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BACKGROUND

Definitions
Conditions
Needs
Support
Bridge Elements

Bridge Maintenance Strategies


Peter Weykamp, P.E.
Bridge Maintenance Program Engineer
New York State Department of Transportation

DEFINITIONS
Maintenance: a network
level, long-term strategy that
enhances bridge performance
PREVENTIVE
by using an integrated, costeffective set of practices that
MAINTENANCE
extend bridge service life,
improve safety, and meet
CORRECTIVE
CYCLICAL
motorist expectations.
MAINTENANCE
REPAIRS

DEFICIENT
FHWA - A bridge is
structurally deficient
if either the
superstructure,
substructure, or deck
is rated less than 5
on a 9 point scale.

Or anything done to a bridge


short of a deck replacement.

NYSDOT CONDITION RATING

Rating Scale
1 Failed condition
3 Serious deterioration
5 Functioning as
designed
7 New condition

Primary member 10
Abutments
8
Piers
8
Structural Deck
8
Bridge Seats
6
Bearings
6
Wing & Backwalls 5
Secondary member 5
Joints
4
Wearing surface
4
Sidewalks
2
Curbs
1

(12% SD, 13% FO)


80%

120,000

70%

100,000

60%
80,000

50%
40%

60,000

30%

40,000

20%
20,000

10%

0%
Pre
1910

1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s
Source: 2007 NBI

Decade Built
Number of Bridges

% of Deficient Bridges

% of Deficient Bridges

Weighed average
condition < 5.0

Num ber of Bridges

Deficient

Number and Status of Bridges in the US

Weights

Deficient Bridge Wave

80

800

75

700

70
65
60
55

1450 bridges
become deficient in
next 5 years

900

Number of Bridges

%GoodandExcellentbyNumber

State and Local Highway Bridge


Condition Trends

1500 additional
bridges become
deficient in next 610 years

600
500
400
300

50

200

45

100
0

40
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

<3 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.7 6.9

2008

New York State Rating

Year
LocalBridges

Local Bridges

StateBridges

ASSESSING NEEDS
Inspection data

GOOD

Real vs. ideal needs

Decision support systems


Domestic scan of lead States

Good
FAIR

Federal formula
Based on deficiency
Rewards poor stewardship
Some flexibility

Organized to build the interstate system


Few advocates for bridge maintenance
Follow the Money

Preventive/Cyclical

Fair

BAD

0%
Time

FUNDING

Bad
Rehab/Replace

BRIDGE CONDITION

Models focus on
rehab/replace
Maintenance candidates

MAINTENANCE NEEDS

100%

Focus on safety

State Bridges

BRIDGE PARTS

What has to get done?


What are the
consequences of deferred
action?

CEUQUESTIONS

PART1
Current Practices in Bridge
Maintenance

EXPANSION JOINTS
All Joints Leak
Armored Joints
Constructability
Repair-ability
Safety hazard
Deterioration

ARMOR-LESS JOINTS
Elastomeric Concrete
Polymer based

Maintenance friendly
Rapid setting
EXPENSIVE

Seals
Repairable
Liquid
Pre-formed

INTEGRAL
ABUTMENTS

INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS
Simple joint
Minimal substructure
Low Maintenance
Design Hierarchy

Integral
Joint-less
Joint expansion end
Joints on both ends
Large skews
Unbalanced spans, etc

PROTECTIVE COATINGS
Lead-Based
Primers
Safety concerns

Moisture-cured
Urethane
Over-coating
Total Removal
Moisture tolerant

CONCERNS
Surface Preparation
Health & Safety
Containment

Cost
Service Life
Performance

New Primer
Zinc

ALTERNATIVES

Weathering Steel
Concrete
Timber
New Coating Systems

WEATHERING STEEL
Self-protecting
Patina

Aesthetics
Environment
Health & Safety

Needs Wet/Dry
Cycles

P/S ADJACENT
BOX BEAMS

Plant Q/C
No Painting
Rapid Construction
Low Initial Cost
Freeboard
Pressure flow

CONCERNS
Longitudinal
Cracking of Decks
Working Cracks
Limited treatments

Deck Deteriorates
Unknown Beam
Condition

Debris

OPEN GRATED BRIDGE DECKS


Super and substructure
deterioration
Eliminated

REINFORCING
STEEL
Bare Bars
Premature full-depth
cracking

SIP forms
Corrosion evident

Epoxy Bars
Proven success
Min. increase in $

Stainless
Justifiable

UNCOATED REBAR

HP CONCRETE
Pozzolans
Fly Ash & Silica Fume

High Strengths
Low Permeability
Shrinkage Cracking
Increased permeability

BRIDGE BEARINGS
Steel Bearings
Lubrication Required
Cant meet 4 year cycle

Jack & Clean


Often Freeze
Thermal Stresses

Replacement Program
Elastomeric Bearings
Maintenance Friendly

CONTEXT SENSITIVE DESIGN

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

TASK CODE

DESCRIPTION

CYCLE

H11
H13

Clean Substructure
Seal Substructure

2 yrs
6 yrs

H29

Lubricate Bearings

4 yrs
2 yrs

Calcium Sulfonate

H58
H59
H60
H69
H73

Clean Superstructure &


Deck
Remove Wearing Surface
Place Wearing Surface
Place Waterproof Membrane
Seal Deck
Fill Cracks & Joints

12 yrs
12 yrs
12 yrs
4 yrs
4 yrs

H75

Clean Drainage Systems

2 yrs

Needle Scalers
Vacuum Tools
Minimal
Containment
Necessary

H89

Bridge Painting

12 yrs

H38

DECK TREATMENTS
All Concrete Cracks
Transverse
Longitudinal
Map

New & Old Concrete


Treatments
Fill cracks or
Bridge cracks

FILLING CRACKS

SPOT PAINTING
Resume Program
Materials

RADAR

Statistical Analysis
Inspector rating supported
GPR sees things the
inspector doesnt
Rating alone cannot be
used for selecting deck
treatment
Deterioration is age related
Age and % delamination
are not correlated

BRIDGING CRACKS

Treatment
Costs / Bridge

PM & MINOR REPAIRS


2370 Good Bridges

$5K
5.8
Maintenance
Candidates

4740 Fair Bridges

4.4

$250K

Major Rehab or
Replacement Candidates

790 Poor
$3.7M

MAINTENANCE DESIGN
Weathering Steel
Composite Design
Simple Span
No pier in water

Integral Abutment
No joints
No bearings

Epoxy Bars
Bridge Railing
No sidewalk

PART2
Best Practices in Bridge
Management Decision
Making

Bridge Management Decision Making


Domestic Scan Tour

Discover

and collect information on how DOTs


manage maintenance of highway bridges and how
maintenance impacts the overall bridge program

Focus on

decision processes for maintenance

programs;
How Do Decisions Rely On:
Bridge Conditions
Maintenance Needs
Effectiveness of Maintenance
Funding Availability

WA
ScotBecker
WisconsinDOT

PeteWeykamp
NewYorkDOT

Tod Kimball
FHWAVermont

MI

GeorgeHearn
Univ.ofColorado

BruceJohnson
OregonDOT

DE

OH
VA

CA

KeithRamsey
TexasDOT

Narendra Khambhati
Arora andAssoc.,NJ

ArtDAndrea
LouisianaDOT

WashingtonDOT

FL

CaliforniaDOT&
ElDorado/PlacerCountyDOTs
MichiganDOT
OhioDOT
FloridaDOT&Turnpike
AASHTO

Academia

FHWA

Consultant

DelawareDOT
VirginiaDOT

KEYFINDINGS
BridgeManagementProcess
PreventiveMaintenance
SiteVisit

ScanTeam

AgencySupport

DocumentReview

Inputs

Statewide -- State Owned

BridgeManagement

New York

50000000
45000000

Square Area of Bridges

MaintenanceNeeds
Prioritization
Performance
Measures
Verification

40000000
35000000
30000000
25000000
20000000
15000000
10000000
5000000
0
1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Calendar Year Data


Non Deficient

Total deficient

2005

2006

2007

2008

MaintenanceNeeds

Serious or
Critical
Poor Fair

Good

Identifiedattheelementlevel
Uniform,specific,andrepeatable
Statedasstandardworkactions
Accessiblethroughouttheagency

1400
Number of Bridges

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1

NBI Rating

Michigan

NBICONDITIONASSESSMENT

55

Ohio

ElementLevelInspection
TYPES
Modified NBI
Commonly
Recognized
(CoRe) Bridge
Elements
Own system

INSPECTIONFORMOHIO

SUPPORTS
Detailed reports
Maintenance

decisions
Treatment options
Early intervention
Minimize repair costs

Uniform,Specific,&Repeatable
METHODS
Inspectors recommend action
Drop-down menu
Actions prioritized
Costs per action
Stored in database
Draft work order

NeedsDatabaseOregon
NeedsDatabase

New York

InspectorRecommendations

Washington

Prioritization
Integrateobjectivesfordeficiencies,
preventivemaintenance,network
performance,andrisk.
EngagebothcentralandregionalDOT.

PrioritizationFormulas
SufficiencyRating(NBI)

DeficiencyFormula

StructuralAdequacyandSafety(55%maximum);
ServiceabilityandFunctionalObsolescence(30%maximum);
EssentialityforPublicUse(15%maximum);SpecialReductions

HealthIndex(Pontis)
HealthIndex(HI)=( CEV TEV) 100
TEV=Totalelementquantity Failurecostofelement(FC)
CEV=( [Quantityinconditionstatei WF(i)]) FC

Health 80-89

Health 70-79

Delaware

Advancefromnetworklevelrankings
toselectionofspecificprojects.

Health below 70

MaintenanceAccountabilityProgramWashington

PerformanceMeasures
Matchobjectivesinbridgemaintenance
Identifyworktoadvancemaintenance
objectives

Virginia

Providesimpleindicationsofstatusof
bridgenetworks

4A2PerformanceMeasurement

4A2StructuralBridgeRepair Washington
Bridgeinspectionsresultinthetodolist of
smallerscalestructuralrepairsfortheMaintenance
Programtocomplete.Examplesoftheserepairs
include:
BridgeCapRepair
BridgeColumnRepair
DebrisRemoval
ScourRepair
ExpansionJointRepair

Washington

The performance measurement for this activity


focuses on Priority 1 repairs. The of repairs for is
compiled annually.
The Level of Service is based on the percentage of
Priority 1 repairs completed.
Level of Service target is a C
A:
B:
C:
D:
F:

2007-09 M Program Budget: $9.2 million

90 -100% completed
80 - 89% completed
65 - 79% completed
50 64% completed
Less than 50% completed

2008 Level of Service delivered is a D


The 2009-11 proposed budget
includes an additional $1.5 million
to catch up with this maintenance
backlog and achieve the target.

Bridge Maintenance Contract Funding and Backlog


CalTrans

$40

$6

$9

01/02

02/03

03/04

04/05

500

$13

$6

$20

3030

2991

2952

2,500

$94

$94

$94

$94

$94

2,000

$80

1,500

$60
1,000

$40

0
09/10

10/11

11/12

12/13

13/14

$20

Fiscal Year
Funding $

01/02

02/03

03/04

04/05

500

$13

08/09

$9

07/08

$6

06/07

$6

05/06

$6

$-

$-

Backlog Bridges

0
05/06

06/07

07/08

08/09

09/10

10/11

11/12

12/13

13/14

Fiscal Year

71

Funding $

Backlog Bridges

Reduce Backlog

72

# of Bridges

2913

2647

2507

2544

2320

2095

1870

$100

3,500

3,000
2007 & 2009 Five Year
Plan

$63

1,000

$120

1645

1,500

$140

$63

$63

$60

$63

Bridge Maintenance Program


2001 - 2005

$160

Funding Level (Million $)

$94

$94

$94

$80

$94

2,000

4,000

Actual
2874

$180

2835

3,000

$94

$200

# of Bridges

3117

3078

3039

3000

2961

2844

2544

2320

2095

3,500

2,500

$94

1645

$120

1870

$140

$6

Funding Level (Million $)

$160

2883

Actual
CalTrans

2922

Projected

$94

$180

$100

Bridge Maintenance Contract Funding and Backlog

4,000

$200

Verification

Strategyiseffective
8,623 Bridges
Current - 69%
Goal 85%

Investmentpaysoff

Needsaremet

2,544 Bridges
Current - 20%
Goal 10%

300 Bridges/Yr

Maintenance Program

40 Bridges/Yr

Preservation Program

Rehab. Program

(Major Maintenance)

LevelofServiceindicators
Needs Accomplishment=Gap

Workcompleted

9,122 Bridges
Current - 71%
Goal 85%

ReportintoBMS,MMS,Capital
Program,

Maintenance Program
CALTRANS

PreventiveMaintenance

2,835 Bridges
Current - 22%
Goal 10%

560 Bridges/Yr

Significantpartofprogram
Appliedbeforebridgesbecomedeficient
Implementsclearplansofaction
Flexibleallocationofresources

(SHOPP)

20 Bridges/Yr

Preservation Program

870 Bridges
Current - 7%
Goal 5%

Rehab. Program

(Major Maintenance)

TrackingTrends

1,333 Bridges
Current - 11%
Goal 5%

(SHOPP)

74

Michigan

Number Bridges Going


from Good/Fair to Poor

Deterioration Rate
Statewide Trunkline Bridges
200

Linear Fit

150
100
50
0
1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Year

76
Washington

BridgeDeckPreservationMatrixMichigan

CyclicalMaintenance

Virginia

Bridge Deck Washing (Concrete) 1 Year


Bridge Deck Sweeping 1 Year
Seats & Beam Ends Washing 2 Years
Cutting & Removing Vegetation - 2 Years
Routine Maintenance of Timber Structures - 2 Years
Replacement of Compression Seal Joints 10 years
Scheduled Replacement of Pourable Joints 6 years
Cleaning and Lubricating Bearing Devices 4 years
Scheduled Beam Ends Painting 10 Years
Installation of Thin Epoxy Concrete Overlay 15 Years
Removing Debris from Culverts 5 Years

77

78

AgencySupport

BearingReplacementProgramNew York

LEGISLATURE:

gastax,dedicatedfund,MPO

percentage

DOTExecutives:Maintenanceisnotaepisodic.
ODOT FixitFirst

79

DOTCentral:Usequantitativeperformance
measures,Recognizedistricts firsthandknowledge
DistrictEngineers:Evaluateneedsandtrendsfunds
andprojects
Inspectors: Identifyneeds,recommendactions
Crews: Executework,takeinitiative

FundingLevels
Michigan
Fixed: 22% PM, 30% Rehab, 48% Replace

Ohio, Washington
15% to MPOs (Fed. legislation @ 15% min.)

Virginia
Majority of $ maintenance - legislated

California
PM from $6M to $94M

State Gas Tax


NY 42.5; Ca 39.9; Wa 37.5; Fl 34.5; Mi 30.9

DIRECTION
Service-life Extension
Mobility

Advances in Materials
Concrete repairs, Coatings

Innovative Designs for Inservice Bridges


Deck replacement options
Rapid replacement

Culverts

Comparative Measures
Partnerships
Industry, Consultants
Regional Groups

Communication
Owners, Legislatures

Triage
Posted & Closed

Assessment
Treatments

Holistic
Management

CEUQUESTIONS

We, the bridge maintenance engineers


of New York, hold these truths to be
self-evident: all joints leak, all concrete
cracks, and rust never sleeps. We will
strive to capitalize our way out of
maintenance and maintain our way out
of capital. It is our endeavor to educate
others that a bridge is as important to a
highway as a diamond is to a ring.