of
Optics &
Modern Physics
By DC Pandey
1. Since c =
2. Hence
7
11
l=
k
2p
p
m=
metre
l=
500
250
2 pn = 1.5 1011
1.5
n=
1011 Hz
2p
w 1.5 1011
=
k
500
= 3 108 m/s
Let E0 be the amplitude of electric field.
Then E0 = cB0 = 3 108 2 107
= 60 V/m
Since wave is propagating along xaxis and
B along yaxis, hence E must be along zaxis
E = 60 V/m sin [500x + 1.5 1011 t ]
From figure
q = 90  i
i
i
90
90
d = 360  2 [ i + 90  i]
= 180
180
2
i
N1
90
q q
N2
d = 180  2 i + 180  2q
d = 360  2( i + q)
8m
L'
q
tan f =
A
q
N1
2m
f
f
B
C' 6 m
f = 45
So, NK = 4 tan 45 = 4 m
Hence in minimum height
= 6 m + 4 m = 10 m
In
DAC C
pole
=4m
E
2m
tan q =
2m
= EK + KN = 6 + KN
Now in DNKB,
NK
= tan f NK = KB tan f
KB
4
=2
2
In DL LA we get,
LL
= tan q
LA
LL
=2
4
LL = 8 m
= 4 tan f
BC 2
= =1
CC 2
Maximum height = CA + LL = 8 + 8 = 16 m
In DBC C we get,
1 1 1
1
1
=  =+
v f u
10 25
1 5 + 2
=
v
50
50
v==  167
. cm
3
1 1 + 2
=
v
10
v = 10 cm
1
1
= 2 +
v
3
v =  0.6 m
3
Using h = ut +
t=
1 2
gt
2
2 2
2h
=
g
9.8
= 0.639 s
Similarly again images match at t = 0.78 s.
3. Since image is magnified, hence the mirror
is concave.
v
v
Here,
m=
=5
u
u
v = 5u
q M
q
q
A
a
a
a
A'
40 cm
(ii)
x = 1.25
f =
 6.25
,
6
Hence R = 2 f R = 
20 cm
q
F
(i)
v =  (5 + x)
2q
20 cm
AB 2
= cm
3
3
6.25
=  2.08 m
3
A B =
AIEEE Corner
Mirror
15
Incident ray
90
1 50
Reflacted ray
q
(a)
Horizontal
15
15
IV
iq q iq
q + 15 + 15 = 90 q = 60
A
3.
R'
i2q
q
(b)
O'
1o cm
30 cm
50 cm
50 cm
B
O'''
1o cm
O''
30 cm
O'''
70 cm
40 cm
30
30
1.6m
2b
20 cm
R
O'''
O''
O'
O'''
I
A'
4b
4b
From D PA A, we get
B
B'
5
x
= tan 30 x = 20 tan 30
20
160 cm
AB
No. of reflection =
=
x
20 cm tan 30
= 8 3 14
Hence the reflected ray reach other end
after 14 reflections.
7. The deviation produced by mirror M1 is
= 180  2 a
M1
Z'
I1
a
1802a
R2
90a a
R1 f f
90f
1802q
q
A
1 1 1
= v f u
 165 + 11
1
1
1
=+
=
v
11 16.5 16.5 11
v=
90  a + q + 90  f = 180
Object height h0 = 6 mm
u =  16.5 cm
(a) The ray diagram is shown in figure
B
A'
A
B' u = 16.5 cm
6+5
60
60
cm = 5.46 cm
v=
11
=
a + f=q
16.5 11
=  33 cm
5.5
In D ABC we get,
1 1 1
+ =
v u f
5
60
=
m=
11 (  12) 11
m <1
6
hi =
5
45
9=
= 4.09 mm
11
11
B'
A 12 cm
(O)
A'
5/11cm
10. Here f =  18 cm
Let distance of object from vertex of concave
mirror is u. Since image is real hence image
and object lie left side of the vertex.
v 1
Magnification m =  =
u 9
u
v=9
1 1 1
By mirror formula, + = , we have
v u f

1
1
1
10
1
 ==u/9 u
18
u
18
3 1
2 1 1
=
 =
u
f
u u f
v =3 u
v = 3u and v is +ve
By mirror formula,
1 1 1
1 1 1
+ =
 v u f
3u u 12
1 3
1
= u = 8 cm
3u
12
(b) Since image is real
v
m =  = 3 v =  3u
u
1 1 1
By using + = , we get
v u f
4
1 1
1
1
=  =3u
12
e u
12
u = 16 cm
v 1
u
(c) Here m =
= v=m 3
3
1
1
1
 =u/3 u
12
4
1
u = 48 cm
=u
12
1 1 1
13. We have + =
v u f
v=
v = mu
m=
u
uf
at u = f , v =
uf
u
30
f = ==  10 cm
3
3
0.25
0.5
u = 2f
v = 2f
u 0, v 0
7
14. Here f = 21 cm R = 2 f = 42 cm
Since the object is placed on C. Hence its
image by concave mirror is formed on C. This
image acts as a virtual objet for plane mirror
the distance between plane mirror and
virtual object = 21 cm.
Hence plane mirror forms its real image in
front of plane mirror at 12 cm.
15. Let u is the object distance from vertex, v is
the image distance for vertex and f is the
focal length then distance between object
and focus is u  f and distance between
image and focus is v  f ie,
(u  f ) (v  f ) = uv  (u + v) f + f 2
1 1 1
Using
+ + , we get
v u f
(i)
xR
u =  2R +
=
2x + R
2x + R
R
v =  (2R  x) and f = 2
1 1 1
Using +
= , we get
v u f
(2x + R)
1
2
(2R  x) (2R2 + 5xR) R
4 R 3  2x2 R + 8 xR2
= 8 R 3 + 16xR2  10x2 R
4 R 3 + 8 xR2  8 x2 R = 0
(u  f )(u  f ) = (v + u) f  (v + u) f + f 2
4 R[ R2 + 2xR  2x2 ] = 0
(u  f )(v  f ) = f 2
2x2  2xR  R2 = 0
R0
x=
1 + 3
R
x =
Hence proved.
16. Let object is placed at a distance x from the
convex mirror then for convex mirror
R
u  x and f = +
2
1 1 2
xR
v=
 =
v x 12
2x + R
(ii)
uv = (u + v) f
2R 2 3 R [1 3 ]
=
R
4
2
Virtual object
1 1
1
 = v=
v f
f
8
also magnification m = 
v
= .
u
6. From figure
1
q
q
q
9 0
q
q
N1
70
180 2q
70
20 + q
a a
1802a
20 + q = 70
q = 70  20
N2
q = 50
= 180  2q + 180  2a
but
a = 90  q
d = 180
at u =  , v =  f
graph between u and v is
v
R = + 60 cm.
R
Its focal length f = = + 30 cm
2
v 1
Magnification m = =
u 2
u
v=
2
1 1 1
Using mirror formula, + = ,
v u f
1
1 1
 =
u / 2 u 30
we get,
3 1
=
u
30
u =  90 cm
u
v = =  45 cm
2
= 45 cm
Hence the correct option is (c).
9
8. Here it is given that height of the boy
HF = 1.5 m
H
0.1 m C
E
Mirror
1.5m
1 1 1
 =
3u u f
3u
4
 3 40
f =
=  30 cm
2
f =
v=n
we get,
1
1
1
=
+
f (  u / n) u
but
v= 3u= 3u
v  u= 80
3u  u= 80 u = 40 cm'
u =  ( n  1) f
1 1 1
= + ,
f v u
[Q here
du
is ve]
dt
1 1 1
= v f u
u =  60 cm, f =  24 cm
dv 402
=
9 = 4 cm/s
dt 602
10
vop = 2 [vm + vp ]  vo
vop = 2 [10 + 4 ]  2
= 28  2 = 26 cm/s
Hence correct option is (d).
1 1 1
we get
+ =
v u f
1 1
1
v = 10 cm
=
v 20 20
v 1
ie image is virtual exect and since m = = .
u 2
Hence image is diminished, thus assertion
is true.
If u = + 20 cm for virtual object v = hence
reason is true but reason is not correct
explanation of assertion. Hence answer is (b).
1 1 1
3. Using mirror formula
we get
+ =
v u f
1 1 1
= v f u
i
i
d = 180 2i
Reflected ray
= + v=
v
f u
f u
u f v
Incident ray
7.
i
i
r r
M2
M1
11
Deviation produced by M1 = 180  2i
Deviation produced by M2 = 180  2 r
1. vmax = w A
= 2x tan f  2x tan q
60
k
A
m
k
for SHM
w2 =
m
=A 3
AB = 2 L,
[ AB] = (2L) = 0
dt
dt
vmax =
AB = 2x [tan f  tan q ]
SM SN
= 2x
= 2 [ SM  SN ]
x
x
3. Here u =  10 cm and v =  20 cm
Using mirror formula
1 1 1
dv du
+ = we get = 2  2 = 0
u v f
v
u
dv
v2
202
= 2 = 2 =4
du
u
10
2. aun = g
dv =  4 du
Height = x
dv = 0.4 cm,
L
q q
S
q q
L2
(3x)
3x
I
x
6x
II
12
(6  x)  x = 4
2 = 2x x = 1 m
dv = 2 du,
B
2 mm
10 cm
P
F
20 cm
v=
20
3
dv = 2 4 mm dv = 8 mm
v 20 / 3
= 1
mv= =
u 20 3
10
cm
Lv =
3
v=
3
20
10
LH =v  u=
 10 =
3
3
10
LH =
3
The ratio LV : LH = 1 : 1.
Hence correct option is (c) 1 : 1.
i + i  2q = 45
2i = 45 + 2q = 45 + 2 20 = 85
But angle of incidence = angle of reflection.
Hence the angle between origial incident
and reflected ray was 85. Similarly is the
mirror is rotated clockwise the angle became
5.
Hence correct option is (c) 85 or 5.
8. The person see his hair if the incident ray
statics from point A after reflected by mirror
reach his eyes. Let O is point at minimum at
a distance x below the point A.
A
x
We get,
1 1 1
+ =
v u f
v =  30 cm
v (v2  v1)
We have m =
=
m u2  u1
q
q
Person 170 cm E
164
6. Here u =  15 cm, f =  10 cm
Using
2 mm
AB = du = 4 mm
20 cm
dv
=2
du
P
B
We have 2x = 60 cm x = 3 cm
The distance of O from P is
= 170  3 = 167 cm
Hence correct option is (a).
13
v = v sin 37 and v^ = v cos 37
9. Acceleration of block
A
M
C
O
y
N
= 2 v cos 37 sin 37
4 3 24
vx = 2 5 =
= 4.8
5 5 5
2m
3m
a AB =
3 mg
3g
=
3m + m 4
v y = v cos 37 cos 37
 v sin 37 sin 37
Acceleration of block CD :
2mg
2g
aCD =
=
2m + m 3
Since the accelerations are in opposite
directions relative acceleration of one image
with respect to other is given by
3 g 2 g 17 g
a AB + aCD =
+
=
4
13
12
Hence the correct option is (c).
BD
10. Here
= tan 30
0.2
0.2 m
v = vx ^i + v y ^j
v = 4.8 ^i + 1.4 ^j
23
B
v y = v [cos2 37  sin2 37 ]
4 3 4 3
= 5 + 
5 5 5 5
7 1 7
= 5 = = 1.4
5 5 5
30 30
u = 2 m/s
BD = 0.2
No. of reflections =
1
3
q = 45
2 3
= 30
0.2 / 3
37
37
37
x
v sin 37
14
The separation between image of particle
and particle at this moment
= 2 y = 2 0.5 m = 1 m
v m = 4 ^i + 4 ^j + 8 k
and velocity of object
vo
=3 i + 4 j + 5 k
v i = 3 ^i + 4 ^j + viz k
but
20 cm
10 cm
45
45
Hence, we get
v i = 3 ^i + 4 ^j + 11 k (wrt ground)
Hence, the correct option is (b).
$
3 i$ + 4 $j + 11k
10
= sin 45
x
f =  2.5 cm
 2.5 1
= 5 cm
 2.5 + 2
x = 10 2
x
45
10
45 10 2 cos 45
45
10 2 sin 45
10 2
x
15
19. For convex mirror f = + 10 cm
xi =
10 10
fx0
=
=
x0  f 10  10
yi =
10  20
fy0
=
=
f  y0
10  10
1. Here f =  20 cm
Case 1. (if image is real) u, v and f all are
ve.
v=
Here m = 2 v =  2 u
using mirror formula
1 1 1
+ =
v u f
we get,
1 1
1
 =2u u
20
3
1
u = + 30 cm
=
2 u 20
 =2u u
20
u = + 10 cm
u
2
1 1 1
+ = , we get
u v f
1
1
1
 =u/2 u
f
3
1
=u
f
u = 3f
v cos q
v
vs
in
q
vc
os
16
1 1 1
+ =
v u f
we get,
v =  60
= v sin q
Hence image velocity also make an angle q
with the mirror.
Resolving velocity along (yaxis ie, parallel
to mirror) and (xaxis ie perpendicular to
mirror).
v 0 = v sin ^i + v cos ^j
v i =  v sin ^i + v cos ^j
Relative velocity of object w.r.t. image is
dv
v2 du
= 2
dt
u dt
v 0 i = v 0  v i = 2 v sin q ^i
Hence, correct options are (a), (b) and (d).
4.
 20 v t
fy0
=
yi =
f
x
0 20 + 30
then
yi = 2 vt= 2 vt
dyi
= + 2v
dt
3f
u =3f v =3f
For concave mirror
u = 3f
Using mirror formula
1 1
1
2
=
 =v 3f f
3f
300 m
v =  1.5 f
v= 1.5 f
3f
17
For convex mirror,
1 1
1
4
=
+ =
v 3f
f 3f
v = 0.75 f
2 3
1
=3f
3f
v = 3f
v= 3 f
When
by plane mirror
For concave mirror
1
1
1
2
1
=
 =
u 1.5 f f 3 f f
v = 0.6 f
(b) r
(c) p
3. (a) Since object and its image are on opposite
side of principle axis.
O
Therefore,
A
(a) q, r
1
(b) Since m =  , Q m is  ve
2
Hence mirror is concave and image is real.
(b) q, r
(c) m = + 2 , Q m > 1
Hence mirror is concave and Q m is + ve
B
I
(c) q, s
1
(d) Q1 m = + < 1 and + ve
2
(c) p
O
x
A
x
B
18
Hence
m =2 = 
(d) r.
4. (a) For concave mirror M1 focal length
=  20 cm
Using
1 1 1
 =
u u f
we get,
3
1
=
2 u 20
u = 30 cm
1 1
1
 =2u u
20
If image is virtual v = 2 v
1 1
1
 =2u u
20
u = 10 cm
we get
1 1
1
1
=
+
=
v 20 20 10
v = 10 cm
v
v =  2u
u
(a) p, q
(b) Here m =
=  v = 2
u
2
1 1 1
Using + = , we get
v u f

v =  60 cm
Hence image is real.
60
m== 2
30
Hence image is magnified (2 times).
(c) q, s
(d) for mirror M2 (convex) at X = + 30 cm
image again virtual.
(d) r
5. (a) For concave mirror f =  20 cm
Case I. Image is real.
1
<1
2
1
1
1
 =u/2 u
20
3 1
u = 60 cm
=
4 20
27 Refraction of Light
Introductory Exercise 27.1
1. Let real depth of dust particle is x
thickness of slab is t
t
1st
face
m3 4 3
= =2
m1 3 2
and
2nd
face
tx
We have
x
x = 9 cm
6 cm
m1 =
m1
l1
m2
4. From va = n la
3
m3 3
=
2m 3 =
2 m2 2
m 1 v2
m
= v2 = 1 v1
m 2 v1
m2
Similarly, wavelength l2 =
(i)
c
c
and m 2 =
v1
v2
(i)
la =
3 108
va
=
= 5 107 m
na 6 10+ 14
= 50 nm
l
500 5
m= a =
= = 1.67
lm 300 3
(ii)
=
v 10
1.5
1
1 1.5 1 + 4.5
=+
=
v
30 10
30
30
v=
= 8.57 cm
3.5
2.
m2 m1 m2  m1
=
v
u
R
1.5
1
0.5
(a)
=
m
( 20)
6
On solving v = 45 cm
1.5
1
0.5
(b)
=
v
( 10)
6
On solving we get v =  90 cm
20
(c)
1.5
1
0.5
=
v
( 3)
6
4. Applying
On solving v =  6.0 cm
O
10 cm
u2 m 1 m 2  m 1
=
v
u
R
1.44 1 0.44
 =
v
1.25
On solving v = 0.795 cm
m2 m1 m2  m1
5.
=
v
u
R
1.635
1
0.635
=
v
( 9) ( 2.50)
on solving v = 6.993 cm
m2 m1 m2  m1
=
v
u
R
1  4/3
1
4
=
v 3 ( 10) ( 15)
Lateral magnification m = =
1 4
1
on solving v =  9 cm
+
=
v 30 45
v
u
6.993
=  0.777
9
v u f
R
R
2
1
1
1
1 1
+
= (1.65  1)  
20 60
R R
3 + 1
2
= 0.65
60
R
R = 60 0.65 = 39 cm
1 1 1
2. Using  = , we get
v u f
1
1 1
1 1
1
 =
 =
+
50 x 30
x 30 50
On solving x =  18.75 cm
v
50
m=
=
u 18.75
Height of filament image = 2
50
18.75
= 5.3 cm
3.
1
1 1
= (m  1) +
R R
f
1
1
1
= (m  1)
f
R1 R2
1
1 1
2
= (1.3  1)
= 0.3
R R
f
20
f =
100
cm
3
f1 1.8
20
R 1.8
f = 36 cm
(b) The minimum distance is equal to the
focal length = 36 cm
21
6. Using
1 1 1
 =
v u f
1
1 1
v = 16 cm
+ =
3u u 12
1
1
12
=
v ( 20) 10
On solving v = 20 cm
v
Magnification =  =  1
u
Hence the image of same size and inverted.
Let the distance between second lens is x
Since magnification is unity image distance
also x using again
1 1 1
 =
v u f
u = 40 cm and v = 20 cm
1 1 1
Using
 =
v u f
we get
1
1
1 1
x = 20 cm
= =
x ( x) f 10
Hence the distance between two lenses
= 20 cm + 20 cm = 40 cm
1 1 1
7. = +
v f u
(i)
1 1
1
= +
v1 f u + du
(ii)
1 1 (u + du  u)
on solving, we get
 =
v v
(u + du)u
v  v
 v2
du
thickness dv = 2 du
=
v
u(u + du)
u
2
10. Size of image = 6 = 2 cm.
3
11. Let image distance is u
m= 3 v = 3u
(i)
1
1
1
+
= f =  40 cm
20 40 f
0.3
= 1.5
0.2
22
AIEEE Corner
1. Incident ray
Reflected ray
1 106
1.8 106
=
= 0.6 1014
8
3 10 /1.8
3 108
i
90i
r
t3 =
90
Reflected ray
We have r + 90 + i = 180 r = 90  i
sin i
sin i
From Snells law 1.5 =
=
sin r sin (90  i)
+
=
tan i = 1.5
i = tan 1(1.5)
c 3 108
3. Sped in glycrine v g =
=
ng
1.47
20 20 1.47
=
= 9.8 108 s
vg
3 108
v=
c 3 10
=
ng
1.63
20 20 1.63 ~
t2 =
=
 10.8 108
vc
3 108
8
t2  t1 = (1086
.  9.8) 10
= 1.67 108 s
4. (a) t1 =
1 106 m 1 106 m
=
v1
3 108 /1.2
6
1.2 10
3 108
t1 = 0.4 1014 s
t2 =
4500
= 7.5
600
2py
Ex ( y, t) = Eax sin
 3 1014 2lt
7
5
10
Speed in glycrine v g =
1 1.8 1000 nm
600 nm
v
343
2. nw = air =
= 0.229
uw 1498
t1 =
1.5 106
= 0.5 1014 s
3 108
w 2p 3 1014
=
= 1.5 108 m/s
k
2p/5 107
Refractive index n =
3 108
c
=
=2
v 1.5 108
2p
k
2p
= 5 107 m
25/ 5 107
ln =
ln = 500 nm
6. Refraction
surfaces
plane
and
spherical
23
N1
N2
60
N
r
0.25 cm 10 cm
6 cm
r r
sin 60
= 1.8
sin r
sin 60
sin r =
1.8
We have
sin r =
3
= 0.48
2 1.8
1
r = sin (0.48)
r~
 28.7
MO
= tan r
6
Now
and
MO = 6 tan r
Similarly ON = 6 tan r
MN = MO + ON = 12 tan r = 12 tan(28.7 )
MN = 6.6 cm
4 sin 45
7. From Snells law =
3
sin r
A
1m
R =  10 cm
m2 m1 m2  m1
=
v
u
r
 0.5
1
1.5
+
=
v 170/ 7 10
1 1 10.5
=
v 20 170
v =  85 cm
45 45
D
9. Here v =  1 cm
B
r
3m
m2 m1 m2  m1
=
v
u
R
1.5
1
0.5
=
v
( 2.5) 10
1.5 1
1
7
=
=v
20 2.5
20
30
v=cm
7
N3
Solving we get r = 32
EF = DE tan r = 3 tan 32
= 1.88 m
Total length of shadow = 1 + 1.88
= 2.88 m
R =  2 cm
m  m1
m
m
Applying 2  1 = 2
v
u
R
1 1.5 1  1.5  0.5 1
=
=
=
1
x
2
2
4
1.5 5
=
x
4
6
x=
=  1.2 cm
5
2 cm
24
O
10.
12.
10 cm
Air
i
r
RI = 3/2
3 cm
4 cm
1
Here shift = t 1 
m
1
= 3 1 = 1 cm
3 / 2
Here
sin r =
sin i =
= 11 cm
The image formed by mirror =  11 cm
Hence image formed by the mirror at 11 cm
behind the mirror.
6 cm
11.
O
O'
8 cm
6 cm
6x
4 + n2
2
2
2 + n2
2
2
sin i
4 4 2 +n
=
sin r
3 2 42 + n2
u=
4 4 + n2
=
5n2 = 28
9 16 + n2
4
2
28
n = 2.4 cm
5
m  m1
m
m
13. Using 2  1 = 2
v
u
R
1 1.5 1  1.5
=
v
5
1 1
v = 10 cm
=
v 10
m  m1
m
m
14. For first surface 2  1 = 2
v
u
R
n2 =
10 cm
8 + (6  x) = x + 6 x = 4 cm
real depth 6
Step III. m =
= = 15
.
app. depth 4
hence real position of the bubble inside
sphere is 1.2 cm from the surface.
5 cm
30 cm
1.5 1 0.5
v = 30 cm
 =
v
10
25
For 2nd surface
 0.5
1
1.5
=
v ( 15)
5
1
1
1
v =  5 cm
=v
10 10
1
1
1
=
d  x ( x) 16
x2  xd + 16d = 0
x=
8 cm
n = 1.6
3 cm
5 cm
1 1.6 1  1.6
=
v ( 3)
5
1
0.6 1.6
=v
5
3
Let
x1 =
d + d2  64 d
2
B
3
v = 12 cm/s
3 B
vB = 9 cm/s
d  d  64 d
and
x2 =
x1  x2 = d2  64 d
But x1  x2 = 60 d2  64 d  3600 = 0
( d  100) ( d + 36) = 0
d = 100 Q d  36
1
1
1
= ( n  1)
f
R1 R2
R1 = R and R2 =  R
1
1 1
2
= ( n  1) + = ( n  1)
f
R
R R
f =
d d2  64 d
to air hence
1 1 1
 = we get
v u f
R
R
hence f1 =
=R
2 ( n  1)
2 (1.5  1)
and f2 =
(a)
R
R
=
2 (1.7  1) 1.4
f1
= 1.4 f1 : f2 = 1.4 : 1
f2
R
1.6R
==  8R
1.5
2 1
2
1
1.6
26
f2 =
R
1.6R
=
= 8R
1.7
2
 1 2 0.1
1.6
S2
I'
15
60 cm
60 cm
30 cm f
S1
f
right of 2nd
2
24 x
I'
(i)
x = 6, 18
v  f /2 1
=
=
u
f
2
40
f = 40 cm
x = 25 cm
30 cm
f2 = 10 cm
30 cm
7.5 cm I2
30 cm
I1
d
convex Lens convex Lens
I
IInd
1 1 1
 = we get
v u f
1 1
1
1 1
1
=
v = 60 cm
+
=
v 30 20 v 20 30
27
For 2nd lens
1 1
1
=
v 30 10
1 1
1
=
+
v 30 10
1 4
=
v 30
Using
1
1 1
=v
20 5
v =  4 cm
=
v ( 9) 9
v = 7.5 cm
f = + 20 cm
using
1 1 1
= +
v f u
1 1
1 2 1 1
=
=
=
v 20 40
40
40
v = 40 cm
1
1
1
v =  5 cm
=v
10 10
O
40 cm
15 cm 10 cm
30 cm
f1 = +10 cm
f2 = 20 cm f3 = +9 cm
10 cm
15 cm
5 cm
v=
1 1 1
 =
v u f
1
1
1
= ( n  1)
f
R1 R2
1
1 1
= (1.3  1)
30 70
f
f =  70 cm
=
=
=
v 30 90 90 45
v = 45 cm
28
28. nice =
sin q c m w 4 2
=
=
sin r m g 3 3
3 108
c
=
= 1.30
v 2.3 108
1
1
= sin 1
q c = sin 1
n
1.30
ice
9
9 2 3
sin q c = =
8
8 3 4
3
r = sin 1
4
sin r =
= sin 1(0.77)
29. (a) Let angle of refraction in material 2 is r
sin q 1.8 18
then
(i)
=
=
sin r 1.6 16
For (2) to (3) interface
sin r
1.3 13
=
=
sin 90 1.8 18
13
sin r =
18
18 13
From (i) and (ii) sin q =
16 18
13
q = sin 1
16
90r
r
n1
n2
(ii)
sin (90  r) n1
=
sin 90
n2
and
cos r =
n1
n2
sin q n2
=
sin r n1
sin q =
sin q =
n2
sin r
n1
n2
1  cos2 r
n1
2
r2 + h2
n
n
= 2 1  1
n1
n2
h
c
r2 + h2
1
(i)
=
sin C
r
4
Here r = 1 cm and m = putting these
3
4
values in Eq. (i). Solving we get h = cm
3
1 2
Here
sin q c =
=
mg 3
m=
sin q =
n22  n12
n12
2
n
q = sin 1 2  1
n1
cos q =
9
29
8
q = cos 1
9
r
h
c
S
A + dm
sin
36. m =
A
sin
2
A + sin
sin
2 sin A cos A
2
=
2
2
3=
A
A
sin
sin
2
2
cos
= sin 1
r2 + h2
A = 60
37. Here i1 = r1 = 0 .
r2 + h2
1
=
sin C
r
35.
A
3
A
=
= 30
2
2
2
1
C = sin 1
m
or
5
5 3
sin r =
4
4 5
1 3
q = sin
4
sin q =
r1 + r2 = A 0 + r2 = A
r2 = A = 30
sin r2
1
sin i2 = 1.4 sin r2
=
sin i2 1.5
90 90r
45
r
90r
P
m = 1.25
R
cos r =
5
3
sin r =
5
sin q
5
Now,
= 1.25 =
sin r
4
i2
r1
45
45 r1 r
2
r1
A
30
45
60
Q 30
90
30
The ray retrace its path from ref. by surface
AB hence ARq = 90 from geometry it is
clear that r = 30
sin i
m=
sin r
m=
sin 45
1/ 2
m =
m = 2
sin 30
1/2
w2 = 0.27
1 1
1
1
1
1
= + =
F f1 f2
F 20 30
Now,
here A = 60
42. m =
A
sin
2
60 + dm
sin
1.5 =
sin 30
60 + dm
0.75 = sin
60 + dm = 2 sin 1(0.75)
dm = 22.8
1.665  1.645
m y 1
F = 60 cm
w1 w2
45.
+
=0
f1
f2
w1
f
= 1
w2
f2
3
f
= 1
2
f2
3
f2
2
1 1
1
Now,
= +
F f1 f2
f1 = 
1
1
2
=
150 f2 3 f2
f2 = 50 cm and f1 =  75 cm
sin i1
46. Applying m =
sin r1
Find angle r1 for two different refraction
indices. Because i1 = 65 from both the
cases.
Then again apply
sin i2
and find i2 . Because r2 = A  r1.
m=
sin r2
Then apply :
d = ( i1 + i2 )  A
for two refraction indices. Then difference
in deviations is :
Dd = d1  d2
31
m is dimensionless.
B
= dimension of m
l2
1
3. Shift = 1 
m
m3
m2
q
m1
and
(i)
(ii)
A
i
100
1 1
= 100 ( n  1) +
R r
f (cm )
100 0.6 2
P=
= + 12
10
Denser medium
r1
3 108
= 2.25 108 m/s
4/3
90
r2
Rarer medium
Now
sin i 1
=
sin r2 m
sin i
1
=
sin (90  i) m
tan i =
1
m
(i)
1
If C is the critical angle then C = sin 1
m
1
C = sin (tan i)
Hence correct option is (a).
32
11. Let angle of minimum deviation is dm
We have,
we know that
A + dm
sin
m=
A
sin
2
(60 + dm )
sin
2
2=
sin 30
1
60 + dm
= sin
2
2
60 + dm
= 45 dm = 30
2
and
1
fcm
...(i)
13.
r2
r3
R
= 2f
( n  1)
m1
r
r1
(iv)
15. Here P = + 5D f + = 20 cm
5 1.5
1.5
4
15
= nl nl =
=
4
nl
5
8
sin r3 m 4
=
sin x m 3
1 1.5
=
 1 10
0.5 nl
1 1.5
=
1
5
nl
m3
(iii)
f =
n
1
1
=
 1
nl
R1 R2
m2
sin r2 m 3
=
sin r3 m 2
(ii)
1
1
1
= ( n  1)
f
R1 R2
1
1
1
= (0.5  1)
0.2
R1 R2
sin r1 m 2
=
sin r2 m 1
(i)
1
1
1
= (15
.  1)
2
a
R1 R2
sin i m 1
=
sin r1 m
x
m4
1
1
1
= (1.5  1)
20
R1 R2
and 
1.5
1
1
1
=
 1
100 ne
R1 R2
1.5
 1
n
1
+1=
10
nl
nl =
5
3
(i)
(ii)
33
16. We know that
1 1
1
d
= +
F f1 f2 f1 f2
> + d > f1 + f2
f1 f2 f1 f2
Now
i2 = r2 = 0
r1 + r2 = A r1 = A
sin i
m=
sin A
sin i ~
 i and sin A ~
A
i
m = i = mA
A
Hence correct option is (c).
A + dm
sin
19. m =
A
sin
2
A + dm
sin
A
2
cot +
=
A
2
sin
2
A + dm
A
= 90 2
2
A + dm = 180  A
dm = 180  2 A
i = 45
Now
A = 2r
A
r=
= 30
2
sin i
m=
sin r
sin i
2=
sin 30
1
sin i =
2
(i)
1
1
1
2d
= +
2F f1 f2 f1 f2
(ii)
1
1
1
4d
= +
F f1 f2 f1 f2
(iii)
1
1
1
= ( n  1)
f
R1 R2
1
1
1
= (1.5  1)
24
R 2R
1 0.5
R = 6 and 2R = 12
=
24 2R
IInd
O
15 cm
15 cm
30 cm
15 cm
45 cm
Using
1 1 1
 =
v u f
1
1
1
v =  30 cm
=
v ( 15) 30
34
This image I1 act as a virtual object for
mirror since plane mirror form image at
same distance as object. Hence the distance
between
object
and
image
is
(30 + 45) cm = 75 cm.
sin r1
2
=
sin r2
3
(i)
30
dmin = (m  1) A if m increases
29. m =
A
sin
2
90 + dm ,
sin
2
3
=
2
sin 45
dmin increases
=
=n
i
sin r n1
sin
2
i
Qr =
2
i
n
2 cos = n i = 2 cos 1
2
2
Hence correct option is (c).
27. Situation is shown in figure.
F = 30 cm
O
60 cm
30
1
2
r2 = 30
3 0
30
3
90 + dm
sin
= sin 60
=
2
2
dm = 30
1
1
1
= ( n  1)
f
R
R
2
1
n
1
here
n = air =
nglass 1.5
1 1
1
1
=
 1 +
f 1.5
10 10
35
= 90  (30 + 30 ) = 30
1 1 1
 =
v u f
34.
1 1
1
+
=
v 12 10
90
v = 60 cm
60 90
Q 30
N
i = 45
sin i =
2
Hence correct option is (c).
12 cm
Using
10 cm
1 1 1
1
1
1
 = =
v u f
v ( 12) 20
v =  30 cm
35. f = 10 cm
the focal length of =
1
1
1
=
+
F 10 10
F = 5 cm
Here u =  7.5 cm , F = 5 cm
1
1
1 1 7.5  5
+
 =
v 7.5 5 v 7.5 5
v = + 15 cm
height of image 15
v
Hencem=
=
height of object 7.5
u
Height of image = 2 1 cm = 2 cm
1
45
45
60
60
=
v 2 ( )
20
sin r =
2 sin 45
=
3
sin r
3
r = 60 (on both faces)
2
v = + 40 cm
37.
=
 1
f nL
R1 R2
Here R1 =  30 cm and R2 =  50 cm
36
1 1.5
1
1
=
 1 +
f 1.4
30 50
39. Here A = 60 , dm = 60
A + dm
sin
= sin 60
m=
A
sin 30
sin
2
On solving
f =  1050 cm
m=
3 /2
= 3
1/2
JEE Corner
Assertion and Reason
1. Due to shifting of image on refraction
Shayam appear nearer to Ram and light
suffer two refraction. Hence, both (a) and (b)
are correct but reason does not explain the
assertion.
Correct option is (b).
v+u=d
1
1
1
=
d u u f
u2  du + df = 0
u=
d d  4f
2
f =  f (concave lens)
1 1
1
+
=
v f
v= f
7. m =
sin A / 2
Here
Q u is real hence d 4 f
Thus mean distance v = 4 f , if
u =  2 f , v = 2 f . Hence both assertion and
reason are true, and reason explain or may
not explain assertion. Hence correct option
is (a, b)
u=
A = 60, m = 2
60 + dm
sin
2=
sin 30
60 + dm
= 450 dm = 30
2
37
8. Focal length of combination
1
1
1
1 1
=
+
= F Fconvex Fconvex f1 f2
if
f1 > f2
1 1
<
f1 f2
F =  negative
Hence assertion is true. Since power is a
measure of converging or divergence of a
lens. Hence reason is not true. Correct
option is (c).
9. Since glass slab produced a net shift. Hence
v is increased. Thus magnified image is
obtained but image may be real or virtual
depending on the position of slab.
Correct option is (b)
1. We have m =
Real depth
App. depth
4
1
=
3 App. depth
App. depth =
3
4
2.
m2 m1 m2  m1
=
v
u
R
Here
m =  u1 = 1
and
m 2 = 1.5
1.5 1 0.5
v = 3R
+
=
v
38
Hence m =
sin 60
= 3
sin 30
dV pR2 xn2
=
dt
n1
7.
air
m1  m2 > m2  m 3
m 1 + m 3 > 2m 2
or
2m 2 < m 1 + m 3
air
m2 =
v2
6
But
f
f
m1 = m2
=
16  f 6  f
6 + f = 16  f 2 f = 22
dh
n dh
=x= 1
dt
n2 dt
dh xn2
=
dt
n1
4
5 3
sin 37 = = 1
3
3 5
(ii)
= pR2
dt
dt
Now
r = 90
sin r =
f = 11 cm
n2
h
n
= h1 = 1 h
n1 h1
n2
90q
(i)
(Q image is virtual)
90
1 1 1
6f
+ = v2 =
v2 6 f
6 f
6f
f
m2 =
=
6 (6  f ) 6  f
 v1
16 f
f
=
=
16 16 (16  f ) (16  f )
and
90
m = 5/3
R
(R t )
(ii)
( R  t)2 + 32 = R2
2Rt ~
 9 Q R >> T
h2
h1
(i)
(2)
39
900 mm
= 300 mm
3 mm
2R =
R = 150 mm = 15 cm
m w sin r
4 4
1
=
=
m a sin r
3 3 sin r
v1
f
=
v1 (v1  f )
(i)
60
1
1 1
fv2
+
= v2 =
v2 v2 f
v2  f
m2 =
v2
f
=
v2 m 2  f
(ii)
Q
Q m1 = m2
v + v2
f
f
f = 1
=
2
v1  f v2 f
F=
sin r =
4
3
sin r
3
3
=
r = sin 1
sin 90
7
7
r = 60  r
=
=
3/2 3 sin r
mg
sin r
30+r' 90r'
r'
Now
f1 f2
f1 + f2  d
Now r + 30 + r = 90
sin r = 1 r = 90
7
sin i
=
3 sin [60  sin 1 3/7 ]
= sin 1
sin (60  21 )
3
(i)
40
17. We have for total internal reflection
B
3/2
90
i
4
4
i = sin 1 = 53
5
5
x = 20 cm
2
Dt = t 1
wm g
3/2 9
1
= 36 1 =
Q wm g =
4/3 8
9/8
36 1
=
= 4 cm
9
Hence correct option is (b).
Real depth
22. m =
App. depth
1
1
1
+
=
OB OA f
OB. OA
Q OB + OA = AB
f =
OA + OB
4 real depth
=
3
10.5 cm
Real depth =
4
10.5 cm = 14 cm
3
OC2
AB
(ii)
q < 37
20x
f =
90 + q + i = 180
v=
x  20
OC2 = OA OB
q = 90  iQ i > 53
(i)
sin i =
OB. OA
AB
sin i 6/5
=
sin 90 3/2
f =
6/5
q
A
m=
v
v
2=
u
u
2=
40 + x
80 + 2x = 50  x
 3 x = 30 x =  10 cm
41
24. If the plane surface of planoconvex lens is
silvered it behave the concave mirror of focal
length fm /2
Q
fm = 10 cm
fe = 5 cm hence R = 10 cm
and
1
1 m w
1
=
 1
+
f mg
R1 R2
(ii)
=
m g lw
3mg 5
c
= n lw
mw
mg =
5
3
f = 20
4/3
1
1 1 1
1
=
=
 1
+
+
3
/
2
R
R
9
R
R
2
2
1
1
Q f is  ve lens behave as concave, hence
the image is virtual and magnified.
Correct option is (c).
5 mm
30 cm
Here f1 = f2 = 20 cm , d = 30 cm
and D = 55m = 0.5 cm
90
Hence m =
1
1
=
= 2 = 1.414
sin C sin 45
4
4
1 cm =  cm
3
3
f1 = 20 cm
Here u1 =  30 cm
1 1 1
1
1
1
v1 = 60 cm
=
=
v u1 f1
v1 20 30
Magnificationm1= (Inverted image)
v
60
=
=+2
u 30
42
For second lens.
1
1
1
v2 = + 30 cm
+
=
v2 60 20
Magnification m2 =
30 1
=
60 2
Total magnification = m1 m2 = 1
Hence object size remains 3mm and it is
formed at (120 + 30) cm = 50 cm from first
lens.
6 cm
Man
v = 10 cm
1 1
1
=v 20
30
1 1
1
v = + 60 cm
=
v 20 30
50 cm
1
1
1
+
=
( f + 40) ( f + 10) f
On solving we get f = 20 cm
1 1 1
 = we get v = 20 cm
v u f
1.5
sin q
= n1
sin (90  q c )
1
1
1
=
 (20 + x) ( x  20) 60
sin q
= n1
cos q c
Now
sin q <
= 1.5 20 = 30 cm
Now using mirror formula
1 1 1
+ = we get
v u f
cos q c <
n12  n22
n1
n12  n22
n1
n1
sin q < n12  n22
43
39. For
mirror u =  1 cm
(taking
1 1
1 0.6
0.3
= +
=
+
F f1 f2 10 20 1.6
upward
direction + ve)
f =  2 cm
1
1 1
= v
f u
1
1
1
= +1=
v
2
2
v = 2 cm
1
9 = 3 cm
Dt = 1 3/2
=
+
v
R
u
Q
R is + ve and m 1 > m 2
m2
m
=  ve + 1
v
u
v =  ve
f2 1.6
10 20
1
0.3
=
f2 20 1.6
Let focal length of combination is F
F = 28.57 cm
+
=
v
u
R
1.5 0.5 1
=
v
R u
1.5 1
1
=
 v is + ve if u > 2R
v
2R u
Hence correct option is (b).
fu
43. v =
when u < f
f u
u lend to lens
if
u 0, v 0
1.6 6 1 1
=
 =
v1 10 2 10
v1 = 16 m
For
m2 = 2
44
2 1
2
1
=
=1
v2 ( 2)
1
2
1 1
= 1  = v2 = 4 m
v2
2 2
Hence
= (16  4) cm
1 (1.8  1.2) 1 1
=
+
R
2f
(1.2  1)
1
0.6
=
16 0.2R
= 12 cm
Hence correct option is (a).
R = 48 cm
Here u =  10, v =  40 cm
f =  8 cm
if n = 2m + 1 deviation produce is d
Hence correct options are (a) and (b).
2. sin i
and
f =
D2  x2
4D
d = (m  1) A = (1.5  1) 4 = 2
sin r
Q sin i = m sin r
m = tan 30 = 3
v
v
=
m
3
45
1. Correct match is
(a) q, r
(c) p, r
(b) p, s
(d) p, r
4. (a) q,
2. (a) p, r
(b) q, s
(c) q, r
(d) q, r
(b) r
(c) r
(d) p
5. Since
3.
m1
x
1
I
m2
1
1
1
= ( n  1)
f
R1 R2
m2 > m
1
1 1.5
1
=
 1
f 1.4
R1 R2
f is + ve
hence
(a) q, s
Similarly as in (a) the correct match for
(b) q, r
Similarly
(c) 1
(c) q, s and
(d) p, s
2
(c) p, s
(d) p, r
and
3. I = I 0 cos2 q / 2
3I0
= I 0 cos2 q / 2
4
cos q / 2 =
q p
=
2 6
p
q=
3
l
l p l
f=
=
2l
2p 3 6
yd
Dx =
D
D Dx D l
y=
=
d
d 6
Dx =
But
3
2
l
3
t=
=
= 0.5 cm
4m 4 1.5
5. Here a1 = 3 a and a2 = a
R2 = (3 a)2 + ( a)2 + 2 3 a a cos q
I = 9 I 0 + I 0 + 6I 0 cos q
I = [10 + 6 cos q ] I 0
2 cos2 q  1 I
0
2
q
= 10 + 12 cos2  6 I 0
2
q
= 4 + 12 cos2 I 0
2
q
= 4 I 0 1 + 3 cos2
2
I
Now, I max = 0
9
4
q
I = I max 1 + 3 cos2
9
2
yd
6. Dx =
 (m  1) t
D
l
if t =
2 (m  1)
I = 10 + 6
Dx =
yd l
D 2
For maxima Dx = nl
yd
1
= 2n + l
D
2
This become minima.
1
For minima Dx = n  l
2
yd l
l
 = nl D 2
2
yd
and
minima
are
47
7. For two slit experiment
But
d sin q = nl
nl
sin q =
d
nl
sin q 1
1
d
n
n =6
4 106
d
n
= 6.67
l
6 107
AIEEE Corner
(i) R = 2a, a1 = a2 = a
4 a2 = a2 + a2 + 2a2 cos f
Now,
cos f = 1 f = 0
(ii) 2a2 = 2a2 + 2a2 cos f
f = 90
(iii) a2 = 2a2 + 2a2 cos f
1
cos f =
f = 120
2
But
2.
I max
I min
a1
+ 1
2
a
( a + a2 )
= 1
= 2
2
( a1  a2 )2 a
1  1
a2
I max
I min
2
3 + 1
= 8 = 16
=
2
22
5
3 1
I max : I min = 16 : 1
q
3. I = I max cos2
2
I max
q
= I max cos2
2
2
q
p
cos = cos
2
4
p
2
2p
f=
Dx
l
p 2p
=
Dx
2 l
l
Dx =
4
yd
Dx =
D
D Dx
y=
d
q=
y=
1m l
1 500 109
=
4 1 mm
4 103
y = 1.25 104 m
q
4. I = I max cos2
2
I
q
p
(a) max = I max cos2 q =
2
2
2
2p
Now q =
Dx
l
l
yd
Dl
Dx = and Dx =
=
4
D
4d
1
2 q
(b) I max = I max cos
4
2
q
p
2p
cos = cos
q=
2
3
3
2p
f=
Dx
l
48
2p 2 p
l
=
Dx Dx =
3
l
3
yd
Dl
Now Dx =
y=
D
3d
q
5. (a) I = I max cos2
2
I max = I 0 and q = 60
3
I = I 0 cos2 30 = I 0 = 0.75I 0
4
2p
(b) q =
Dx
l
p 2p
=
Dx
3 l
l 480
nm
Dx = =
6
6
sin ( Dq) =
Dx = 80 nm
l = 590 nm
6. l A = lB = 6m
= 0.014
5m
Dx l 5 107
= =
= 2.5 104
D d 2 103
l = 6 > dAB = 5
x = m = 2.5 m
2
3l
For destructive interference Dl = l,
2
Dl 48 102 4 7 107
=
= 0.90 mm
d
3 25 105
D1l
Dl
and w2 = 2
d
d
( D1  D2 ) l
w1  w2 =
d
11. w1 =
3 105 =
Only possibility at Dl = 6
Which occur at x = 1 m and x = 4 m from A.
7. The wavelength l =
A
3 108
c
=
= 2.5 m
n 120 106
(9 x)
1.5 102
l
103
3
108
2 = 2 106 m = 2 mm
1.5 10
D nl
12. For bright fringe xn =
d
l=
1 3 600 109
5 103
49
Dx = x3  x3 =
3 120
106
5
6
Dx = 72 10 , Dx = 72 mm
13. Fringe width :
w=
=
lD
d
4.94 103 =
3 600 10
d
= 3l
I
15.
y2
S1
D +
y12
3l
2d
y1
550 109
2 1.8 106
(i)
3 550 109
2 1.8 106
2 meV
34
l=
6.62 10
l = 1.24 1010 m
w=
Dl 3 1.24 1010
=
m = 36.6 cm
d
10 1010
screen
= 3 106 m
y1
q q
S2
y2
and
l = 12 107 m l = 1200 nm
=
D2 + y12 2d
On solving y2  y1 = 12.6 cm
l
2
9
7
d sin q = (2n  1)
and
18 107
18
d=
=
104 m
4.94 103 5.94
50
I = I 0 cos2
q
2
= I 0 cos2
1978
2
= I 0 cos 989
2
I = 3 104 I 0
(b) Fringe width w =
w=
Number of fringes =
w=
10 mm
= 5.49
1.82 mm
1.1784 D
106 m
d
lD
d
5.46 107 1
= 1.82 mm
0.3 103
2Dl
d
1.178 106 D 2 Dl
=
d
d
l = 0.589 106 m = 589 nm
n 5500 = 6000 10
10 106 1.5
Dx1 = (1.6  1)
1.5 103
Dx1 = 0.6 10 103 = 6 103m
Shift due to sheet of thickness 15m and
refractive index 1.2 is
6
Dx2 =
Dx =
(1.2  1) 15 10
1.5 103
n~
 11
1.5
= 14.74  0 . 224 ~
 14.55 mm
Position of zero order bright fringe
Dx2 = 3 103m
= 12.75  0.224 ~
 12.25 mm
21. Here d ~
 1 cm
= 3 103m = 3 mm
19. Let l is the wavelength of light D is screen
distance from source and d is the separation
between slits (all are in metres)
Shift = Dx =
Dx =
1 cm
q
(m  1) tD
d
D = 100 m
l = 500 nm
51
For first dark fringe
9
y=
Dl 100 500 10
=
2d
2 102
y = 2.5 mm
2mt = l
t=
t = 114 nm
l 650 109
=
2m
2 1.42
For
l
6000
t=
=
= 1154
4m 4 1.3
n =1
l 800
t=
=
2m 2m
For
n = 2, 3,
1600 = 3 l
1600
= l l = 533 nm
3
1600
for n = 3, l =
= 320 nm which does lie
5
in visible
Hence l = 533 nm
n =2
(i)
8m
12 m
I1
= B2
I2
I max = [ I1 + I1 ]2
6m
I min = [ I1  I2 ]2
8m
52
I min
I max
( I max  I min ) b + 1  b + 1
=
( I max + I min )
2b
(m  1) tD
d
(1.5  1) 10 106 100 102
=
2.5 103
I1
 1
2
I2
= b  1
I1
b + 1
+ 1
I2
5. Shift =
I max  I min
1
=
I max  I min b2
Dl
2d
Dl
x1 =
2d
5 106
= 2 103m = 2 mm
2.5 103
x
Angular position q = sin 1 1
D
l
q = sin 1
2a
5460 1010
q = sin 1
3
2 0.1 10
q = sin
q = 0.16
[0.00273 ]
8. n1 l1 = n2 l2
60 4000 = n2 6000 n2 = 40
10Dl
=
d
But
Dl
2d
x6 = x10
10 Dl
11
Dl =
2a
d
l 20
=
l 11
l 20
m= =
= 1.8
l 11
( D  5 102 )l
d
l
5 102
d
l
= 3 5 102
10
Dw=w2  w1=
3 105
3 106
= l 6000 = l
5
53
10.
I max 49
=
I min
9
I + I2
I
Now max = 1
I min I1  I2
I max
=
I min
I
25
max =
I min
4
I1
I2
I1
I2
+ 1
 1
49
7 + 1
+ 1
100
9
= 3
= 16
7
49
 1
1
3
l=
=
=
n 6500 5
xn =
x3 =
= 7.5 103m
d
x = 0.156 cm
Hence correct option is (a).
13. Since number of minima does not depends
on orientation hence n1 = n2
Hence correct option is (a).
1. We have I = 4 I 0 cos2
f
2p
if f =
2
3
we get I = I 0
Hence assertion is true.
l
Now path difference =
phase difference
2p
l 2p l
Path difference =
=
2p 3 3
Hence reason is true.
But reason is not the explanation of
assertion. Hence correct option is (b).
2. Here assertion and reason are both true but
reason is not correct explanation of
assertion. Correct option is (b).
54
7.
9. Q d sin q = nl
P
nl
d
but = 4
d
l
n
sin q =
4
sin q =
d cos q
q
d
S1
S2
Now if q = 30
n = 4 sin 30 = 2
shift
mV >mR
px
a
k
px
= k cos2
4
l
px 1
cos
=
l 2
px
1
= cos 1
l
2
px p
px 2p
= or
=
l 3
l
3
l
2l
x = or x =
3
3
lx1
a
I 0 = 4 I 0 cos2
x1 =
and
2I 0 = 4 I 0 cos2
x2 =
a
3
(i)
px2
a
a
4
Dx = x1  x2 =
(ii)
a a a
 =
3 4 12
I
p
x
= k cos2
4
l
(i)
55
1
1.5 106 m = n + 4 107 m
2
n = 3.25
Putting
6
1.5 10
3
3
a
x = cos 1
px = a cos 1
4
p
4
x = 0.20 mm
l = 700
1
m = n + 7 107
2
n = 1.66
4=
n = 3 l = 429 nm
(m  1) t
l
(1.5  1) t
4
6 107 m = t
0.5
t = 4.8 mm
6000
2
4. xn =
Dln 100 10
=
l n
d
001
. 103
nl
xn =  5
10
xn =
n 4000 1010 m
= 4 105 n
105
S2
(2n  1) Dl
for 3rd minima n = 3
2d
5Dl 5l
y3 =
=
2d 2q
d
Q q~
 tan q =
D
yn =
xn = 4 n mm
Similarly for l = 7000
xn = 7 n mm n = 5, 6
hence only x = 5
Passes through hole l = 5000
Hence correct option is (b).
px
Dl
5. I = 4 I 0 cos2 where a =
a
d
10
1 6000 10
1 103
3
px
= cos
4
a
= (6 104 )
px
75% I 0 = I 0 cos2
a
3
px
= cos2
16
a
q
q
For l = 4000
= 0.04 n
a=
S1
( a, 0)
A
(2a, 0)
D
AB = 15l
Hence total maxima = 14 4 + 4
= 60
Hence correct option is (a).
56
px
9. I = 4 I 0 cos2
a
= 12 104 109 m
p a
I = 4 I 0 cos2
a 4
p
I = 4 I 0 cos2
4
4I0
=
= 2I 0
2
I
1
0 =
I 2
Hence correct option is (b).
p
10. I = I 0 cos2 (m  1) t
a
at m = I
I = I0
=
l 6
l
x = but x = (m  1) t
6
l
(1.5  1) t =
6
l 6000
t= =
3
3
t = 2000 = 0.2 mm
= 1248 109 m
= 1248 nm
Net shift = nl
where n is + ve integer
nl = 1248
6300 1.33 m
lD
=
d n
1 mm 1.33
=
63 108 1.33 m
103 1.33
= 0.63 mm
Hence correct option is (a).
7 Dl 3 Dl
Dl
14. Dx =
= 4
nd
nd
nd
Dx = 4 0.63 mm = 2.52 mm
Correct option is (a).
15. Dx = 2 of fridge width
2 0.63 mm
2
2 0.63
t=
= 1.57 mm
0.53
(m  1) t =
57
1. Q I = 4 I 0 cos2
q
2
if
q = 60
I = 3I0
if
q = 90
I = 2I 0
if
q = 0
I = 4I0
if
q = 120
I = I0
Df =
= 120
3
l
if
Dx =
6
l
Df = 60 if Dx = , Df = 90
4
Dq
Using I = 4 I 0 cos2
2
The correct match are
58
4. Since fringe shift in the division of sheet
placed soure hence
Similarly for other the correct match
(b) r, s; (c) p; (d) p
lD
5. When y =
there will a dark fringe at 0.
2d
hence (a) q
lD
lD
when y =
=3
6d
2d
The intensity becomes 3I
(b) p
(c) s
lD
3d
Intensity = I
(d) r
(a) p
when y =
when y =
lD
4d
Intensity = 2I
RH =
me
8e20 ch3
lP RH
=
=2
lH RP
l p = 2lH = 2 6563 = 13126
2.
1
1
=
z2
lHe lH
lHe = 164 nm
z2
lHe =
1
1 1
=R 
l
4 9
36
36
l=
=
5R 5 1.097 107
l = 656 nm
Tn =
e n2 h2 2e 0 nh
2prn
= 2p 0
un
pme2 e2
lH 6563
=
22
22
4 e 0 n 3h 3
me4
1
me4
= 2 3 3
Tn 4 e 0 n h
r1 =
me4
4 e20 h3
n1 =
n1 = 6.58 1015 Hz
n2 =
1
1
1
= R 2  2 for largest wavelength n = 3
l
n
2
e2
2e 0 nh
rn =
1
1
1
= RP 2  2
lP
3
2
e 0 n2 h2
pme2
un =
R
RP = H
2
1
1
1
= RH 2  2
lH
3
2
= 1.31 mm
1
1
1
= RH 2  2
lHe
3
2
3. For Hatom rn =
n1 n1 6.58 1015
=
=
8
23 8
= 0.823 1015 Hz
1
1
1
(b)
=R 2  2
l
2
1
c
3
n = = 3 108 R
l
4
n=
= 2.46 1015 Hz
(c) Number of revolutions
= v2 T = 0.823 1015 1 108
= 8.23 106 revolution
60
4. Reduce
mass
mm m p
207 m 1836 m
=
=
= 186 m
mm + m p (207 m + 1836 m )
h2
r1 = 4 pe 0 2 2
4 p me
h2
= 4 pe 0 2
4 p (186m) e2
r1 = 2.55 10
36
= 653 nm
5 1.097 107
7. n K = n K a + n L a lL a =
b
6.6 1034
(b) l =
= 7.3 1011m
9.1 1031 107
6. (a) After absorbing 12.3 eV the atom excited
to n = 3 state
hc
DE
8. l =
E3
E2 = 2870 eV
Ka
Kb
E1
lK a =
0.71 109 =
n=2
n=1
E1 =  4613 eV
1
1
= R 1  2
lL
n
1
1
8R
= R 1  =
lL
9
9
1
9
9
=
= 102 nm
8 R 8 1.097 107
lK
4
4
=
= 122 nm
3 R 3 1.097 107
1
1
1
5R
=R 2  2 =
2
lB
3 36
lB =
36
5R
1
1
= R 1 
lL
4
2
lL =
1
1
1
l = 5.59 nm
=
lL a lK
lK a L a
n=3
lK a  lK
0.71 0.63
c
c
c
lL a =
=
+
0.71  0.63
lK
lK a
lL a
6.6 1034
h
=
= 4.8 1034 m
mv 46 103 30
lL =
lK a lK
me4
E1 = 2 2 =  2810 eV
8 e0 h
5. (a) l =
lB =
3
4E
1
2
E
n21 =
3E 3 4E 3 f
=
=
h
4 h 4
n 32 =
E f
=
h 4
(i)
61
hc
W
l
eV0 =
4. K max =
=
 3 eV
7
19
2 10 1.6 10
= [6.20  3 ] eV = 3.20 eV
V0 = 1.9 volt
2. P = 1.5mW = 1.5 10
5.
K max = h [ f  f0 ]
6.62 10 3 10
4 107
= 4.8 10
A = 0.48 mA
3. K max = hf  W = hf  hf0
(i)
1.2 eV = h [ f  f0 ]
= 4.96 1019 J
hc
W
l
4.2 eV = h [1.5 f  f0 ]
(ii)
3 f  2 f0 = 7 f  7 f0
5 f0 = 4 f
4
f0 = f = 0.8 f
5
f0 = 1.16 1015 Hz
K max ( f  f0 )
E=
E=
198 10
198 ~
eV =
 4.6 eV
19
28 1.6
28 1.6 10
We have E = mc2 m =
198 1019
E
=
c2 28 9 1016
m = 8.2 1036 kg
Momentum p = mc = 8.2 1036 3 108
= 2.46 1027 kgm/s
2. Intensity of light at a distance 2 m
1
1
From the source =
=
W /m 2
2
16p
4 p (2)
62
5. (a) E = 2.45 MeV = 2.45 1.6 1019 106 J
6.6 10 3 10
4.8 107
E = hn n =
n = 5.92 1020 Hz
(b) We have c = nl l =
l=
6. We have
E = 2.47 10
J
E in joule
Energy in eV =
1.6 1019
2.47 1019
=
1.6 1019
Energy (in eV) = 1.54 eV
(b) Wavelength
l=
6.6 1034
h
=
= 804 nm
p 8.24 1028
c 3 108 m/s
=
l 6 107 m
f = 5 1014 Hz
E
We have p =
E = pt power per sec =
t
energy
P=E
75 = ( h v) n
75
=
34
6.6 10 5 1014
3 108
= 5.06 1013 m
5.92 1020
p = 2mK
p1 = 2mK 1 and p2 = 2mK 2
p1
=
p2
K1
K2
1
=
2
K1
K2
c
n
E 3.92 1013
=
h 6.6 1034
[Q p2 = 2 p1 ]
K2 = 4 K1
Pa 2 PR
+
c
c
7 + 2 3
13
=
=
c
3 108
= 4.3 108 N
63
9. Force = rate of change of momentum
p
13. (a) l =
h
h 6.6 1034
p= =
l 2.8 1010
p
p cos 60
(b) Q p2 = 2me K K =
60
p cos 60
K =
p sin 60
p2
2me
(2.37 1024 )2
2 9.1 1031
K = 3.07 1018 J
Dp
here Dt = 1 s
F=
Dt
K (in eV ) =
K in J
3.07 1018
=
1.6 1019
1.6 1019
F = 2 p cos 60
F=p
nh
F=
l
l=
2 60
= 4 107 N
3 108
K = 19.2 eV
l = 1.04
15. For hydrogen like atom
E =  K Here E =  3.4 eV
K = 3.4 eV = 3.4 1.6 1019 J
h
h
l= =
p
2me K
6.62 1034
h
=
mv 5 103 340
l = 3.9 1034 m
= 1.55 10
(b) l p =
6.6 1034
1836 9.1 1031 4.7 106
= 8.44 1014 m
h
3 MRT
6.6 1034
deBroglie wavelength
11. Here m = 5 g m = 5 103 kg, v = 340 m/s
3 RT
h
l=
M
Mvrms
6.6 1034
2 9.1 1031 3.4 1.6 1019
l = 6.663
16. In Bohr model the velocity of electron in nth
orbit is given by
Un =
e2
2e 0 nh
2.19 106
m/s
4
64
l1 =
h
h
h
and l4 =
=
= 4 l1
mev1
meu4 m u1
e
4
l1 =
6.6 1034
9.1 1031 2.19 106
= 3.32 1010 m
l4 = 4 l1 = 4 3.332 1010 m
= 1.33 109 m
The radius of first Bohr orbit
r1 = 0.529 1010
The radius of fourth Bohr orbit
r4 = 16 0.529 1010
2pr1 = 2 3.14 0529
.
1010
3.32 1010 m = l1
= 13.28 1010 m
 z2
(13.6 eV)
n2
E1 =
eV =  122.4 eV
12
Ionization potential =  E1 = 122.4 eV
18. For hydrogen atom we can write
(a) E =  K K = 3.4 eV
(b) PE =  2 K =  2 3.4 =  6.8 eV
Since potential energy depends upon
refrence hence it will changed.
19. Binding energy of an electron in Heatom is
E0 = 24.6 eV. ie, the energy required to
remove one electron from Heatom = 24.6 eV
Now, Heatom becomes He + and energy of
He + ion is given by
En =
 z2 (13.6)
for He + z = 2, we get
n2
13.6 eV
n2
Putting n = 3, we get
13.6 eV
E3 =
=  1.51 eV
9
Hence hydrogen atom is in third excited
state the angular momentum
L=
nh 3 h 3 6.62 1034
=
=
2p 2p
2 3.14
21. We have l =
DE =
~
 12.1 eV
En  E1 = 12.1 eV But E1 =  13.6 eV
En ~
  1.51 eV
13.6
13.6
For Hatom En =
 151
. = 2
2
n
n
n =3
Hence atom goes to 3rd excited state. The
possible transition are (3 2, 3 1, and
2 1) ie, 3 transitions are possible and the
largest wavelength = 1023
(From 3 1)
65
Let for ten transitions quantum numbers
of energy levels are n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3 and
n+4
En =
z
(13.6) eV
n2
0.544 eV
For Li + + z = 3
122.4
En =
eV E1 =  122.4 eV
n2
122.4
E3 =
eV =  13.6 eV
9
n+1
n+2
n+3
l=
 z (13.6) eV
=  0.85 eV
n2
 z2 (13.6) eV
=  0.544 eV
( n + 4)2
83.7 1019 J
=
= 52.3 eV (i)
1.6 1019 J/eV
For He + z = 2
54.4
En = 2 eV
n
E1 =  54.4 eV
1
En  E1 = 54.4 1  2 eV
n
1  2 = 0.96
n
n =5
(ii)
( n + 4)2
0.85
=
= 1.5625
2
0.544
n
n+4
= 1.25
n
4
1 + = 1.25
n
4
= 0.25
n
4
n=
= 16
0.25
 z2 (13.6)
eV
n2
(i)
En  E1 = 83.7 1019 J
For He + atom En =
hc 6.6 10 3 10
=
= 113.74
E
108.8 1.6 1019
1
663
. 1034 3 108 1
+
1010
1085 304
n+4
0.85 eV
 z2
(13.6) eV
n2
(ii)
 z2 (13.6)
=  0.85
(16)2
256 0.85
z2 =
13.6
z2 = 16 z = 4
l = 40441
66
25. Here E1 =  15.6 eV
(a) Hence ionization potential
=  E1 = 15.6 eV
hc
(b) We have l =
for short wavelength
DE
DE is maximum
l=
v2 = mw2 r2
1
m2v2 r2 =
n2 h2
4 p2
m 3w2 r4 =
n2 h2
4 p2
r4 =
1
28.
= R ( z  1)2
lK a
But
mv
= m2 w2 r
r
r n
1  1 = 1
22 l0
lK
lK a
lK =
b
n2 h2
4 p2 m 3w2
1
= R ( z  1)2
lK
29. l0 =
nh
2p
1  1
32
3 9 27
=
4 8 32
27
27
lK a =
l0
32
32
hc
eV
l0 1 =
l01 = 49.5 pm
l0 2 = 2l01 = 2 49.5 pm = 99 pm
[1 pm = 1012 m ]
30. fKa = (2.48 1015 ) Hz ( z  1)2
3 108
= 2.48 1015 (2  1)2
lK a
3 108
= ( z  1)2
0.76 1010 2.58 1015
( z  1) ~
 40 z = 41
hc
31. li =
Dl = 26 pm when V f = 1.5 V
eV
l f = ( li  26) pm
hc
1 hc 12
1
lf =
=
=
=
li
e 1.5 V 1.5 eV 1.5 1.5
67
2
li
3
1
a2
=
l26
c
( li  26) =
3 li  26 3 = 2li
li = 78 pm
78 1012 =
V =
5
f 26 
1
3
=
2
l26
5
887 pm 13 
3
6.6 3 1026
1.6 78 1012 1019
l26
V = 15865 volt
32.
26  5
5
887 pm 13 
3
=
2
26  5
V = a ( z  b)
= 887 pm
c
= a2 ( z  b)2
l
~
 198 pm
1 a2
=
( z  b)2
l
c
33.
1
a2
=
(13  b)2
887 pm
c
(i)
and
1
a2
=
(30  b)2
146 pm
z
(ii)
146 (13  b)
=
887 (30  b)
30  b
2.5 =
13  b
342
(73)2
f =
3 RC
( z  1)
4
4.2 1018 =
4.2 1018 4
= ( z  1)2
9 1.1 1015
( z  1) = 41 z = 42
34. P = Vi = 40 kW 10 mA = 400 W
% of P =
400 1
= 4W
100
32.5  2.5b = 30  b
2.5 = 1.5b
5
b=
3
Photoelectric effect
35. Einstein photo electric equation is
K max = hn  W
hc
eV0 =
 W Q K max = eV0
l
10.4 eV =
12375
l( )
 1.7 eV
12375
= 1022
12.1
hc
12375
For Hatom l =
DE =
= 12.1 eV
DE
1022
l( ) =
68
This difference equal to n = 3 n = 1
transition.
h=
36. K max = hn  W
K max =
39. Here
K max = hn  W
Kmax (eV)
C
2
A
10
20
1
hc
m [v2 (max) ]2 =
W
2
l2
D
30
9 hc hc
= 8W
l2
l1
9
1
hc
= 8W
6000 3000
W = 1.81 eV
f = 1 1014 Hz
181
. 16
. 1019
14
(ii)
= 1015 Hz
(i)
hc
 W,
l
= l1
(3)2 = 1
v2 max
hc
hc
W
W
l2
l2
3
1
and
12375
l=
= 2260
5.475
u2 (max)
m[v1(max) ]2 =
W
2
l1
K max = eV0 = 3 eV
hc
K max =
W
l
12375
3=
 2.475
l(in )
v1(max)
we get
1
hc
mv2max =
W
2
l
8 1.6 1019
= 6.4 1034 Js
2 1015
= 34
662
. 10
3 108
1
m(u1 max )2 =
2
3 107
2896
.
1019
1
m(u1 max )2 = 662
. 1019  2896
.
1019
2
1
m(u1 max )2 = 3.724 1019
2
69
(u1 max )2 =
3.724 1019 2
9.1 1031
1.81 16
. 1019 Q
me = 9.1 1031
Area A = 1 10 m
vmax =
r=
+ sin (8 1015 ) t ]
Light consist of two different frequencies.
Maximum frequency
8 1015
=
= 1.27 1015 Hz
2p
E = IA = 2 104 W
2 104 eV
= 2 104 J/s =
1.6 1019 s
2 1015
eV/s
1.6
(KE) max = hn  W
2 1015
1.6 106
.
K max
6.6 3 1018
1
mev2max =
 2 1.6 1019
2
18
1
mev2max = 11 1019  3.2 1019
2
= 7.2 1019 J
1.57 3 1015
= 0.75 1015
2 3.14
We have
6.6 1034 0.75 1015
eV0 =
 1.9 eV
19
1.8 10
Minimum KE = 0
0.53 2 1015
=
r = 0.148 m
2 7.2 1019
= 1.25 106 m/s
9.1 1031
V0 = 1.2 V
70
intensity is increased since lmin
1
, if V is
V
h
l2 mv2 v3
=
=
n
l3
v2
mv3
l2 2
=
l3 3
e2
v1 =
2e 0 h
En =
(1.6 1019 )2
2 8.85 1012 6.62 1034
1
c
8
v~

3 10 =
137
137
86
22
X
3a 80
210
4b
210
84 B
vmax
2eV
=
m
=
E1 =  z2 13.6 eV
But
E1 =  122.4 eV
122.4 eV =  z2 13.6 eV
z2 = 9
z =3
Hence it is Li2 +
The correct option is (c).
hc
Dlmin
DV
9. lmin =
100 = 100
eV
lmin
V
Percentage change in lmin =  2%
Hence lmin is decreased by 2%
correct option is (c)
10. En =
e2
e2
v2 =
, v3 =
2e 0 2h
2e 0 3 h
v2 3
=
v3 2
 z2
(13.6 eV) for first excited state n = 2
n2
E2 =
 z2
(13.6) eV
4
13.6 eV =
 z2
13.6 eV
4
vmax ~
 8 107 m/s
 z2
(13.6 eV)
n2
z =2
Hence it is He +
Correct option is (a).
12375
11. lmin (in ) =
V (in volt)
12375
= 12.375 103 V
1
V =
V = 12.4 eV
71
Hence correct option is (c).
h
12. We have l =
p
eV0 = hc
=
34
p=
h 6.62 10
=
l 0.5 1010
V0 =
l0 = 7750
series
is
30 15
=
16 8
15
V0 =
V
8
4E =
3 hc
W
l
z =2
= 54.4 eV
Hence correct option is (a).
(ii)
hc
= 3W
l
hc
W =
3l
KE = 13.6 eV
f = a ( z  1)
and
f = a (51  1) = 9 50
f
3
=
f 5
= 13.6 + 10.2
= 23.8 eV
The correct option is (c).
hc
16. eV0 =
W
3300
hc
2eV0 =
2200
(i)
= z2 109
. 107  2
10
1085 10
4 5
100 1000
z2 =
=4
1085 1.097 21
hc
3 2200 1010
66
. 1034 3 108
hc
l0 =
l0
16
. 1019 16
.
l
n
2
3300  2200
3300 2200
f = a (31  1) = a 30
f =
(i)
25 f
9
19.
1
1
f = ( RC) ( z  1)  2
12 n
for K a , n = 2
(i)
72
K b, n = 3
1
fa = RC ( z  1) 1  2 = RC ( z  1)
2
3
4
W =
hc
6l
fb = RC ( z  1) 1 fb
fa
1
8
= RC ( z  1)
9
9
8 4
32
=
=
,
93
27
9  4
1
1
1
5R
R =
= R 2  2 =
l
36
3 9 4
2
36
l=
5R
For Li + + , n = 3 n = n 32 = 9 v
Hence correct option is (c).
25. Ground state energy of Hatom =  13.6 eV
=4W
3l
l
hc (5  3)
=4W
l
3
2hc
= 4W
3l
( 13.6) eV
z2
n2
13.6 eV 9
13.6 eV =
n2
For Li + + atom En =
3 107
lD
1
=
=
lmin 3 108 10
c
1
1
= RC 2  2
l
n
1
1
1
n = RC  2 z2
12 n
lD
1 eV
=
lmin c 2m
1
=
3 108
v=
l
n
2
(i)
(i)
(ii)
n =3
v12  v22 =
[n1  n2 ]
m
Hence correct option is (b).
27. For Lyman series
1
1
1
=R 2  2
1
l
n
(i)
(ii)
73
For largest wavelength n = 2
1
1
1
=R 2  2
l
2
1
1
1
= R 1 
l
4
l=
3R
For He + atom
1
1
1
1 1
= R ( z)2 2  2 = 4 R  2
2
lHe
n
4 n
3R
1 1
= 4R  2
4 n
4
3
1 1
=  2
16 4 n
4 3
1 1 3
= =
16
n2 4 16
1
1
=
n2 16
le = la = l p Q E1 > E3 > E2
= 27.2 eV
Hence correct option is (b).
33. Here P = 1000 W, n = 880 kHz = 880 103Hz
Let n is the number of photon p emitted
per second
P
1000
n=
=
34
hn 6.62 10 880 103
1
3R
=
( z  1)
l
4
3 1.0973 107
1
=
(92  1)
l
4
4
l=
= 0.15
3 91 91 1.0973 107
= 1.7 1030
Correct option is (b).
34. Here l = 3000 = 3 107 m
Energy of incident radiation E =
Y2 = Y1 + Y3
lp
la
h
2m p eV
and la =
Q ma > m p > me
= 13.6 eV + 13.6 eV
2m p E3
Total energy
n=4
hc
joule
l
E=
hc
(in eV)
l 1.6 1019
E=
6.62 3 1026
= 4.125 eV
3 1.6 1026
2 4mp
2ma
=
= 8 =2 2
mp
mp
74
36. K max = E  W = (6.2  4.2) eV = 2 eV
38. K max =
 1 eV
10
19
3000 10 1.6 10
6.62 1034
= 9.1 1031 v
5200 1010
6.625 1027 ~
v=
 1400 m/s
5.2 9.1 1031
vmax =
JEE Corner
1. Here both assertion and reason are true and
reason explain correctly assertion. Correct
option is (a).
hc
E
2. For photon E =
and p =
l
c
If l is doubled, E and p are reduced to
half. Hence assertion is true. Since speed of
photon is always c. Hence reason is false.
Hence correct option is (c).
3. If frequency is increased keeping intensity
constant photoelectron emitted the plate
reach other plate in less time hence
saturation current can be increased. Reason
can be true or not hence correct option is
(a, b).
4. Here both assertion and reason is true and
reason correctly explain assertion. Hence
correct option is (a).
5. Here assertion is true since possible
transition
are 6 3, 6 4, 6 5, 5 3,
5 4, and 4 3. According to reason total
n( n  1)
6 (3  1)
transition has n = 3
=6
2
2
it may explain or may not explain assertion
Hence correct option is (a, b)
6. We have
eV0 = h[n  n 0 ]
V0 =
h
h
n0  n0
e
e
(i)
E2 > E1
v
2
v is more in n = 2
Here reason is also true but it is not correct
explanation of assertion hence correct
option is (b).
10. Here assertion is false but reason is true.
Hence correct option is (a).
75
1. Fa = Fc
and
GmM mv2
=
r
r2
nh
mvr =
2p
(13.6) z2
and E1 =  13.6 z2
4
E2  E1 = 40.8 eV
1
13.6 Z 2 1  = 40.8
4
Z2 =
 GMm  GMm 4 p m GM
=
2r
2n2 h2
2p2G2 M 2 m 3
for ground state n = 1
E=
n2 h2
2
E=
 2p G M m
n2
and
Z =2
E = KE + PE
E=
408
. 4
Z2 = 4
13.6 3
n2 h2
r= 2 2
4p m GM
1
1 m GM GMm
KE = mv2 =
=
2
2
r
2r
GMm
PE =
r
2
 (13.6)Z2eV
n2
v1 r1 n2 e v1r1
=
n
n
2
2
ev r 2
m2 = 1 1
2
e v1r1
m1 =
1
2
m
m1 = 2
2
1
1
and rn 2
n
n
1
i
1
in 3 2 = 3
i1 2
n
un
i1 = 8 i2
An = pk2 n4
A1 = pk2
An
= n4
A1
76
1.5 1015 6.6 1034
2p
1.6 1019
A
Taking log both sides log n = 4 log n
A1
= 0.98 eV
[Q rn n ]
k
and B1 = k
25
B2
1
1
=
=
B1 25 32
B2 =
B1 = 32 B2
= R 1  2
l
2
1 3R
=
l
4
h
Momentum of photon Pp =
l
2pn3
z2
z2 = 16
z=4
v=
4M
Hence the correct option is (a).
9. Light wave equation is
200 V/m sin (1.5 1015 sec1) t
cos (0.5 1015 sec1) t
1.5 1015
2p
13.6
eV
4
77
E2 =  3.4 eV
z2 =
Pphoton =
But
34
8 1.097 10 6.6 10
9 1837 9.1 1031
v = 4 m/s
Hence correct option is (a).
16. Power = VI = 150 103 10 103 = 1500 W
The 99% power heated the target hence
99
Heating power =
1500 = 15 99 W
100
The rate at which target is heated per sec.
(in cal)
15 99 ~
Q1J = 1 cal
=
 355
4.2
4.2
13.6 eV z2
n2
13.6 eV 2
13.6 eV 2
E3 = z and E4 =
z
9
16
1 1
DE = E4  E3 = (13.6) eV z2 
9 16
17. En = 
13.6 (eV) 22 7
= 32.4 eV
16 9
(i)
(ii)
DE =
6.6 1034
h 8 Rh
=
l
9
v=
z =7
1013 =
1 8R
=
l
9
16 32.4 9
= 49
13.6 7
v
2
= 10.2 eV
2
K = 20.4 eV
78
22. We know that for Hlike atom
lmin =
En =  K n K n = 3.4 eV
h
h
l= =
p
2me K
=
l = 6.6
Hence both options (a) and (b) are correct.
1.1 e =
hc
W
l2
=2V
4 pe 0 r
Since
(i)
(ii)
1
0.5 e = hc 10
l
4950
10
2
hence
V0 = 2
q = 8 pe 0 r coulomb
8 pe 0 r
q
l2 ~
 4111
3.2 103 ~
 4 104 W/m 2
2
4 p (0.8)
23. W = 1.9 eV
Hence correct option is (c).
24. l = 4111
lmin
6.6 1034
6.6 1034
= 2 1.6  19 J
h
h
= =
p
2me K
E1 8.04 108
=
= 1011
E2
8 1019
79
t=
2 8 103
t = 111 s
9 1.6 105
6. Q f = a ( z  b)
hc
if v increases l0 decreases
eV
hence the interval between lKa and l0 as
well as lKb and l0 increases.
1. Since l0 =
Q
hence
VR n and
n
E
Hence, the correct options are (a) and (c).
3. For Bohr model of Hatom
L n, r n2 and T n3
rL
is independent of n
T
L
1
T
2 and n, L n3
T n
r
Hence
3
n=1
f =
1
a
=
( z  b)
l
c
1
versus z is a straight line
l
f = a2 ( z  b)
(b)
(c)
(d)
13.6
eV
n2
13.6
13.6
E2 =
eV =
eV
2
4
2
2. For Hatom En =
80
E2 (He) =
 (13.6) eV 4
=  (13.6) eV
4
But E2 =  K 2 K 2 = (13.6)
and U =  2 K =  2 (13.6) =  2 4 E =  8 E
From Eq. (i)
KE in ground state of He + ion
= (13.6) eV 4
= 4 E 4 = 16E
Ionisation energy from Ist executive state
13.6 eV
= 
4 = 13.6 eV = 4E
4
3. K max
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
h
W
= hn  W and V0 = n e
e
1
1
1
= R 2  2 n = 3, 4, 5
lB
n
2
For 2nd line n = 4 and lB = l
1 1 1
= R
l 4 16
16
l=
3R
1
1
1
=R 2  2
lB
3
2
1
lB =
lB
(a) p
R (25  4) 21R
1
1
1
=R 2  2 =
=
lB
25 4
100
5
2
3
lB =
3
Slope of line 1 is h, Y1 = W
h
W
Slope of line 2 is , Y2 =
e
e
Hence correct match are
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2pr
z
n2
4. T =
Qr
U
v
z
n
n3
z2
Q
Q
Q
1
1
1
=R 2  2
lL
2
1
1
L n (b) s
z
V (c) s
n
5. Balmer series is
4
3R
5
l
(c) q
=
=
16 4
l
1
1
8R
= R 1  =
lL
9
9
lL =
1
n2
(d) q
R
z
100
100
=
21 R 21 16
3l
100 3 l 25l
=
=
21 16
28
(b) ( s)
lL
( a) r
36 3 l
36
36
=
=
16
5R 5
16 5
3l
27
=
l
20
lL =
2
9 3 l 27 l
9
9
=
=
=
8 R 8 16 16 8 128
3l
(d) s
81
6. The proper match are
(a) s
Q Xray is inverse process of photoelectric
effect [high energy electrons convert in
electromagnetic radiation]
(b) p
Q
lc
1
(c) q
V
e
e
If W is decreased (KE) max and stopping
potential increased
(d) p, r
Modern Physics II
Introductory Exercise 30.1
1. R0 = lN 0 = 8000 Bq
l=
0.223
4 3600
R1 = lN = 1000 Bq
R1 1
N
= =
= e lt log 8 = lt
R0 8 N 0
log 2
3 log 2 =
9
T1/2
9
= = 3 days
3
T1/2
= 3.7 108 Bq
R0 = lN 0
N0 =
40 64.8 3.7 10
0.693
= 13.83 107
Now,
3.7 108
R
N0 = 0 =
l 1.55 105
= 2.39 1013 (atoms)
T1/2
l = 1.55 105 /s
0.693
0.693
=
=
= 12.4 h
l
1.55 105
N = N0 e
(c) R = R0 e lt
= 10 mCi e
 0.693 10
N10 = N 0 e
64.8
 0.693 10
= 13.83 107 e
64.8
 0.693 12
64.8
9.47 10 nuclei
R0 = 10 mCi, R = 8 mCi
log
10
= l 4 3600
8
= 1.87 mCi
T1/2
R0 6 1011Bq
=
N0
1015
= 6 104 /s
0.693
0.693
=
=
= 1.16 103s
l
6 104
5. N x = N y = N 0
T1/2 x = 50 min and T1/ 2 y = 100 min
 e 64.8
e 64.8
3. (a)
0.693
30
12.4
4. R0 = lN 0
l=
 lt
R0
= e lt
R
1
1
N
N x = ( N 0 ) = N 0 = 0
16
2
2
n
1
1
N
N y = N 0 = N 0 = 0
2
2
4
N0
Nx
1
= 16 =
N y N0 4
4
83
 4.002602) u
DE = DMc
DM =
DM = 0.0004589 u
Here,
109 24 60
= 9.6 104 kg
(3 108 )2
DE = DM 931.5 MeV
= 0.0004589 931.5
2. Number of fission =
10 J/s
200 106 1.6 1019
= 4.27 MeV
4. Complete reactions are
(a) 3Li 6 + 1H2 4Be 7 + 0 n1
19
= 3.125 10
3. Given reaction is
238
92 U
90 Th234 + 2He4
DM = (238.050784  234.043593
(d)
35 Br
79
AIEEE Corner
Radioactivity
1. (a) Initially the rate of distingration is
dN

= lN 0
dt 0
 dN
After 5 min
= lN
dt
dN
N 0 dt 0 4750
=
=
= 1.76
dN
N
2700
dt
N
log
N0
Now N = N 0 e lt or l = t
2.3026
N0
l=
log10
t
N
2.3026
=
log10 (1.76)
5
l = 0.113 /min
0.693 0.693
(b) Halflife =
=
= 6.132 min
l
0.113
2. We have A = lN
6 1011 = l 1 1015
l = 6 104 s 1
0.693
0.693
T1/2 =
=
= 1155 s
l
6 104
= 19.25 min
3. A = lN
A = 8 Ci = 8 3.7 1010 decay/s
0.693 0.693
l=
=
T1/2
5.3 yr
=
0.693
5.3 365 24 60 60 s
N=
=
A
l
N = 7.2 1019
84
6.023 1023 nuclei = 60 g
60 g
1=
6.023 1023
Hence 7.2 1019 nuclei
=
60 7.2 1019
= 7.11 103 g
6.023 1023
6 1023
0.693
238
4.5 109 365 24 60 60 s
 lt
P = (1  e
) = (1  e
 5/10
 t/ T mean
) =1  e
2
= 0.39
( R2 ) tP
R = ( R1) tP
It means
Hence
7. ( R1) 0 P
32
( R2 ) 0 P
33
238
1
of original U nuclei decays.
4
N = N 0 e  lt
N
l
N0  0 = N0 e
4
( R1) tP
32
+ ( R2 ) tP
33
log 2
60 365
e 14
32
+ l2 e
log 2
60 365
25
log 2 60 365
log 2
60 365
14
4 l1 e
+ l2 e 25
3 mCi
=
4 log 2 log 2
+
14
25
log 2
4 log 2  log 2 60 365 log 2
60 365
14
e
+
e 25
25
14
0.205 mCi
8. Complete reactions are
226
a + 86RN222
88 Ra
(b) 8 O19 9F19 + e + n
(c) 13 Al25 12Mg25 + e+ + n
(a)
t = 1.88 109 yr
931.5 MeV
DE = 104.72 MeV
= (8 1.007825 + 8 1008665
.
 15.994915)
931.5 = 127.6 MeV
= l1 4 N 0
= l2 N 0
32
+ ( R2 ) 0 P
= l1 N = l1 4 N 0 e l1 t
= l1 4 N 0 e
6.023 1023
1
235
Energy
33
= N 0 ( 4 l1 + l2 ) = 3 mCi
32
log 2
60 365
25
3
= e  lt
4
log 4  log 3
t=
l
(log 4  log 3)
t=
4.5 109 yr
0.693
R0 = ( R1) 0 P
( R1) tP
= N 0 4l1
3 mCi
=
( 4 l1 + l2 )
206
33
= l2 N 0 e
log 2
60 365
14
6.023 1023
200 106 1.6 1019
235
= 8.09 1013 J
85
(b) Mass =
8.09 1013 J
30 103 J/g
13
8.09 10
g
30 103
8.09
1
=
109 3 kg
3
10
= 2.7 106 kg
13. Applying conservation of momentum
M a va = M TivTi
M v
vTi = a a
M Ti
Ka =
K Ti =
DM = 17.57 MeV
1
1
M v2 =
2 Ti Ti 2
K Ti
M 2 vL
M Ti a2 a
M Ti
1 M v2
a a
2
4
6.802 MeV
208
1
=
6.802 = 0.1308 MeV
52
14. Power = 100 MW = 108 W = 108 J/s
8
Number of nuclei in 1 kg
6.023 1026
U235 =
235
Hence t =
= 8.78 days
15. (a) The given reaction is
2
1H
He4 + He4 Be 8
DM = (2 4.0026  8.0053) u
= (8.0052  8.0053) u
Q DM is negative this reaction is not
energetically favourable
DE = DM 931.5
=  1 104 931.5 MeV
=  93.15 keV
21
10
10 MeV
=
1.6 s
1.6 1013 J/MeV
DM =  (0.0001) u
1
M a v2a = 6.802 MeV
2
M
= a
M Ti
DM = 3.25 MeV
18
100
6.023 1.5
=
1022
18
Heavy water =
+ 1H2 1H 3 + 1H1
6.023 1026
18
86
1
1
1
But N = N 0 N 0 = N 0
8
2
2
90
200
80 Y
168
38 Sr
94
+ 3 ( 0 n1)
n =3
3 T1/2 = 8 s
8
T1/2 = s
3
l
1
l
1
l
N0
e
1
But N = N 0
2
1 1
= n = 3
8 2
15 min
= 5 min
3
A=
A0
20
A
1
=
A0 20
But
1
= e  lt
20
log 20
log 20 = lt t =
l
A = A0 e  l t
87
But l =
log e 2
T1/ 2
t = T1/2
log e 20
log10 20
= T1/ 2
= 4.32 4
log e 2
log10 2
t = 17.3 days
Hence correct option is (c).
11. Total energy released per sec
= 1.6 MW = 1.6 106 J/s
Energy released per fission= 200 MeV
6
19
= 200 10 1.6 10
11
= 2 1.6 10
1.6 106
= 5 1016 /s
2 1.6 1011
N
=e
N0
1/ 3
4
4
= pR 3 = pR03 A
3
3
r=
4
pR03
3
Qr is independent of A, hence ratio of
r
densities 1 = 1.
r2
N
= e lt
N0
0. 693
10
6. 93
= e 1 =
1
e
Fractional change
N N
1
= 0
= 1  ~
 063
.
N0
e
N = N 0 e lt
13.
We have
1
N = ( N 0 )
2
1 1
= n = 4
16 2
N e  lt
N
= 0
= e  lt
N0
N0
l
1
l
1
l
= e 1 =
1
e
88
5. Here assertion is wrong since bdecay
process is n p + e + v
t=t
we get
dN
=  l N i e  lt = N 0
dt t = t
At
(i)
l=
20
Now
 t log 2
t = 4t
N
dN
=  l N i e 4 lt = 0
16
dt t = 4 t
(ii)
(iii)
dN
=  lN i e
dt t = 11t
 11l
2
 8 lt
=  lN i e
 l N i e 4 lt
e
3lt
 3lt
e
=
N0
= N 0 e 20
4
t
log 4 =
log 2
20
t
2 log 2 =
log 2
20
t = 40 yr
N = N 0 e  lt
N0
16 16
89
The reaction is W X + Y
The energy released is
( E3 N 3 + E2 N2  E1 N1)
8. By conservation of momentum
M H v = ( M H + M H ) n
v
v =
2
Energy
= (4 7  2 1.1) MeV
= (28  4.4) = 23.6 MeV
16 106
= 1018 /s
1.6 1011
N=
=
=
l log 2 log 2
T
Hence correct option is (d).
= E2  E1 =
+ 13.6 eV
2
4
= 10.2 eV
2
1
M u2 = 2 10.2 1.2 1.6 1019
2 H
uH =
(i)
A0
1
A
or t = log 0
A
l
A
Now A0 = 15 decay/min/gram
375
decay/min/g
A=
200
0.693
but
l=
5730 yr
90
15 200 5730
5730
200
log
=
log
0.693
375
0.693
25
5730
t=
log 8
0.693
5730
=
3 log 2 = 5730 3
0.693
t=
t=
1.29 1028
s 1012 s.
1016
12. N1 = N 0 e
 l1 t
(i)
N Q = N 0 e  lt
and
Now
AP = lN P and A Q = lN Q
AP
N
= P = e lt1
AQ N Q
AQ
lt1 = log
A
P
AQ
A
1
= T log Q
t1 = log
A
l
AP
P
and
(i)
31H2 2He4 + n + p
(ii)
R1 = l1 N1
(iii)
R2 = l2 = l2 N2
(iv)
l1 N1
=1
l2 N2
t 2  t1
t
t1 t 2
log 2
l1 N2
=
=e
l2 N1
log
t t
t2
= t log 2 2 1
t1
t1t2
t1 =
+ 1H2 1H 3 + p
+ 1H 3 2He4 + n
t2
=1
R1
N2 = N 0 e l2 t = N 0 e
t1
 log 2
t = 17190 yr
= N0 e
t1t2
t
log 2
0.693 ( t2  t1)
t1
X 232
X 232 90 Y A + a
90 Y
+ 2He4
Z = 92 and A = 228
Dm = 0.026 amu
Mass defect
Energy Released
= 0.026 931 MeV = 3.87 1012 J
This energy produced by the three
deutronatoms. Total energy released by
40
10
deutrons
1040
3.87 1012 J = 1.29 1028 J
3
M Y vY = M a va
M
vY = a va
MY
KT =
1
M 2a v2a
2
M a va + M y
2
M 2Y
91
Ma
1 +
M
Y
4
K T = K a 1 +
228
232
Ka =
K
228 T
KT =
1
M a v2a
2
19
= 7 10 1.6 10
13
= 11.2 10
Momentum of photon =
=
J
11.2 1013 J
3 108 m/s
K nuc =
K nucc =
2m
42
11.2 11.2 10
Joule
9 2 24 1.66 1027
11.2 112
. 1042
eV
18 24 1.66 1027 1.6 1019
1.1 keV
Hence correct option is (b).
15. Let time interval between two instants is t1
then
N1 = N 0 e l (t + t1 )
t1 =
A
1
log 2
l
2 A1
t1 =
A
T
log 2
log 2
2 A1
2
1H
+ 1H2 1H 3 + 1H1
2
Pnuc
= 2mK nuc
2
Pnuc
A
log 2 = lt1
2 A1
= 4 MeV
= 24 1.66 1027 kg
11.2
1021 kgm/s
3
2 A1
= e lt1
A2
= 4.33 103amu
P nuc= P photon
Pnuc =
A2 = N2 l = l (2 N 0 ) e lt
A1 1
= e lt1
A2 2
N2 = 2 N 0 e lt
A1 = N1l = lN 0 e l (t + t1 )
11.2
1021 kgm/s
3
and
1 103 3600
4 106 1.6 1019
36 1018
= 5.6 1018 1018
6.4
92
=
36 105
18
=
1018
2 1.6 1013 1.6
18 1018
= 3.7 105 kg.
1.6 6.02 1023
1. x = N 0 , y = lN 0
x
N0
1
=
=
y lN 0 l
x 1
1
T
= =
=
y l 0.693 0.693
T
x
> T, xy = l( N 0 )2
y
N0
2
( xy) T
1
N
N x = N 0 = 0
2
16
lN 20 xy
N
= l 0 =
=
4
4
2
1
N
N y = N 0 = 0
4
2
N /16 1
N
x= x = 0
=
Ny
N 0 /4 4
= T
R y l y N y 0.693 4
2T
Rx
1
=y=
Ry
2
A 1.67 1027 kg
M
=
4
4/3 pR 3
pR03 A
3
r is independent of A.
But r =
1.67 1027 kg
4
3.14 (1.3 1015 ) 3
3
93
=y
t=0
y = lx e 0 = lx
y
l=
x
(a) p
Similerly for reaction
Hence
P + P + RR
(a) s
Correct match is
log 2 log 2 x
=
= log 2
y
l
y
x
for reaction
P + R = 2Q from graph BE per nucleon
increases.
Hence
(b) p
We have activity R = lN = l xe lt
1
at t =
l
R = lx
1
l
l
e
= l x e 1 =
lx
e
but lx = y
y
R=
e
Hence
(c) r
1
Number of nuclei after time t =
l
N =xe
(b) p
l
1
l
x
e
Hence
(d) s
Thus correct match is
(b) r
(c) r
(c) p
(d) s
(a) s
94
(d) s
4. After emission of 1 a particle mass no
decreased by 4 but after emission of 1b
particle atomic number will increase or
decrease by 1. Hence for (a)
(a) p
Since BE per nucleon of heavy nuclei is
about 7.2 MeV. Hence
(b) s
(b) p, r
(c) s
(c) r
(d) q, r
(a) p, s
5. For
(d) q
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