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# Solutions

of

Optics &
Modern Physics

By DC Pandey

## 26. Reflection of Light

Introductory Exercise 26.1
1
where c is the speed of light
m 0 e0
1
in vacuum hence unit of
is m/s.
m 0 e0

1. Since c =

2. Hence
-7

11

## By = 2 10 T sin [500x + 1.5 10 t ]

Comparing this equation with the standard
wave eqution By = B0 sin [ kx + w t ]
2p
k = 500 m -1 k =
l
2p
m

l=
k
2p
p
m=
metre

l=
500
250

2 pn = 1.5 1011
1.5
n=
1011 Hz
2p

## Speed of the wave v =

w 1.5 1011
=
k
500

= 3 108 m/s
Let E0 be the amplitude of electric field.
Then E0 = cB0 = 3 108 2 10-7
= 60 V/m
Since wave is propagating along x-axis and
B along y-axis, hence E must be along z-axis
E = 60 V/m sin [500x + 1.5 1011 t ]

## Introductory Exercise 26.2

1. Total deviation produced

From figure
q = 90 - i

i
i
90
90

d = 360 - 2 [ i + 90 - i]
= 180

180

2
i

N1

90

q q

## 2. v0 = 2 m/s for plane mirror vi = 2 m/s.

1802q

N2

d = 180 - 2 i + 180 - 2q
d = 360 - 2( i + q)

## Velocity of approach = v0 + vi = 4 m/s.

3. In figure, AB is mirror, G is ground, CD is
pole and M is the man. The minimum height
to see the image of top of pole is = EN

8m

L'
q

tan f =

A
q

N1

2m

f
f

B
C' 6 m

f = 45
So, NK = 4 tan 45 = 4 m
Hence in minimum height
= 6 m + 4 m = 10 m
In

DAC C

pole
=4m
E

2m

tan q =
2m

= EK + KN = 6 + KN
Now in DNKB,
NK
= tan f NK = KB tan f
KB

4
=2
2

In DL LA we get,
LL
= tan q
LA
LL

=2
4
LL = 8 m

= 4 tan f

BC 2
= =1
CC 2

Maximum height = CA + LL = 8 + 8 = 16 m

In DBC C we get,

## Introductory Exercise 26.3

1. Here f = - 10 cm (concave mirror)
(a) u = - 25 cm
Using mirror formula,
1 1 1
+ =
v u f

1 1 1
1
1
= - =+
v f u
10 25
1 -5 + 2
=
v
50
50
v== - 167
. cm
3

## Hence image is real, inverted and less

height of the object.
(b) Since u = - 10 cm,
Hence object is situated on focus of the
image formed at .
(c) u - 5, f = - 10
1 1 1
1 1
= - =+
v f u
10 5

1 -1 + 2
=
v
10

v = 10 cm

## Hence, image is virtual, erect and two time

of the object.
1
2. Here u = - 3 m, f = - m,
2
we have,
1 1 1
(a) = v f u

1
1
= -2 +
v
3

v = - 0.6 m

## As ball moves towards focus the image

moves towards - and image is real as the
distance decreases by focal length image
become virtual which moves from + to
zero.
(b) The image of the ball coincide with ball,
when u = - R = - 1 m

3
Using h = ut +

t=

1 2
gt
2

## 4. Since the incident rays and reflected rays

are parallel to each other therefore mirror is
plane mirror.

2 2
2h
=
g
9.8

## 5. Let us solve the first case :

= 0.639 s
Similarly again images match at t = 0.78 s.
3. Since image is magnified, hence the mirror
is concave.
-v
-v
Here,
m=

=5
u
u
v = -5u

q M
q

q
A

a
a

a
A'

40 cm

(ii)

- (5 + x) = - 5x
4x = 5

x = 1.25

## Hence mirror is placed at 1.25 m on right

side of the object by mirror formula
1 1 1
+ = ,
v u f
we have
1
1
1
=f
6.25 1.25

f =

- 6.25
,
6

Hence R = 2 f R = -

20 cm

from mirror

q
F

(i)

v = - (5 + x)

2q

20 cm

## By applying the geometry we can prove that,

40
PA = v =
cm
3
Further, in triangles ABP and PA B we
have,
AB
A B
=
40 ( 40/ 3)
\

## Thus mirror is concave mirror of radius of

curvature 2.08 m.

AB 2
= cm
3
3

## Similary, we can solve other parts also.

6. Simply apply :
1 1 1
= =
v u f
I -v
for lateral magnification. If
=
o u
magnitfication is positive, image will be
virtual. If magnification is negative, image
will be real.
and m =

6.25
= - 2.08 m
3

A B =

AIEEE Corner

## Subjective Questions (Level 1)

Hence the images distance are 2 nb, where
n = 1, 2, K . Ans.

## 1. Here v = 39.2 cm, hence v = - 39.2 cm

and magnification m = 1
hi = ho = 4.85

## Hence image is formed at 39.2 cm behind

the mirror and height of image is = 4.85 cm.

## 5. Suppose mirror is rotated at angle q about

its axis perpendicular to both the incident
ray and normal as shown in figure
y

N

Mirror

15

Incident ray

90
1 50

Reflacted ray

q
(a)

Horizontal
15

15
IV

## Let reflected ray makes an angle q with the

horizontal, then

iq q iq

q + 15 + 15 = 90 q = 60
A

3.

R'
i2q

q
(b)
O'

1o cm

30 cm
50 cm

## In figure (b) I remain unchanged N and R

shift to N and R.

50 cm
B

O'''

1o cm

O''

30 cm

O'''

70 cm

40 cm

## Since mirror are parallel to each other

image are formed the distance of five closet
to object are 20 cm, 60 cm, 80 cm, 100 cm and
140 cm.

## Thus, reflected ray has been rotated by

angle 2q.
6. I is incident ray i = 30 = r

## 4. The distance of the object from images are

2b, 4 b, 6b..... etc.

30

30

1.6m

2b

20 cm
R

O'''

O''

O'

O'''

I
A'

4b

4b

From D PA A, we get
B

B'

5
x
= tan 30 x = 20 tan 30
20
160 cm
AB
No. of reflection =
=
x
20 cm tan 30
= 8 3 14
Hence the reflected ray reach other end
after 14 reflections.
7. The deviation produced by mirror M1 is
= 180 - 2 a
M1
Z'
I1
a
1802a
R2
90a a
R1 f f
90f
1802q
q
A

## and the deviation produced by mirror M2 is

= 180 - 2
Hence total deviation
= 180 - 2a + 180 - 2f
= 360 - 2 ( a + f)

1 1 1
= v f u

- 165 + 11
1
1
1
=+
=
v
11 16.5 16.5 11

v=-

## Hence size of image is hi = 2 h0

= 2 6 = 12 mm.
R
9. Here u = - 12 cm, f = + = + 10 cm
2
Using mirror formula
1 1 1
+ =
v u f
we get
1 1 1 1
1
= - =
+
v f u 10 12

90 - a + q + 90 - f = 180

Object height h0 = 6 mm
u = - 16.5 cm
(a) The ray diagram is shown in figure
B

## The image is formed on right side of the

60
vertex at a distance
cm. the image is
11
virtual and erect the absolute magnification
v
is given by |m|=
u

A'
A

B' u = 16.5 cm

6+5
60
60
cm = 5.46 cm
v=
11
=

a + f=q

## Hence deviation produces = 180 - 2q.

R
22
8. Here f = - = = - 11 cm
2
2

16.5 11
= - 33 cm
5.5

## Hence the image is formed at 33 cm from the

pole (vertex) of mirror on the object side the
image is real, inverted and magnified. The
absolute magnification
v
33
|m|= =
=2
u 16.5

In D ABC we get,

1 1 1
+ =
v u f

5
60
=
|m|=
11 ( - 12) 11
m <1

## Hence image is de-magnified.

Height of image hi =|m| h0

6
hi =

5
45
9=
= 4.09 mm
11
11

## The ray diagram is shown in figure

B

B'

A 12 cm
(O)

A'
5/11cm

10. Here f = - 18 cm
Let distance of object from vertex of concave
mirror is u. Since image is real hence image
and object lie left side of the vertex.
v 1
Magnification m = - =
u 9
u

v=9
1 1 1
By mirror formula, + = , we have
v u f
-

1
1
1
10
1
- ==u/9 u
18
u
18

## u = 180 cm (left side of the vertex).

11. Here u = - 30 cm, since image is inverted.
Hence the mirror is concave.
1 -v
u
m= =
v=2 u
2
1 1 1
Using mirror formula, + = , we get
v u f

-3 1
2 1 1

=
- =
u
f
u u f

v =3 u

v = 3u and v is +ve

By mirror formula,
1 1 1
1 1 1
+ =
- v u f
3u u 12
1 -3
1

= u = 8 cm
3u
12
(b) Since image is real
v

m = - = 3 v = - 3u
u
1 1 1
By using + = , we get
v u f
-4
1 1
1
1

=- - =3u
12
e u
12
u = 16 cm
-v 1
u
(c) Here m =
= v=m 3
3
1
1
1

- =u/3 u
12

4
1
u = 48 cm
=u
12
1 1 1
13. We have + =
v u f

v=

v

v = mu
m=
u

uf
at u = f , v =
u-f

v(m)
0.5
0.25
u(m)

u
30
f =- == - 10 cm
3
3

## Hence mirror is concave of focal length

10 cm.
24
12. Here f = cm = - 12 cm
2

0.25

0.5

## Hence focal length if assymtote of the curve.

When u < f , Image is virtual. It means v is
negative.
When

u = 2f
v = 2f
u 0, v 0

7
14. Here f = 21 cm R = 2 f = 42 cm
Since the object is placed on C. Hence its
image by concave mirror is formed on C. This
image acts as a virtual objet for plane mirror
the distance between plane mirror and
virtual object = 21 cm.
Hence plane mirror forms its real image in
front of plane mirror at 12 cm.
15. Let u is the object distance from vertex, v is
the image distance for vertex and f is the
focal length then distance between object
and focus is u - f and distance between
image and focus is v - f ie,
(u - f ) (v - f ) = uv - (u + v) f + f 2
1 1 1
Using
+ + , we get
v u f

(i)

## For concave mirror

2R2 + 5xR

xR
u = - 2R +
=

2x + R

2x + R
R
v = - (2R - x) and f = 2
1 1 1
Using +
= , we get
v u f

(2x + R)
1
2
(2R - x) (2R2 + 5xR) R

4 R 3 - 2x2 R + 8 xR2
= 8 R 3 + 16xR2 - 10x2 R

## Putting the value of uv in RHS of Eq. (i), we

get

4 R 3 + 8 xR2 - 8 x2 R = 0

(u - f )(u - f ) = (v + u) f - (v + u) f + f 2

4 R[ R2 + 2xR - 2x2 ] = 0

(u - f )(v - f ) = f 2

2x2 - 2xR - R2 = 0

R0

x=

1 + 3
R
x =

Hence proved.
16. Let object is placed at a distance x from the
convex mirror then for convex mirror
R
u - x and f = +
2

1 1 2
xR
v=
- =
v x 12
2x + R

(ii)

uv = (u + v) f

## Let v be the distance of the image from pole

(vertex) of convex mirror.
1 1 1
Using
+ = , we get
v u f

2R 2 3 R [1 3 ]
=
R
4
2

## 1. When convergent beam incident on a plane

mirror, then mirror forms real image
Plane mirror

## 2. When an object lies at the focus of a concave

mirror u = - f focal length of a concave
mirror is negative.
Using mirror formula
1 1 1
+ =
v u f
we get,

Virtual object

1 1
1
- =- v=
v f
f

8
also magnification m = -

v
= .
u

6. From figure
1

## Hence, correct option is (c) , .

3. Total deviation, d = d1 + d2

q
q

q
9 0

q
q

N1

70

180 2q

70
20 + q

a a

1802a

20 + q = 70
q = 70 - 20

N2

q = 50

= 180 - 2q + 180 - 2a
but

a = 90 - q

other.

d = 180

## Hence, option (a) is correct.

4. A concave mirror cannot from a virtual
image of a virtual object.
Hence option (a) is correct.
5. For a concave mirror for normal sign
convention if u = - f v =
and

at u = - , v = - f
graph between u and v is
v

R = + 60 cm.
R
Its focal length f = = + 30 cm
2
v 1
Magnification m = =
u 2
u

v=
2
1 1 1
Using mirror formula, + = ,
v u f
1
1 1
- =
u / 2 u 30

we get,

-3 1
=
u
30

u = - 90 cm
u
v = = - 45 cm
2

## Hence distance between A and B is

= 90 - 45
The dotted lines are the asymptotes
(tangent at ) of the curve.
Hence correct option is (b).

= 45 cm
Hence the correct option is (c).

9
8. Here it is given that height of the boy
HF = 1.5 m
H

1 1 1
+ =
v u f

0.1 m C
E

Mirror

1.5m

1 1 1
- =
3u u f

-3u
4
- 3 40
f =
= - 30 cm
2
f =

F

## Length of mirror = AB = 0.75 m

The ray diagram is shown in above figure.
H is the Head of the boy and F is the feet. It
also shows the paths of the rays that leaves
the head of the man enter his eyes (E). After
reflection from the mirror at point A, and
the rays that leave his feet and enter his
eyes after reflected at point B.
1
From figure CE = HE = 0.05 m
2
CF = HF - HC = HF = CE
= 1.50 - 0.05 = 1.45 m

## Correct option is (a).

1
v
10. Here m = + = n
u
u

v=n

we get,
1
1
1
=
+
f ( - u / n) u

## = 1.45 - 0.75 = 0.7 m

But according to question BD = 0.8 m (given)
which is greater than 0.7 m, the height
required to see full image. Hence the boy
cannot see his feet.
Option (c) is correct
9. Since the image is magnified hence mirror is
concave mirror.
v
Here
m = - = 3 v = - 3u
u

but

|v|=|- 3u|= 3u
|v - u|= 80
|3u - u|= 80 u = 40 cm'

u = - ( n - 1) f

## Hence the correct option is (d).

11. Differentiating mirror formula, we get
dv v2 du
=
dt u2 dt

## The distance of the bottom edge of mirror

above the floor is
BP = KF = CF - KC = CD - AB

1 1 1
= + ,
f v u

[Q here

du
is ve]
dt

## Using mirror formula

1 1 1
+ = ,
v u f
we get
Here

1 1 1
= v f u
u = - 60 cm, f = - 24 cm

Hence,

dv 402
=
9 = 4 cm/s
dt 602

## Hence the speed of the image is 4 cm/s

away from the mirror.
Hence correct option is (c).
12. The wrong statement is (d)

10
vop = 2 [vm + vp ] - vo

## 13. Let vm is the speed of mirror, vp is the speed

of particle and v p is the speed of the
observer, then speed of the image measured
by observer is given by

vop = 2 [10 + 4 ] - 2

= 28 - 2 = 26 cm/s
Hence correct option is (d).

## Assertion and Reason

It never makes real image of real object
reason is also true but convex mirror is used
because since its field of view is greatest.
Hence both assertion and reason are true
but reason is not correct explanation of

## 1. Assertion is wrong since when a virtual

object is placed at a distance less than the
focal length its real image is formed.
2. Using mirror formula

1 1 1
we get
+ =
v u f

1 1
1
v = 10 cm
=
v 20 20

## 5. Since m = - 2 hence it is definitely a concave

mirror since only concave mirror form
magnified image. Since concave mirror form
only real image of real object hence reason is
also true. Hence it may true but when object
is placed between C and F , m < 1.

v 1
ie image is virtual exect and since m = = .
u 2
Hence image is diminished, thus assertion
is true.
If u = + 20 cm for virtual object v = hence
reason is true but reason is not correct
explanation of assertion. Hence answer is (b).
1 1 1
3. Using mirror formula
we get
+ =
v u f
1 1 1
= v f u

6.

i
i
d = 180 2i
Reflected ray

## If u is front of mirror u is negative and f is

negative for concave mirror.
1
1 1
uf

=- + v=
v
f u
f -u

## Hence assertion is true.

For normal incidence i = 0 hence d = 180.
hence assertion is true but reason is false.
hence correct option is (c).

u f v

## Hence assertion is true also in refractive

image and object moves in opposite
direction. Hence both assertion and reason
are true and reason correctly explain the
4. Real view mirror of vehicles is convex
mirror, hence assertion is true.

Incident ray

7.
i
i
r r

M2

M1

11
Deviation produced by M1 = 180 - 2i
Deviation produced by M2 = 180 - 2 r

## Hence assertion is true but reason is false.

Correct option is (c).

## But from figure i + r = 90, hence deviation

= 180 for any value of i.

## 9. The correct option is (a, b).

10. The correct option is (b).

## Objective Questions (Level 2)

AB = 2MB - SA = 2x tan f - SA

1. vmax = w A

= 2x tan f - 2x tan q
60

k
A
m
k
for SHM
w2 =
m

## Q Length of mirror is constant.

Hence the correct option is (d).

## Maximum speed of insect relative to its

image
= 2 vmax ^ = 2 vmax sin 60
k
m

=A 3

AB = 2 L,

## where SM - SN = L = Length of mirror

d
d

[ AB] = (2L) = 0
dt
dt

vmax =

AB = 2x [tan f - tan q ]
SM SN
= 2x
= 2 [ SM - SN ]
x
x

3. Here u = - 10 cm and v = - 20 cm
Using mirror formula
1 1 1
dv du
+ = we get = 2 - 2 = 0
u v f
v
u

dv
v2
202
=- 2 =- 2 =-4
du
u
10

2. aun = g

dv = - 4 du

Height = x

dv = 0.4 cm,

L
q q
S

q q

## Let after time t paperndicular distance

between mirror and source is x we have
from figure
AB = AM + MB = SM - SA + MB
but SM = MB

## Hence the correct option is (a).

4. The first and second images are shown in
figure but according to question
L1

L2

(3x)
3x

I
x
6x

II

12
(6 - x) - x = 4

2 = 2x x = 1 m

dv = 2 du,

## Hence the correct option is (c).

1 1
1
5. For vertical part + =20 v
5

B
2 mm

10 cm
P
F

20 cm

v=-

20
3

dv = 2 4 mm dv = 8 mm

## Hence the correct option is (c).

7. If the mirror is rotated by an angle q in
anticlock, wise direction about an axis ^ to
the plane mirror, the new angle of incidence
becomes i - q and angle of reflection also
i - 2q.
According to problem

v 20 / 3
= 1
|mv|= =
u 20 3

10
cm
Lv =
3

## For horizontal part first end is at C hence

its image is also at C ie at v = - 10 cm, for
other end
1
1
1
20
+ =- v=-20 v
5
3
20

|v|=
3
20
10
LH =|v - u|=
- 10 =
3
3
10

LH =
3
The ratio LV : LH = 1 : 1.
Hence correct option is (c) 1 : 1.

i + i - 2q = 45
2i = 45 + 2q = 45 + 2 20 = 85
But angle of incidence = angle of reflection.
Hence the angle between origial incident
and reflected ray was 85. Similarly is the
mirror is rotated clockwise the angle became
5.
Hence correct option is (c) 85 or 5.
8. The person see his hair if the incident ray
statics from point A after reflected by mirror
reach his eyes. Let O is point at minimum at
a distance x below the point A.
A
x

We get,

1 1 1
+ =
v u f

v = - 30 cm
v (v2 - v1)
We have m =
=
m u2 - u1

q
q

Person 170 cm E
164

6. Here u = - 15 cm, f = - 10 cm
Using

2 mm

AB = du = 4 mm

20 cm

dv
=2
du

P
B

We have 2x = 60 cm x = 3 cm
The distance of O from P is
= 170 - 3 = 167 cm
Hence correct option is (a).

13
v|| = v sin 37 and v^ = v cos 37

9. Acceleration of block
A
M

C
O

y
N

## vx = v cos 37 sin 37 + v sin 37 cos 37

= 2 v cos 37 sin 37
4 3 24
vx = 2 5 =
= 4.8
5 5 5

2m

3m

a AB =

3 mg
3g
=
3m + m 4

v y = v cos 37 cos 37
- v sin 37 sin 37

Acceleration of block CD :
2mg
2g
aCD =
=
2m + m 3
Since the accelerations are in opposite
directions relative acceleration of one image
with respect to other is given by
3 g 2 g 17 g
a AB + aCD =
+
=
4
13
12
Hence the correct option is (c).
BD
10. Here
= tan 30
0.2

0.2 m

## Hence velocity of image is given by

v = vx ^i + v y ^j

v = 4.8 ^i + 1.4 ^j

## Hence the correct option is (c).

23
B

v y = v [cos2 37 - sin2 37 ]
4 3 4 3
= 5 + -
5 5 5 5
7 1 7
= 5 = = 1.4
5 5 5

## 12. Since elevator start falling freely, the

relative acceleration of the particle in
elevator frame = g - g = 0

30 30

u = 2 m/s

BD = 0.2

No. of reflections =

1
3

q = 45

2 3
= 30
0.2 / 3

## Hence, the correct option is (b).

11. Resolving velocity along parallel to mirror
and perpendicular to mirror, we get
v cos 37

37
37
37

x
v sin 37

## Hence, in elevator frame path of the

particle is a straight line.
The vertical component of velocity is
1
u sin 45 = 2
= 1 m/s
2
The separation between mirror and
particle in 0.5 s is
y = v y t = 1 0.5 = 0.5 m

14
The separation between image of particle
and particle at this moment

## 16. There are two mistakes one in ray (1) and

other in ray (3).

= 2 y = 2 0.5 m = 1 m

## 13. Here velocity of mirror

v m = 4 ^i + 4 ^j + 8 k
and velocity of object

vo

^

=3 i + 4 j + 5 k

## Since k is normal to the mirror hence ^i and ^j

components of image velocity remain
unchanged ie, velocity of image can be
written as

v i = 3 ^i + 4 ^j + viz k
but

shown as
M2

20 cm

10 cm

45

## viz = 2 umz - voz = 2 8 - 5 = 11

45

Hence, we get

v i = 3 ^i + 4 ^j + 11 k (wrt ground)
Hence, the correct option is (b).
\$
3 i\$ + 4 \$j + 11k

10
= sin 45
x

## The x-coordinate is 10 2 cos 45 = 10

and y-coordinate is - 10 2 sin 45 = - 10

## 14. Only option (b) satisfy the given condition.

Here X 0 = - 2, X i = + 10
1
1
1
Using
+
=
X0
Xi f
we get
1 1 1
- =
10 2 f

f = - 2.5 cm

## Hence, the mirror is concave.

fy0
We know that yi =
f - x0
=

- 2.5 1
= 5 cm
- 2.5 + 2

x = 10 2

x
45
10

45 10 2 cos 45
45
10 2 sin 45
10 2
x

## Hence, the convert option if (c), (10, - 10).

- 10 10
fx0
18. xi =
=
= + 5 cm
x0 - f - 10 - 10
For concave mirror f = - 10 cm.
- 10 - 20
fy0
cm
yi =
=
f - x0
- 10 - 10
= + 10 cm
Hence the coordinates of image are (5, 10).
Therefore, the correct option is (d).

15
19. For convex mirror f = + 10 cm

xi =

10 10
fx0
=
=
x0 - f 10 - 10

yi =

10 - 20
fy0
=
=-
f - y0
10 - 10

## Hence the correct option is (d).

20. It concave mirror is replaced by plane mirror
the coordinates are (0, + 40).
Hence the correct option is (d).

## More than one options are correct

1. Here f = - 20 cm
Case 1. (if image is real) u, v and f all are
ve.

v=-

## Using mirror formula

Here m = 2 v = - 2 u
using mirror formula
1 1 1
+ =
v u f
we get,

1 1
1
- =2u u
20
3
1
u = + 30 cm
=
2 u 20

## Case 2. (if image is virtual)

u and f are -ve, while v is +ve
1 1
1

- =2u u
20

u = + 10 cm

## Hence possible values of u are 10 cm, 30 cm.

The correct options are (a) and (b).
2. Magnitude of focal length spherical mirror
1
is f and linear magnification is
2
Since concave mirror fro inverted real image
and magnification is less than unity,
therefore u > 2 f .
Hence option (a) is correct.'
If image is erect than it is a convex mirror.
Let mirror is concave hence focal length
= - f.
1
v
Here m = = 2
u

u
2

1 1 1
+ = , we get
u v f

1
1
1
- =u/2 u
f

-3
1
=u
f

u = -3f

## Hence, if the mirror is concave the object

distance will be 3 f .
Let mirror is convex, then
v 1
v
m = = u=
u 2
2
Using mirror formula, we get
1
1 1
- = u= f
u/2 u f
Hence, if mirror is convex the object distance
will be f .
Hence correct options are (a), (b), (c) and (d).
3. Since by a plane mirror
speed of image = speed of object

v cos q
v
vs
in

q
vc

os

16
1 1 1
+ =
v u f

## Horizontal component (along mirror)

= v cos q
Vertical component (^ to mirror)

we get,
v = - 60

= v sin q
Hence image velocity also make an angle q
with the mirror.
Resolving velocity along (y-axis ie, parallel
to mirror) and (x-axis ie perpendicular to
mirror).

v 0 = v sin ^i + v cos ^j

v i = - v sin ^i + v cos ^j
Relative velocity of object w.r.t. image is

dv
v2 du
=- 2

dt
u dt

## Hence in event (1),

du
= -v
dt
dv
602
= - 2 - v = 4v
dt
30

v 0 i = v 0 - v i = 2 v sin q ^i
Hence, correct options are (a), (b) and (d).

## Hence, speed of image in event (1) is 4v.

after time y coordinate of object y0 = v t
but x0 = - 30

4.

1 dv 1 du
- 2
=0
v dt u2 dt

- 20 v t
fy0
=

yi =
f
x

0 20 + 30

then

## As image is on opposite side of the principle

axis (inverter image) hence the mirror is
concave because convex mirror always form
erect image.
The mirror is lying to the right of O and the
O lies between C and F.

yi =|- 2 vt|= 2 vt
dyi
= + 2v
dt

## Hence, option (b) and (c) are correct.

6. For plane mirror

## If centre of curvature lies to the right hand

side of O then v < u.

3f

## Hence, this option is incorrect.

Hence, the correct options are (a), (b) and (d).
5. Here f = - 20 cm, u = - 30 cm

u =3f v =3f
For concave mirror
u = -3f
Using mirror formula
1 1
1
2
=
- =v 3f f
3f

300 m

## Using mirror formula

v = - 1.5 f

|v|= 1.5 f

3f

17
For convex mirror,
1 1
1
4
=
+ =
v 3f
f 3f

v = 0.75 f

2 -3
1
=3f
3f

v = -3f

|v|= 3 f

## Hence maximum distance in event (1) if

image is from plane mirror and minimum
distance from convex mirror

1 2
1 5
=
+ =
v 3f
f 3f

When

## v = 1.5 f , then v = 1.5 f

by plane mirror
For concave mirror
1
1
1
2
1
=
- =
u 1.5 f f 3 f f

v = 0.6 f

## Hence, in event (2) maximum distance of

image from the concave mirror.
Hence, correct options are (a), (b) and (c).

## 1. (a) m = - 2, since |m|= 2 > 1.

Therefore mirror is concave and Q m is -ve.
Hence image is real [for concave mirror m
is = - ve]

(b) r
(c) p
3. (a) Since object and its image are on opposite
side of principle axis.
O

Therefore,
A

(a) q, r
1
(b) Since m = - , Q m is - ve
2
Hence mirror is concave and image is real.
(b) q, r
(c) m = + 2 , Q m > 1
Hence mirror is concave and Q m is + ve

B
I

## Hence mirror is concave

(a) r.
(b) Similarly as for option (a).
(b) r

height from AB.

(c) q, s

## Hence mirror is plane mirror.

1
(d) Q1 m = + < 1 and + ve
2

(c) p

## Hence the mirror is convex and image is

virtual.
(d) p, s
2. Plane mirror (for virtual object) only real
image
(a) p

I

O
x
A

x
B

## Hence mirror is concave [D is. distance

between O and mirror is less than the focal
length].

18
Hence

m =2 = -

(d) r.
4. (a) For concave mirror M1 focal length
= - 20 cm

Using

1 1 1
- =
u u f

we get,

3
1
=
2 u 20

u = 30 cm

## When x = 20 cm, Mirror is M1

v = and magnified
(a) p, s
(b) For convex mirror M2 of focal length
+ 20 cm if X (distance of object from pole)
= 20
1 1 1
Using mirror formula + =
v v f

1 1
1
- =2u u
20

If image is virtual v = 2 v
1 1
1
- =2u u
20
u = 10 cm

we get
1 1
1
1
=
+
=
v 20 20 10
v = 10 cm

v
v = - 2u
u

## Hence image is virtual.

(b) r
(c) u = - 30 cm, f = - 20 cm
1 1
1 2 -3
1
=
=
=v 30 20
60
60

(a) p, q
(b) Here m =

## Hence image is real.

1
v
u

= - v = 2
u
2
1 1 1
Using + = , we get
v u f
-

v = - 60 cm
Hence image is real.
60
m== -2
30
Hence image is magnified (2 times).
(c) q, s
(d) for mirror M2 (convex) at X = + 30 cm
image again virtual.
(d) r
5. (a) For concave mirror f = - 20 cm
Case I. Image is real.

1
<1
2

1
1
1
- =u/2 u
20
3 1
u = 60 cm
=
4 20

## Hence correct option is none of these.

(b) s
(c) if m = 1, than u = 2 f
u = - 40 cm
Hence correct option is none of these.
(c) (s)
(d) Similarly as in part (b) we see that
(d) (s)

27 Refraction of Light
Introductory Exercise 27.1
1. Let real depth of dust particle is x
thickness of slab is t
t
1st
face

m3 4 3
= =2
m1 3 2

and

2nd
face

Medium (2)

tx

We have

## From Ist surface

Real depth
m=
App. depth
1.5 =

x
x = 9 cm
6 cm

m1 =

m1
l1
m2

4. From va = n la

3
m3 3
=
2m 3 =
2 m2 2

m 1 v2
m
= v2 = 1 v1
m 2 v1
m2

Similarly, wavelength l2 =

## From other face

t-x
m=
t - x = 4 1.5
4
t = x + 6 = 9 + 6 = 16 cm
4 m2 4
2. 1m 2 =
=
3 m1 3

(i)

c
c
and m 2 =
v1
v2

(i)

la =

3 108
va
=
= 5 10-7 m
na 6 10+ 14

= 50 nm
l
500 5
m= a =
= = 1.67
lm 300 3

(ii)

## Introductory Exercise 27.2

1. Since light rays are coming from glass to air
m - m1
m
m
applying 2 - 1 = 2
v
u
R
1 1.5 1 - 1.5

=
v 10
-1.5
1
1 1.5 -1 + 4.5

=+
=
v
30 10
30
30

v=
= 8.57 cm
3.5

2.

m2 m1 m2 - m1
=
v
u
R
1.5
1
0.5
(a)
=
m
( -20)
6
On solving v = 45 cm
1.5
1
0.5
(b)
=
v
( -10)
6
On solving we get v = - 90 cm

20
(c)

1.5
1
0.5
=
v
( -3)
6

4. Applying

On solving v = - 6.0 cm

## 3. Light rays are coming from glass to air

O
10 cm

u2 m 1 m 2 - m 1
=
v
u
R
1.44 1 0.44
- =
v
1.25

On solving v = 0.795 cm
m2 m1 m2 - m1
5.
=
v
u
R
1.635
1
0.635
=
v
( -9) ( -2.50)
on solving v = 6.993 cm

m2 m1 m2 - m1
=
v
u
R
1 - 4/3
1
4
=
v 3 ( -10) ( -15)

Lateral magnification m = =-

1 4
1
on solving v = - 9 cm
+
=
v 30 45

v
u

6.993
= - 0.777
9

## Introductory Exercise 27.3

1. We have
1
1 1 1
1
- = = (m - 1)

v u f
R
R
2
1
1
1
1 1
+
= (1.65 - 1) - -

20 60
R R
-3 + 1
-2

= 0.65
60
R
R = 60 0.65 = 39 cm
1 1 1
2. Using - = , we get
v u f

1
1 1
1 1
1
- =
- =
+
-50 x 30
x 30 50
On solving x = - 18.75 cm
-v
50
m=
=
u 18.75
Height of filament image = 2

50
18.75

= 5.3 cm
3.

1
1 1
= (m - 1) +
R R
f

## If lens faces becomes opposite three is no

change in radius of curvature hence focal
length does not change.
1 1 1
4. Using formula - = when u 01 v 0
v u f
when u f , v hence image moves from
surface to .
5.

1
1
1
= (m - 1)

f
R1 R2

1
-1 1
-2
= (1.3 - 1)
= 0.3
R R
f
20

f =-

100
cm
3

## (a) When immersed in a liquid of 1.8

refractive index
1 1.3
-2
-0.5 -2
=
- 1 =

f1 1.8
20
R 1.8
f = 36 cm
(b) The minimum distance is equal to the
focal length = 36 cm

21
6. Using

1 1 1
- =
v u f

1
1 1
v = 16 cm
+ =
3u u 12

1
1
12
=
v ( -20) 10

## 12. Since image is upright and diminished

hence lens is concave. Now
u - v = 20
v 1
m= =
u 2
1 u - 20
=
2
u

On solving v = 20 cm
v
Magnification = - = - 1
u
Hence the image of same size and inverted.
Let the distance between second lens is x
Since magnification is unity image distance
also x using again
1 1 1
- =
v u f

u = 40 cm and v = 20 cm
1 1 1
Using
- =
v u f

we get
1
1
1 1
x = 20 cm
= =
x ( -x) f 10
Hence the distance between two lenses
= 20 cm + 20 cm = 40 cm
1 1 1
7. = +
v f u

(i)

1 1
1
= +
v1 f u + du

(ii)

1 1 (u + du - u)
on solving, we get
- =
v v
(u + du)u
v - v
- v2
du
thickness dv = 2 du
=
v
u(u + du)
u
2
10. Size of image = 6 = 2 cm.
3
11. Let image distance is u
|m|= 3 v = 3u

(i)

1
1
1
+
= f = - 40 cm
20 40 f

## 13. The image coincide itself if light falls

normally on plane mirror hence object must
be on focus i. e. + 10 cm.
1 1 2 (m 2 /m 1) 2 (m 2 /m 1 - 1)
8. + =
v u
R2
R1
2 ( 4/3) 2 ( 4/3 - 1)
1
1
+
=
v 0.2
0.4
0.4
On solving v = 12 cm
9. Since shift in position D t = 0.1 m
Hence real depth = (0.1 + 0.2) m
= 0.3 m
and apparent depth= 0.2 m
real depth
m=
apparent depth
=

0.3
= 1.5
0.2

22

AIEEE Corner
1. Incident ray

Reflected ray

1 10-6
1.8 10-6
=
= 0.6 10-14
8
3 10 /1.8
3 108

i
90i
r

t3 =

## (b) Total number of wavelengths

1 mm 1.5 mm 1 mm
=
+
+
l/ n1
l/ n2
l/ n3

90

Reflected ray

We have r + 90 + i = 180 r = 90 - i
sin i
sin i
From Snells law 1.5 =
=
sin r sin (90 - i)

+
=

tan i = 1.5

i = tan -1(1.5)

c 3 108
3. Sped in glycrine v g =
=
ng
1.47

## Comparing with standard equation

Ex ( y, t) = E0 sin [ ky - wt ]
2p
k=
, w = 2p 3 1014
5 10-7

20 20 1.47
=
= 9.8 10-8 s
vg
3 108

v=

c 3 10
=
ng
1.63

20 20 1.63 ~
t2 =
=
- 10.8 10-8
vc
3 108
-8

t2 - t1 = (1086
. - 9.8) 10
= 1.67 10-8 s
4. (a) t1 =

1 10-6 m 1 10-6 m
=
v1
3 108 /1.2
-6

1.2 10
3 108

t1 = 0.4 10-14 s

t2 =

4500
= 7.5
600

2py

Ex ( y, t) = Eax sin
- 3 1014 2lt
-7
5

10

## Critical angle q = sin -1(0229

.
) = 13.2

Speed in glycrine v g =

1 1.8 1000 nm
600 nm

v
343
2. nw = air =
= 0.229
uw 1498

t1 =

## 1000 1.2 nm 1.5 100 nm

+
600 nm
600 nm

1.5 10-6
= 0.5 10-14 s
3 108

w 2p 3 1014
=
= 1.5 108 m/s
k
2p/5 10-7

Refractive index n =

3 108
c
=
=2
v 1.5 108

2p
k

2p
= 5 10-7 m
25/ 5 107

ln =

ln = 500 nm

l
ln =
n

6. Refraction
surfaces

from

plane

and

spherical

23
N1

N2

60

N
r
0.25 cm 10 cm

6 cm
r r

sin 60
= 1.8
sin r
sin 60
sin r =
1.8

We have

sin r =

3
= 0.48
2 1.8

## This image acts as a virtual object for 2nd

surface
30
170
u2 = - 20 +
cm
=7
7

-1

r = sin (0.48)
r~
- 28.7

MO
= tan r
6

Now

and

MO = 6 tan r

Similarly ON = 6 tan r
MN = MO + ON = 12 tan r = 12 tan(28.7 )
MN = 6.6 cm
4 sin 45
7. From Snells law =
3
sin r
A
1m

R = - 10 cm
m2 m1 m2 - m1
=
v
u
r
- 0.5
1
1.5

+
=
v 170/ 7 -10

1 1 10.5
=
v 20 170

v = - 85 cm

## Hence final image will produced at -65 cm

from Ist surface.

45 45
D

9. Here v = - 1 cm

B
r

3m

m2 m1 m2 - m1
=
v
u
R
1.5
1
0.5
=
v
( -2.5) 10
1.5 1
1
7
=
=v
20 2.5
20
30
v=cm
7

## For first surface

N3

Solving we get r = 32
EF = DE tan r = 3 tan 32
= 1.88 m
Total length of shadow = 1 + 1.88
= 2.88 m

R = - 2 cm
m - m1
m
m
Applying 2 - 1 = 2
v
u
R
1 1.5 1 - 1.5 - 0.5 1

=
=
=
-1
x
-2
-2
4
-1.5 5
=
x
4
-6
x=
= - 1.2 cm
5

2 cm

24
O

10.

12.

10 cm

Air

i
r
RI = 3/2

3 cm

4 cm

## Image formed by refection acts the virtual

object for the mirror.

1
Here shift = t 1 -
m

1
= 3 1 = 1 cm
3 / 2

Here

sin r =
sin i =

= 11 cm
The image formed by mirror = - 11 cm
Hence image formed by the mirror at 11 cm
behind the mirror.
6 cm

11.
O

O'
8 cm

6 cm
6x

## Step. Let shift in mirror is x then the

distance of object.

4 + n2
2
2

2 + n2

2
2
sin i
4 4 2 +n
=
sin r
3 2 42 + n2

u=

4 4 + n2
=
5n2 = 28
9 16 + n2

## Hence object appear to the mirror

= (10 + 1) cm

4
2

28
n = 2.4 cm
5
m - m1
m
m
13. Using 2 - 1 = 2
v
u
R
1 1.5 1 - 1.5
=
v
-5
1 1

v = 10 cm
=
v 10
m - m1
m
m
14. For first surface 2 - 1 = 2
v
u
R
n2 =

## From the mirror is = 8 + (6 - x).

Step II. Plane mirror form image behind
the mirror at same distance as the distance
object from mirror hence

10 cm

8 + (6 - x) = x + 6 x = 4 cm
real depth 6
Step III. m =
= = 15
.
app. depth 4
hence real position of the bubble inside
sphere is 1.2 cm from the surface.

5 cm

30 cm

1.5 1 0.5
v = 30 cm
- =
v
10

25
For 2nd surface
- 0.5
1
1.5
=
v ( -15)
5
1
1
1

v = - 5 cm
=v
10 10

## Using lens formula

1
1
1
=
d - x ( -x) 16

x2 - xd + 16d = 0

x=

## Hence the distance from first face is

= (10 + 5) cm
= 15 cm
15. Since rays goes from paper weight ( n = 1.6)
Observer

8 cm
n = 1.6

3 cm

5 cm

1 1.6 1 - 1.6
=
v ( -3)
5
1
0.6 1.6
=v
5
3

## On solving we get v = - 0.58 |v|= 0.58 cm

Hence the distance between observer and
table top is = (8 - 0.58) cm = 7.42 cm.
16. Let real velocity of bird = vB cm/s
Velocity of bird w.r.t. fish = 16 cm/s

Let

x1 =

d + d2 - 64 d
2

## But mvB + v f = 16 cm/s

Here v f = 4 cm/s
4 v + 4 = 16

B
3

v = 12 cm/s
3 B
vB = 9 cm/s

## 17. Let the distance between the object and

screen is d and let distance between object
and lens is x

d - d - 64 d

and

x2 =

x1 - x2 = d2 - 64 d

But x1 - x2 = 60 d2 - 64 d - 3600 = 0

( d - 100) ( d + 36) = 0

d = 100 Q d - 36

## Hence the distance between object and

screen is 100 cm.
18. Q

1
1
1
= ( n - 1)

f
R1 R2

## For identical double convex lens

|R1|=|R2|= R
but

R1 = R and R2 = - R
1
1 1
2

= ( n - 1) + = ( n - 1)

f
R
R R
f =

## Velocity of bird w.r.t. water = mvB

d d2 - 64 d

to air hence

1 1 1
- = we get
v u f

R
R
hence f1 =
=R
2 ( n - 1)
2 (1.5 - 1)

and f2 =
(a)

R
R
=
2 (1.7 - 1) 1.4

f1
= 1.4 f1 : f2 = 1.4 : 1
f2

fi =

R
1.6R
== - 8R
1.5
2 1

2
-1
1.6

For 2nd lens

26
f2 =

R
1.6R
=
= 8R
1.7
2
- 1 2 0.1
1.6

lens.

## Hence 2nd lens remain convex.

19. Here u = - 10 cm acts the virtual object for
1 1 1
the lens v = - 15 cm using - =
v u f
1
1 1
+
=
-15 10 f

## also form 2f by lens i. e., at 60 cm. The mirror

must be placed at that place that it made the
final image at focus of lens. The difference is
shown below.

## Hence the distance between lens and mirror

= 40 cm + 15 cm = 45 cm

S2

I'

15
60 cm

60 cm

30 cm f

S1

f
right of 2nd
2

24 x

## For Ist source direction left to right is + ve

1 1 1
Using - = , we get
v u f
1
1
1 1 1 1
= + =
v ( -x) 9
v x 9

I'

(i)

## For 2nd source direction right to left is + ve

-1
1
1
hence
(ii)
+
=
v
24 - x 9
On adding Eqs. (i) and (ii) we set
1
1
2
+
= x2 - 24 x + 108 = 0
x 24 - x 9

## The parallel ray after refraction on

convergent lens meet at focus = 40 cm. Let
distance between two lenses is x then using
1 1 1
- = for diverging lens
v u f
1
1
-1
=
( 40 - x) 15

x = 6, 18

## hence lens can be placed at a distance of

6 cm from any source.
21. Since the object is placed at c of first lens
hence image also form at c and of same
magnification i. e. v = 2 f . Since two lens are
separated by distance f hence the distance
between 2nd lens and image is f . This image
acts a virtual object for this lens using
1 1 1
1 1
f
- = , we get
- v=
v u f
v f
2
and magnification m2 = -

v - f /2 -1
=
=
u
f
2

40
f = 40 cm

x = 25 cm

## 24. Here f1 = 20 cm f2 = 10 cm and d = 30 cm

f1 = 20 cm
O

30 cm

f2 = 10 cm

30 cm

7.5 cm I2
30 cm

I1

d
convex Lens convex Lens
I
IInd

1 1 1
- = we get
v u f

1 1
1
1 1
1
=
v = 60 cm
+
=
v 30 20 v 20 30

27
For 2nd lens
1 1
1
=
v 30 10
1 1
1

=
+
v 30 10
1 4

=
v 30

Using

1
1 1
=v
20 5

v = - 4 cm

1
1
1

=
v ( -9) 9

v = 7.5 cm

## Hence image formed at 7.5 cm from 2nd lens.

25. For lens u = - 40 cm
1 1 1
- =
v u f

f = + 20 cm

using

1 1 1
= +
v f u

1 1
1 2 -1 1
=
=
=
v 20 40
40
40

v = 40 cm

1
1
1
v = - 5 cm
=v
10 10
O
40 cm

15 cm 10 cm
30 cm

## Hence image is formed at 5 cm from the

mirror toward lens.
26.

f1 = +10 cm

f2 = 20 cm f3 = +9 cm

10 cm
15 cm

5 cm

## For first lens v = + 10 cm

For 2nd lens u = - 5 cm, f = - 20 cm

v=

## Hence the image formed at or rays become

parallel.
27. Situation is shown in figure when space
between two convex lenses is filled with
refractive index 1.3 it become a concave lens
of radii R1 = - 30 cm and R2 = + 70 cm hence
it focal length is

## Hence the image is at 40 cm right from the

lens. Since distance between mirror and
lens is 30 cm. Hence for mirror v = + 10 cm,
f = - 10 cm.
1 1 1
1 1 1
Using
+ = = v u f
v f u

1 1 1
- =
v u f

1
1
1
= ( n - 1)

f
R1 R2

1
-1 1
= (1.3 - 1)
30 70
f

f = - 70 cm

## Hence the equivalent focal length of

1
1
1
1
combination =
+
F 30 70 70
F = 30 cm if
u = - 90 cm then using
1 1 1
= F v u
1 1 1
we get
= +
30 v 90
1 1
1
2
1

=
=
=
v 30 90 90 45

v = 45 cm

28
28. nice =

sin q c m w 4 2
=
=
sin r m g 3 3

3 108
c
=
= 1.30
v 2.3 108

1
1
= sin -1
q c = sin -1

n
1.30

ice

9
9 2 3
sin q c = =
8
8 3 4
3
r = sin -1
4

sin r =

= sin -1(0.77)
29. (a) Let angle of refraction in material 2 is r
sin q 1.8 18
then
(i)
=
=
sin r 1.6 16
For (2) to (3) interface
sin r
1.3 13
=
=
sin 90 1.8 18
13

sin r =
18
18 13
From (i) and (ii) sin q =

16 18
13

q = sin -1

16

n1

90r
r

n1

n2

(ii)

## (b) Yes, if q decreases r also decreases and

become less than the critical angle and
hence light goes into material 3.
30. Let maximum height of liquid is h. From
figure for critical angle C

sin (90 - r) n1
=
sin 90
n2

and

cos r =

n1
n2

sin q n2
=
sin r n1
sin q =
sin q =

n2
sin r
n1

n2
1 - cos2 r
n1
2

r2 + h2

n
n
= 2 1 - 1
n1
n2

h
c

r2 + h2
1
(i)
=
sin C
r
4
Here r = 1 cm and m = putting these
3
4
values in Eq. (i). Solving we get h = cm
3
1 2
Here
sin q c =
=
mg 3
m=

## Now if water film is poured on the glass air

surface. Let emergent angle at glass water
surface is r, then

sin q =

n22 - n12
n12
2

n
q = sin -1 2 - 1
n1

## 33. The deviation angle vary from 0 to q where

(i)
q = 90 - c
where C is the critical angle
4/3 8
m
Now,
sin c = w =
=
m g 3/2 9
From Eq. (i) cos q = sin C
8

cos q =
9

29
8
q = cos -1
9

8
cos -1 .
9
34.

r
h

c
S

## (a) Only circular patch light escapes

because only those rays which are
incident within a cone of semivertex
angle C [Critical angle] are refracted out
of the water surface. All other rays are
totally internally reflected as shown in
figures
(b) Now m =

A + dm
sin

36. m =
A
sin
2
A + sin
sin
2 sin A cos A
2

=
2
2
3=
A
A
sin
sin
2
2
cos

## Now, let other face angle of incidence is r2

= sin -1
r2 + h2

A = 60

37. Here i1 = r1 = 0 .

r2 + h2
1
=
sin C
r

35.

A
3
A
=

= 30
2
2
2

1
C = sin -1
m

or

5
5 3
sin r =
4
4 5
-1 3
q = sin
4

sin q =

r1 + r2 = A 0 + r2 = A

r2 = A = 30
sin r2
1
sin i2 = 1.4 sin r2
=
sin i2 1.5

## sin i2 = 1.5 sin 30

i2 = sin -1(0.75) = 19

m = 1.0

90 90r

45

r
90r

P
m = 1.25
R

## For maximum angle q the angle 90 - r at left

surface must be equal to critical angle
1
100 4
sin (90 - r) =
=
=
1.25 125 5
4

cos r =
5
3

sin r =
5
sin q
5
Now,
= 1.25 =
sin r
4

i2

r1
45

45 r1 r
2
r1

## Hence the ray retrace its path.

39.

A
30

45

60
Q 30

90

30
The ray retrace its path from ref. by surface
AB hence ARq = 90 from geometry it is
clear that r = 30
sin i
m=
sin r
m=

sin 45
1/ 2
m =
m = 2
sin 30
1/2

w
w
44. 1 + 2 = 0
f1
f2
0.18 30
0.18
w
+ 2 w2 =
20
20
-30

w2 = 0.27
1 1
1
1
1
1
= + =
F f1 f2
F 20 30

Now,

## 40. Depends on formula.

41. The maximum angle will be A = 2C where C
is the critical angle
1
Now, C = sin -1
= 41.81
1.5
Hence A = 2C = 2 41.81 = 83.62
A + dm
sin

here A = 60
42. m =
A
sin
2
60 + dm
sin

1.5 =
sin 30
60 + dm
0.75 = sin

60 + dm = 2 sin -1(0.75)

dm = 22.8

## and not deviation = 180 - 22.8 = 157.2

(b) If the system is placed in water
1.5 4.5
m=
=
4/3
4
60 + dm = 2 sin -1(1.125 sin 30 )
1.125
dm
= 2 sin -1
- 60
2
Net deviation = 180 - dm = 128.4
m -mR
43. w = V
mY -1
0.0305 =

1.665 - 1.645
m y -1

F = 60 cm
w1 w2
45.
+
=0
f1
f2

w1
f
=- 1
w2
f2
3
f
=- 1
2
f2

3
f2
2
1 1
1
Now,
= +
F f1 f2

f1 = -

1
1
2
=
150 f2 3 f2

f2 = 50 cm and f1 = - 75 cm
sin i1
46. Applying m =
sin r1
Find angle r1 for two different refraction
indices. Because i1 = 65 from both the
cases.
Then again apply
sin i2
and find i2 . Because r2 = A - r1.
m=
sin r2
Then apply :
d = ( i1 + i2 ) - A
for two refraction indices. Then difference
in deviations is :
Dd = d1 - d2

31

## Objective Questions (Level-1)

1. Endoscope is bases on total internal
refraction Hence, correct option is (c)
B
2. Here m = A + 2
l
Q

m is dimensionless.
B
= dimension of m
l2

## 8. Qv = nl but frequency n remain constant and

v decreases hence l decreases.
Hence correct option is (b).
9. Using Snells law

1
3. Shift = 1 -
m

## Qm R is minimum. than other visible colour.

Red colour least raised.
correct option is (c)
1
4. Critical angle q C = sin
m

-1

## Q m 0 is maximum for violet colour hence q c

for violet colour is least.
Hence correct option is (d)
1
5. We have P =
f (metre)

m3

## B = l2 B has dimension of Area

Hence, correct option is (d).

m2
q

m1

sin i m 2
=
sin q m 1
sin q m 3
=
sin r m 2

and

(i)
(ii)

## Multiplying (i) and (ii), we get

sin i m 3
=
sin r m 1
Hence correct option is (b).
10. We have i = r1 and r2 = 90 - i
B

A
i

100
1 1
= 100 ( n - 1) +
R r
f (cm )
100 0.6 2
P=
= + 12
10

Denser medium

r1

## Hence, correct option is (a).

c
6. Speed of light in water =
mw
vw =

3 108
= 2.25 108 m/s
4/3

## Hence correct option os (c).

7. Due to TIR emergent beam will turn into
black.
Hence correct option is (c).

90
r2

Rarer medium

Now

sin i 1
=
sin r2 m

sin i
1
=
sin (90 - i) m

tan i =

1
m

(i)

1
If C is the critical angle then C = sin -1
m
-1

C = sin (tan i)
Hence correct option is (a).

32
11. Let angle of minimum deviation is dm

We have,

we know that
A + dm
sin

m=
A
sin
2
(60 + dm )
sin
2
2=
sin 30
1
60 + dm
= sin

2
2

60 + dm
= 45 dm = 30
2

and

1
fcm

...(i)

13.

r2

r3

R
= 2f
( n - 1)

1
1
1
1
1
f
F=
=
+
+
+
F 2f 2f 2f 2f
2

## Hence correct option is (b).

m1
r
r1

(iv)

15. Here P = + 5D f + = 20 cm

5 1.5
1.5
4
15

= nl nl =
=
4
nl
5
8

sin r3 m 4
=
sin x m 3

1 1.5
=
- 1 10
0.5 nl

-1 1.5
=
-1
5
nl

m3

(iii)

f =

n
1
1

=
- 1
nl
R1 R2

m2

sin r2 m 3
=
sin r3 m 2

1
1 1
then
= ( n - 1) -
R
f

(ii)

## 14. Let radius of curvature of the lens is R

1
1 1
R
then = ( n - 1) + f =
f
2 ( x - 1)
R R

1
1
1

= ( n - 1)
f
R1 R2

1
1
1

= (0.5 - 1)
0.2
R1 R2

sin r1 m 2
=
sin r2 m 1

(i)

sin i m 4
m
sin x =
=
sin i
sin x m
m4

1
1
1
= (15
. - 1)
2
a
R1 R2

sin i m 1
=
sin r1 m

x
m4

1
1
1
= (1.5 - 1)

20
R1 R2

and -

1.5
1
1
1
=
- 1

100 ne
R1 R2

1.5

- 1

n
1

5
0.5
1
1.5

+1=
10
nl

nl =

5
3

(i)
(ii)

33
16. We know that
1 1
1
d
= +
F f1 f2 f1 f2

## 20. Minimum deviation condition

r1 = r2 = r 90 - r + 90 - r + A = 180

d
1
1

> + d > f1 + f2
f1 f2 f1 f2

Now

is 40 cm.

## Hence correct option is (d).

17. Since when A > 2q c total light is reflect
(TIR) take place hence maximum value of A
is 2q c .
Hence correct option is (c).

i2 = r2 = 0

r1 + r2 = A r1 = A
sin i
m=
sin A

## Since i and A are small

sin i ~
- i and sin A ~
-A
i

m = i = mA
A
Hence correct option is (c).
A + dm
sin

19. m =
A
sin
2
A + dm
sin

A
2

cot +
=
A
2
sin
2
A + dm
A

= 90 2
2

A + dm = 180 - A

dm = 180 - 2 A

i = 45

1 1
1
d
21.
= +
F f1 f1 f1 f2

Now

A = 2r
A
r=
= 30
2
sin i
m=
sin r
sin i
2=
sin 30
1
sin i =
2

(i)

1
1
1
2d
= +
2F f1 f2 f1 f2

(ii)

1
1
1
4d
= +
F f1 f2 f1 f2

(iii)

## On solving (i) , (ii) and (iii) we get F = 2F .

Correct option is (a).
22.

1
1
1
= ( n - 1)
f
R1 R2
1
1
1
= (1.5 - 1)
24
R 2R
1 0.5

R = 6 and 2R = 12
=
24 2R

## Hence correct option is (a).

23. The system is shown in figure.
f = + 30 cm
I
O

IInd

O
15 cm

15 cm
30 cm

15 cm

45 cm

Using

1 1 1
- =
v u f

1
1
1
v = - 30 cm
=
v ( -15) 30

34
This image I1 act as a virtual object for
mirror since plane mirror form image at
same distance as object. Hence the distance
between
object
and
image
is
(30 + 45) cm = 75 cm.

sin r1
2
=
sin r2
3

(i)

## Correct option is (b).

sin 45
1
28.
= 2 sin r = r = 30
sin r
2
45
45

sin 45
= 2
sin r2
sin r2 =

30

## Hence correct option is (a).

25. For small angle prism
F = 30 cm
O
60 cm

dmin = (m - 1) A if m increases

## hence total deflection = 45 - ( -45 ) = 90

Hence correct option is (a).
A + dm
sin

29. m =
A
sin
2
90 + dm ,
sin

2
3

=
2
sin 45

dmin increases

## Hence correct option is (a)

sin i n2
sin i
26.

=
=n
i
sin r n1

sin
2
i
Qr =
2
i
n

2 cos = n i = 2 cos -1
2
2
Hence correct option is (c).
27. Situation is shown in figure.
F = 30 cm
O
60 cm

30

1
2

r2 = 30

3 0
30

sin 45
24.
= 3
sin r1

## Since image after reflection form on object

itself hence the object must be placed at
focus of the lens. The rays after refraction by
lens becomes parallel to optic axis. Hence
reflection rays follow the same path and
final image form on x itself. Hence x = 30 cm.

3
90 + dm
sin
= sin 60
=
2
2

dm = 30

30.

1
1
1
= ( n - 1)

f
R
R
2
1
n
1
here
n = air =
nglass 1.5

1 1
1
1
=
- 1 +
f 1.5
10 10

## f = - 15 cm. Hence lens is concave

Correct option is (a).

35
= 90 - (30 + 30 ) = 30

We have

1 1 1
- =
v u f

A

34.

1 1
1
+
=
v 12 10

90

v = 60 cm

## Since the distance between lens and mirror

is 10 cm. Hence the image formed 50 cm
from convex mirror. The rays retrace its
path if image is formed at the centre of
curvature of the mirror i.e.,
R
Rconvex = 50 cm F = = 25 cm
2
Hence the correct option is (b)
32.

60 90
Q 30
N

## Since the ray retrace its path hence

ARQ = 90 RQN = r = 30
sin i
sin i = m sin r = 2 sin 30
m=
sin r
1

i = 45
sin i =
2
Hence correct option is (c).

12 cm

Using

10 cm

1 1 1
1
1
1
- = =
v u f
v ( -12) 20

v = - 30 cm

## Hence the distance between mirror and this

image is 40 cm. Therefore second image
formed 40 cm behind the mirror.
Hence correct option is (c).
sin i
33. We have m =
sin r

35. f = 10 cm
the focal length of =

1
1
1
=
+
F 10 10

F = 5 cm
Here u = - 7.5 cm , F = 5 cm
1
1
1 1 7.5 - 5

+
- =
v 7.5 5 v 7.5 5
v = + 15 cm
height of image 15
v
Hence|m|=

=
height of object 7.5
u

Height of image = 2 1 cm = 2 cm
1

45

45

60

60

## Hence correct option is (a).

n - n1
n
n
36. 2 - 1 = 2
v
u
R
(3/2 - 1)
1 3 1

=
v 2 ( )
-20

sin r =

2 sin 45
=
3
sin r
3
r = 60 (on both faces)
2

v = + 40 cm

## Hence correct option is (a).

1
1 ng
1

37.
=
- 1
f nL
R1 R2
Here R1 = - 30 cm and R2 = - 50 cm

36

1 1.5
1
1
=
- 1 +

f 1.4
30 50

39. Here A = 60 , dm = 60
A + dm
sin

= sin 60
m=
A
sin 30
sin
2

On solving

f = - 1050 cm

## Hence correct option is (d).

38. From the figure, it is clear that m 1 = m 3 < m 2
Hence correct option is (b).

m=

3 /2
= 3
1/2

## Hence correct option is (a).

JEE Corner
Assertion and Reason
1. Due to shifting of image on refraction
Shayam appear nearer to Ram and light
suffer two refraction. Hence, both (a) and (b)
are correct but reason does not explain the
assertion.
Correct option is (b).

## 5. Since both assertion and reason are true

built reason is not explain assertion Hence
correct option is (b).
6. Using mirror formula.
1 1 1
- =
v u f
Here

## 2. Applying lens formula

1 1 1
- =
v u f
Let u = object distance from lens
v = d - u distance of image from lens.
Q

v+u=d
1
1
1
=
d -u -u f

u2 - du + df = 0

u=

d d - 4f
2

f = - f (concave lens)
1 1
1
+
=
v -f

## 3. Correct option is (b).

4. Correct option is (c).

v=- f

## Hence image is formed at principle focus

thus assertion is false but reason is true.
Hence correct option is (d).
A + dm
sin

7. m =
sin A / 2
Here

Q u is real hence d 4 f
Thus mean distance v = 4 f , if
u = - 2 f , v = 2 f . Hence both assertion and
reason are true, and reason explain or may
not explain assertion. Hence correct option
is (a, b)

u=-

A = 60, m = 2
60 + dm
sin

2=
sin 30
60 + dm
= 450 dm = 30
2

## Hence both assertion and reason are true

and reason explain assertion correctly.
Correct option is (a).

37
8. Focal length of combination
1
1
1
1 1
=
+
= F Fconvex Fconvex f1 f2
if

f1 > f2
1 1
<
f1 f2

F = - negative
Hence assertion is true. Since power is a
measure of converging or divergence of a
lens. Hence reason is not true. Correct
option is (c).
9. Since glass slab produced a net shift. Hence
v is increased. Thus magnified image is
obtained but image may be real or virtual
depending on the position of slab.
Correct option is (b)

## 10. In this case image distance of O1 and O2 are

same from the lens.
1 1 1
Q
- = and reason is trure.
v u f
Hence correct option is (d).
11. Assertion is false since only ray energe if
refractve index of the colour less than the
prism and angle of incidence is less than
critical angle but reason is true. Correct
option is (a).
12. If two object is placed between pole and focus
image is real hence assertion is true. Also
reason is correct.
Hence correct option is (b)
13. Since both assertion and reason are true and
reason explanation is correct.
Hence correct option is (a).

1. We have m =

Real depth
App. depth

4
1
=
3 App. depth

App. depth =

3
4

## Hence the distance between bird and mirror

3 11
=2 + =
m
4 4
Since plane mirror form image behind the
mirror (for real object) at same distance as
object hence the distance between bird and
its image
11 11 11
m
=
+
=
4
4
2

2.

m2 m1 m2 - m1
=
v
u
R
Here

m = - u1 = 1

and

m 2 = 1.5
1.5 1 0.5
v = 3R
+
=
v

## Hence correct option is (b).

3. From figure, r = 30
Normal
60
r r
60
60
O

## Correct option is (d).

Q r = q + a - 90 = 120 - 90

38
Hence m =

sin 60
= 3
sin 30

dV pR2 xn2
=
dt
n1

## 4. The lens become diverging if

7.

air

m1 - m2 > m2 - m 3

m 1 + m 3 > 2m 2

or

2m 2 < m 1 + m 3

air

m2 =

v2
6

But

-f
f
m1 = m2
=
16 - f 6 - f

-6 + f = 16 - f 2 f = 22

## Correct option is (b).

8. Let refractive index of liquid is m
For position of fish w.r.t. bird is
Real depth
x
m=
m =
App. depth
h1

Real depth
Q
m=
Apparent depth

dh
n dh
=x= 1
dt
n2 dt

dh xn2
=
dt
n1

4
5 3
sin 37 = = 1
3
3 5

(ii)

1
y
=
m h2

## 6. Let real depth at any instant t of the water is

h then volume of water V = pR2 h
dV
dh
(i)

= pR2
dt
dt

Now

r = 90

sin r =

f = 11 cm

n2
h
n
= h1 = 1 h
n1 h1
n2

90q

## Applying Snells law on face BC.

sin 37 m 2 3
=
=
sin r
m1 5

(i)

(Q image is virtual)

90

## Q q = 37 i = [90 - (90 - q)] = q = 37

1 1 1
6f
+ = v2 =
v2 6 f
6- f

6f
f
m2 =
=
6 (6 - f ) 6 - f

- v1
-16 f
-f
=
=
16 16 (16 - f ) (16 - f )

and

90

1
1 1
16 f
5.
+
= v1 =
v1 16 f
16 - f
m1 =

m = 5/3

## From Eq. (i) and (ii) we get u =

Hence correct option is (a).
9.

R
(R t )

(ii)

( R - t)2 + 32 = R2

2Rt ~
- 9 Q R >> T

h2
h1

(i)

(2)

39
900 mm
= 300 mm
3 mm

2R =

R = 150 mm = 15 cm

m w sin r
4 4
1
=
=
m a sin r
3 3 sin r

1
1 1
fv1
10.
+
= v1 =
v1 v1 f
v1 - f
m1 =

## 14. For limiting angle of incident emergent ray

become parallel to the 2nd face

-v1
-f
=
v1 (v1 - f )

(i)

60

1
1 1
fv2
+
= v2 =
v2 v2 f
v2 - f
m2 =

v2
f
=
v2 m 2 - f

(ii)
Q

Q m1 = m2
v + v2
-f
f

f = 1
=
2
v1 - f v2 f

F=

## Correct option is (b).

12. In this case, minimum deviation of ray 1 is
same as ray 2.
Hence correct option is (c).

sin r =

4
3

sin r
3
3
=
r = sin -1
sin 90
7
7

r = 60 - r

sin i
m=
sin r

## as d increases f1 + f2 - d decreases hence F

increases. Hence image move to right.

4/3
m w sin q c
2

=
=
3/2 3 sin r
mg
sin r

30+r' 90r'
r'

Now

f1 f2
f1 + f2 - d

## 13. For critical angle at glass air surface

1 2
sin q c =
=
mg 3

Now r + 30 + r = 90

## Hence the correct option is (d).

1 1
1
d
11.
= +
F f1 f2 f1 f2

sin r = 1 r = 90

7
sin i
=
3 sin [60 - sin -1 3/7 ]

7

= sin -1
sin (60 - 21 )
3

## = sin -1 { 7/3 sin 19 }

= sin -1{0.49} ~
- 30
Hence correct option is (a).

(i)

## 15. The image form the object itself if the rays

incident parallel to optical axis on the mirror
i.e., image of refraction is formed at . It is
possible when O is placed at focus i. e.,
d = 10 cm
Hence correct option is (c).
16. The dot will appear at c for all values of m.
Since position does not in same medium.
Hence correct option is (b).

40
17. We have for total internal reflection
B
3/2
90
i

4
4
i = sin -1 = 53
5
5

## Hence the ray will not cross BC if i > 53

x = 20 cm

2
Dt = t 1

wm g

3/2 9
1
= 36 1 =
Q wm g =
4/3 8
9/8

36 1
=
= 4 cm
9
Hence correct option is (b).
Real depth
22. m =
App. depth

1
1
1
+
=
OB OA f

OB. OA
Q OB + OA = AB
f =
OA + OB

4 real depth
=
3
10.5 cm

Real depth =

4
10.5 cm = 14 cm
3

## Hence correct option is (d).

23. Q y0 = + 1 cm and yi = - 2 cm

## 19. The ratio of focal length in the situation II

and III is 1 : 1.
Hence correct option is (c).
1
1
1
20. We have
=
OB ( - OA) f

OC2
AB

(ii)

q < 37

## This image act as virtual object for

plane-glass-water surface
m g m w ( x - 20) m g - m w

20x

f =

90 + q + i = 180

1
1
3
1
= - 1
v ( -x) 2
10
20x

v=
x - 20

OC2 = OA OB

## Putting this value in Eq. (i), we get

q = 90 - iQ i > 53

(i)

C

sin i =

OB. OA
AB

sin i 6/5
=
sin 90 3/2

f =

6/5

q
A

m=-

v
v
2=
u
u

## Now let x be the position of lens then

v = 50 - x and v = ( 40 + x).
50 - x

2=
40 + x

80 + 2x = 50 - x

- 3 x = 30 x = - 10 cm

## Hence correct option is (c).

41
24. If the plane surface of plano-convex lens is
silvered it behave the concave mirror of focal
length fm /2
Q

fm = 10 cm

fe = 5 cm hence R = 10 cm

and

1
1 m w
1
=
- 1
+

f mg
R1 R2

(ii)

m w lg
4
4
=

=
m g lw
3mg 5

## 25. Since lens made real and magnified image,

hence it is a convex lens when lens dipped in
water its focal length.

c
= n lw
mw

mg =

5
3

## Hence correct option is (a).

f f + d ( f1 - d)
( f - d) D
29. x = 1 2
and y = 1
f1 + f2 - d
f1 + f2 - d
f = 20 cm

f = 20

4/3
1
1 -1 1
1
=

=
- 1
+
+
3
/
2
R
R
9
R
R
2
2
1

1
Q f is - ve lens behave as concave, hence
the image is virtual and magnified.
Correct option is (c).

5 mm

30 cm

Here f1 = f2 = 20 cm , d = 30 cm
and D = 55m = 0.5 cm

## 26. The prism transmit the light for which angle

of incidence(c), 2c 90 c 45

## Putting these values we get

x = 25 cm and y = 0.25 cm
Correct option is (b).

90

Hence m =

1
1
=
= 2 = 1.414
sin C sin 45

## Correct option is (b).

1
1
1
v
27. = Q|m|=
=3
v ( -16) f
u
For convex lens v = 3u
1
1 1
+
= f = 12 cm (for real image)
48 16 f
Similarly when distance is 6 cm, 3 times
virtual image is formed hence mirror is
convex with focal length 12 cm.
Correct option is (c).
c
28. v g = nl g
= nl g (i)
mg

## 30. Since for each q angle of incidence at

glass-air boundry remains 0 hence there
will never be total internal reflection.
Correct option is (d).
31. Diameter = m Original diameter
=

4
4
1 cm = - cm
3
3

## Hence correct option is (a).

1
1
1
32.
= (1.5 - 1) +
20 20
f
1

f1 = 20 cm

Here u1 = - 30 cm
1 1 1
1
1
1
v1 = 60 cm
=
=
v u1 f1
v1 20 30
Magnification|m1|= (Inverted image)

v
60
=
=+2
u 30

42
For second lens.

1
1
1
v2 = + 30 cm
+
=
v2 60 20

Magnification m2 =

30 1
=
60 2

Total magnification = m1 m2 = 1
Hence object size remains 3mm and it is
formed at (120 + 30) cm = 50 cm from first
lens.

## Hence correct option is (d).

1
36. Shift in mirror = 6 1 = 2 cm
1.5

6 cm

Man

## 33. From left hand side refraction occur from

n2 = 2 to n1 = 1.
n
1
n = 1 = = 0.5
n2 2
n 1 n -1
- =
v u
R
0.5 1 -0.5 1 0.5
=
+
=
v
10
10
10 10

v = 10 cm

1 1
1
=v 20
30
1 1
1
v = + 60 cm
=
v 20 30

50 cm

## Hence man lie at 48 cm from mirror. The

distance of image from observer = 2 48
= 96 cm
Hence correct option is (b).
1 1 1
37. Using lens formula - =
v u f

## Hence correct option is (a).

1
1
1
+
=
( f + 40) ( f + 10) f

## 34. For lens v = - 20 cm, f = + 10 cm

Using

On solving we get f = 20 cm

1 1 1
- = we get v = 20 cm
v u f

## This image acts virtual object for convex

mirror. For mirror v = - ( x - 20)

1.5

38.

## and v = - (20 + x) and f = + 60 cm

1 1 1
Using + =
v u f

sin q
= n1
sin (90 - q c )

1
1
1
=
- (20 + x) ( x - 20) 60

sin q
= n1
cos q c

## After solving we get x = 20 cm.

Hence correct option is (c).
35. In this case system behave as concave
mirror or focal length = m fe

Now

sin q <

= 1.5 20 = 30 cm
Now using mirror formula
1 1 1
+ = we get
v u f

cos q c <

n12 - n22
n1

n12 - n22
n1
n1
sin q < n12 - n22

## Hence correct option is (a).

43
39. For

mirror u = - 1 cm

(taking

1 1
1 0.6
0.3
= +
=
+
F f1 f2 10 20 1.6

upward

direction + ve)
f = - 2 cm
1
1 1
=- v
f u

1
1
1
=- +1=
v
2
2

v = 2 cm

## Hence mirror form virtual image behind

mirror at 2 cm from pole. This image acts as
virtual object for slab on see below the slab
the shift is

1
9 = 3 cm
Dt = 1 3/2

## Hence virtual image form on object thus

correct option is (a).
m - m1
m
m
40. We have 2 - 1 = 2
v
u
R
For real object u is + ve
m 2 (m 2 - m 1) m 1

=
+
v
R
u
Q

R is + ve and m 1 > m 2
m2
m
= - ve + 1
v
u
v = - ve

## Hence, if m 1 > m 2 then these cannot be real

image of real object.
Hence, correct option is (a).
41. At oil-concave surface
1
1
1 1 0.6
=
= (1.6 - 1) +
10 f
f1
10
1
At other surface light goes from oil to glass
1 1.5
1
1
=
- 1 -

f2 1.6
10 20
1
0.3
=
f2 20 1.6
Let focal length of combination is F

F = 28.57 cm

## Hence correct option is (d).

42. Using formula
m2 m1 m2 - m1
=
v
u
R
For real image m is -ve
m2 m1 m2 - m1

+
=
v
u
R
1.5 0.5 1

=
v
R u
1.5 1
1

=
- v is + ve if u > 2R
v
2R u
Hence correct option is (b).
fu
43. v =
when u < f
f -u
u lend to lens
if

u 0, v 0

## Hence correct option is (d).

44. Since image formed by diverging lens is
always virtual.
Hence correct option is (a)
45. If the object place at first focus the image
forms at ie, rays incident the plane surface
normally and retrace its path.
- 60
-m 1R
Now x = f1 =
= - 120 cm
m 2 - m 1 0.5
Hence correct option is (a).
m - m1
m
m
46. 2 - 1 = 2
for m 2 = 1.6
v1 u1
R
1.6 - 1 6
1.6
1
=
=
v1 ( -2)
1
10

1.6 6 1 1
=
- =
v1 10 2 10

v1 = 16 m

For

m2 = 2

44
2 -1
2
1
=
=1
v2 ( -2)
1

2
1 1
= 1 - = v2 = 4 m
v2
2 2

## Hence separation between images = v1 - v2

Hence

= (16 - 4) cm

1 (1.8 - 1.2) 1 1
=
+
R
2f
(1.2 - 1)
1
0.6
=
16 0.2R

= 12 cm
Hence correct option is (a).

R = 48 cm

## Hence correct option is (a).

Here u = - 10, v = - 40 cm

## 49. If plane surface is silvered the system acts a

concave mirror having focal length
R
= = 24 cm
2

1 1 1
+ = we get
v u f
-1 1 1
=
40 10 f

f = - 8 cm

## 1. Since prism are identical hence if a right

prism produce deviation d inverted prism
produce deviation -d.
if n = 2m deviation becomes zero.

## The correct options are (b) and (d).

3. The correct options are (b) and (c).
4. The lens form real image if D 4 F
(displacement method)

if n = 2m + 1 deviation produce is d
Hence correct options are (a) and (b).
2. sin i

and

f =

D2 - x2
4D

## and the magnification m1m2 = 1

Hence correct options are (b), (c) and (d).
5. Deviation produced by prism
30

d = (m - 1) A = (1.5 - 1) 4 = 2
sin r

## if the mirror is rotated q = 2 ray become

horizontal after reflection from mirror.

Q sin i = m sin r

m = tan 30 = 3

## if speed of light in medium x is v

then speed of light; in medium y =

v
v
=
m
3

## Since y is denser w.r.t. x hence total internal

reflection take place when incidence in y.

## Again if mirror is rotated by 1 reflection ray

deviated by 2 from horizontal and after
passing through prism again ray become
horizontal.
Hence correct option are (a) and (b).

45

## Match the Columns

1. Correct match is
(a) q, r
(c) p, r

(b) p, s
(d) p, r

4. (a) q,

2. (a) p, r

(b) q, s

(c) q, r

(d) q, r

(b) r
(c) r
(d) p
5. Since

3.

m1

x
1

I
m2

1
1
1
= ( n - 1)

f
R1 R2

m2 > m

1
1 1.5
1

=
- 1
f 1.4
R1 R2

f is + ve

## Hence image distance is less than x and

virtual.

hence

(a) q, s
Similarly as in (a) the correct match for

magnification

(b) q, r

Similarly

(c) 1

(c) q, s and

(d) p, s
2

(c) p, s
(d) p, r

## 6. For real object at 2c convex lens form image

at 2c similarly for virtual object concave lens
does.
(a) q, s
(b) q, r
(c) q, r
(d) q, r

## 28 Interference and Diffraction

of Light
Introductory Exercise 28.1
1. Because they are incoherent ie, Df does not
remain constant.
2. Since laser is highly coherent
monochromatic source of light

and

3. I = I 0 cos2 q / 2

3I0
= I 0 cos2 q / 2
4

cos q / 2 =
q p
=
2 6
p
q=
3

l
l p l
f=
=
2l
2p 3 6
yd
Dx =
D
D Dx D l
y=
=
d
d 6
Dx =

But

3
2

## 1.2 600 10-9

y=
= 48 mm
0 . 25 10-2 6
1
4. 2 mt = n - l for minimum thickness n = 1
2

l
3

t=
=
= 0.5 cm
4m 4 1.5
5. Here a1 = 3 a and a2 = a
R2 = (3 a)2 + ( a)2 + 2 3 a a cos q
I = 9 I 0 + I 0 + 6I 0 cos q
I = [10 + 6 cos q ] I 0

2 cos2 q - 1 I

0
2
q
= 10 + 12 cos2 - 6 I 0

2
q
= 4 + 12 cos2 I 0

2
q
= 4 I 0 1 + 3 cos2

2
I
Now, I max = 0
9
4
q

I = I max 1 + 3 cos2

9
2

yd
6. Dx =
- (m - 1) t
D
l
if t =
2 (m - 1)

I = 10 + 6

Dx =

yd l
D 2

For maxima Dx = nl
yd
1

= 2n + l
D
2
This become minima.
1
For minima Dx = n - l
2

yd l
l
- = nl D 2
2
yd

## - nl this become maxima.

D
Hence
maxima
interchanged.

and

minima

are

47
7. For two slit experiment

But

## 8. Since amplitude of each wave is equal. The

amplitude of resultant wave is zero if waves
are equally displaced in phase
360
ie,
q=
= 45
8

d sin q = nl
nl
sin q =
d
nl
sin q 1
1
d
n

n =6

4 10-6
d
n
= 6.67
l
6 10-7

AIEEE Corner

## 1. R2 = a12 + a22 + 2a1a2 cos f

(i) R = 2a, a1 = a2 = a
4 a2 = a2 + a2 + 2a2 cos f

Now,

cos f = 1 f = 0
(ii) 2a2 = 2a2 + 2a2 cos f

f = 90
(iii) a2 = 2a2 + 2a2 cos f
-1
cos f =
f = 120
2

But

## (iv) 0 = 2a2 + 2a2 cos f f = 180

2

2.

I max
I min

a1

+ 1
2
a
( a + a2 )

= 1
= 2
2
( a1 - a2 )2 a

1 - 1
a2

I max
I min

2
3 + 1

= 8 = 16
=
2
22
5

3 -1

I max : I min = 16 : 1
q
3. I = I max cos2
2
I max
q

= I max cos2
2
2
q
p

cos = cos
2
4

p
2
2p
f=
Dx
l
p 2p
=
Dx
2 l
l
Dx =
4
yd
Dx =
D
D Dx
y=
d
q=

y=

1m l
1 500 10-9
=
4 1 mm
4 10-3

y = 1.25 10-4 m
q
4. I = I max cos2
2
I
q
p
(a) max = I max cos2 q =
2
2
2
2p
Now q =
Dx
l
l
yd
Dl
Dx = and Dx =
=
4
D
4d
1
2 q
(b) I max = I max cos
4
2
q
p
2p
cos = cos
q=
2
3
3
2p
f=
Dx
l

48
2p 2 p
l
=
Dx Dx =
3
l
3
yd
Dl
Now Dx =
y=
D
3d
q
5. (a) I = I max cos2
2

## 8. In Youngs double slit experiment

Dl
w=
d
2.2 l
2.82 10-3m =
.460 10-3

I max = I 0 and q = 60
3

I = I 0 cos2 30 = I 0 = 0.75I 0
4
2p
(b) q =
Dx
l
p 2p

=
Dx
3 l
l 480
nm

Dx = =
6
6

## 9. xn for bright fringe is given by

nDl
d
Dl
2Dl
and x2 =
x1 =
d
d
Dl
the angular separation
Dx =
d
xn =

sin ( Dq) =

Dx = 80 nm

l = 590 nm

6. l A = lB = 6m

= 0.014

5m

## For constructive interference difference

wavelength = 0, l, 2l
Q

Dx l 5 10-7
= =
= 2.5 10-4
D d 2 10-3

l = 6 > dAB = 5

## 10. When whole appratus is immersed in water

4
l = nw l = 700 10-9 m
3
w=

## Hence only constructive interference occur

at Dl = 0
5

x = m = 2.5 m
2
3l
For destructive interference Dl = l,
2

Dl 48 10-2 4 7 10-7
=
= 0.90 mm
d
3 25 10-5

D1l
Dl
and w2 = 2
d
d
( D1 - D2 ) l
w1 - w2 =
d

11. w1 =

3 10-5 =

Only possibility at Dl = 6
Which occur at x = 1 m and x = 4 m from A.
7. The wavelength l =
A

3 108
c
=
= 2.5 m
n 120 106
(9 x)

## For constructive interference

x - (9 - x) = nl , where n = 0, 1, 2 K
x = 4.5, 5.75, 7, 8.25
The other points are 3.25, 2, .75

1.5 10-2
l
10-3

3
10-8
-2 = 2 10-6 m = 2 mm
1.5 10
D nl
12. For bright fringe xn =
d
l=

## For first light ( l = 480 nm ) the third order

1 3 480 10-9
Bright fringe is x3 =
5 10-3
For second light ( l = 600 nm )
x3 =

1 3 600 10-9
5 10-3

49
Dx = x3 - x3 =

## 3 10-9 (600 - 480)

5 10-3

3 120
10-6
5
-6

Dx = 72 10 , Dx = 72 mm
13. Fringe width :
w=
=

lD
d

m
(0.45 10-3)

## = 0.83 10-3 m = 0.83 mm

Distance between second and third dark
line = one fringe width = 0.83 mm.
14. For first order bright fringe
Dl
x=
d

4.94 10-3 =

3 600 10
d

= 3l
I

15.

y2
S1

D +

y12

3l
2d

y1

## (35 10-2 )2 + y12

y2
(35 10-2 )2 + y22

550 10-9
2 1.8 10-6

(i)

3 550 10-9
2 1.8 10-6

2 meV
-34

l=

6.62 10

l = 1.24 10-10 m
w=

Dl 3 1.24 10-10
=
m = 36.6 cm
d
10 10-10

## (a) At distance y = 10 mm = 10 10-3m from

the central fringe path difference will be
Dy =

screen

=
D
1

= 3 10-6 m

y1
q q

S2

y2

and

## d = 0.3 mm = 0.3 10-3m

l = 12 10-7 m l = 1200 nm

## For first dark fringe n = 1 and for 2nd, n = 2

l
dsin q =
2
3l
l
sin q =
dsin q =
2
2d
y1
l

=
D2 + y12 2d

On solving y2 - y1 = 12.6 cm

Dl
x=
2d
3 l 4.94
4.94 10-3 =
2 18 10-4
2 18 10

l
2

-9

## Let for wavelength l first dark fringe is

-7

d sin q = (2n - 1)

and

18 10-7
18
d=
=
10-4 m
4.94 10-3 5.94

## Corresponding phase difference

2l
2p
f=
Dx =
l
5.46 10-7
= 1978

50
I = I 0 cos2

q
2

= I 0 cos2

1978
2
= I 0 cos 989
2

I = 3 10-4 I 0
(b) Fringe width w =
w=

Number of fringes =

w=

10 mm
= 5.49
1.82 mm

## Hence the number of fringe is five.

18. Shift due to sheet of thickness 10m and

1.1784 D
10-6 m
d

## Now when t is removed and D is doubled the

distance between successive maximum (or
minima) i. e., fringe width

lD
d

5.46 10-7 1
= 1.82 mm
0.3 10-3

2Dl
d

## but according to question Dx = w

1.178 10-6 D 2 Dl
=
d
d
l = 0.589 10-6 m = 589 nm

## 20. Let n bright fringe (l = 5500 ) concide with

10th
bright fringe of 6000

## refractive index 1.6 is

(m - 1) tD
Dx1 =
d

n 5500 = 6000 10

10 10-6 1.5
Dx1 = (1.6 - 1)
1.5 10-3
Dx1 = 0.6 10 10-3 = 6 10-3m
Shift due to sheet of thickness 15m and
refractive index 1.2 is
-6

Dx2 =

Dx =

(1.2 - 1) 15 10
1.5 10-3

n~
- 11

## Similarly first bright fringe concide with 1st

fringe. Now fringe width
14.74 - 12.5
w=
= 0.224 mm
10
Hence position of 10th bright fringe

1.5

= 14.74 - 0 . 224 ~
- 14.55 mm
Position of zero order bright fringe

Dx2 = 3 10-3m

= 12.75 - 0.224 ~
- 12.25 mm

## Since these shifts are in opposite direction

of central maxima hence net shift

21. Here d ~
- 1 cm

## Dx = Dx1 - Dx2 = 6 10-3m - 3 10-3m

P

= 3 10-3m = 3 mm
19. Let l is the wavelength of light D is screen
distance from source and d is the separation
between slits (all are in metres)
Shift = Dx =

Dx =

1 cm
q

(m - 1) tD
d

## (1.6 - 1) 1.964 10-6 D

d

D = 100 m
l = 500 nm

51
For first dark fringe
-9

y=

Dl 100 500 10
=
2d
2 10-2

y = 2.5 mm

## 22. The destructive interference will be 2mt = nl

for thinnest n = 1

## 25. For destructive interference

2mt = nl for t to be minimum

2mt = l

t=

t = 114 nm

l 650 10-9
=
2m
2 1.42

## 23. Here t = 0.485 mm , t = 485 nm, n = 1.53

(a) Condition for constructive interference
in refractive system
1
2mt = n - l where, n = 1, 2
2

For

## 24. For constructive interference

1
2mt = n - l for t to be minimum n = 1
2

l
6000

t=
=
= 1154
4m 4 1.3

= 2968.2 mm

n =1
l 800
t=
=
2m 2m

## For constructive interference

l
2mt = (2n - 1)
2
800
l
2m
= (2n - 1)
2m
2
1600 = (2n - 1) l
For n = 1, l = 600 nm which does not lie in
visible region

For

n = 2, 3,

## 2mt = nl, putting n = 1, 2,

1600 = 3 l
1600

= l l = 533 nm
3
1600
for n = 3, l =
= 320 nm which does lie
5
in visible

Hence l = 533 nm

## we get l = 424 nm, 594 nm,

(b) For structive interference in transmitted
system

n =2

(i)

## (Single option correct)

R = 82 + 62 = 10 m

6m

## Hence correct option is (b).

2. Here

8m

12 m

I1
= B2
I2
I max = [ I1 + I1 ]2

6m

I min = [ I1 - I2 ]2
8m

52

I min
I max

( I max - I min ) b + 1 - b + 1
=

( I max + I min )
2b

(m - 1) tD
d
(1.5 - 1) 10 10-6 100 10-2
=
2.5 10-3

I1
- 1
2
I2
= b - 1

I1
b + 1
+ 1
I2

5. Shift =

## Hence correct option is (a).

Dnl
6. xn =
for nth bright fringe
d
Dl
xn =
(2n - 1) for nth dark fringe
2d
Dl
Dx = xn - xn =
[2n - 2n + 1]
2d
Dl
Dx =
2d

I max - I min
1
=
I max - I min b2

## Hence, correct option is (d).

3. For nth dark fringe
xn = (2n - 1)

Dl
2d

Dl
x1 =
2d

5 10-6
= 2 10-3m = 2 mm
2.5 10-3

## 7. Since at centre path difference for all colour

is always zero hence centre will be white.

x
Angular position q = sin -1 1
D
l

q = sin -1
2a

5460 10-10
q = sin -1
-3
2 0.1 10

-1

q = sin

q = 0.16

## Hence correct option is (a).

[0.00273 ]

8. n1 l1 = n2 l2
60 4000 = n2 6000 n2 = 40

## Hence correct option is (b)

4. For 10th bright fringe x10

10Dl
=
d

But

But

Dl
2d

x6 = x10
10 Dl
11
Dl =
2a
d
l 20
=
l 11
l 20
m= =
= 1.8
l 11

## Hence correct option is (a).

Dl
9. Initial fringe width w1 =
d
Final fringe width w2 =

( D - 5 10-2 )l
d

l
5 10-2
d
l
= -3 5 10-2
10

|Dw|=|w2 - w1|=

3 10-5

3 10-6
= l 6000 = l
5

53
10.

I max 49
=
I min
9
I + I2
I
Now max = 1

I min I1 - I2

I max
=
I min

I
25
max =
I min
4

I1
I2
I1
I2

+ 1

- 1

49
7 + 1
+ 1

100
9
= 3
= 16
7
49
- 1
-1
3

l=

## Hence correct option is (b).

12. Let nth fringe of 6500 concide with nth
fringe of 5200 .
Dn 6500 Dn
=
5200
d
d
n 5200 4

=
=
n 6500 5
xn =

## It means 4th fringe of 6500 coincide with

5th fringe of 5200 hence the distance
x=

Dnl
11. xn =
d
3 Dl

x3 =
= 7.5 10-3m
d

31

## 4 120 10-2 6500 10-10

2 10-3

x = 0.156 cm
Hence correct option is (a).
13. Since number of minima does not depends
on orientation hence n1 = n2
Hence correct option is (a).

## Assertion and Reason

1. We have I = 4 I 0 cos2

f
2p
if f =
2
3

we get I = I 0
Hence assertion is true.
l
Now path difference =
phase difference
2p
l 2p l
Path difference =

=
2p 3 3
Hence reason is true.
But reason is not the explanation of
assertion. Hence correct option is (b).
2. Here assertion and reason are both true but
reason is not correct explanation of
assertion. Correct option is (b).

## 3. Assertion is wrong since fringes are

symmetrical ie, fringes obtained both above
and below point O. Reason is true.
Correct option is (a).
4. Here both assertion and reason are true and
reason correctly explain assertion. Hence
correct option is (a).
5. Both assertion and reason are true and
reason correctly explain the assertion.
Hence correct option is (a).
6. Assertion is true since locus of all fringes is
circle. But reason is wrong since fringes may
have any shape.
Correct option is (c).

54
7.

9. Q d sin q = nl
P

nl
d
but = 4
d
l
n
sin q =
4
sin q =

d cos q
q
d
S1
S2

Now if q = 30
n = 4 sin 30 = 2

## The path difference decreases as q increases.

Q as q increases, cos q decreases
d cos q
Hence order of fringe n =
decreases
l
as we go above P. Hence assertion is wrong
(false).

## For 11th order maxima path differenc is

more hence reason is true but assertion is
false correct option is (d).
8. Here assertion is true and reason is false
and reason does not correctly explain
assertion. Correct option is (c).

## Also reason is true and does not correctly

explain assertion correct option is (b).
10. Here assertion is false. Since
(m - 1) tD
is independent of l.
=
d

shift

## Hence shift of red colour = shift of violet

colour.
and reason is true
Q

mV >mR

## Objective Questions (Level 2)

1. I = 4 I 0 cos2

px
a

k
px
= k cos2
4
l
px 1

cos
=
l 2
px
1
= cos -1
l
2
px p
px 2p

= or
=
l 3
l
3
l
2l

x = or x =
3
3

lx1
a

I 0 = 4 I 0 cos2

x1 =

and

2I 0 = 4 I 0 cos2

x2 =

a
3

(i)
px2
a

a
4

Dx = x1 - x2 =

(ii)
a a a
- =
3 4 12

## Hence correct option is (c).

px
px
2. I = 4 I 0 cos2 = k cos2
l
l
p
I = k cos2 l = k
l

I
p
x
= k cos2
4
l

## Hence correct option is (b).

3. Light of wavelength l is strongly reflected if
1
(i)
2 ut = n + l n = 0, 1, 2
2

(i)

## 2 ut = 2 1.5 5 10-7 m = 1.5 10-6 m

Putting l = 400 nm in eq. (1) and using
eq. (ii)

55
1
1.5 10-6 m = n + 4 10-7 m
2

n = 3.25

Putting
-6

1.5 10

3
3
a
x = cos -1

px = a cos -1
4
p

4
x = 0.20 mm

l = 700
1
m = n + 7 10-7
2

## Hence correct option is (d).

6. Number of fringes shifted =

n = 1.66

4=

## Hence n can take values 2 and 3.

4ut
From (i) if n = 2 , l =
= 600 nm
2 2 + 1
if

n = 3 l = 429 nm

## only l = 600 is given in the options.

Hence correct option is (b).

(m - 1) t
l
(1.5 - 1) t

4
6 10-7 m = t
0.5

t = 4.8 mm

6000

## Hence correct option is (a).

7. For nth order minima

-2

4. xn =

Dln 100 10
=
l n
d
001
. 10-3
nl
xn = - 5
10

xn =

n 4000 10-10 m
= 4 10-5 n
10-5

S2

(2n - 1) Dl
for 3rd minima n = 3
2d
5Dl 5l
y3 =
=
2d 2q
d
Q q~
- tan q =
D
yn =

xn = 4 n mm
Similarly for l = 7000
xn = 7 n mm n = 5, 6
hence only x = 5
Passes through hole l = 5000
Hence correct option is (b).
px
Dl
5. I = 4 I 0 cos2 where a =
a
d

-10

1 6000 10
1 10-3

3
px
= cos
4
a

## Hence correct option is (b).

3a 5
8. AB = d = 3 a =
5
C

= (6 10-4 )

px
75% I 0 = I 0 cos2
a
3
px
= cos2
16
a

q
q

For l = 4000

= 0.04 n

a=

S1

( a, 0)
A

(2a, 0)
D

AB = 15l
Hence total maxima = 14 4 + 4
= 60
Hence correct option is (a).

56
px
9. I = 4 I 0 cos2
a

= 12 104 10-9 m

p a
I = 4 I 0 cos2
a 4
p
I = 4 I 0 cos2
4
4I0
=
= 2I 0
2
I
1
0 =
I 2
Hence correct option is (b).
p
10. I = I 0 cos2 (m - 1) t
a

at m = I

I = I0

## Hence correct variation is (c)

px
11. I = I 0 cos2
l
3
px
I 0 = I 0 cos2
4
l
px p

=
l 6
l

x = but x = (m - 1) t
6
l

(1.5 - 1) t =
6
l 6000

t= =

3
3

t = 2000 = 0.2 mm

## Hence correct option is (a).

12. Net shift = (m 1 - 1) t - (m 2 - 1) t
= (m 1 - m 2 ) t = (1.52 - 1.40) t
Net shift = 0.12 10.4 mm

= 1248 10-9 m
= 1248 nm
Net shift = nl
where n is + ve integer
nl = 1248

## Now, for 416 = l, n = 3

For 624 = l , n = 2
Hence correct option is (c).
13. w =

6300 1.33 m
lD
=
d n
1 mm 1.33
=

63 10-8 1.33 m
10-3 1.33

= 0.63 mm
Hence correct option is (a).
7 Dl 3 Dl
Dl
14. Dx =
= 4

nd
nd
nd
Dx = 4 0.63 mm = 2.52 mm
Correct option is (a).
15. Dx = 2 of fridge width
2 0.63 mm
2
2 0.63
t=
= 1.57 mm
0.53

(m - 1) t =

## Hence correct option is (b).

16. Since on introducing thin glass sheet fringe
width does not change hence fringe width
= 0.63 mm.
The correct option is (a).

57

## 1. At centre path difference between all colours

is zero hence cnetre is white since violet has
least wavelength hence next to central will
be violet and since intensity is different for
different for colours hence there will be not a
completely dark fringe
Hence correct options, are (b), (c) and (d).
2. Correct options are (a), (c) and (d).
q
3. Q I = 4 I 0 cos2 at centre q = 0 I = 4 I 0
2
and at distance 4 mm above o is again
maxima hence its intensity is also 4 I 0 .

## 4. The correct options, are (a), (c) and (d)

Since phase difference = constant
Light should be monochromatic.
5. Since in this case fringe pattern shift
upward hence the correct options are (a), (b)
and (c).
6. Q n1l1 = n2 l2 for maxima
Using this option (a) is satisfied and
(2n1 - 1) l1 = (2n2 - 1) l2 for minima
Using this 3rd option is satified
Hence correct options are (a) and (c).

## Match the Columns

1. Q I = 4 I 0 cos2

q
2

if

q = 60

I = 3I0

if

q = 90

I = 2I 0

if

q = 0

I = 4I0

if

q = 120

I = I0

## Hence correct match is

(a) s; ( b) q; (c) p; (d) r
l
2. Dx =
Df
2p
2p
l
Df =
Dx if Dx =
l
3
2p

Df =
= 120
3
l
if
Dx =
6
l
Df = 60 if Dx = , Df = 90
4
Dq
Using I = 4 I 0 cos2

2
The correct match are

## 3. Distance between third order maxima and

3 Dl
central maxima =
= 3w
d
Distance between 3rd order minima and
central
1 Dl
Dl
Maxima = 3 -
= 2.5
= 2.5 w
2 d
d

## Distance between first minima and forth

order
4 Dl Dl
maxima =
=
= 2.5 w
d
2d
Distance between first minima and forth
order
4 Dl Dl
maxima =
= 3.5 w
d
2d
Distance between 2nd order maxima and
fifth order minima = 4.5 w - 2w = 2.5 w
hence correct match is
(a) q; (b) p; (c) r; (d) p

58
4. Since fringe shift in the division of sheet
placed soure hence
Similarly for other the correct match
(b) r, s; (c) p; (d) p
lD
5. When y =
there will a dark fringe at 0.
2d
hence (a) q
lD
lD
when y =
=3

6d
2d
The intensity becomes 3I
(b) p

(c) s

lD
3d

Intensity = I

(d) r

(a) p

when y =

when y =

lD
4d

Intensity = 2I

## 6. When a thin plate (transparent) is placed in

front of S1 zero order fringe shift above from
O hence
(a) r
When S1 is closed interference disappear
and uniform illuminance is obtained on
screen hence
(b) p, q
Similarly (c) r, s and
When s is removed and two real sources s1
and s2 emitting light of same wavelength are
placed interference disappear. Since sources
become non-cohrrent hence (d) p, q

## 29. Modern Physics I

Introductory Exercise 29.1
1. The positron has same mass m as the
electron. The reduced mass of electron
positron atom is
m m 1
m=
= m
m+m 2
4

RH =

me
8e20 ch3

lP RH

=
=2
lH RP
l p = 2lH = 2 6563 = 13126

2.

1
1
=
z2
lHe lH

lHe = 164 nm

z2

lHe =

1
1 1
=R -
l
4 9
36
36
l=
=
5R 5 1.097 107
l = 656 nm

Tn =

e n2 h2 2e 0 nh
2prn
= 2p 0
un
pme2 e2

lH 6563
=
22
22

4 e 0 n 3h 3
me4
1
me4
= 2 3 3
Tn 4 e 0 n h

r1 =

me4
4 e20 h3

n1 =

## 9.1 10-31 (16

. 10-19 )4
4 (8.85 10-12 )2 (6.6 10-34 ) 3

n1 = 6.58 1015 Hz
n2 =

1
1
1
= R 2 - 2 for largest wavelength n = 3
l
n
2

e2
2e 0 nh

rn =

1
1
1
= RP 2 - 2
lP
3
2

e 0 n2 h2
pme2

un =

R
RP = H
2
1
1
1
= RH 2 - 2
lH
3
2

= 1.31 mm
1
1
1
= RH 2 - 2
lHe
3
2

3. For H-atom rn =

n1 n1 6.58 1015
=
=
8
23 8

= 0.823 1015 Hz
1
1
1
(b)
=R 2 - 2

l
2
1
c
3
n = = 3 108 R

l
4
n=

## 9 108 1.097 107

4

= 2.46 1015 Hz
(c) Number of revolutions
= v2 T = 0.823 1015 1 10-8
= 8.23 106 revolution

60
4. Reduce
mass
mm m p
207 m 1836 m
=
=
= 186 m
mm + m p (207 m + 1836 m )
h2
r1 = 4 pe 0 2 2
4 p me

h2
= 4 pe 0 2
4 p (186m) e2

## Putting the value we get

-13

r1 = 2.55 10

36
= 653 nm
5 1.097 107

7. n K = n K a + n L a lL a =
b

## Ionization energy = - E1 = 2.81 keV

6.6 10-34
(b) l =
= 7.3 10-11m
9.1 10-31 107
6. (a) After absorbing 12.3 eV the atom excited
to n = 3 state

hc
DE

8. l =

E3
E2 = 2870 eV
Ka

Kb
E1

lK a =

## 6.6 10-34 3 108

( E1 - 2870) 1.6 10-19

0.71 10-9 =

## 6.6 10-34 3 108

( E1 - 2870) 1.6 10-19

n=2

n=1

E1 = - 4613 eV

1
1
= R 1 - 2

lL
n
1
1
8R
= R 1 - =

lL
9
9
1

9
9
=
= 102 nm
8 R 8 1.097 107

lK

4
4
=
= 122 nm
3 R 3 1.097 107

1
1
1
5R
=R 2 - 2 =
2
lB
3 36
lB =

36
5R

## 6.6 10-34 3 108

= 0.63
( 4613 - E3) 1.6 10-19

## Solving this we get E3 = - 2650 eV

4E
9. n 31 =
=f
h
5E

1
1
= R 1 -

lL
4

2
lL =

1
1
1
l = 5.59 nm
=
lL a lK
lK a L a

n=3

lK a - lK

0.71 0.63
c
c
c
lL a =
=
+
0.71 - 0.63
lK
lK a
lL a

6.6 10-34
h
=
= 4.8 10-34 m
mv 46 10-3 30

lL =

lK a lK

-me4
E1 = 2 2 = - 2810 eV
8 e0 h

5. (a) l =

lB =

3
4E
1

2
E

n21 =

3E 3 4E 3 f
=
=
h
4 h 4

n 32 =

E f
=
h 4

(i)

61

1. eV0 =

hc
-W
l

eV0 =

4. K max =

- 4.3 eV
2 10-7 1.6 10-19

=
- 3 eV
-7
-19
2 10 1.6 10

## eV0 = 6.2eV - 4.3 eV = 1.9 eV

= [6.20 - 3 ] eV = 3.20 eV

V0 = 1.9 volt

## The minimum kinetic energy = 0.

-3

2. P = 1.5mW = 1.5 10

5.

K max = h [ f - f0 ]

-34

6.62 10 3 10
4 10-7

## Number of photons incident per second

1.5 10-3
P
=
Energy of each photon 4.96 10-19
~
- 3 1015
The number of photoelectrons produce
= 0.1% 3 1015 = 3 1012
Current i = 3 1012 1.6 10-19 A
-7

= 4.8 10

A = 0.48 mA

3. K max = hf - W = hf - hf0

(i)

1.2 eV = h [ f - f0 ]

= 4.96 10-19 J

hc
-W
l

4.2 eV = h [1.5 f - f0 ]

(ii)

## Dividing Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii)

f - f0
124
=
42 1.5 f - f0

3 f - 2 f0 = 7 f - 7 f0
5 f0 = 4 f
4
f0 = f = 0.8 f
5

0.8

## 1.2 1.6 10-19 2 f0 f0

=
=
8
4
6.62 10-34

f0 = 1.16 1015 Hz

K max ( f - f0 )

## Subjective Questions (Level I)

1. Here l = 280 nm = 28 10-8 m
E=

=
J
l
28 10-8

E=

## 19.8 10-34 1016

198 10-19
J=
J
28
28
-19

E=

198 10
198 ~
eV =
- 4.6 eV
-19
28 1.6
28 1.6 10

We have E = mc2 m =

198 10-19
E
=
c2 28 9 1016

m = 8.2 10-36 kg
Momentum p = mc = 8.2 10-36 3 108
= 2.46 10-27 kg-m/s
2. Intensity of light at a distance 2 m
1
1
From the source =
=
W /m 2
2
16p
4 p (2)

62
5. (a) E = 2.45 MeV = 2.45 1.6 10-19 106 J

## Let plate area is A

Energy incident on unit time is
1
E1 =
Aw
16p
Energy of each photon
-34

6.6 10 3 10
4.8 10-7

## Number of photons striking per unit area

1
A 4.8 10-7
16 p
n=
A 6.6 10- 34 3 108 A
= 4.82 1016 per m 2 s

E = hn n =

n = 5.92 1020 Hz
(b) We have c = nl l =
l=
6. We have

E = 2.47 10

J
E in joule
Energy in eV =
1.6 10-19
2.47 10-19
=
1.6 10-19
Energy (in eV) = 1.54 eV

(b) Wavelength
l=

6.6 10-34
h
=
= 804 nm
p 8.24 10-28

## This wavelength in Infrared region.

4. We have c = f l f =

c 3 108 m/s
=
l 6 10-7 m

f = 5 1014 Hz
E
We have p =
E = pt power per sec =
t
energy

P=E

75 = ( h v) n
75
=
-34
6.6 10 5 1014

## n = 2.3 1020 photons/sec

3 108
= 5.06 10-13 m
5.92 1020
p = 2mK
p1 = 2mK 1 and p2 = 2mK 2

p1
=
p2

K1
K2

1
=
2

K1
K2

-19

c
n

E 3.92 10-13
=
h 6.6 10-34

[Q p2 = 2 p1 ]

K2 = 4 K1

## (b) E1 = p1c and E2 = p2 c E2 = 2 p1c

E2 = 2E1
7. (a) Since power = energy per unit line
let n be the number of photons
nc
P = nE 10 = n
l
10 l
10 500 10-9
n=
=
hc
6.6 10-34 3 108
n = 2.52 1019
(b) Force exerted on that surface
P
10
F= =
= 3.33 10-8 N
c 3 108
8. Absorbing (power) light = 70% of incident
light
Pa = 70% of 10 W = 7 W
Refractive power = 30% of 10 W
PR = 3 W

Pa 2 PR
+
c
c
7 + 2 3
13
=
=
c
3 108

## The force exerted =

= 4.3 10-8 N

63
9. Force = rate of change of momentum
p

13. (a) l =

h
h 6.6 10-34
p= =
l 2.8 10-10
p

p cos 60

## p = 2.37 10-24 kg-m/s

p sin 60

(b) Q p2 = 2me K K =

60
p cos 60

K =
p sin 60

p2
2me

(2.37 10-24 )2
2 9.1 10-31

K = 3.07 10-18 J

Dp
here Dt = 1 s
F=
Dt

K (in eV ) =

K in J
3.07 10-18
=
1.6 10-19
1.6 10-19

F = 2 p cos 60
F=p
nh
F=
l

vrms =

second

l=

## 1 1019 6.63 10-34

F=
= 10-8 N
663 10-9
10. Here output energy = 60 W/s
Pressure p =

2 60
= 4 10-7 N
3 108

K = 19.2 eV

## 3 1836 9.1 10-31 8.31 293

l = 1.04
15. For hydrogen like atom
E = - K Here E = - 3.4 eV
K = 3.4 eV = 3.4 1.6 10-19 J
h
h
l= =
p
2me K

l=

6.62 10-34
h
=
mv 5 10-3 340

l = 3.9 10-34 m

## Since l is too small. No wave like property

is exhibit.
6.6 10-34
h
12.(a) le =
=
mev 9.1 10-31 4.7 106
-10

= 1.55 10
(b) l p =

6.6 10-34
1836 9.1 10-31 4.7 10-6
= 8.44 10-14 m

h
3 MRT
6.6 10-34

de-Broglie wavelength
11. Here m = 5 g m = 5 10-3 kg, v = 340 m/s

3 RT
h
l=
M
Mvrms

6.6 10-34
2 9.1 10-31 3.4 1.6 10-19

l = 6.663
16. In Bohr model the velocity of electron in nth
orbit is given by
Un =

e2
2e 0 nh

## Putting the values of e, e 0 , h and n = 1, we

get
U1 = 2.19 107 m/s and U4 =

2.19 106
m/s
4

64
l1 =

h
h
h
and l4 =
=
= 4 l1
mev1
meu4 m u1
e
4

l1 =

6.6 10-34
9.1 10-31 2.19 106

= 3.32 10-10 m
l4 = 4 l1 = 4 3.332 10-10 m

= 1.33 10-9 m
The radius of first Bohr orbit
r1 = 0.529 10-10
The radius of fourth Bohr orbit
r4 = 16 0.529 10-10
2pr1 = 2 3.14 0529
.
10-10

3.32 10-10 m = l1

= 13.28 10-10 m

## Bohr Atomic Model and Emission Spectrum

17. For hydrogen like atom we can write
en =

- z2
(13.6 eV)
n2

## For lithium atom z = 3 we get

-9
-122.4
En = 2 (13.6 eV) =
eV
n
n2
The ground state energy is for n = 1
-122.4

E1 =
eV = - 122.4 eV
12
Ionization potential = - E1 = 122.4 eV
18. For hydrogen atom we can write
(a) E = - K K = 3.4 eV
(b) PE = - 2 K = - 2 3.4 = - 6.8 eV
Since potential energy depends upon
refrence hence it will changed.
19. Binding energy of an electron in He-atom is
E0 = 24.6 eV. ie, the energy required to
remove one electron from He-atom = 24.6 eV
Now, He-atom becomes He + and energy of
He + ion is given by
En =

- z2 (13.6)
for He + z = 2, we get
n2

## E1 = - 4 13.6 = - 54.4 eV.

Hence energy required to remove this
electron = 54.4 eV, thus total energy
= 24.6 + 54.4 = 79 eV

## 20. For hydrogen atom En =

-13.6 eV
n2

Putting n = 3, we get
-13.6 eV
E3 =
= - 1.51 eV
9
Hence hydrogen atom is in third excited
state the angular momentum
L=

nh 3 h 3 6.62 10-34
=
=
2p 2p
2 3.14

## L = 3.16 10-34 kg-m 2 /s

hc 6.6 10-34 3 108
=
DE
DE
6.6 10-34 3 108
(in Joule)
DE =
1023 10-10

21. We have l =

DE =

## 6.6 10-34 3 108

(in eV)
1023 10-10 1.6 10-19

~
- 12.1 eV
En - E1 = 12.1 eV But E1 = - 13.6 eV
En ~
- - 1.51 eV
-13.6
13.6
For H-atom En =
- 151
. =- 2
2
n
n
n =3
Hence atom goes to 3rd excited state. The
possible transition are (3 2, 3 1, and
2 1) ie, 3 transitions are possible and the
largest wavelength = 1023
(From 3 1)

65
Let for ten transitions quantum numbers
of energy levels are n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3 and
n+4

## 22. For hydrogen like atom

2

En =

-z
(13.6) eV
n2

0.544 eV

For Li + + z = 3
-122.4
En =
eV E1 = - 122.4 eV
n2
-122.4
E3 =
eV = - 13.6 eV
9

n+1
n+2
n+3

-34

l=

- z (13.6) eV
= - 0.85 eV
n2
- z2 (13.6) eV
= - 0.544 eV
( n + 4)2

83.7 10-19 J
=
= 52.3 eV (i)
1.6 10-19 J/eV

For He + z = 2

## Putting this value of n in Eq. (i)

54.4
En = 2 eV
n

E1 = - 54.4 eV

1
En - E1 = 54.4 1 - 2 eV
n

## From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

1
52.3 = 54.4 1 - 2
n

1 - 2 = 0.96
n
n =5

En =

(ii)

( n + 4)2
0.85
=
= 1.5625
2
0.544
n
n+4
= 1.25
n
4
1 + = 1.25
n
4
= 0.25
n
4
n=
= 16
0.25

- z2 (13.6)
eV
n2

(i)

## Dividing Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii)

En - E1 = 83.7 10-19 J

For He + atom En =

hc 6.6 10 3 10
=
= 113.74
E
108.8 1.6 10-19

1
663
. 10-34 3 108 1
+
10-10
1085 304

n+4

0.85 eV

## 23. The excited state energy He + atom will be

equal to the sum of energies of the photons
having wavelength 108.5 nm and 30.4 nm.
hc hc
En - E1 =
+
l1 l2

- z2
(13.6) eV
n2

(ii)

- z2 (13.6)
= - 0.85
(16)2
256 0.85

z2 =
13.6
z2 = 16 z = 4

## Hence atom no. of atom is = 4

hc
We know that DE =
l
hc
for smallest wavelength DE is
l=
DE
maximum
l=

## 6.6 10-34 3 108

[ - 0.544 - ( - 0.85)] 1.6 10-19

l = 40441

66
25. Here E1 = - 15.6 eV
(a) Hence ionization potential
= - E1 = 15.6 eV
hc
(b) We have l =
for short wavelength
DE
DE is maximum
l=

## 6.6 10-34 3 108 ~

- 2335
0 - ( - 5.3) 1.6 10-19

## (c) Excitation potential for n = 3 state is

= E3 - E1 = - 3.08 + 15.6 = 12.52 V
(d) From n = 3 to n = 1
DE = E3 - E1 = - 3.08 + 15.6 = 12.52 eV
hc
We know l =
DE

## 12.52 1.6 10-19

1 DE
=
=
l hc 6.6 10-34 3 108
= 1.01 107 (m

v2 = mw2 r2

-1

m2v2 r2 =

n2 h2
4 p2

m 3w2 r4 =

n2 h2
4 p2

r4 =

1
28.
= R ( z - 1)2
lK a

## Energy of this photon

12375 (eV)
=
= 1.44 eV
8600
hence internal energy of atom after
absorbing this photon is given by
Ei = E1 + 1.44 eV = - 6.52 + 1.44
= - 5.08 eV
12375 (eV)
(b) l2 =
= 2.95 eV
4200
hence internal energy of the atom after
emission of this photon is given by
Ei = E1 - 2.95 eV = ( - 2.68 - 2.95) eV
Ei = - 5.63 eV
1
dU
27. Heve U = mw2 r2 F =
= m2 w2 r
2
dr

But

mv
= m2 w2 r
r

r n
1 - 1 = 1

22 l0

lK

lK a

lK =
b

## 26. (a) E1 = - 6.52 eV

l = 860 nm = 8600

n2 h2
4 p2 m 3w2

1
= R ( z - 1)2
lK

29. l0 =

nh
2p

1 - 1

32

3 9 27
=
4 8 32
27
27
lK a =
l0
32
32

hc
eV

l0 1 =

## 6.6 10-34 3 108

1.6 10-19 25 103

l01 = 49.5 pm
l0 2 = 2l01 = 2 49.5 pm = 99 pm
[1 pm = 10-12 m ]
30. fKa = (2.48 1015 ) Hz ( z - 1)2

3 108
= 2.48 1015 (2 - 1)2
lK a

3 108
= ( z - 1)2
0.76 10-10 2.58 1015

( z - 1) ~
- 40 z = 41
hc
31. li =
Dl = 26 pm when V f = 1.5 V
eV

l f = ( li - 26) pm
hc
1 hc 12
1
lf =
=
=
=
li
e 1.5 V 1.5 eV 1.5 1.5

67
2
li
3

1
a2
=
l26
c

( li - 26) =

3 li - 26 3 = 2li

li = 78 pm

78 10-12 =
V =

5
f 26 -
1
3

=
2
l26
5
887 pm 13 -
3

## 6.6 10-34 3 108

1.6 10-19 V

6.6 3 10-26
1.6 78 10-12 10-19

l26

V = 15865 volt
32.

26 - 5

5
887 pm 13 -
3

=
2
26 - 5

V = a ( z - b)

= 887 pm

c
= a2 ( z - b)2
l

~
- 198 pm

1 a2
=
( z - b)2
l
c

33.

1
a2
=
(13 - b)2
887 pm
c

(i)

and

1
a2
=
(30 - b)2
146 pm
z

(ii)

146 (13 - b)
=

887 (30 - b)
30 - b
2.5 =
13 - b

342
(73)2

f =

3 RC
( z - 1)
4

4.2 1018 =

## 3 1.1 107 3 108

( z - 1)2
4

4.2 1018 4
= ( z - 1)2
9 1.1 1015

( z - 1) = 41 z = 42

34. P = Vi = 40 kW 10 mA = 400 W
% of P =

400 1
= 4W
100

## (a) Total power of X-rays = 4 W

32.5 - 2.5b = 30 - b

2.5 = 1.5b
5
b=
3

## = 400 - 4 = 396 J/s

Photoelectric effect
35. Einstein photo electric equation is
K max = hn - W
hc
eV0 =
- W Q K max = eV0
l

10.4 eV =

12375
l( )

- 1.7 eV

12375
= 1022
12.1
hc
12375
For H-atom l =
DE =
= 12.1 eV
DE
1022

l( ) =

68
This difference equal to n = 3 n = 1
transition.

h=

36. K max = hn - W
K max =

39. Here

- 3.7
1.6 10-19

K max = hn - W
Kmax (eV)
C

2
A
10

20

1
hc
m [v2 (max) ]2 =
-W
2
l2

D
30

9 hc hc
= 8W
l2
l1

9
1
hc
= 8W
6000 3000

## 6.6 10-34 3 108 7

= 8W
6000 10-10 1.6 10-19

W = 1.81 eV

f = 1 1014 Hz

-181
. 16
. 10-19
14

## (a) n o = threshold frequency q = 10 10 Hz

(b) W = 4 eV
(c) h = slope of the graph
8 eV
CD
=
=

(ii)

1
hc
m(u1 max )2 =
2
3000 10-10

= 1015 Hz

(i)

hc
- W,
l

hc
hc
2
-W
-W
v1 max
l

= l1
(3)2 = 1
v2 max
hc
hc

-W
-W
l2
l2

3
1

and

12375
l=
= 2260
5.475

u2 (max)

## where m is the mass of photoelectron

1
hc

m[v1(max) ]2 =
-W
2
l1

K max = eV0 = 3 eV
hc
K max =
-W
l
12375
3=
- 2.475
l(in )

v1(max)

we get
1
hc
mv2max =
-W
2
l

## 37. Here work function

12375
W(in eV) =
= 2.475 eV
5000

8 1.6 10-19
= 6.4 10-34 J-s
2 1015

= 34

662
. 10
3 108
1
m(u1 max )2 =
2
3 107
-2896
.
10-19
1
m(u1 max )2 = 662
. 10-19 - 2896
.
10-19
2
1
m(u1 max )2 = 3.724 10-19
2

69
(u1 max )2 =

3.724 10-19 2
9.1 10-31

-1.81 16
. 10-19 Q

me = 9.1 10-31

## u1 max = 9 105 m/s

1
and v2 max = v1 max = 3 105 m/s
3
40. Here intensity I = 2 W /m 2 and
-4

Area A = 1 10 m

vmax =
r=

## 42. The given equation is

E = (100 v / m ) [sin ((5 1015 ) t

+ sin (8 1015 ) t ]
Light consist of two different frequencies.
Maximum frequency
8 1015
=
= 1.27 1015 Hz
2p

E = IA = 2 10-4 W
2 10-4 eV
= 2 10-4 J/s =
1.6 10-19 s

## For maximum KE we will use Einsteins

equation

2 1015
eV/s
1.6

(KE) max = hn - W

=

2 1015
1.6 106
.

of the wave
n=

## = 6.25 1011 per second

Maximum KE = (10.6 - 5.6) eV = 5 eV
hc
41. K max =
-W
l

K max

6.6 3 10-18
1
mev2max =
- 2 1.6 10-19
2
18
1
mev2max = 11 10-19 - 3.2 10-19
2
= 7.2 10-19 J

1.57 3 1015
= 0.75 1015
2 3.14

We have
6.6 10-34 0.75 1015

eV0 =
- 1.9 eV
-19
1.8 10

Minimum KE = 0

=
- 2 1.6 10-19
180 10-9

-2
1.6 10-19

0.53 2 1015
=

.

=
eB
1.6 10-19 5 10-5

r = 0.148 m

surface

2 7.2 10-19
= 1.25 106 m/s
9.1 10-31

V0 = 1.2 V

## 1. Einstein photo electric equation is

K max = hn - W
its slope = h = planck constant which is
same for all metals and independent of
Hence correct option is (d).
2. Since current is directly proportional to
intensity therefore as current is increased

70
intensity is increased since lmin

1
, if V is
V

h
l2 mv2 v3
=
=
n
l3
v2
mv3

l2 2
=
l3 3

## Hence correct option is (c).

3. For hydrogen atom (Bohrs model) nth
e2
orbital speed vn =
2e 0 nh
For first orbit n = 1

## 8. For hydrogen like atom

e2
v1 =
2e 0 h

En =

(1.6 10-19 )2
2 8.85 10-12 6.62 10-34

1
c
8
v~
-
3 10 =
137
137

4.

86

22

X
3a 80

210

4b

210

84 B

## Hence correct option is (b)

12375
12375 ~
5. lmin (in ) =
=
- 0.62
V (in volt) 20 1000
Hence correct option is (c).
1
6. We have mev2max = eV
2

vmax

2eV
=
m
=

## For ground state n = 1

E1 = - z2 13.6 eV

But

E1 = - 122.4 eV

-122.4 eV = - z2 13.6 eV

z2 = 9

z =3

Hence it is Li2 +
The correct option is (c).
hc
Dlmin
DV
9. lmin =

100 = 100
eV
lmin
V
Percentage change in lmin = - 2%
Hence lmin is decreased by 2%
correct option is (c)

9.1 10-31

10. En =

e2
2e 0 nh

e2
e2
v2 =
, v3 =
2e 0 2h
2e 0 3 h

v2 3
=
v3 2

## Let l2 and l3 are the de-Broglie

wavelengths

- z2
(13.6 eV) for first excited state n = 2
n2

E2 =

- z2
(13.6) eV
4

-13.6 eV =

- z2
13.6 eV
4

vmax ~
- 8 107 m/s

## 7. For hydrogen atom vn =

- z2
(13.6 eV)
n2

z =2

Hence it is He +
Correct option is (a).
12375
11. lmin (in ) =
V (in volt)
12375
= 12.375 103 V
1

V =

V = 12.4 eV

71
Hence correct option is (c).
h
12. We have l =
p

eV0 = hc
=

-34

p=

h 6.62 10
=
l 0.5 10-10

V0 =

## l = 13.26 10-24 kg-m/s

Hence correct option is (c).
13. W =

l0 = 7750

## Hence correct option is (a).

Balmer

series

is

30 15
=
16 8
15
V0 =
V
8

4E =

3 hc
-W
l

z =2

= 54.4 eV
Hence correct option is (a).

(ii)

hc
= 3W
l
hc
W =
3l

## 18. By Moseleys law

f = a ( z - b) for K a line b = 1

KE = 13.6 eV

f = a ( z - 1)

states = 10.2 eV

## Hence total energy in this state

and

f = a (51 - 1) = 9 50

f
3
=
f 5

= 13.6 + 10.2
= 23.8 eV
The correct option is (c).
hc
16. eV0 =
-W
3300
hc
2eV0 =
2200

(i)

hc
3 hc
4
-W -W
l
l

## 6.6 10-34 3 108

3 2200 1.6 10-19 10-10

hc
17. E =
-W
l
hc
4E =
-W
l/3

1
1 1

= z2 109
. 107 - 2
-10

1085 10
4 5
100 1000

z2 =
=4
1085 1.097 21

hc
3 2200 10-10

66
. 10-34 3 108
hc
l0 =
l0
16
. 10-19 16
.

## 14. For H-like atom

1
1
1
= z2 R 2 - 2

l
n
2

3300 - 2200
3300 2200

f = a (31 - 1) = a 30

f =

(i)

25 f
9

(ii)

## Substracted Eq. (i) from Eq. (ii), we get

19.

1
1
f = ( RC) ( z - 1) - 2
12 n
for K a , n = 2

(i)

72
K b, n = 3

1
fa = RC ( z - 1) 1 - 2 = RC ( z - 1)
2

3
4

W =

hc
6l

## Hence correct option is (a).

23. eV0 = h [2V0 - V0 ] = hV0

fb = RC ( z - 1) 1 fb
fa

1
8
= RC ( z - 1)
9
9

8 4
32
=
=
,
93
27

## From Eqs. (i) and (ii)

Hence correct option is (b).
24. For H-atom Lyman series is
1
1
1
=R 2 - 2
l
n
1

9 - 4
1
1
1
5R
R =
= R 2 - 2 =
l
36
3 9 4
2
36
l=
5R

For Li + + , n = 3 n = n 32 = 9 v
Hence correct option is (c).
25. Ground state energy of H-atom = - 13.6 eV

2

## From Eqs. (i) and (ii)

5hc
hc
- 5W =
-W
3l
l
5hc hc

=4W
3l
l
hc (5 - 3)

=4W
l
3
2hc

= 4W
3l

( -13.6) eV
z2
n2
-13.6 eV 9
-13.6 eV =
n2

For Li + + atom En =

3 107
lD
1
=
=
lmin 3 108 10

hc
22. 5 eV0 =
-W
l
hc
eV0 =
-W
3l

c
1
1
= RC 2 - 2
l
n
1

1
1
n = RC - 2 z2
12 n

lD
1 eV
=
lmin c 2m
1
=
3 108

v=

h
hc
21. lD =
and lmin =
eV
2 meV

## eV = h [3 V0 - V0 ] = h 2V0 = 2hV0 (ii)

eV = 2 eV0 V = 2V0

## Correct option is (a).

1
1
1
20.
= R 2 - 2 here n = 3

l
n
2

(i)

(i)
(ii)

n =3

## Hence correct option is (c).

1
26. mv12 = hn1 - W
2
1
mv22 = hn2 - W
2
1

## m [v12 - v22 ] = h [n1 - n2 ]

2
2h

v12 - v22 =
[n1 - n2 ]
m
Hence correct option is (b).
27. For Lyman series
1
1
1
=R 2 - 2
1
l
n

(i)
(ii)

73
For largest wavelength n = 2
1
1
1
=R 2 - 2

l
2
1
1
1

= R 1 -

l
4

l=
3R

## Hence correct option is (c).

h
h
31. We have, le =
, la =
2me E1
2ma E2
lp =
and

For He + atom
1
1
1
1 1
= R ( z)2 2 - 2 = 4 R - 2
2

lHe
n
4 n
3R
1 1
= 4R - 2
4 n
4
3
1 1
= - 2
16 4 n
4 -3
1 1 3
= =
16
n2 4 16
1
1
=
n2 16

le = la = l p Q E1 > E3 > E2

## Hence correct option is (a).

32. KE in ground state = 13.6 eV
Total energy in n = = KE + Energy
difference between n = to n = 1

= 27.2 eV
Hence correct option is (b).
33. Here P = 1000 W, n = 880 kHz = 880 103Hz
Let n is the number of photon p emitted
per second
P
1000

n=
=
-34
hn 6.62 10 880 103

1
3R
=
( z - 1)
l
4

3 1.0973 107
1

=
(92 - 1)
l
4
4
l=
= 0.15
3 91 91 1.0973 107

= 1.7 1030
Correct option is (b).
34. Here l = 3000 = 3 10-7 m
Energy of incident radiation E =

nK = nK a + nL a
b

Y2 = Y1 + Y3

## Hence correct option is (b).

h
30. We have l =
2mqV
lp =

lp
la

h
2m p eV

and la =

Q ma > m p > me

= 13.6 eV + 13.6 eV

28. We have

2m p E3

Total energy

n=4

hc
joule
l

E=

hc
(in eV)
l 1.6 10-19

E=

6.62 3 10-26
= 4.125 eV
3 1.6 10-26

## Q E < work function hence no emission of

electrons it means sphere remain natured.
h
2ma (2 e) V

2 4mp
2ma
=
= 8 =2 2
mp
mp

## Hence correct option is (c).

-13.6 eV
35. Q En =
for n = 5
n2
-13.6 eV
E5 =
= - 0.54 eV
52
Hence correct option is (a).

74
36. K max = E - W = (6.2 - 4.2) eV = 2 eV

38. K max =
- 1 eV
-10
-19
3000 10 1.6 10

= 3.2 10-19 J

## K max = 3.14 eV = 3.14 1.6 10-19 J

1
mev2max = 3.14 1.6 10-19
2

37. l =

6.62 10-34
= 9.1 10-31 v
5200 10-10

6.625 10-27 ~
v=
- 1400 m/s
5.2 9.1 10-31

vmax =

- 10 m/s
9.1 10-31

## Hence correct option is (d).

JEE Corner
1. Here both assertion and reason are true and
reason explain correctly assertion. Correct
option is (a).
hc
E
2. For photon E =
and p =
l
c
If l is doubled, E and p are reduced to
half. Hence assertion is true. Since speed of
photon is always c. Hence reason is false.
Hence correct option is (c).
3. If frequency is increased keeping intensity
constant photoelectron emitted the plate
reach other plate in less time hence
saturation current can be increased. Reason
can be true or not hence correct option is
(a, b).
4. Here both assertion and reason is true and
reason correctly explain assertion. Hence
correct option is (a).
5. Here assertion is true since possible
transition
are 6 3, 6 4, 6 5, 5 3,
5 4, and 4 3. According to reason total
n( n - 1)
6 (3 - 1)
transition has n = 3
=6
2
2
it may explain or may not explain assertion
Hence correct option is (a, b)
6. We have
eV0 = h[n - n 0 ]

V0 =

h
h
n0 - n0
e
e

(i)

## if n 2 n 0 n 0 does not become double hence

assertion is false but reason is true. Hence
correct option is (d).
7. Here both assertion and reason are true and
reason may or may not explain assertion
correct option is (a, b).
8. Here assertion and reason are both true.
hc
if V increases
Q lmin =
eV
lmin decreases
but reason is not correct explanation of
assertion hence correct option is (b).
-13.6
9. Q En =
n2

E2 > E1

## Hence assertion is true and E = - K = +

v
2

v is more in n = 2
Here reason is also true but it is not correct
explanation of assertion hence correct
option is (b).
10. Here assertion is false but reason is true.
Hence correct option is (a).

75

1. Fa = Fc
and

GmM mv2
=
r
r2
nh
mvr =
2p

(i)
Here E2 =
(ii)

## From Eq. (ii)

nh
v=
2pmr

-(13.6) z2
and E1 = - 13.6 z2
4
E2 - E1 = 40.8 eV
1
13.6 Z 2 1 - = 40.8
4

Z2 =

## Putting this value in Eq. (i)

GM
h2 h2
= 2 2 2
r
4p m r

- GMm - GMm 4 p m GM
=
2r
2n2 h2

-2p2G2 M 2 m 3
for ground state n = 1
E=
n2 h2
2

E=

- 2p G M m
n2

## Hence correct option is (b).

e
2. We have m n = in An =
p rn2
Tn
e p rn2 un e un rn
mn =
=
2prn
2
mn = e

and

Z =2

e
e
ev
in =
=
= n
Tn 2prn 2prn
un

E = KE + PE
E=

408
. 4
Z2 = 4
13.6 3

## Energy needed to remove the electron from

ground state is
- E1 = + (13.6) Z 2 = + 13.6 4 = 54.4 eV

n2 h2

r= 2 2
4p m GM
1
1 m GM GMm
KE = mv2 =
=
2
2
r
2r
-GMm
PE =
r
2

- (13.6)Z2eV
n2

v1 r1 n2 e v1r1

=
n
n
2
2
ev r 2
m2 = 1 1
2
e v1r1
m1 =
1
2
m
m1 = 2
2

## Hence magnetic moment decreases two

times correct option is (b).

1
1
and rn 2
n
n
1
i
1
in 3 2 = 3
i1 2
n

un

i1 = 8 i2

## Hence current increases 8 times correct

option is (c).
5. Since five dark lines are possible hence atom
is excited to n = 6 state.
The number of transition in emission line
n ( n - 1)
=
2
6 5
Number of emission transition =
= 15
2
Hence correct option is (c).
6. An = prn2 for hydrozen atom rn = kn2
where k is constant.

An = pk2 n4

A1 = pk2

An
= n4
A1

76
1.5 1015 6.6 10-34

2p
1.6 10-19

A
Taking log both sides log n = 4 log n
A1

= 0.98 eV

## Correct option is (b)

1
7. For hydrogen atom in 3 and
n
in
1
Bn Bn = k 5
rn
n

## Since work function = 2 eV > maximum

energy hence no emission of electrons.
Thus correct option is (d).
2

[Q rn n ]

k
and B1 = k
25
B2
1
1
=
=
B1 25 32

B2 =

## Correct option is (c).

11. For H-atom TH = 2pn3

B1 = 32 B2

## 8. For H-atom Lyman series is given by

1
1
1
= R 2 - 2 for first line n = 2
1
l
n
1
1

= R 1 - 2

l
2
1 3R

=
l
4
h
Momentum of photon Pp =
l

2pn3
z2

## For H-atom in ground state TH = 2p

For H-like atom in first excited state
(2p) 23 2p 8
=
z2
z2
2 2p 8
But TH = 2Tx 2p =
z2
Tx =

z2 = 16

z=4

## Let momentum of atom pA

Q Initial momentum was zero. Hence using
momentum conservation law, we get
h 3 hR
pA = pB Mv = =
l
4
3 hR

v=
4M
Hence the correct option is (a).
9. Light wave equation is
200 V/m sin (1.5 1015 sec-1) t
cos (0.5 1015 sec-1) t

Tx =

## 10. Since in Balmer series of H-like atom

wavelengths (in visible region) are found
same or smaller hence the gas was initially
in second excited state.

1.5 1015
2p

## 12. For K a line of X-ray

1 a2
=
( z - 1)2
l
c
Q z (atomic No.) for Pb204 , Pb206 , Pb208
are same hence l1 = l2 = l3.
Hence correct option is (c).
13. The correct option is (d).
-13.6 eV
14. Since En =
n2
E1 = - 13.6 eV
and first excited state E2 =

-13.6
eV
4

77
E2 = - 3.4 eV

z2 =

## DE = E2 - E1 = 10.2 if K < 10.2 eV

The electron collide elastically with H-atom
in ground state.
The correct option is (c).
1
1
1
15. For Lyman series = R 2 - 2 here n = 3
l
n
1
1
1
= R 1 -
l
9

Pphoton =
But

## 2 1836 9.1 10-31 1.6 10-19 V

V = 8.15 104 volt

-34

8 1.097 10 6.6 10
9 1837 9.1 10-31

v = 4 m/s
Hence correct option is (a).
16. Power = VI = 150 103 10 10-3 = 1500 W
The 99% power heated the target hence
99
Heating power =
1500 = 15 99 W
100
The rate at which target is heated per sec.
(in cal)
15 99 ~
Q1J = 1 cal
=
- 355

4.2
4.2

## The correct option is (d).

eu r
1
20. Since m n = n n Q un
and rn n2
2p
n
m n = kn
Where k is constant for H-atom
For ground state m 1 = k 1 = k

13.6 eV z2
n2
13.6 eV 2
-13.6 eV 2
E3 = z and E4 =
z
9
16
1 1
DE = E4 - E3 = (13.6) eV z2 -
9 16

17. En = -

13.6 (eV) 22 7
= 32.4 eV
16 9

(i)

m2 = k 4 = 4 k

(ii)

## From Eqs. (i) and (ii) we get m 2 = 4m 1

Hence correct option is (d).
21. By conservation of momentum
M H v = ( M H + M H ) v v =

DE =

6.6 10-34

## Hence correct option is (b).

1
19. Since En 2 and Ln n
n
1
Hence
En
L 2

h 8 Rh
=
l
9

v=

h
h
h
18. l = =
=
p
2m p K
2m p eV

8 Rh
= Mp v
9

z =7

10-13 =

1 8R
=
l
9

16 32.4 9
= 49
13.6 7

v
2

## Let initial KE of H-atom = K

K
Final KE of each-H-atom =
2
K
-13.6
For excitation
= E2 - E1 =
+ 13.6
2
4
K

= 10.2 eV
2

K = 20.4 eV

## Hence correct option is (a).

78
22. We know that for H-like atom

lmin =

En = - K n K n = 3.4 eV
h
h
l= =
p
2me K
=

## 2 9.1 10-31 3.4 1.6 10-19

l = 6.6
Hence both options (a) and (b) are correct.

1.1 e =

hc
-W
l2

## 27. Photo emission will stop when potential of

sphere becomes stopping potential
1 q

=2V
4 pe 0 r
Since

(i)
(ii)

1

1
0.5 e = hc -10
l
4950

10
2

1
1
+
=
6.62 10-34 3 108
4950 10-10 l2

## From Eq. (i)

6.6 10-34 3 108 ~
W =
- 1.9 eV
4.95 10-7 1.6 10-19

## (KE) max = eV0

hence

V0 = 2
q = 8 pe 0 r coulomb

## Hence correct option is (b)

28. Let t be the time for photo emission
1
q
t =2
4 pe 0 r
t=

8 pe 0 r
q

I=

l2 ~
- 4111

3.2 10-3 ~
- 4 10-4 W/m 2
2
4 p (0.8)

## Energy incident on the sphere in unit time

E1 = p (8 10-3)2 4 10-4 = 8.04 10-8 W
Energy of each photon
E2 = 5 1.6 10-19 = 8 10-19 J

23. W = 1.9 eV
Hence correct option is (c).
24. l = 4111

## Total number of photons incident on the

sphere per second
h=

## Hence correct option is (c)

25. Since magnatic field does not change the KE
of electrons hence retarding potential
remain same.
Hence correct option is (c).
26. (KE) max = 5 eV - 3 eV = 2 eV

lmin

= 8.69

6.6 10-34

hc
23-25. 0.6e =
-W
4950 10-10

6.6 10-34

= 2 1.6 - 19 J
h
h
= =
p
2me K

E1 8.04 10-8
=
= 1011
E2
8 10-19

## Since 106 photons emit one electron.

Hence the total number of photoelectron
n
1011
per sec is
n2 = 11 = 6 = 105
10
10
Therefore,
q = n2 e t = 105 1.6 10-19 t

=2
r

79
t=

2 8 10-3
t = 111 s
9 1.6 10-5

## and there are three transitions shown as

(1), (2) and (3) belonging to Lymen series.

## More than one options are correct

6. Q f = a ( z - b)

hc
if v increases l0 decreases
eV
hence the interval between lKa and l0 as
well as lKb and l0 increases.

1. Since l0 =

Q
hence

## The correct options are (b) and (c).

1
1
2. R n2 , V and E 2 for Bohr model of
n
n
H-atom
V

VR n and
n
E
Hence, the correct options are (a) and (c).
3. For Bohr model of H-atom
L n, r n2 and T n3
rL
is independent of n
T
L
1
T
2 and n, L n3
T n
r

Hence

## Hence correct options are (a), (b) and (c).

h
h
4. Q l =
and l =
mv
2mK
Hence heavy particle has smallest
wavelength when speed and KE both
particle are same.
The correct options are (a) and (c).
5. Since there are six different wavelength
n=4
n=3
1
n=2
2

3
n=1

## Hence, final state will be n = 4.

Since two wavelengths are longer than l0
[(From n = 4 3 and n = 3 2)]
Hence initial state was n = 2

f =

1
a
=
( z - b)
l
c

1
versus z is a straight line
l
f = a2 ( z - b)

## log f = log a2 + log ( z - b) which is a

straight line
Hence correct options are (a), (b) and (c).

## 1. Lymen series lies in UV region, Balmer

series lies in visible region and Paschen and
Brackelt series lie in infrared region. Hence
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

-13.6
eV
n2
-13.6
-13.6
E2 =
eV =
eV
2
4
2

2. For H-atom En =

## Ionization energy from first excited state of

H-atom
13.6
(i)
E = - E2 =
eV
4
For He + ion
- (13.6) eV
Z 2 for He + z = 2
n2
- 13.6 eV
En (He) =
4
n2
EH (He) =

## Ionization energy of He + atom from ground

state = (13.6) eV 4 = 4 E 4 from Eq. (i)
= 16 E

80
E2 (He) =

- (13.6) eV 4
= - (13.6) eV
4

But E2 = - K 2 K 2 = (13.6)
and U = - 2 K = - 2 (13.6) = - 2 4 E = - 8 E
From Eq. (i)
KE in ground state of He + ion
= (13.6) eV 4
= 4 E 4 = 16E
Ionisation energy from Ist executive state
-13.6 eV
= -
4 = 13.6 eV = 4E
4

## Hence correct match are

3. K max

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

h
W
= hn - W and V0 = n e
e

1
1
1
= R 2 - 2 n = 3, 4, 5

lB
n
2
For 2nd line n = 4 and lB = l
1 1 1

= R
l 4 16
16

l=
3R
1
1
1
=R 2 - 2

lB
3
2
1
lB =

lB

(a) p
R (25 - 4) 21R
1
1
1
=R 2 - 2 =
=

lB
25 4
100
5
2
3

lB =
3

Slope of line -1 is h, Y1 = W
h
W
Slope of line -2 is , Y2 =
e
e
Hence correct match are
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2pr
z
n2
4. T =
Qr
U
v
z
n

n3
z2

Q
Q
Q

## For Lyman series

1
1
1
= R 2 - 2 n = 2, 3, 4
1
lL
n

1
1
1
=R 2 - 2

lL
2
1
1

L n (b) s
z
V (c) s
n

5. Balmer series is

4
3R
5
l
(c) q
=
=
16 4

l
1
1
8R
= R 1 - =
lL
9
9

lL =
1

n2
(d) q
R
z

100
100
=
21 R 21 16

3l
100 3 l 25l
=
=
21 16
28

(b) ( s)

lL

( a) r

36 3 l
36
36
=
=
16
5R 5
16 5

3l
27
=
l
20

lL =
2

9 3 l 27 l
9
9
=
=
=
8 R 8 16 16 8 128
3l

(d) s

81
6. The proper match are
(a) s
Q X-ray is inverse process of photoelectric
effect [high energy electrons convert in
(b) p
Q

lc

1
(c) q
V

## Q Wavelength of continuos X-ray depends

on voltage
(d) q
7. Q (KE) max f and stopping potential f
(a) p, r

## Q stopping potental f hence it remains

same
(b) s
Q Current is directly proportional to
Intensity. Hence sat current increases but
stopping potential does not chase
(c) q, s
Q(KE) max = hf - W and stopping potential
hf W
=

e
e
If W is decreased (KE) max and stopping
potential increased
(d) p, r

Modern Physics II
Introductory Exercise 30.1
1. R0 = lN 0 = 8000 Bq

l=

0.223
4 3600

R1 = lN = 1000 Bq
R1 1
N
= =
= e- lt log 8 = lt
R0 8 N 0

log 2
3 log 2 =
9
T1/2

9
= = 3 days
3

T1/2

= 3.7 108 Bq
R0 = lN 0

## Average, life = 1.44 T1/2 = 1.44 3 = 4.33

days
2. R0 = lN 0
0.693
N0
64.8
4

N0 =

40 64.8 3.7 10
0.693

= 13.83 107
Now,

3.7 108
R
N0 = 0 =
l 1.55 10-5
= 2.39 1013 (atoms)

T1/2

l = 1.55 10-5 /s
0.693
0.693
=
=
= 12.4 h
l
1.55 10-5

N = N0 e

(c) R = R0 e- lt
= 10 mCi e

- 0.693 10

N10 = N 0 e

64.8
- 0.693 10

= 13.83 107 e

64.8
- 0.693 12

## N12 = 13.83 107 e

64.8

9.47 10 nuclei

R0 = 10 mCi, R = 8 mCi
log

10
= l 4 3600
8

= 1.87 mCi

T1/2

R0 6 1011Bq
=
N0
1015
= 6 10-4 /s
0.693
0.693
=
=
= 1.16 103s
l
6 10-4

5. N x = N y = N 0
T1/2 x = 50 min and T1/ 2 y = 100 min

## N10 - N12 = 13.83 107

- 0.693 12
- 0.693 10

- e 64.8
e 64.8

3. (a)

0.693
30
12.4

4. R0 = lN 0
l=

- lt

R0
= e lt
R

1
1
N
N x = ( N 0 ) = N 0 = 0
16
2
2
n

1
1
N
N y = N 0 = N 0 = 0
2
2
4

N0
Nx
1
= 16 =
N y N0 4
4

83

1.

- 4.002602) u

DE = DMc

DM =

DM = 0.0004589 u

## P = 109 J/s = 109 24 60 J/day

Here,

109 24 60
= 9.6 10-4 kg
(3 108 )2

DE = DM 931.5 MeV
= 0.0004589 931.5

2. Number of fission =

10 J/s
200 106 1.6 10-19

= 4.27 MeV
4. Complete reactions are
(a) 3Li 6 + 1H2 4Be 7 + 0 n1

19

= 3.125 10
3. Given reaction is

238
92 U

## (c) 4 Be 9 + 2He4 3 (2 He4 ) + 0 n1

90 Th234 + 2He4

DM = (238.050784 - 234.043593

(d)

35 Br

79

AIEEE Corner

## Subjective Questions (Level 1)

1. (a) Initially the rate of distingration is
dN
-
= lN 0
dt 0
- dN
After 5 min
= lN
dt
dN

N 0 dt 0 4750

=
=
= 1.76
dN
N
2700
dt
N

log
N0
Now N = N 0 e- lt or l = t
2.3026
N0

l=
log10
t
N
2.3026
=
log10 (1.76)
5
l = 0.113 /min
0.693 0.693
(b) Half-life =
=
= 6.132 min
l
0.113

2. We have A = lN
6 1011 = l 1 1015
l = 6 10-4 s -1
0.693
0.693
T1/2 =
=
= 1155 s
l
6 10-4

= 19.25 min
3. A = lN
A = 8 Ci = 8 3.7 1010 decay/s
0.693 0.693
l=
=
T1/2
5.3 yr
=

0.693
5.3 365 24 60 60 s

N=
=

A
l

## 8 3.7 1010 5.3 365 24 3600

0.693

N = 7.2 1019

84
6.023 1023 nuclei = 60 g
60 g
1=
6.023 1023
Hence 7.2 1019 nuclei
=

60 7.2 1019
= 7.11 10-3 g
6.023 1023

## 4. Number of decay per second

m
1
0.693
NA l =
6 1023
M
238
4.5 109 yr
=

6 1023
0.693

238
4.5 109 365 24 60 60 s

## = 1.23 104 decay/s

5. Probability of decay
P = (1 - e

- lt

P = (1 - e

) = (1 - e
- 5/10

- t/ T mean

) =1 - e

-2

= 0.39

( R2 ) tP

R = ( R1) tP

It means
Hence

7. ( R1) 0 P

32

( R2 ) 0 P

33

238
1
of original U nuclei decays.
4
N = N 0 e - lt
N

-l
N0 - 0 = N0 e
4

( R1) tP

32

+ ( R2 ) tP
33
log 2
60 365
e 14

32

+ l2 e

log 2
60 365
25

log 2 60 365
log 2

60 365
14
4 l1 e

+ l2 e 25

3 mCi
=
4 log 2 log 2
+
14
25

log 2
4 log 2 - log 2 60 365 log 2
60 365
14

e
+
e 25
25
14

0.205 mCi
8. Complete reactions are
226
a + 86RN222
88 Ra
(b) 8 O19 9F19 + e + n
(c) 13 Al25 12Mg25 + e+ + n

(a)

## 9. Only reaction (b) is possible.

10. DE = (7 1.000783 + 7 1.00867 - 14.00307)

t = 1.88 109 yr

## 12. (a) Number of nuclei in kg

931.5 MeV
DE = 104.72 MeV

= (8 1.007825 + 8 1008665
.
- 15.994915)
931.5 = 127.6 MeV

= l1 4 N 0

= l2 N 0
32

+ ( R2 ) 0 P

= l1 N = l1 4 N 0 e- l1 t
= l1 4 N 0 e

6.023 1023
1
235

Energy
33

= N 0 ( 4 l1 + l2 ) = 3 mCi
32

log 2
60 365
25

3
= e - lt
4
log 4 - log 3
t=
l
(log 4 - log 3)
t=
4.5 109 yr
0.693

R0 = ( R1) 0 P
( R1) tP

= N 0 4l1

3 mCi
=
( 4 l1 + l2 )

206

## 6. Since initially no Pb nuclei is present and

Nv
after time t the ratio of
=3
N Pb

33

= l2 N 0 e

log 2
60 365
14

6.023 1023
200 106 1.6 10-19
235

= 8.09 1013 J

85
(b) Mass =

8.09 1013 J
30 103 J/g

DM = 0.000433 u

13

8.09 10
g
30 103

4.05 MeV

8.09
1
=
109 3 kg
3
10

## (b) DM = (2 2.014102 - 3.016049

- 1.008665) 931.5

= 2.7 106 kg
13. Applying conservation of momentum

M a va = M TivTi
M v
vTi = a a
M Ti
Ka =
K Ti =

DM = 17.57 MeV

1
1
M v2 =
2 Ti Ti 2

K Ti

M 2 vL
M Ti a2 a
M Ti

1 M v2

a a
2

4
6.802 MeV
208
1
=
6.802 = 0.1308 MeV
52
14. Power = 100 MW = 108 W = 108 J/s
8

## Energy per fission = 185 MeV

1021
/ s.
1.6 185

Number of nuclei in 1 kg
6.023 1026
U235 =
235
Hence t =

## 6.023 1026 1.6 185

235 1021

= 8.78 days
15. (a) The given reaction is
2
1H

He4 + He4 Be 8
DM = (2 4.0026 - 8.0053) u
= (8.0052 - 8.0053) u
Q DM is negative this reaction is not
energetically favourable
DE = DM 931.5
= - 1 10-4 931.5 MeV
= - 93.15 keV

21

10
10 MeV
=
1.6 s
1.6 10-13 J/MeV

## 16. The given reaction is

DM = - (0.0001) u

## (c) DM = (2.014102 + 3.016049 - 4.002603

- 1.008665) 931.5

1
M a v2a = 6.802 MeV
2

M
= a
M Ti

DM = 3.25 MeV

=

18
100
6.023 1.5
=
1022
18

Heavy water =

## Energy realesed per fission

= (2 2.014102 - 3.016049 - 1.007825) 931.5
= 4.33 10-3 931.5 106 1.6 10-19 J
Hence total energy =

+ 1H2 1H 3 + 1H1

6.023 1026
18

18

= 3200 MJ

86

## 1. Since during b- decay a neutron in the

nucleus is transformed into a proton, an
electron
and
an
antineutrino
as
n P + e- + g.

1
1
1
But N = N 0 N 0 = N 0
8
2
2

## Hence Correct option is (c).

2. Since nuclear force is same for all nucleons.
Hence F1 = F2 = F3
Correct option is (a)..
3. Given reaction is

90

200

80 Y

168

## Difference in mass number = 200 - 168 = 32

32
Hence Number of a-particles =
=8
4
Difference in atomic number = 10
hence number of b -particles = 6
4. The reaction is
+ 0 n1 54 Xe138 +

38 Sr

94

+ 3 ( 0 n1)

## The correct option is (b) three neutrons.

5. The reactions are A b + a and b C + 2b
After one a atomic number reduced by 2 and
after 2b atomic number increased by.
Hence A and C are isotopes Correct option
is (d).
6. Here m p = 1.00785 u, mn = 1.00866 u
and ma = 4.00274 u
Dm = 2( m p + mn ) - ma
Dm = [2 (1.00785 + 1.00866) - 4.00274 ] u
Dm = 00
. 3028 u
DE = Dm 931.5 MeV
= 0.3028 931.5 = 28.21 MeV
Hence correct option is (c).
7
1
7. N = N 0 - N 0 = N 0
8
8

n =3
3 T1/2 = 8 s
8
T1/2 = s
3

## Hence correct option is (d).

8. N = N 0 e- lt for mean life t =
N = N0 e

-l

1
l

1
l

N0
e

N -N
1
= 0
= 1 -
N0
e

## Correct option is (b).

7
1
9. N = N 0 - N 0 = N 0
8
8

235
92 U

1
But N = N 0
2

1 1
= n = 3
8 2

15 min
= 5 min
3

## Correct option is (a).

10. Since radioactive substance loses half of its
activity in 4 days it means its half life
T1/2 = 4 days
Now A = 5% of A0
1

A=
A0
20
A
1

=
A0 20
But

1
= e - lt
20
log 20
log 20 = lt t =
l
A = A0 e - l t

87
But l =

log e 2
T1/ 2

t = T1/2

log e 20
log10 20
= T1/ 2
= 4.32 4
log e 2
log10 2

t = 17.3 days
Hence correct option is (c).
11. Total energy released per sec
= 1.6 MW = 1.6 106 J/s
Energy released per fission= 200 MeV
6

-19

= 200 10 1.6 10
-11

= 2 1.6 10

1.6 106
= 5 1016 /s
2 1.6 10-11

12. Q R = R0 A
Volume

N
=e
N0

1/ 3

4
4
= pR 3 = pR03 A
3
3

## Mass of nucleus = A 1.67 10-27 kg

A 1.67 10-27 kg
mass
Density r =
=
4
volume
pR03 A
3
1.67 10-27 kg

r=
4
pR03
3
Qr is independent of A, hence ratio of
r
densities 1 = 1.
r2

N
= e lt
N0

0. 693
10
6. 93

= e 1 =

1
e

Fractional change
N -N
1
= 0
= 1 - ~
- 063
.
N0
e

## Hence correct option is (b).

N
6% it means N = 0
16

=

N = N 0 e lt

13.

We have

1
N = ( N 0 )
2

1 1
= n = 4
16 2

## 4 T1/2 = 2 h T1/2 = 30 min

Hence correct option is (a).
15. Probability of a nucleus for survival of
time t.
p(survival) =

N e - lt
N
= 0
= e - lt
N0
N0

Psurvival = e

-l

1
l

1
l

= e -1 =

1
e

## 1. Here both assertion and reason are true but

reason does not explain assertion. Hence
correct option is (b).

## 3. Here both assertion and reason are true but

reason is not correct explanation of
assertion. Hence correct option is (b).

## 2. Here assertion is false but reason is true

since for heavier nucleus binding energy per
nucleon is least.

## 4. Here a ssertion is true but reason is false

since electromagnetic waves are produced
by accelerating charge particles.

## Correct option is (c).

88
5. Here assertion is wrong since b-decay

## 9. Here reason is true but assertion is false

process is n p + e + v

## 6. Here assertion is true but reason is false.

Correct option is (c).
7. Here both assertion and reason are true and
reason may or may not be true. Correct
option is (a, b)
8. Both assertion and reason are true but
reason is not correct explanation of
assertion. Hence correct option is (b).

## 10. Both assertion and reason are true but

reason does not correctly explain assertion.
Hence correct option is (b).
11. Here both assertion and reason are true and
reason may or may not be correct
explanation of assertion .
Hence correct options are (a, b).

## 1. Let initially substance have N i nuclei then

N = N i e - lt
dN
= - l N i e - lt
dt
At

t=t

we get
dN
= - l N i e - lt = N 0

dt t = t
At

(i)

## From Eqs. (ii) and (iii)

N
= 0
64
Hence, correct option is (b).
log 2 log 2
2. We have l = l1 + l2 =
+
30
60
log 2

l=
20
Now

- t log 2

t = 4t

N
dN
= - l N i e -4 lt = 0

16
dt t = 4 t

(ii)

e3lt = 16
11
Now at t = t
2

(iii)

dN
= - lN i e

dt t = 11t

- 11l
2

- 8 lt

= - lN i e

- l N i e -4 lt
e

3lt

- 3lt

e
=

N0
= N 0 e 20
4
t
log 4 =
log 2
20
t
2 log 2 =
log 2
20
t = 40 yr

N = N 0 e - lt

N0
16 16

## 3. From graph it is clear that number of

nucleons in X is N 3 and binding energy per
nucleon is E3 for Y nucleon is N2 and BE per
nucleon is E2 .
Hence X + Y = E3 N 3 + E2 N2
Similerly W = E1 N1

89
The reaction is W X + Y
The energy released is
( E3 N 3 + E2 N2 - E1 N1)

8. By conservation of momentum
M H v = ( M H + M H ) n
v
v =
2

## Hence Correct option is (b).

4. Energy = (110 8.2 + 90 8.2 - 200 7.4)
= 200 (8.2 - 7.4)
= 200 0.8 = 160 MeV
Hence correct option is (d).
5. The reaction is
2
1H

## + 1H2 2He4 + energy

Energy

= (4 7 - 2 1.1) MeV
= (28 - 4.4) = 23.6 MeV

## Hence Correct option is (b).

6. Total energy released per second
= 16 106 W
= 16 106 J/s
Energy per fission = 200 MeV
= 200 106 1.6 10-19
= 2 1.6 10-11 J
Q Efficiency = 50%
Hence power (energy converted per second)
50
= 2 1.6 10-11
= 1.6 10-11 J
100
Number of fission =

16 106
= 1018 /s
1.6 10-11

## Hence correct option is (d).

dN
7.
= A - lN
dt
Q After time N become
dN
conservation
=0
dt
A
A
AT

N=
=
=
l log 2 log 2
T
Hence correct option is (d).

## Let initial KE of H-atom = K

K
Final KE of each H-atom =
2
For excitation
K
- 13.6

= E2 - E1 =
+ 13.6 eV
2
4

= 10.2 eV
2

## K = 2 10.2 1.6 10-19

1
M u2 = 2 10.2 1.2 1.6 10-19
2 H

uH =

1.673 1027

## = 6.25 104 m/s

Hence correct option is (c).
9. Let us suppose just before the death no
original activity A0 is given as
A0 = l N 0

(i)

## After death the radioactivity decreases

exponentially ie,
dN
(ii)
A=
= l N = l N 0 e - lt
dt
Dividing eq. (ii) by eq. (i) we get
A
= e - lt
A0
or lt = log

A0
1
A
or t = log 0
A
l
A

Now A0 = 15 decay/min/gram
375
decay/min/g
A=
200
0.693
but
l=
5730 yr

90
15 200 5730
5730
200
log
=
log
0.693
375
0.693
25
5730

t=
log 8
0.693
5730
=
3 log 2 = 5730 3
0.693
t=

t=

1.29 1028
s 1012 s.
1016

## Hence correct option is (c).

- log 2

12. N1 = N 0 e

- l1 t

(i)

N Q = N 0 e - lt

and
Now

AP = lN P and A Q = lN Q
AP
N
= P = e- lt1
AQ N Q

AQ

lt1 = log
A
P

AQ
A
1
= T log Q
t1 = log

A
l
AP
P

and

(i)

## 11. The given reactions are

31H2 2He4 + n + p

(ii)

R1 = l1 N1

(iii)

R2 = l2 = l2 N2

(iv)

l1 N1

=1
l2 N2
t 2 - t1
t
t1 t 2

log 2
l1 N2

=
=e
l2 N1

log

t -t
t2
= t log 2 2 1
t1
t1t2
t1 =

+ 1H2 1H 3 + p
+ 1H 3 2He4 + n

t2

R1

=1
R1

## Hence correct option is (b).

2
1H
2
1H

N2 = N 0 e- l2 t = N 0 e

## Hence correct option is (c).

10. N P = N 0 e- l(t1 + t)

t1

- log 2

t = 17190 yr

= N0 e

t1t2
t
log 2
0.693 ( t2 - t1)
t1

## Hence Correct option is (a).

13. The given reaction is

X 232

X 232 90 Y A + a
90 Y

+ 2He4

## Dm = (3 2.014 - 4.001 - 1.007 - 1.008)

Z = 92 and A = 228

Dm = 0.026 amu

## Q Initially X is in rest hence momentum of

a-particle after decay will be equal and
opposite of Y .

Mass defect

Energy Released
= 0.026 931 MeV = 3.87 10-12 J
This energy produced by the three
deutronatoms. Total energy released by
40

10

deutrons
1040
3.87 10-12 J = 1.29 1028 J
3

## The average power P = 1016 W = 1016 J/s

Therefore total time to exhaust all
deutrons of the star will be

M Y vY = M a va
M
vY = a va
MY

## Total kinetic energy

1
K T = ( M a v2a + M Y v2Y )
2

KT =

1
M 2a v2a
2
M a va + M y

2
M 2Y

91

Ma
1 +

M
Y

4
K T = K a 1 +

228
232
Ka =
K
228 T
KT =

1
M a v2a
2

## Hence Correct option is (b).

14. Energy of emitted photon = 7 MeV
6

-19

= 7 10 1.6 10
-13

= 11.2 10

Momentum of photon =
=

J
11.2 10-13 J
3 108 m/s

## O = P nuc + P photon P nuc = - P photon

K nuc =

K nucc =

2m

-42

11.2 11.2 10
Joule
9 2 24 1.66 10-27

11.2 112
. 10-42
eV
18 24 1.66 10-27 1.6 10-19

1.1 keV
Hence correct option is (b).
15. Let time interval between two instants is t1
then
N1 = N 0 e- l (t + t1 )

t1 =

A
1
log 2
l
2 A1

t1 =

A
T
log 2
log 2
2 A1

2
1H

+ 1H2 1H 3 + 1H1

## DM = [2m (1H2 ) - m (1H 3) - m (1H1)]

= (2 2.014102 - 3.016049 - 1.007825) amu

## Hence correct option is (c).

2
Pnuc
= 2mK nuc
2
Pnuc

A
log 2 = lt1
2 A1

= 4 MeV

= 24 1.66 10-27 kg

11.2
10-21 kg-m/s
3

## Mass of nucleus = 24 amu

But

2 A1
= e- lt1
A2

= 4.33 10-3amu

|P nuc|=|- P photon|
Pnuc =

## Applying conservation of momentum

principle

A2 = N2 l = l (2 N 0 ) e- lt
A1 1
= e- lt1
A2 2

## Q Initial nucleus is stationary

N2 = 2 N 0 e- lt
A1 = N1l = lN 0 e- l (t + t1 )

11.2
10-21 kg-m/s
3

and

1 kWh
=

1 103 3600
4 106 1.6 10-19

36 1018
= 5.6 1018 1018
6.4

## Hence correct option is (b).

18. The energy released = 4 MeV
This energy produced by two atoms.
Hence energy produced per atom
= 2 MeV = 2 1.6 10-13 J
Hence number of atom fused to produced
1 kWJ

92
=

36 105
18
=
1018
2 1.6 10-13 1.6

18
1018 atom
1.6

18 1018
= 3.7 10-5 kg.
1.6 6.02 1023

## More Than one Option is Correct

4

1. x = N 0 , y = lN 0

x
N0
1
=
=
y lN 0 l

## where l is decay constant

x
Hence is constant throught.
y
Q

x 1
1
T
= =
=
y l 0.693 0.693
T
x
> T, xy = l( N 0 )2
y

N0
2

( xy) T

1
N
N x = N 0 = 0
2
16

lN 20 xy
N
= l 0 =
=
4
4
2

## Hence correct options are (a), (b) and (d).

2. The correct options are (a), (b), (c) and (d).
3. A nucleus in excited state emits a high
energy photon called as g-ray. The reaction
is
X * X + g
Hence by gamma radiation atomic number
and mass number are not changed. Since
after emission of one a atomic number
reduced by 2 (2 a4 ) and after 2b atomic
number is increased by (2). Hence correct
options are (a), (b) and (c).
4. Here half lives are T and 2T and N x = N 0 ,
N y = N 0 after 4T for first substance = 4 half
lives and after 4T the second substance = 2
Half lines.

1
N
N y = N 0 = 0
4
2
N /16 1
N
x= x = 0
=
Ny
N 0 /4 4

## Let their activity are Rx and R y .

Rx = lx N x and R y = l y N y
0.693
Rx lx N x
1
y=
=

= T
R y l y N y 0.693 4
2T
Rx
1
=y=
Ry
2

## Hence correct options are (b) and (c).

5. Since nuclear forces are vary short range
charge independent, no electromagnetic and
they exchange (n p or p n). Hence the
correct options are (a), (b), (c) and (d).
6. Q R = R0 A1/ 3
r=

A 1.67 10-27 kg
M
=
4
4/3 pR 3
pR03 A
3

r is independent of A.
But r =

1.67 10-27 kg
4
3.14 (1.3 10-15 ) 3
3

## = 1.8 1017 kg/m 3

Hence correct options are (b) and (c).

93

## 1. Here N 0 = x, let l is the decay constant.

N = N 0 e - lt = x e - lt
dN
dN
= lx e- lt but
dt
dt

=y
t=0

## Q Binding energy increases when two or

more lighter nucleus combine to form
haviour nucleus.
Hence correct match is

y = lx e 0 = lx
y
l=
x

## 2. In reaction P + P Q energy is released

(a) p
Similerly for reaction

Hence

P + P + RR

(a) s

Correct match is

## Half life T1/2 =

log 2 log 2 x
=
= log 2
y
l
y
x

for reaction
P + R = 2Q from graph BE per nucleon
increases.

Hence
(b) p
We have activity R = lN = l xe- lt
1
at t =
l
R = lx

1
-l
l
e

= l x e -1 =

lx
e

but lx = y
y
R=
e

## Hence energy is released.

Correct match is
(c) p
For the reaction
P+Q=R
We will check energy process if BE per
nucleon is given. Hence data is not
sufficient correct match is
(d) s

Hence
(c) r
1
Number of nuclei after time t =
l
N =xe

(b) p

-l

1
l

x
e

Hence
(d) s
Thus correct match is

## 3. Since A and B are radioactive nuclei of

( A + B) decreases with time. Hence correct
match is
(a) q
Q A is converted into B and B is converted
into C and decay rate of A B and B C
are not known. Hence correct match is
(b) s

(b) r

## Since at time passes A is converted to B

and B is converted to C. Hence nuclei of
( B + C) increases. Correct match is

(c) r

(c) p

(d) s

## Similerly the correct match for (d) is

(a) s

94
(d) s
4. After emission of 1 a particle mass no
decreased by 4 but after emission of 1b
particle atomic number will increase or
decrease by 1. Hence for (a)

(a) p
Since BE per nucleon of heavy nuclei is
(b) s

(b) p, r

## X-ray photon have wavelength about 1

the energy of this wavelength is of order of
10 keV.

(c) s

(c) r

(d) q, r

Hence

(a) p, s

5. For

(d) q