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quantities in northeastern Brazil. There are two to five long kernels

in each nut, the kernel being only 9% of the heavy-shelled nut, and
these kernels contain 65% oil. A bunch of the fruits contains 200 to
600 nuts. The oil contains as much as 45% lauric acid and is a direct
substitute for coconut oil for soaps, as an edible oil, and as a source of
lauric, capric, and myristic acids. The melting point of the oil is 72 to
79F (22 to 26C), specific gravity 0.868, iodine value 15, and saponification value 246 to 250. Tucum oil, usually classified with babassu
but valued more in the bakery industry because of its higher melting
point, is from the kernels of the nut of the palm Astrocaryum tucuma
of northeastern Brazil. The oil is similar but heavier with melting
point up to 95F (35C), and it consists of 49% lauric acid. In
Colombia it is called guere palm.
Another similar oil is murumuru oil, from the kernels of the nut
of the palm A. murumuru, of Brazil. The name is a corruption of the
two Carib words mar and mor, meaning bread to eat. The oil contains as much as 40% lauric acid, with 35% myristic acid, and some
palmitic, stearic, linoleic, and oleic acids. It is usually marketed as
babassu oil. The awarra palm, A. janari, of the Guianas, yields nuts
with a similar oil. Cohune oil is a white fat from the kernels of the
nut of the palm Attalea cohune of Mexico and Central America. It is a
small tree yielding as many as 2,000 nuts per year. The oil has the
appearance and odor of coconut oil, and it contains 46% lauric acid,
15 myristic, 10 oleic, with stearic, capric, and linoleic acids. All these
oils yield a high proportion of glycerin. Cohune oil has a melting point
of 64 to 68F (18 to 20C), saponification value 252 to 256, iodine
value 10 to 14, and specific gravity 0.868 to 0.971. The cohune nut is
much smaller than the babassu but is plentiful and easier to crack.
Curua oil is from the nut of the palm A. spectabilis of Brazil. It is
similar to cohune oil and is used for the same purposes in soaps and
foods. Mamarron oil is a cream-colored fat with the odor and characteristics of coconut oil, obtained from another species of Attalea palm
of Colombia. Another oil high in lauric acid, and similar to babassu
oil, is corozo oil, obtained from the kernels of the nuts of the palm
Corozo oleifera of Venezuela and Central America. Macanilla oil is a
similar oil from the kernels of the nuts of the palm Guilielma garipaes of the same region. Buri oil is from the nuts of the palm
Diplothemium candescens of Brazil.
The original name for tin-antimony-copper white
alloys used for machinery bearings, but the term now applies to
almost any white bearing alloy with either tin or lead base. The original babbitt, named after the inventor, was made by melting together
4 parts by weight of copper, 12 tin, and 8 antimony, and then adding




12 parts of tin after fusion. It consisted, therefore, of 88.9% tin, 7.4 antimony, and 3.7 copper. This alloy melts at 462F (239C). It has
a Brinell hardness of 35 at 70F (21C) and 15 at 212F (100C). As a
general-utility bearing metal, the original alloy has never been
improved greatly, and makers frequently designate the tin-base alloys
close to this composition as genuine babbitt.
Commercial white bearing metals now known as babbitt are of
three general classes: tin-base, with more than 50% tin hardened
with antimony and copper, and used for heavy-duty service; intermediate, with 20 to 50% tin, having lower compressive strength and
more sluggish as a bearing; and lead-base, made usually with antimonial lead with smaller amounts of tin together with other elements to
hold the lead in solution. These lead-base babbitts are cheaper and
serve to conserve tin in times of scarcity of that metal, but they are
suitable only for light service, although many ingenious combinations
of supplementary alloying elements have sometimes been used to give
hard, strong bearings with little tin. The high-grade babbitts, however, are usually close to the original babbitt in composition. SAE
Babbitt 11, for connecting-rod bearings, has 86% tin, 5 to 6.5% copper, 6 to 7.5% antimony, and not over 0.50% lead. A babbitt of this
kind will have a compressive strength up to 20,000 lb/in2 (138 MPa)
compared with only 15,000 lb/in2 (103 MPa) for high-lead alloys.
Copper hardens and toughens the alloy and raises the melting
point. Lead increases fluidity and raises antifriction qualities, but softens the alloy and decreases its compressive strength. Antimony hardens the metal and forms hard crystals in the soft matrix, which
improve the alloy as a bearing metal. Only 3.5% of antimony is normally dissolved in tin. In the low-antimony alloys, copper-tin crystals
form the hard constituent; and in the high-antimony alloys, antimonytin cubes are also present. Alloys containing up to 1% arsenic are
harder at high temperatures and are fine-grained, but arsenic is used
chiefly for holding lead in suspension. Zinc increases hardness but
decreases frictional qualities, and with much zinc the bearings are
inclined to stick. Even minute quantities of iron harden the alloys,
and iron is not used except when zinc is present. Bismuth reduces
shrinkage and refines the grain, but lowers the melting point and
lowers the strength at elevated temperatures. Cadmium increases the
strength and fatigue resistance, but any considerable amount lowers
the frictional qualities, lowers the strength at higher temperatures,
and causes corrosion. Nickel is used to increase strength but raises
the melting point. The normal amount of copper in babbitts is 3 or
4%, at which point the maximum fatigue-resisting properties are
obtained with about 7% antimony. More than 4% copper tends to
weaken the alloy and raises the melting point. When the copper is



very high, tin-copper crystals are formed and the alloy is more a
bronze than a babbitt. All the SAE babbitts contain some arsenic,
ranging from 0.10% in the high-tin SAE Babbitt 10 to about 1% in
the high-lead SAE Babbitt 15. The first of these contains 90% tin,
4.5 antimony, 4.5 copper, and 0.35 lead, while babbitt 15 has 82%
lead, 15 antimony, 1 tin, and 0.60 copper.
Because of increased speeds and pressures in bearings and the trend
to lighter weights, heavy cast babbitt bearings are now little used
despite their low cost and ease of casting the alloys. The alloys are
used mostly as antifriction metals in thin facings on steel backings,
the facing being usually less than 0.010 in (0.03 cm) thick, in order to
increase their ability to sustain higher loads and dissipate heat.
Babbitts are marketed under many trade names, the compositions
generally following the SAE alloy standards but varying in auxiliary
constituents, the possibilities for altering the physical qualities by
composition rearrangement being infinite. Some of the trade names
that have been used for babbitt-type alloys marketed in ingots are
Leantin and Cosmos metal for high-lead alloys, stannum metal
for high-tin alloys, and Lubeco metal and Lotus metal for
medium-composition alloys. Hoo Hoo metal and nickel babbitt
are high-tin alloys containing nickel, while Silver babbitt has no
tin but contains a small amount of silver to aid retention of the lead
and to give hardness at elevated temperatures. Glyco is the name of
a group of lead-base alloys of Joseph T. Ryerson & Son, Inc. Satco, of
NL Industries, Inc., is a high-melting-point alloy for heavy service. It
melts at 788F (420C). Tinite is a tin-base metal hardened with
copper. Ajax bull contains 76% lead, 7 tin, and 17 antimony, modified with other elements.
BAGASSE. The residue left after grinding sugarcane and extracting

the juice, employed in making paper and fiber building boards. In

England it is called megass. The fiber contains 45% cellulose, 32 pentosan, and 18 lignin. It is marketed as dry- and wet-separated, and as
dry fiber. The dry-separated fibers bulk 4.5 lb/ft3 (72 kg/m3), with 62
to 80% passing a 100-mesh screen. The dry fiber bulks 6 to 8 lb/ft3 (96
to 128 kg/m3) and is about 14 mesh. The fibers mat together to form a
strong, tough, light, absorptive board. The finer fibers in Cuba and
Jamaica are soaked in molasses and used as a cattle feed under the
name of molascuit. Celotex is the trade name of the Celotex Corp.
for wallboard, paneling, and acoustic tile made from bagasse fibers.
Ferox-Celotex is the material treated with chemicals to make it
resistant to fungi and termites. Celo-Rock is the trade name for
Celotex-gypsum building boards. Acousti-Celotex is Celotex perforated to increase its sound-absorbing efficiency. In India, the

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