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# Electronics Devices and Circuits Theory

Experiment No.5

Experiment No. 5

## Bipolar Junction Transistors

I. OBJECTIVES
1. To get acquainted with the transistor-diode relationship.
2. Identify the emitter, base and collector terminals of the different types of
transistors.
3. Identify whether the transistor is PNP or an NPN.
4. Measure and graph the collector characteristics curves for a bipolar
junction transistor.
5. Use the characteristic curves to determine the DC of the transistor at a
given point.
II. BACKGOUND INFORMATION
A transistor is a three-layer semiconductor device made up of either
two doped P-type and one N-type or two doped N-type and one P-type device
capable of amplifying AC signal. It has three terminals namely the emitter, base
and collector. The emitter is highly doped while the collector is the largest in
size. The base is the thinnest and the least doped material. The emitter-base
junction makes up one diode, and the collector- base junction makes the other.
Either of these junctions may function as a diode, and each has its own
characteristics . Different doping gives the collector-base diode a higher
breakdown voltage than the emitter base diode.
Two diodes placed back-to-back do not make a transistor. The three-layer
transistor has a current that flows according to a certain pattern. The emitter-base
junction is normally forward biased, with a small base-current. The collector -base
junction is normally reverse-biased , with larger current, owing to the current
amplification control of the collector current by the base-current. The larger the
base-current, the larger the collector-current within certain limits.
The control of a large current by a small current is considered as current
gain. Since there are three terminals to the transistor, any of these may be
considered as the common terminal to both the input and output currents. For this
reason, there are three ways of measuring current gain.
The most frequently discussed current gain is that of the common-emitter
circuit. Since the gain is a forward current gain in a common-emitter circuit, it is
generally referred to as hybrid parameter hfe where "f" stands for forward and "e"
for common emitter configuration. Capital letters would indicate it as a DC gain.
The hfe is a comparison of collector current with the base current controlling it.

DC = hf e= Ic / IB

## Electronics Devices and Circuits Theory

Experiment No.5

The value of hfe changes with the amount of collector current and is generally in
the range of 20 to 200.
III. MATERIALS
1 - 100 W
1 - 33 k W
1- 2N3904 NPN General Purpose Transistor (or equivalent)
Variable DC power supply
DMM
Solid wire
Wire stripper
Connecting wires
Extension Cord
IV. PROCEDURES
PART I
1. Examine all the given transistors and write their codes on the table.
2. Draw the bottom view or isometric view of each transistor on the table.
3. Complete the required data of Table 5.1 by identifying the transistor terminals
as well as the type (PNP/NPN)

## Electronics Devices and Circuits Theory

Experiment No.5

PART II.
1. Measure and record the ohmic values of resistors listed on the table below.
Listed Value

Measured Value

R1

33 k

32.5 k

R2

100

99.8

2. Connect the common emitter configuration circuit shown in Figure 5.1. Start
with both power
supplies set to 0 V. The purpose of R1 is to limit base current
and to allow the determination of the base current IB. Slowly increase VBB until VR1
is 1.65 V. This sets up a base current of 50 A, which
can be shown by applying
Ohm's Law to R1.

3. Without disturbing the setting of VBB, slowly increase VCC until 2.0 V is
measured between the
transistor's collector and emitter (VCE). Then measure

## Electronics Devices and Circuits Theory

Experiment No.5

and record VR2 for the setting. Record VR2 in Table 5.3 under columns labeled Base
Current = 50 A.
TABLE 5.#
Base Current = 50 A

## Base Current = 150 A

VCE
(measure
d)
2.0

VR2
(measure
d)
0.95 V

Ic
(computed
)
9.5 mA

VR2
(measure
d)
2V

IC
(compute
d)
20 mA

VR2
(measure
d)
2.77 V

IC
(computed
)
27.7 mA

4.0

1V

10 mA

2.07 V

20.7 mA

3.02 V

30.2 mA

6.0

1.05 V

10.5 mA

2.15 V

21.5 mA

3.31 V

33.1 mA

8.0

1.09 V

10.9 mA

2.27 V

22.7 mA

3.51 V

35.1 mA

10.0

1.13 V

11.3 mA

2.40 V

24 mA

3.70 V

37 mA

4. Compute the collector current , IC, by applying Ohm's Law to R2. Used the
measured voltage, VR2, and measured resistance, R2, to determine the current.
Note that the current R2 is in the same as IC for the transistor.
Enter the computed collector current in Table 5.3 under the columns labeled Base
Current = 50 A.

5. Without disturbing the setting of VBB, slowly increase VCC until 4.0 V is
measured between the
transistor's collector and emitter (VCE). Then measure
and record VR2 for the setting. Compute the collector current , IC, by applying Ohm's
Law in step 4. Continue in this manner for each of the values of VCE listed in Table
5.3.
A.

6. Reset VCC for 0 V and adjust VBB until VR2 is 3.3 V. The base current is now 100

7. Without disturbing the setting of VBB, slowly increase VCC until VCE is 4.0 V. Then
measure and record VR2 for the setting in Table 5.3 under the columns labeled Base
Current = 100 A. . Compute
the collector current , IC, by applying Ohm's Law to

## R2. Enter the computed collector current in Table

5.3.

8. Increase VCC until VCE is equal to 4.0 V. Measure and record VR2 for this setting.
Continue in this
manner for each of the values of VCE listed in Table 5.3.
A.

9. Reset VCC for 0 V and adjust VBB until VR2 is 4.95 V. The base current is now 150
10. Complete the table 5.3 by repeating steps 7 and 8 for 150 A of base current.

11. Plot three collector characteristic curves using the data tabulated in Table 5.3 . The
collector characteristic's curve is a graph of VCE versus IC for a constant base current.

## Electronics Devices and Circuits Theory

Experiment No.5

Choose a scale for IC that allows the largest current observed to fit on the graph.
Label each curve with the base current it
represents. Graph the data using the
plot below.

12. Use the characteristic curve you plotted to determine the DC for the
transistor at a VCE of 3.0 V and a base current of 50, 100, 150 A. Then repeat the
procedure for a DC at a VCE of 5.0 V. Record your results in Table 5.4

Current Gain, DC
VCE

IB = 50 A

IB = 100 A

IB = 150 A

3.0

210

204

198

5.0

214

215

215.33

## Electronics Devices and Circuits Theory

Experiment No.5

Computations

Table 5.3
Base Current = 50A
Ic = VR2/R2
@2V
Ic = 0.95V/100 = 9.5mA
@4V
Ic = 1V/100 = 10mA
@6V
Ic = 1.05V/100 = 10.5mA
@8V
Ic = 1.09V/100 = 10.9mA

@10V
Ic = 1.13V/100 = 11.3mA

## Base Current = 100A

Ic = VR2/R2
@2V
Ic = 2V/100 = 20mA
@4V
Ic = 2.07V/100 = 20.7mA
@6V
Ic = 2.15V/100 = 21.5mA

## Electronics Devices and Circuits Theory

Experiment No.5

@8V
Ic = 2.27V/100 = 22.7mA

Ic = 2.40V/100 = 24mA

@10V
Base Current = 150A
Ic = VR2/R2
@2V
Ic = 2.77V/100 = 20.7mA
@4V
Ic = 3.02V/100 = 30.2mA
@6V
Ic = 3.31V/100 = 33.1mA
@8V
Ic = 3.51V/100 = 35.1mA
@10V
Ic = 3.70V/100 = 37mA

dc = Ic/Ib = 32.3mA/150A =
Table 5.4
Ic @ VCE = 3.0v
dc = Ic/Ib = 10.5mA / 50A = 210
dc = Ic/Ib = 20.4mA / 100A = 204
dc = Ic/Ib = 29.70mA / 150A =
198

Ic @ VCE = 5.0v
dc = Ic/Ib = 10.7mA/50A = 214
dc = Ic/Ib = 21.5mA/100A = 215

215.33

## Electronics Devices and Circuits Theory

Experiment No.5

EXPERIMENTAL DISCUSSION
Bipolar transistors are constructed of a three-layer semiconductor
either PNP or NPN. As such, transistors register as two diodes connected
back-to-back when tested with a multimeters resistance or diode check
function as illustrated in Figure below. Low resistance readings on the base
with the black negative (-) leads correspond to an N-type material in the
base of a PNP transistor. On the symbol, the N-type material is pointed to
by the arrow of the base-emitter junction, which is the base for this example.
The P-type emitter corresponds to the other end of the arrow of the baseemitter junction, the emitter. The collector is very similar to the emitter, and
is also a P-type material of the PN junction.

## Electronics Devices and Circuits Theory

Experiment No.5

PNP transistor meter check: (a) forward B-E, B-C, resistance is low; (b)
reverse B-E, B-C, resistance is .
Here were assuming the use of a multimeter with only a single
continuity range (resistance) function to check the PN junctions. Some
multimeters are equipped with two separate continuity check functions:
resistance and diode check, each with its own purpose. If your meter has a
designated diode check function, use that rather than the resistance
range, and the meter will display the actual forward voltage of the PN
junction and not just whether or not it conducts current.
Meter readings will be exactly opposite, of course, for an NPN
transistor, with both PN junctions facing the other way. Low resistance
readings with the red (+) lead on the base is the opposite condition for the
NPN transistor.
If a multimeter with a diode check function is used in this test, it will
be found that the emitter-base junction possesses a slightly greater forward
voltage drop than the collector-base junction. This forward voltage difference
is due to the disparity in doping concentration between the emitter and
collector regions of the transistor: the emitter is a much more heavily doped
piece of semiconductor material than the collector, causing its junction with
the base to produce a higher forward voltage drop.
Knowing this, it becomes possible to determine which wire is which on
an unmarked transistor. This is important because transistor packaging,
unfortunately, is not standardized. All bipolar transistors have three wires, of
course, but the positions of the three wires on the actual physical package
are not arranged in any universal, standardized order.

Experiment No.5

## Tested with a multimeter in the resistance or diode check modes, a

transistor behaves like two back-to-back PN (diode) junctions.
The emitter-base PN junction has a slightly greater forward voltage drop than
the collector-base PN junction, because of heavier doping of the emitter
semiconductor layer.
The reverse-biased base-collector junction normally blocks any current
from going through the transistor between emitter and collector. However,
that junction begins to conduct if current is drawn through the base wire.
Base current may be thought of as opening a gate for a certain, limited
amount of current through the collector.

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
1. How are you going to determine the transistor terminals when the
transistor is defective ?

Experiment No.5

## - It is impossible to determine the transistor terminal when the

transistor is defective because there will be no resistance between any of
the pairs during test for all the
steps. The transistor is shorted.
2. What happens to the value of Ic as VCE increases ?
- As the VCE increases the Ic decreases.
3. What can you say of the relationship between Ic and IB ?
- When Ib is increasing also Ic increases.
4. Do the experimental data indicate that DC is constant at all points?
- No because DC is direct proportional to Ic and inversely proportional to Ib
5. What effect would a higher DC have on the characteristic curves you
measured?
- It will have a high gain and the bipolar junction transistor can work
very well.
6. What value of VCE would you expect if the base terminal of a transistor

- Whenever we observe the terminals of a BJT and see that the emitterbase junction is not at least 0.6-0.7 volts, the transistor is in the cutoff
region. In cutoff, the transistor
appears as an open circuit between the
collector and emitter terminals. VCE<= 0.2V.
This is known as the
saturation voltage, or VCEsat .

CONCLUSION
In this experiment we are asked to identify the base, the collector and
the emitter of the different types of transistors. Using the digital meter, we
test each of the three pins. Putting the positive probe on the assumed base
and measure the other two pins of the transistor using the negative probe. If
we get low resistance values from the other two pins, then our assumed base
is correct. We also found out that if one low resistance values is higher than
the other pin, it is the emitter. Otherwise, it is the collector.
We can also conclude that in identifying the transistor if it is PNP or
NPN, if the Emitter to Base is greater than the Base to Collector, it is PNP.
Otherwise it is an NPN.
Base on the graph weve plotted, it shows the relationship of Vce and Ic
with constant Ib. as we increase Vce, Icalso increases. Therefore, they are
directly proportionl when Ibis constant.
The formula of beta is = Ic/Ib but first, we must find Ic. We projected
the curve downward, with a given Vce, and projected it to the left so we can
get Ic.