. Length of the motor is very small as there is no mechanical commutator, so that size
becomes very small.
3. Better ventilation because of armature accommodated in the stator.
4, Regenerative braking is possible.
5. Speed can be easily controllable.
6. Motor can be designed for higher voltages subjected to the constraint caused by the power semi
conductor switching circuit.
7. It is possible to have very high speeds.
1. Motor field cannot be controlled
2. Power at1g is restricted because of the maximum available size of permanent Magnets.
3. It requires a rotor position sensor.
4. It requires a power semi conductor switching circuit.

## 53. What is optical sensor?

A sensor is operated with photo transistor, it is the optical sensor. it is mainly red to sense the rotor
position of the BLPMDC motor.
54. What are the merits and demerits of PMSM?
Merits
i It runs at constant speed.
ii) No field winding, no field loss, better efficiency.
iii No sliding contacts. So it requires less maintenance.
Demerits
i Power factor of operation cannot be controlled as field winding cannot be controlled.
ii) It leads to losses and decreases efficiency.
55. What are assumptions made in derivation of emf equation for PMSM?
Assumptions
I. Flux density distribution in the air gap is sinusoidal.
2. Rotor rotates with an uniform angular velocity of wm (r/sec).
3. Armature winding consists of full pitched, concentrated similarly located coils
of equal number of turns.
56. Why PMSM operating in self controlled mode is known commutator less DC motor?
Load side controller performs some what similar function as commutator in a dC machine. The load
side converter and synchronous motor combination functions similar to a dc machine First, it is fed from
a dc supply and secondly like a dc machine. The stator and rotor field remain stationary with respect to
each other at all speeds. Consequently drive consisting of load side converter and synchronous motor is
known as Commutation less dc motor.
16 MARKS
1. Explain the working of reluctance motor
2. Explain the working of stepper motor
3. Explain the working of hysteresis motor.
4. Explain indirect method of finding regulation
El 2201/El 33/EE 1202/10133 El 303/080300001 ELECTRICAL MACHINES
NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2013

(Regulation 2008/2010)
Time : Three hours

## Maximum: 100 marks

PARTA(10x2 = 20marks)

## 1. What is armature reaction?

2. Write the induced emf equation when the machine acts as a DC motor and DC generator.
3. Define transformation ratio.
4. Why is transformer rating in kVA?
5. What is synchronous speed?
6. What is the purpose of damper winding?
7. What is the importance of slip in a three phase induction motor?
8. Draw the slip-torque characteristics of a three phase induction motor.
9. Why is single phase induction motor not self starting?
10. How is the construction of linear induction motor different from induction motor?
PARTB(5x16=8Omarks)
11. (a) (i) Draw and explain the construction and principal of operation of a DC
generator. (10)
(ii) A 10kW, 220 V, DC 6 pole shunt motor runs at 1000 rpm. Delivering full
load. The armature has 534 lap connected conductors. Full load copper
lossis 0.64 kW. The total brush drop is 1 volt. Determine the flux per pole
neglecting shunt current. (6)
Or
(b) (i) Draw and explain the characteristic of a DCshunt motor and DC series
motor. Compare the DC shunt and series motor characteristics and
applications. (10)
(ii) Write the speed equation and explain how to control the speed of a shunt
motor by flux control method. (6)
12. (a) (i) Draw an ideal single phase transformer and explain the principle of
operation, the concept of step up and step down transformer. (8)
(ii) Derive the EMF equation of a transformer. Whatis regulation and
efficiency of transformer? (8)
Or
(b) (i) Draw the equivalent circuit of a single phase transformer and explain. (8)

(ii) Draw and explain the operation of an autotransformer. What are the
applications of autotransformer? (8)
13. (a) Draw and explain the construction details and operating principle of an
alternator. Derive the emf equation and draw the vector diagram. (16)
Or
(b) Draw and explain the principle of operation of a synchronous motor. Explain
the methods of starting with illustration. What is hunting? (16)
14. (a) Draw and explain the construction and principle of operation of three phase
slip ring induction motor. How is the construction different in squirrel cage
induction motor? (16)
Or
(b) Derive the torque equation and also the condition for maximum torque under
starting and running conditions. (16)
15. (a) Explain double revolving and cross field revolving theory for single phase
induction motor. (16)
Or
(b) What are the constructional features of universal motors? Explain the
operation with neat diagrams. What are its applications? (16)