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1) Introduction
Introduction about DC Motors
How Does DC Motor Works

2) Types
Brushed DC Motors.
Coreless DC Motors.
Coreless or Ironless DC Motors.

3) Review Of DC Motor
Inside A DC Motor.
History and Background.
Articles by Scientist.


5) Introduction:
Industrial applications use dc motors because the speed-torque relationship can be varied to
almost any useful form -- for both dc motor and regeneration applications in either direction of
rotation. Continuous operation of dc motors is commonly available over a speed range of 8:1.
Infinite range (smooth control down to zero speed) for short durations or reduced load is also
Dc motors are often applied where they momentarily deliver three or more times their rated
torque. In emergency situations, dc motors can supply over five times rated torque without
stalling (power supply permitting).
Dynamic braking (dc motor-generated energy is fed to a resistor grid) or regenerative braking (dc
motor-generated energy is fed back into the dc motor supply) can be obtained with dc motors on
applications requiring quick stops, thus eliminating the need for, or reducing the size of, a
mechanical brake.
Dc motors feature a speed, which can be controlled smoothly down to zero, immediately
followed by acceleration in the opposite direction -- without power circuit switching. And dc
motors respond quickly to changes in control signals due to the dc motor's high ratio of torque

DC Motors
A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power. Two examples of pure DC designs are
Michael Faraday's homopolar motor (which is uncommon), and the ball bearing motor,
which is (so far) a novelty. By far the most common DC motor types are the brushed and
brushless types, which use internal and external commutation respectively to create an oscillating
AC current from the DC source -- so they are not purely DC machines in a strict sense.

How Does DC Motor Works

Brushed DC electric motor

The classic DC motor design generates an oscillating current in a wound rotor with a split ring
commutator, and either a wound or permanent magnet stator. A rotor consists of a coil wound
around a rotor which is then powered by any type of battery.
Many of the limitations of the classic commutator DC motor are due to the need for brushes to
press against the commutator. This creates friction. At higher speeds, brushes have increasing
difficulty in maintaining contact. Brushes may bounce off the irregularities in the commutator
surface, creating sparks. This limits the maximum speed of the machine. The current density per
unit area of the brushes limits the output of the motor. The imperfect electric contact also causes
electrical noise. Brushes eventually wear out and require replacement, and the commutator itself
is subject to wear and maintenance. The commutator assembly on a large machine is a costly
element, requiring precision assembly of many parts. There are three types of DC motor:
1. DC series motor

2. DC shunt motor
3. DC compound motor - there are also two types:
1. cumulative compound
2. differentially compounded

Some of the problems of the brushed DC motor are eliminated in the brushless design. In this
motor, the mechanical "rotating switch" or commutator/brush gear assembly is replaced by an
external electronic switch synchronized to the rotor's position. Brushless motors are typically 8590% efficient, whereas DC motors with brush gear are typically 75-80% efficient.
Midway between ordinary DC motors and stepper motors lies the realm of the brushless DC
motor. Built in a fashion very similar to stepper motors, these often use a permanent magnet
external rotor, three phases of driving coils, one or more Hall Effect sensors to sense the position
of the rotor, and the associated drive electronics.
The coils are activated, one phase after the other, by the drive electronics as cued by the signals
from the Hall Effect sensors. In effect, they act as three-phase synchronous motors containing
their own variable-frequency drive electronics. A specialized class of brushless DC motor
controllers utilize EMF feedback through the main phase connections instead of Hall Effect
sensors to determine position and velocity.
These motors are used extensively in electric radio-controlled vehicles. When configured with
the magnets on the outside, these are referred to by modelists as outrunner motors.
Brushless DC motors are commonly used where precise speed control is necessary, as in
computer disk drives or in video cassette recorders, the spindles within CD, CD-ROM (etc.)
drives, and mechanisms within office products such as fans, laser printers and photocopiers.
They have several advantages over conventional motors:

Compared to AC fans using shaded-pole motors, they are very efficient, running much
cooler than the equivalent AC motors. This cool operation leads to much-improved life of
the fan's bearings.
Without a commutator to wear out, the life of a DC brushless motor can be significantly
longer compared to a DC motor using brushes and a commutator. Commutation also
tends to cause a great deal of electrical and RF noise; without a commutator or brushes, a
brushless motor may be used in electrically sensitive devices like audio equipment or
The same Hall effect sensors that provide the commutation can also provide a convenient
tachometer signal for closed-loop control (servo-controlled) applications. In fans, the
tachometer signal can be used to derive a "fan OK" signal.
The motor can be easily synchronized to an internal or external clock, leading to precise
speed control.

Brushless motors have no chance of sparking, unlike brushed motors, making them better
suited to environments with volatile chemicals and fuels. Also, sparking generates ozone
which can accumulate in poorly ventilated buildings risking harm to occupants' health.
Brushless motors are usually used in small equipment such as computers and are
generally used to get rid of unwanted heat.
They are also very quiet motors which is an advantage if being used in equipment that is
affected by vibrations.

Modern DC brushless motors range in power from a fraction of a watt to many kilowatts. Larger
brushless motors up to about 100 kW rating are used in electric vehicles. They also find
significant use in high-performance electric model aircraft.

Coreless or Ironless DC motors

Nothing in the design of any of the motors described above requires that the iron (steel) portions
of the rotor actually rotate; torque is exerted only on the windings of the electromagnets. Taking
advantage of this fact is the coreless or ironless DC motor, a specialized form of a brush or
brushless DC motor. Optimized for rapid acceleration, these motors have a rotor that is
constructed without any iron core.
The rotor can take the form of a winding-filled cylinder inside the stator magnets, a basket
surrounding the stator magnets, or a flat pancake (possibly formed on a printed wiring board)
running between upper and lower stator magnets.
The windings are typically stabilized by being impregnated with Electrical epoxy potting
systems. Filled epoxies that have moderate mixed viscosity and a long gel time.
These systems are highlighted by low shrinkage and low exotherm.
Because the rotor is much lighter in weight (mass) than a conventional rotor formed from copper
windings on steel laminations, These motors were commonly used to drive the capstan(s) of
magnetic tape drives and are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems, like
radio-controlled vehicles/aircraft, humanoid robotic systems, industrial automation, medical
devices, etc.

Universal motors
A variant of the wound field DC motor is the universal motor. The name derives from the fact
that it may use AC or DC supply current, although in practice they are nearly always used with
AC supplies.
The principle is that in a wound field DC motor the current in both the field and the armature
(and hence the resultant magnetic fields) will alternate (reverse polarity) at the same time, and
hence the mechanical force generated is always in the same direction.

In practice, the motor must be specially designed to cope with the AC (impedance must be taken
into account, as must the pulsating force), and the resultant motor is generally less efficient than
an equivalent pure DC motor.
Operating at normal power line frequencies, the maximum output of universal motors is limited
and motors exceeding one kilowatt (about 1.3 horsepower) are rare. But universal motors also
form the basis of the traditional railway traction motor in electric railways.
In this application, to keep their electrical efficiency high, they were operated from very low
frequency AC supplies, with 25 and 16.7 hertz (Hz) operation being common. Because they are
universal motors, locomotives using this design were also commonly capable of operating from a
third rail powered by DC.
The advantage of the universal motor is that AC supplies may be used on motors which have the
typical characteristics of DC motors, specifically high starting torque and very compact design if
high running speeds are used.
Universal motors generally run at high speeds, making them useful for appliances such as
blenders, vacuum cleaners, and hair dryers where high RPM operation is desirable. They are also
commonly used in portable power tools, such as drills, circular and jig saws, where the motor's
characteristics work well. Many vacuum cleaner and weed trimmer motors exceed 10,000 RPM,
while Dremel and other similar miniature grinders will often exceed 30,000 RPM.
Motor damage may occur due to overspeeding (running at an RPM in excess of design limits) if
the unit is operated with no significant load. On larger motors, sudden loss of load is to be
avoided, and the possibility of such an occurrence is incorporated into the motor's protection and
control schemes. In smaller applications, a fan blade attached to the shaft often acts as an
artificial load to limit the motor speed to a safe value, as well as a means to circulate cooling
airflow over the armature and field windings.
With the very low cost of semiconductor rectifiers, some applications that would have previously
used a universal motor now use a pure DC motor, sometimes with a permanent magnet field

Inside an Electric Motor

Let's start by looking at the overall plan of a simple two-pole DC electric motor. A simple
motor has six parts, as shown in the diagram below:

Armature or rotor
Field magnet

DC power supply of some sort

An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to create motion.
If you have ever played with magnets you know about the fundamental law of all magnets:
Opposites attract and likes repel. So if you have two bar magnets with their ends marked "north"
and "south," then the north end of one magnet will attract the south end of the other. On the other
hand, the north end of one magnet will repel the north end of the other (and similarly, south will
repel south). Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling forces create rotational

Motor Image Gallery

Parts of an electric motor..

In the above diagram, you can see two magnets in the motor: The armature (or rotor) is an
electromagnet, while the field magnet is a permanent magnet (the field magnet could be an
electromagnet as well, but in most small motors it isn't in order to save power).

Toy Motor

The motor being dissected here is a simple electric motor that you would typically find in a toy:

You can see that this is a small motor, about as big around as a dime. From the outside you can
see the steel can that forms the body of the motor, an axle, a nylon end cap and two battery leads.
If you hook the battery leads of the motor up to a flashlight battery, the axle will spin. If you
reverse the leads, it will spin in the opposite direction. Here are two other views of the same
motor. (Note the two slots in the side of the steel can in the second shot -- their purpose will
become more evident in a moment.)

The nylon end cap is held in place by two tabs that are part of the steel can. By bending the tabs
back, you can free the end cap and remove it. Inside the end cap are the motor's brushes. These
brushes transfer power from the battery to the commutator as the motor spins:

More Motor Parts

The axle holds the armature and the commutator. The armature is a set of electromagnets, in this
case three. The armature in this motor is a set of thin metal plates stacked together, with thin
copper wire coiled around each of the three poles of the armature. The two ends of each wire
(one wire for each pole) are soldered onto a terminal, and then each of the three terminals is
wired to one plate of the commutator. The figures below make it easy to see the armature,
terminals and commutator:

The final piece of any DC electric motor is the field magnet. The field magnet in this motor is
formed by the can itself plus two curved permanent magnets:

One end of each magnet rests against a slot cut into the can, and then the retaining clip presses
against the other ends of both magnets.

Electromagnets and Motors

To understand how an electric motor works, the key is to understand how the electromagnet
works. (See How Electromagnets Work for complete details.)
An electromagnet is the basis of an electric motor. You can understand how things work in the
motor by imagining the following scenario. Say that you created a simple electromagnet by
wrapping 100 loops of wire around a nail and connecting it to a battery. The nail would become a
magnet and have a north and south pole while the battery is connected.
Electromagnet would be repelled from the north end of the horseshoe magnet and attracted to the
south end of the horseshoe magnet. The south end of the electromagnet would be repelled in a
similar way. The nail would move about half a turn and then stop in the position shown.

Electromagnet in a horseshoe magnet

You can see that this half-turn of motion is simply due to the way magnets naturally attract and
repel one another. The key to an electric motor is to then go one step further so that, at the
moment that this half-turn of motion completes, the field of the electromagnet flips. The flip
causes the electromagnet to complete another half-turn of motion. You flip the magnetic field just
by changing the direction of the electrons flowing in the wire.

Armature, Commutator and Brushes

Consider the image on the previous page. The armature takes
the place of the nail in an electric motor. The armature is an
electromagnet made by coiling thin wire around two or more
poles of a metal core.
The armature has an axle, and the commutator is attached to the
axle. In the diagram to the right, you can see three different views
of the same armature: front, side and end-on. In the end-on view,
the winding is eliminated to make the commutator more obvious. Armature
You can see that the commutator is simply a pair of plates attached to the axle. These plates
provide the two connections for the coil of the electromagnet.

The "flipping the electric field" part of an electric motor is

accomplished by two parts: the commutator and the brushes.
The diagram at the right shows how the commutator and brushes
work together to let current flow to the electromagnet, and also to
flip the direction that the electrons are flowing at just the right
moment. The contacts of the commutator are attached to the axle
of the electromagnet, so they spin with the magnet. The brushes
are just two pieces of springy metal or carbon that make contact Brushes and commutator
with the contacts of the commutator.

Motors Everywhere!
Look around your house and you will find that it is filled with electric motors. Here's an
interesting experiment for you to try: Walk through your house and count all the motors you find.
Starting in the kitchen, there are motors in:
The fan over the stove and in the microwave oven
The dispose-all under the sink
The blender
The can opener
The refrigerator - Two or three in fact: one for the compressor, one for the fan inside
the refrigerator, as well as one in the icemaker

The mixer

The tape player in the answering machine

Probably even the clock on the oven

In the utility room, there is an electric motor in:

The washer

The dryer

The electric screwdriver

The vacuum cleaner and the Dust buster mini-vac

The electric saw

The electric drill

The furnace blower
Even in the bathroom, there's a motor in:

The fan

The electric toothbrush

The hair dryer

The electric razor

Your car is loaded with electric motors:

Power windows (a motor in each window)

Power seats (up to seven motors per seat)

Fans for the heater and the radiator

Windshield wipers

The starter motor

Electric radio antennas

Plus, there are motors in all sorts of other places:

Several in the VCR

Several in a CD player or tape deck

Many in a computer (each disk drive has two or three, plus there's a fan or two)

Most toys that move have at least one motor (including Tickle-me-Elmo for its

Electric clocks

The garage door opener

Aquarium pumps

In walking around my house, I counted over 50 electric motors hidden in all sorts of devices.
Everything that moves uses an electric motor to accomplish its movement

Conclusion:1) Motors
A rotor, which is a large coil of wire, is spun in a magnetic field by an electric
charge that is delivered to the rotor by the armatures that touch the shaft. The
rotors are connected to the shaft and the armature skips a little bit so that it wont
short out another rotor. Because of this one rotor, of an opposite polarity of the
permanent magnetic, is energized at a time; this action caused the rotors to move
which rotates the shaft, which means the motor spins.
2) The nature of this thesis is one that leaves little to be analyzed and
Concluded. The motor runs satisfactorily and that is the thesis objective.
Due to time limitations the motor was not tested in oil inside
The transmission. That has to be done to be able to come to any _nil
Conclusions. Some things can however be said about the performance
Of the system.
The switch from a normal to a brushless DC motor does not create
Any new major problems. Dedicated components help the microcontroller

To handle the more complex control algorithms. The use of the

Brushless motor results in a slightly slower system than for a normal
DC motor. However, since it has more torque, a good idea would be
To change gear reduction to speed up the system. That of course depending
On the speed and torque requirements. The results show that the motor runs at around expected
speed and handles the
Shifting of the driving positions well. The control algorithm performs
Satisfactorily and is well adjusted to the system.
3) Future Work:-The next natural step will be to build the actuator into the
transmission. Then the real system can be tested. After that it is time to build
The transmission into a car and evaluate it. Finally a decision has to
Be made, if this is something we want in our future cars. Interesting
Would also be to try a brushless motor without hall sensors. That would
Probably be required if the system is to go into serial production.

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