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NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT

ECOSYSTEM: The network of interactions that link together the living and non-living parts of an
environment.

POPULATION: The totality of a closely related number of individual organisms that belong to the same
species and live in the same geographical area and interact with each other through sexual (or asexual for
bacteria) reproduction.

MIGRATION: When living organisms move from one biome to another. It can also describe geographic
population shifts within nations and across borders.

RENEWABLE RESOURCES: Supplies of biological organisms that can be replaced after harvesting
by regrowth or reproduction of the removed species, such as seafood or timber.

NON-RENEWABLE: Something that cannot be replaced once it is used or that may take many
hundreds of years to be replaced.

FOSSIL FUELS: Fuel formed over millions of years from compression of the decayed remains of living
matter.Coal, oil, and natural gas are fossil fuels.

EQUILIBRIUM: A condition where structures or systems are in complete balance. A state of rest or
balance, in which all opposing forces are equal.

LIFE CYCLE: All the stages in the life of a plant or animal organism, between life and death.
CONSUMPTION: The amount of resources or energy used by a household.
CONSERVATION: Preserving and carefully managing natural resources so that they can be used by
present and future generations. We conserve resources
by using them more efciently, with minimum
waste.BIODEGRADABLE: Material that is able to be
broken down or decomposed by natural processes into
simpler compounds. Natural processes include exposure
to sun, water, and air.

FOOD CHAIN: A method for describing how food

energy passes from organism to


organism. The description establishes a
hierarchy of organisms where each
feeds on those below and is the source
food for those above.

of

FOOD WEB: A network of interconnected food chains in an ecosystem.


TROPHIC LEVEL: A feeding level within a food web.
HERBIVORES: An animal that eats only plants.
DETRIVORE: An organism that feeds on large bits of dead and decaying plant and animal matter. For
example, earthworms, dung beetles, and wolverines are detrivores.

CARNIVORE: A consumer that eats other animals. For example, wolves and orca are carnivores.
DECOMPOSER: An organism that breaks down (decomposes) dead or waste materials, such as
rotting wood, dead animals, or animal waste and returns important nutrients to the environment.

CONSUMER: An organism, such as an animal, that must obtain its food by eating other organisms in
its environment; can be a herbivore, carnivore, or omnivore.

SCAVENGER Any animal that preys on food predators have killed, or food recently discarded.
PRODUCER: An organism that creates its own food rather than eating other organisms to obtain food;
forexample, a plant.

PREY: An organism that is hunted by a predator.


PREDATOR: An organism that hunts another living thing for food.
OMNIVORE: An animal that eats both plants and animals.
NICHE: The way that an organism ts into an ecosystem, in terms of where it lives, how it obtains its
food, and how it interacts with other organisms.

BIOMES: Large regions of Earth where temperature and precipitation are distinct and certain types of
plants and animals are found.

HABITAT: The place where an animal or a plant naturally lives or grows and that provides it with
everything it needs to grow.

ESTUARY: The region where a river ows into the ocean and fresh river water mixes with saltwater.
LOCAL ENVIRONMENT: All the inuences and conditions in which organisms live, including the
actual place, circumstances, soil, water, air, and climate that surround and affect plants and animals in a
particular area, and which determine their form and survival.

ADAPTATION: The physical characteristic, or behaviour trait that helps an organism survive in its local
environment.

SUCCESSION: A fundamental concept in ecology that refers to the more or less predictable and
orderly changes in the composition or structure of an ecological community.

BIOMASS: An ecology term for the total mass of living organisms in a certain area.
CELL: A microscopic structure that is the basic unit of all living things. Organisms can be made of as
little as one cell (some types of bacteria) or as many as several trillion cells (human beings).

PHOTOSYNTHESIS: A process in green plants and some bacteria during which light energy is
absorbed by chlorophyll-containing molecules and converted to chemical energy (the light reaction).

During the process, carbon dioxide is reduced and combined with other chemical elements to provide the
organic intermediates that form plant biomass (the dark reaction). Green plants release molecular oxygen
(02), which they derive from water during the light reaction.

CHLOROPHYLL: A green pigment found in chloroplasts that gives plants green colour. It captures
sunlight used for photosynthesis.

CHLOROPLAST: A plant cell structure containing chlorophyll, found in all green plant
INVERTEBRATE: An animal that does not have a backbone or spinal column. Examples of
invertebrates include insects, worms, and crabs.

AMPHIBIAN: A class of vertebrates that is born in water and lives both in water and on land.
Amphibians begin life in water with gills; later, they develop lungs and legs so they can walk on land as
adults. Examples include frogs, toads, and salamanders.

COLOURATION: An adaptation of an organisms colour to help it survive in its environment. Mimicry


and camouage are examples of colouration.

CAMOUFLAGE: The colouring of an animal that allows it to blend into its environment to survive
better.

MIMICRY: Evolving to appear similar to another successful species or to the environment in order to
dupe predators into avoiding the mimic, or dupe prey into approaching the mimic.

CONDENSATION: When a substance changes state from a gas to a liquid.


SUBLIME: occurs when a substance changes directly from a solid to a gas without becoming liquid.
OXYGEN: A colourless, odourless, tasteless gas that is the most plentiful element in the Earth's crust. It
was discovered in 1772 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele.

FREEZING POINT: The temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid. Increased pressure usually
raises the freezing point.

ABSOLUTE ZERO: The lowest theoretical temperature where all the molecular activities cease to
continue. The absolute temperature is 0K= -273.16C

OZONE: A triatomic molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms. Ground-level ozone is an air pollutant
with harmful effects on the respiratory systems of animals. On the other hand, ozone in the upper
atmosphere protects living organisms by preventing damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth's
surface.

ACID RAIN: Rainfall with a greater acidity than normal.


GREENHOUSE EFFECT: An increase in temperature caused when the atmosphere absorbs
incoming solar radiation but blocks outgoing thermal radiation; carbon dioxide is the major factor.

GREENHOUSE GASES: Atmospheric gases or vapours that absorb outgoing infrared energy emitted
from the Earth naturally or as a result of human activities. Greenhouse gases are components of the
atmosphere that contribute to the Greenhouse effect.

SUSTAINABILITY: The ability of ecosystems to bear the impact of the human population over a long
period of time, through the replacement of resources and the recycling of waste.

NATURAL GAS: A fossil fuel formed by the decomposition of microscopic plants and animals over
millions of years.

ENERGY AND FORCES


POTENTIAL ENERGY: The mechanical energy of a body that is unused or stored, when the body is
at rest.

SPEED OF LIGHT: Light speed equals 299,792,458 meters/second (186,000 miles/second). Einstein's
Theory of Relativity implies that nothing can go faster than the speed of light.

STATIC ELECTRICITY: Describes the situation where objects carry a charge at rest and interactions
between them.

RADIATION: The heat transfer between two bodies without change in the temperature of the
intervening medium. Radiation is also the release of energy from a source.

POWER: The amount of work carried out per second is known as power. The amount of power
transmitted electrically is the product of voltage (V) with current (I).

PROTONS: A positively charged subatomic particle. Protons, along with other subatomic particles make
up the nucleus of an atom. The number of protons in an atom is called the atomic number of the element.

FRICTION: The force of resistance that develops when two objects rub against each other.
GRAVITY: The physical force that is exerted on all masses and is proportional to the mass of an object.
CONVECTION: Fluid circulation driven by temperature gradients; the transfer of heat by this automatic
circulation.

CONDUCTOR: A thing that transmits heat, electricity, light, sound or other form of energy.
CIRCUIT: The path followed by an electric current. Electricity must flow in a circuit to do useful work.
ACCELERATION: The rate at which the velocity vector changes is known as acceleration. The SI unit
of acceleration is metre per second

WORK: The movement of an object due to pushing or pulling is called work. There is increase in energy
of the object due to work.

MOLECULE: One of the basic units of matter. It is the smallest particles into which a substance can be
divided and still have the chemical identity of the original substance.

HYPOTHESIS: A testable scientific idea that can be proved right or wrong with experiments. A
hypothesis is a formulation of a question that lends itself to a prediction. This prediction can be verified or
falsified. A question can only be used as scientific hypothesis, if there is an experimental approach or
observational study that can be designed to check the outcome of a prediction.

TIDAL ENERGY: Energy created by lling a reservoir with ocean water at high tide, and later releasing
the water through hydroelectric turbines as the tide ebbs to produce electricity.

VOLTAGE: A measure of the energy available to move charges in a circuit between positively-charged
and negatively-charged terminals of a battery: measured in volts (V).

STATIC-ELECTRIC CHARGE: A type of electricity where the electric charges build up on an object
by rubbing another object. The movement of the charge off the charged object is called a static discharge.
For example, electric charges built up in rubbing a balloon against your pets fur.

STATIC-ELECTRIC DISCHARGE: A form of electrical energy moving unbalanced charged


electrons on an object back to a balanced condition.

SERIES CIRCUIT: A circuit in which the current travels along a single path to two or more electric
devices; the current must travel though each part of the circuit, one device after the other, in turn.

PRESSURE: A force applied equally to all surfaces of objects or surfaces. Air pressure is the force of all
the atmosphere gases pushing down on people at the Earths surface.

PARALLEL CIRCUIT: A circuit in which the current travels along two or more separate paths to
different devices. The current travels through each part of the circuit devices at the same time.

NET CHARGE: No static charge available as the amount of excess (+) electrons is equal to the
amount of decient (-) electrons.

NEUTRAL CHARGE: No static charge and no excess electron or missing electrons.


NUCLEAR ENERGY: Energy that uses uranium as a fuel to heat water and produce steam, which
turns a turbine and produces electricity.

HEAT: The transfer of thermal energy to other substances that are at a different temperature. Cold
things still have heat energy.

GEOTHERMAL: Energy obtained from the natural heat of the Earth.


GRAVITY: The forces of attraction which the Earth has for objects on its surface; also the force of
attraction between any two objects.

FORCE: The physics term used to describe the energy applied in various ways to move objects or
change their position. Force usually involve a push or a pulling and is either balanced or unbalanced by
other forces.

ENERGY: Energy cannot be seen or touched. Energy is a property of all matter. Energy comes in many
forms and can be transferred from one object to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed; written as
the symbol E.

ELECTROMAGNETISM: A magnetic force caused by electric charges in motion; also, the


relationship between magnetism and electricity where one can make the other.

ELECTRON: A negatively charged particle that is found outside the nucleus of an atom.
ELECTROMAGNET: A magnet that is created by using electricity in a circuit placed around a piece of
metal conductor such as steel or lead.

ELECTRICAL SWITCH: A device that controls the ow of electric current through a circuit. In an
open circuit, a light will be off; in a closed circuit, a light will be on.

ELECTRIC CURRENT: A continuous ow of electric charges moving from one place to another along
a pathway; required to make all electrical devices work; measured in amperes (A).

ELECTRICAL ENERGY: The better term for electricity; the form of energy that consists of a ow of
electric charges as the energy is transferred through a conductor.

BIOMASS ENERGY: Energy created by burning any type of plant or animal tissue to heat water and
create steam, which turns turbines and generates electricity.

BATTERY: An energy source that uses a chemical reaction to create an electric current.
BALANCED FORCES: When the total of all forces on an object equals zero and the objects motion
does not change.

MATERIALS AT HOME
VITAMINS: The organic compound that is required as a nutrient by an organism and is often obtained
from its diet. The deficiency of vitamins can cause many diseases and illness in the organism.

NUTRIENT: Molecules that can be used by cells or living organism to extract energy through metabolic
processes. Although nutrients are often sought off only as energy providers, they can also be used as
molecular building block for the biosynthesis of cellular structures

ETHANOL: A flammable, colourless, slightly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like
odour. Also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol, or grain alcohol, in common usage it is often referred
to simply as alcohol.

ANTIOXIDANT: A molecule that protects cells from oxidative damage of oxygen and free radical
molecules that are chemically unstable and cause random reactions damaging proteins, nucleic acids,
and cell membranes. Examples of dietary antioxidants are vitamins C, E, and K, and diverse plant
products such as lycopene

AMINO ACID: Building block of proteins and enzymes. Dietary proteins need to be broken into their
amino acid components before they can be used by the body. Note that there are 20 amino acids found in
proteins. Many nutritional lists describe only 18 occluding glutamine and asparagine. Their values are
included in those reported for the acidic forms glutamate and aspartate.

ACID: A sour tasting, corrosive substance - the opposite of a base substance. Acidic solutions will turn
litmus red.

AEROSOL: Liquid or solid particles that are suspended in air or a gas. Also referred to as particulate
matter.

VOLATILE: Compounds with low melting temperatures, such as hydrogen, helium, water, ammonia,
carbon dioxide and methane.

ACIDIC: A term used to describe a solution that has a value below 7 on the pH scale; the more acidic a
solution, the lower its pH value.

SUSPENSION: A cloudy mixture in which clumps of a solid or droplets of a liquid are scattered
throughout a liquid or gas. For example, muddy water is a suspension.

SUPERSATURATED: A solution that is more than saturated; using temperature changes, a solution is
forced to dissolve more of the substance (the solute) than would normally be found in a saturated solution.
Solute: The smaller part that is put into a solution. A solute is mixed with a solvent to form a solution.

SOLUTION: A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances that combine so that the mixture is the
same throughout and the properties of the substances blend.

SOLUBILITY: The ability of a substance (the solute) to dissolve in another substance (the solvent).
Temperature plays an important role in solubility. For example, you can dissolve more orange- drink
crystals in warm water than in cold water.

SATURATED: A solution that contains as much of one substance (the solute) as can be dissolved in
another substance (the solvent). For example, when you cannot dissolve any more drink crystals in water,
the solution is saturated.

PURE SUBSTANCE: A substance that is composed of only one type of atomic particle and therefore
always has the same properties. There are two kinds of pure substances: elements and compounds.

PH SCALE: A scale that measures the acidity of substances in solution; has numbers from 0 (strongly
acidic) to 7 (neutral) to 14 (strongly basic).

NEUTRAL PH: Neither an acid nor a base. On the


pH scale, a neutral substance or solution has a pH
value of 7. Pure distilled water has a pH of 7.

EMULSION: A special kind of suspension that has


been treated to prevent the parts of the mixture from
separating. For example, homogenized milk is an
emulsion.

DISSOLVE: To completely mix one substance (the


solute) in another (the solvent) to form a solution. For
example, if you add sugar to water, the sugar
dissolves in the water.

DILUTE: A solution that has a low concentration of


the dissolved substance (the solute).

BASIC: A term used to describe a solution that has


a value above 7 on the pH scale; the more basic a solution, the higher its pH value.

BASE: A compound that produces hydroxide (OH-) in water. A solution that is basic turns red litmus
paper blue because it has less hydrogen ions.

THE EARTH AND ITS COMPONENTS


TROPOSPHERE: The lower region of a planetary atmosphere where convection keeps the gas mixed
and maintains a steady increase of temperature with depth. Most clouds are in the troposphere.

STRATOSPHERE: The cold region of a planetary atmosphere above the convecting regions (the
troposphere), usually without vertical motions but sometimes exhibiting strong horizontal jet streams.

LITHOSPHERE: Equivalent in part to the crust, the lithosphere comprises of a number of tectonic
plates that 'float' on the asthenosphere.\

ATMOSPHERE: The blanket of air that surrounds the Earth. It is thickest near the ground and gradually
fades away to nothing in outer space.

BIOSPHERE: The parts of Earth where life can be found, from mountaintops to the deepest parts of the
ocean.

SUBDUCTION: The process in which


one plate is pushed downward beneath
another plate into the underlying mantle
when plates move towards each other.

SUBDUCTION ZONE: A place on


Earths crust where high pressure pushes
an oceanic plate under another, converging
tectonic plate.

PLATE TECTONICS: A concept stating


that the crust of the Earth is composed of
crustal plates moving on the molten
material below. The theory that the surface
of Earth consists of large plates that are
continually moving.

CRUST: The outermost rock layer, divided into


continental and oceanic crust. The continental
crust is 25-90 km thick and is mostly granite and
andesite. The oceanic crust is 6-11 km thick and
mostly basalt. thin, outer layer of Earth; made of
solid rock. The crust oats on the inner layers of
Earth because it is made of lighter materials than
the lower layers

ASTHENOSPHERE: Ductile rocks that lie


from below the lithosphere to 250 km below the
surface.

MANTLE: The mantle stretches from the below the crust to 2900 km below the surface. The upper part
is partially molten and the lower part is very dense. The main mantle rock is peridotite. Layer of Earth
between the crust and the outer core; a hot, thick layer of solid and partly melted rock.

EARTHS INNER CORE: The innermost layer of Earth, which is made up of iron and nickel.
CONTINENTAL SHELF: A shallow underwater ledge
located between a continent and the deep ocean crust.

CONTINENTAL CRUST: The parts of Earths crust that


have continents on them.

AURORA BOREALIS : The Northern Lights caused by


the interaction between the solar wind, the Earth's magnetic
field and the upper atmosphere; a similar effect happens in
the southern hemisphere where it is known as the aurora australis.

EXTRACTION: Removing rock or minerals from the earth.


ROCK is a mixture of such minerals, rock fragments, volcanic glass, organic matter, or other natural
materials.

JAMES HUTTON developed the concept of the Rock Cycle to show how rocks and natural, physical
processes are interrelated.

ROCK CYCLE is a sequence of events involving the formation, alteration, destruction, and reformation
of rocks as a result of natural processes such as magmatism (melting of rock into magma), erosion,
transportation, deposition, lithification, and metamorphism.

SEDIMENT: Small pieces of material that have broken off of rocks and have been deposited by water,
wind, or ice.

SEDIMENTARY ROCK: Layered rock formed when sediment is compressed and forced together
naturally over millions of years.

BEYOND EARTH
PERIHELION: The point in its orbit where a planet is closest to the Sun.
PLANET: The large, spherical body made of rocks and ice orbiting the Sun or another star.
PULSAR: A rotating star or a pair of stars that emit electromagnetic radiation characterized by rapid
frequency and regularity.

RED GIANT: An old star that has low surface temperature and a diameter that is large relative to the
Sun.

MILKY WAY: Our galaxy is observed as a misty band of light stretching across a night sky due to which
it is known as Milky Way. There are one hundred million stars in our milky way.

METEOR: The luminous phenomenon seen when a meteoroid enters the atmosphere, commonly
known as a shooting star.

METEOR SHOWER: A group of meteors that are seen in the same part of sky and which occur over a
period of few days or few hours is known as meteor shower.

LUMINOSITY: The radiation amount that is emitted by a star or celestial object at a given time is known
as Luminosity

METEORITE: A part of a meteoroid that survives through the Earth's atmosphere.


METEOROID: A small rock in space.
KUIPER BELT: The spherical region of the outer solar system that has a population of 'ice dwarfs' is
known as the Kuiper Belt.

JOVIAN PLANET: Any of the four outer, gaseous planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
COMA: The tail made of gases and dust particles that surrounds a comet is known as coma. It is made
by the vaporization of the nucleus due to which jets of gas and dust are released.

COMET: It is the icy body that contain a solid nucleus made of water and other dark organic compounds
orbiting the Sun. As the comets gets closer to the Sun the nucleus vaporizes forming a 'coma'.

APHELION: The point in its orbit where a planet is farthest from the Sun.
APOAPSIS: The point in orbit farthest from the planet.
APOGEE: The point in orbit farthest from the Earth.
ASTRONOMICAL UNIT (AU): The average distance from the Earth to the Sun; 1 AU is 149,597,870
kilometres (92,960,116 miles).

ALPHA CENTAURI: The closest bright star to our solar system.


LIGHT YEAR: The distance light travels in a year, at the rate of 300,000 kilometres per second (671
million miles per hour); 1 light-year is equivalent to 9.46053e12 km, 5,880,000,000,000 miles or 63,240
AU.

ASTRONOMY: is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects (such as moons,
planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies).

STAR: A massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. A hot glowing sphere of gas that
produces energy by fusion.

SUN: is the nearest star in the earth


GALILEO GALILEI: Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major
role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent
astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern
observational astronomy"

REFRACTOR TELESCOPE: A telescope with lenses that bend light rays


REFLECTOR TELESCOPE A telescope that uses mirrors
RADIO TELESCOPE is a special telescope which can see images of objects with the help of
radiation.

EDWIN HUBBLE was an American astronomer who played a crucial role in establishing the field of
extragalactic astronomy and is generally regarded as one of the most important observational
cosmologists of the 20th century.
SPACE EXPLORATION
October 4, 1957--Soviet Union launches Sputnik I.
November 3, 1957--Sputnik II launches, with ill-fated Laika the dog on board
January 31, 1958--United States launches Explorer I from Cape Canaveral in Florida.
October 1, 1958--NASA is formed after Congress passes the National Aeronautics and Space
Act.
April 12, 1961--Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human to enter space and return
safely.

May 5, 1961--With the launch of Freedom 7, Alan Shepard becomes the first American man in
space. The suborbital flight, which was part of the Mercury Project, lasted 15 minutes, 28
seconds.
May 25, 1961--U.S. President John F. Kennedy announces the goal of sending astronauts to
the moon before the end of the decade.
February 20, 1962--Launch of Friendship 7 (also part of the Mercury Project) makes astronaut
John Glenn the first American to go into orbit. Total flight time was just shy of five hours.
June 16, 1963 - Vostok 6 carries Soviet Cosmonaut Valentia Tereshkova, the first woman in
space and orbits the Earth 48 times.
March 18, 1965 - The first spacewalk is made from Soviet Voskhod 2 by Cosmonaut Alexei A.
Leonov. Duration is 12 minutes.
January 27, 1967--Mission AS-204 is struck by tragedy when a flash fire breaks out during a
launch pad test, killing three astronauts: Virgil Grissom, Edward White, and new astronaut
Roger Chaffee. The mission, one of NASA's first major setbacks, was later renamed Apollo 1.
July 16, 1969--Launch of Apollo 11
July 20, 1969--Astronauts Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin and Neil Armstrong become the first men to
walk on the moon.
March 2, 1972--Launch of unmanned Pioneer 10: Earth's first space probe to an outer
planet, the first spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt, the first spacecraft to make direct
observations and obtain close-up images of Jupiter, and the first man-made object to leave the
solar system.
May 14, 1973--United States launches its first experimental space station, the Skylab.
August 20, 1975--Launch of Viking 1, the first orbiter and lander sent to Mars. Viking 2 would
launch a few weeks later. Both landed safely on Mars and for six years sent back the first set of
images and data from the Martian surface.
August 20, 1977--Launch of Voyager 2, one of a pair of spacecraft sent by NASA on what was
supposed to be a five-year mission to study Jupiter and Saturn. Voyagers 1 and 2 continue to
send back pictures and data today, 30 years later from nearly 10 billion miles away.
September 5, 1977--Launch of Voyager 1
June 18, 1983--Sally Ride becomes first American woman in space with launch of shuttle
mission STS-7 aboard the space shuttle Challenger.
August 30, 1983--Guion S. Bluford, Jr., becomes first black man in space with launch of shuttle
mission STS-8 aboard the space shuttle Challenger.
January 28, 1986--First major catastrophe for NASA, when space shuttle Challenger (mission
STS-51L) explodes 73 seconds after take-off with seven crew members aboard
February 19, 1986--Mir space station launches.
December 4, 1996--Launch of Mars Pathfinder
July 4, 1997--Pathfinder lands on Mars. The rover Sojourner would go on to explore the Martian
surface for more than 80 days.
June 10 and July 7, 2003--Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity launch.
January 2004--Spirit and Opportunity arrive on the Martian surface. They continue to explore
the Red Planet today.

HEALTH AND BODY SYSTEM


Major Organ Systems

System
Cardiovascular
Respiratory

Nervous

Skin

Musculoskeleta
l

Blood

Digestive

Organs in the System


Heart
Blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, veins)
Nose
Mouth
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Lungs
Brain
Spinal cord
Nerves (both those that carry impulses to the
brain and those that carry impulses from the
brain to muscles and organs)
Skin (both the surface that is generally thought
of as skin and the underlying structures of
connective tissue, including fat, glands, and
blood vessels)
Muscles
Tendons and ligaments
Bones
Joints
Blood cells and platelets
Plasma (the liquid part of blood)
Bone marrow (where blood cells are produced)
Spleen
Thymus
Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
Rectum
Anus
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas (the part that produces enzymes)
Appendix

Endocrine

Urinary

Male
reproductive

Female
reproductive

Thyroid gland
Parathyroid gland
Adrenal glands
Pituitary gland
Pancreas (the part that produces insulin)
Stomach (the cells that produce gastrin)
Pineal gland
Ovaries
Testes
Kidneys
Ureters
Bladder
Urethra
Penis
Prostate gland
Seminal vesicles
Vasa deferentia
Testes
Vagina
Cervix
Uterus
Fallopian tubes
Ovaries
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: This system is made up of the heart,
blood, blood vessels, and lymphatic. It is the bodys delivery system,
concerned with circulating blood to deliver oxygen and nutrients to
every part of the body.

PULMONARY CIRCULATION transports deoxygenated


blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs, where the blood
picks up oxygen and returns to the left side of the heart.

SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION carries highly oxygenated


blood from the left side of the heart to all of the tissues of the body
(with the exception of the heart and lungs). Systemic circulation
removes wastes from body tissues and returns deoxygenated blood to
the right side of the heart.

CORONARY CIRCULATION: set of blood vessels that provide the myocardium with the
oxygen and nutrients necessary to pump blood throughout the body. The left and right coronary arteries
branch off from the aorta and provide blood to the left and right sides of the heart.

HEART is a muscular pumping organ located medial to the lungs along the bodys midline in the
thoracic region.

BLOOD VESSELS are the bodys highways that allow blood to flow quickly and efficiently from
the heart to every region of the body and back again. There are three major types of blood vessels:
arteries, capillaries and veins.

ARTERIES AND ARTERIOLES: are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Blood carried by arteries is usually highly oxygenated

CAPILLARIES: are the smallest and thinnest of the blood vessels in the body and also the most
common. Capillaries carry blood very close to the cells of the tissues of the body in order to exchange
gases, nutrients, and waste products.

VEINS AND VENULES: are the large return vessels of the body and act as the blood return
counterparts of arteries.

BLOOD: human body contains about 4 to 5 liters of blood. As a liquid connective tissue, it
transports many substances through the body and helps to maintain homeostasis of nutrients, wastes,
and gases. Blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and liquid plasma.

RED BLOOD CELLS: also known as erythrocytes, are by far the most common type of blood
cell and make up about 45% of blood volume. Erythrocytes are produced inside of red bone marrow from
stem cells at the astonishing rate of about 2 million cells every second. Erythrocytes transport oxygen in
the blood through the red pigment haemoglobin. Haemoglobin contains iron and proteins joined to greatly
increase the oxygen carrying capacity of erythrocytes.
WHITE BLOOD CELLS: also known as leukocytes, make up a very small percentage of the
total number of cells in the bloodstream, but have important functions in the bodys immune system.
PLATELETS: Also known as thrombocytes, platelets are small cell fragments responsible for the
clotting of blood and the formation of scabs.
HEMOSTASIS: or the clotting of blood and formation of scabs, is managed by the platelets of
the blood.

PLASMA: is the non-cellular or liquid portion of the blood that makes up about 55% of the bloods
volume. Plasma is a mixture of water, proteins, and dissolved substances. Around 90% of plasma is made
of water

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: The purpose of the digestive system is to turn the food you eat into something
useful for the body. When you eat, your body uses this system to digest food so your cells can use it to
make energy. The organs involved in this system include the mouth, stomach, and intestines.

ANATOMY OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


MOUTH: Food begins its journey through the digestive system in
the mouth, also known as the oral cavity. Inside the mouth are
accessory organs that aid in the digestion of foodthe tongue,
and salivary glands.

many
teeth,

TEETH: 32 small, hard organs found along the anterior and lateral
edges of the mouth. Each tooth is made of a bone-like
substance called dentin and covered in a layer of enamel
the hardest substance in the body.

TONGUE: located on the inferior portion of the


mouth just posterior and medial to the teeth. It is a small
organ made up of several pairs of muscles covered in a thin,
bumpy, skin-like layer.

SALIVARY GLANDS: accessory organs that


produce
a watery secretion known as saliva. Saliva helps to moisten food and
begins the digestion of carbohydrates. The body also uses saliva to lubricate food as it passes through the
mouth, pharynx, and oesophagus.

PHARYNX: or throat, is a funnel-shaped tube connected to the posterior end of the mouth. The
pharynx is responsible for the passing of masses of chewed food from the mouth to the oesophagus. The
pharynx also plays an important role in the respiratory system, as air from the nasal cavity passes through
the pharynx on its way to the larynx and eventually the lungs.

EPIGLOTTIS: a flap of tissue that acts as a switch to route food to the oesophagus and air to
the larynx.

ESOPHAGUS: a muscular tube connecting the pharynx to the stomach that is part of the upper
gastrointestinal tract. It carries swallowed masses of chewed food along its length.

STOMACH: a muscular sac that is located on the left side of the abdominal cavity, just inferior to
the diaphragm. This major organ acts as a storage tank for food so that the body has time to digest large
meals properly. The stomach also contains hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes that continue the
digestion of food that began in the mouth.

SMALL INTESTINE: a long, thin tube about 1 inch in diameter and about 10 feet long that is
part of the lower gastrointestinal tract. The entire small intestine is coiled like a hose and the inside
surface is full of many ridges and folds. These folds are used to maximize the digestion of food and
absorption of nutrients. By the time food leaves the small intestine, around 90% of all nutrients have been
extracted from the food that entered it.

JEJUNUM: The mid-section of the small intestine of many higher vertebrates like mammals,
birds, reptiles. It is present between the duodenum and the ileum.

LIVER: roughly triangular accessory organ of the digestive system located to the right of the
stomach. The liver weighs about 3 pounds and is the second largest organ in the body. The main function
of the liver in digestion is the production of bile and its secretion into the small intestine.

GALLBLADDER: a small, pear-shaped organ located just posterior to the liver. The gallbladder
is used to store and recycle excess bile from the small intestine so that it can be reused for the digestion
of subsequent meals.

PANCREAS: a large gland located just inferior and posterior to the stomach. It is about 6 inches
long and shaped like short, lumpy snake with its head connected to the duodenum and its tail pointing
to the left wall of the abdominal cavity. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine
to complete the chemical digestion of foods.

LARGE INTESTINE: a long, thick tube about 2 inches in diameter and about 5 feet long. The
large intestine absorbs water and contains many symbiotic bacteria that aid in the breaking down of
wastes to extract some small amounts of nutrients.

PROCESS OF DIGESTION
INGESTION: The first function of the digestive system is ingestion, or the intake of food. The
mouth is responsible for this function, as it is the orifice through which all food enters the body.
SWALLOWING: the process of using smooth and skeletal muscles in the mouth, tongue, and
pharynx to push food out of the mouth, through the pharynx, and into the oesophagus.
PERISTALSIS: a muscular wave that travels the length of the GI (gastro-intestinal) tract,
moving partially digested food a short distance down the tract.

SEGMENTATION: occurs only in the small intestine as short segments of intestine contract like
hands squeezing a toothpaste tube. Segmentation helps to increase the absorption of nutrients by mixing
food and increasing its contact with the walls of the intestine.
DIGESTION: the process of turning large pieces of food into its component chemicals.
MECHANICAL DIGESTION: is the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller
pieces.

CHEMICAL DIGESTION: begins in the mouth with salivary amylase in saliva splitting complex
carbohydrates into simple carbohydrates. The enzymes and acid in the stomach continue chemical
digestion, but the bulk of chemical digestion takes place in the small intestine thanks to the action of the
pancreas.

ABSORPTION: Once food has been reduced to its building blocks, it is ready for the body to
absorb. Absorption begins in the stomach with simple molecules like water and alcohol being absorbed
directly into the bloodstream. Most absorption takes place in the walls of the small intestine, which are
densely folded to maximize the surface area in contact with digested food.

EXCRETION: The final function of the digestive system is the excretion of waste in a process
known as DEFECATION. Defecation removes indigestible substances from the body so that they do
not accumulate inside the gut.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: This system is made up of a


collection of glands, including the pituitary and thyroid glands, as
well as the ovaries and testes. It regulates, coordinates, and controls a
number of body functions by secreting chemicals into the
bloodstream. These secretions help control moods, growth and
development, and metabolism.

ANATOMY OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM


HYPOTHALAMUS: a part of the brain located superior and
anterior to the brain stem and inferior to the thalamus. It serves
many different functions in the nervous system, and is also
responsible for the direct control of the endocrine system through
the pituitary gland.
Pituitary Gland

PITUITARY GLAND: also known as the HYPOPHYSIS,


is a
small pea-sized lump of tissue connected to the inferior portion of the
hypothalamus of the brain. Many blood vessels surround the pituitary gland to carry the hormones it
releases throughout the body.

PINEAL GLAND: is a small pinecone-shaped mass of glandular tissue found just posterior to
the thalamus of the brain. The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin that helps to regulate the
human sleep-wake cycle known as the circadian rhythm.
THYROID GLAND: is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck and wrapped
around the lateral sides of the trachea. The thyroid gland produces 3 major hormones

PARATHYROID GLANDS: are 4 small masses of glandular tissue found on the posterior side
of the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands produce the hormone parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is
involved in calcium ion homeostasis.

ADRENAL GLANDS: are a pair of roughly triangular glands found immediately superior to the
kidneys. The adrenal glands are each made of 2 distinct layers, each with their own unique functions: the
outer adrenal cortex and inner adrenal medulla

GONADS: ovaries in females and testes in malesare responsible for producing the sex
hormones of the body. These sex hormones determine the secondary sex characteristics of adult females
and adult males.

TESTES: are a pair of ellipsoid organs found in the scrotum of males that produce the
androgen testosterone in males after the start of puberty. Testosterone has effects on many parts of
the body, including the muscles, bones, sex organs, and hair follicles.

OVARIES are a pair of almond-shaped glands located in the pelvic body cavity lateral and
superior to the uterus in females. The ovaries produce the female sex hormones progesterone and
estrogens.
THYMUS: is a soft, triangular-shaped organ found in the chest posterior to the sternum. The
thymus produces hormones called thymosins that help to train and develop T-lymphocytes during fetal

development and childhood. The T-lymphocytes produced in the thymus go on to protect the body from
pathogens throughout a persons entire life.

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM: This


system consists of the skin, hair, nails, and
sweat glands. Its main function is to act as a
barrier to protect the body from the outside
world. It also functions to retain body fluids,
protect against disease, eliminate waste
products, and regulate body temperature.

ANATOMY OF INTEGUMENTARY
SYSTEM
EPIDERMIS: is the most superficial
layer of the skin that covers almost the entire
body surface. The epidermis rests upon and
protects the deeper and thicker dermis layer of
the skin.

DERMIS: the deep layer of the skin


found under the epidermis. The dermis is mostly
made of dense irregular connective tissue along
with nervous tissue, blood, and blood vessels. The dermis is much thicker than the epidermis and gives
the skin its strength and elasticity.

PAPILLARY LAYER is the superficial layer of the dermis that borders on the epidermis.
The papillary layer contains many finger-like extensions called dermal papillae that swell
superficially towards the epidermis.

RETICULAR LAYER is the thicker and tougher part of the dermis. The reticular layer is
made of dense irregular connective tissue that contains many tough collagen and stretchy elastin
fibers running in all directions to provide strength and elasticity to the skin.
HYPODERMIS: Deep to the dermis is a layer of loose connective tissues known as the
hypodermis, subcutis, or subcutaneous tissue. The hypodermis serves as the flexible connection between
the skin and the underlying muscles and bones as well as a fat storage area.

HAIR: an accessory organ of the skin made of columns of tightly packed dead keratinocytes found
in most regions of the body.

NAILS: accessory organs of the skin made of sheets of hardened keratinocytes and found on the
distal ends of the fingers and toes.

SUDORIFEROUS GLANDS: exocrine glands found in the dermis of the skin and commonly
known as sweat glands

SEBACEOUS GLANDS are exocrine glands found in the dermis of the skin that produce an
oily secretion known as sebum. Sebaceous glands are found in every part of the skin except for the thick
skin of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.

CERUMINOUS GLANDS are special exocrine glands found only in the dermis of the ear
canals. Ceruminous glands produce a waxy secretion known as cerumen to protect the ear canals and
lubricate the eardrum

MUSCULAR SYSTEM: This system is made


up of muscle tissue that helps move the body and
move materials through the body. Quite simply,
muscles move you. Muscles are bundles of cells
and fibers that work in a simple way: they tighten
up and relax.

TYPES OF MUSCLES
VISCERAL MUSCLE: found inside of
organs like the stomach, intestines, and blood
vessels. The weakest of all muscle tissues,
visceral muscle makes organs contract to move
substances through the organ. Because visceral
muscle is controlled by the unconscious part of
the brain, it is known as involuntary muscleit
cannot be directly controlled by the conscious
mind. The term smooth muscle is often used to
describe visceral muscle because it has a very smooth, uniform appearance when viewed under a
microscope.

CARDIAC MUSCLE: Found only in the heart, cardiac muscle is responsible for pumping blood
throughout the body. Cardiac muscle tissue cannot be controlled consciously, so it is an involuntary
muscle.

SKELETAL MUSCLE: Skeletal muscle is the only voluntary muscle tissue in the human body
it is controlled consciously.

NERVOUS SYSTEM: The nervous system is the control center of the human body. It is made up of
the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. It receives and interprets stimuli and transmits impulses to organs. Your
brain uses the information it receives to coordinate all of your actions and reactions.

ANATOMY OF NERVOUS SYSTEM


NEURONS: Neurons, also known as nerve cells, communicate within the body
by transmitting electrochemical signals.

TYPES

OF NEURONS
AFFERENT NEURONS: Also known
as sensory neurons, afferent neurons transmit sensory signals to
the central nervous system from receptors in the
body.

EFFERENT NEURON: Also known as


motor neurons, efferent neurons transmit signals
from the central nervous system to effectors in the
body such as muscles and glands.

INTERNEURONS: Interneurons form


complex
networks within the central nervous system to integrate the
information received from afferent neurons and to direct the function of the body through
efferent neurons.

BRAIN: a soft, wrinkled organ that weighs about 3 pounds, is located inside the cranial cavity,
where the bones of the SKULL surround and protect it. The approximately 100 billion neurons of the brain
form the main control centre of the body. The brain and spinal cord together form the CENTRAL
NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS), where information is processed and responses originate. The brain, the seat
of higher mental functions such as consciousness, memory, planning, and voluntary actions, also controls
lower body functions such as the maintenance of respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.

SPINAL CORD is a long, thin


neurons that carries information through
the spine beginning at the medulla oblongata of the brain on its
and continuing inferiorly to the lumbar region of the spine.

NERVES are bundles of axons in the peripheral


system (PNS) that act as
carry signals
between the brain
spinal cord and the rest of the body.

MENINGES are the protective


nervous system (CNS). They consist of three
arachnoid mater, and pia mater.

DURA MATER: The

mass of bundled
the vertebral cavity of
superior end
nervous
information highways to
and
coverings of the central
layers: the dura mater,
dura mater, which means

tough mother, is the thickest, toughest, and most superficial


layer of meninges. Made of dense irregular connective tissue, it
contains many tough collagen fibers and blood vessels. Dura mater protects the CNS from external

damage, contains the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds the CNS, and provides blood to the
nervous tissue of the CNS.

ARACHNOID MATER: The arachnoid mater, which means spider-like mother, is much
thinner and more delicate than the dura mater. It lines the inside of the dura mater and contains
many thin fibers that connect it to the underlying pia mater. These fibers cross a fluid-filled space
called the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater.

PIA MATER: The pia mater, which means tender mother, is a thin and delicate layer of
tissue that rests on the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Containing many blood vessels that
feed the nervous tissue of the CNS, the pia mater penetrates into the valleys of the sulci and
fissures of the brain as it covers the entire surface of the CNS.
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID: The space surrounding the organs of the CNS is filled with a clear
fluid known as cerebrospinal fluid

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: The human reproductive system ensures that humans are able to
reproduce and survive as a species. It is made up of organs such as the uterus, penis, ovaries, and
testes.

ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


SCROTUM is a sac-like organ made of skin and muscles that houses the testes. It is located
inferior to the penis in the pubic region. The scrotum is made up of 2 side-by-side pouches with a testis
located in each pouch.

TESTES also known as testicles, are the male gonads responsible for the production of sperm
and testosterone.

EPIDIDYMIS is a sperm storage area that wraps around the superior and posterior edge of the
testes. The epididymis is made up of several feet of long, thin tubules that are tightly coiled into a small
mass. Sperm produced in the testes moves into the epididymis to mature before being passed on through
the male reproductive organs.

SPERMATIC CORDS connects the testes to the abdominal cavity. The spermatic cords contain
the ductus deferens along with nerves, veins, arteries, and lymphatic vessels that support the function of
the testes.

DUCTUS DEFERENS also known as the vas deferens, is a muscular tube that carries sperm
superiorly from the epididymis into the abdominal cavity to the ejaculatory duct. The ductus deferens is
wider in diameter than the epididymis and uses its internal space to store mature sperm.

SEMINAL VESICLES are a pair of lumpy exocrine glands that store and produce some of the
liquid portion of semen. The seminal vesicles are about 2 inches in length and located posterior to the
urinary bladder and anterior to the rectum.
PROSTATE is a walnut-sized exocrine gland that borders the inferior end of the urinary bladder
and surrounds the urethra. The prostate produces a large portion of the fluid that makes up semen. This
fluid is milky white in color and contains enzymes, proteins, and other chemicals to support and protect
sperm during ejaculation.

COWPERS GLANDS also known as the bulbourethral glands, are a pair of pea-sized exocrine
glands located inferior to the prostate and anterior to the anus. The Cowpers glands secrete a thin
alkaline fluid into the urethra that lubricates the urethra and neutralizes acid from urine remaining in the
urethra after urination.

PENIS is the male external sexual organ located superior to the scrotum and inferior to the
umbilicus. The penis is roughly cylindrical in shape and contains the urethra and the external opening of
the urethra.

SEMEN is the fluid produced by males for sexual reproduction and is ejaculated out of the body
during sexual intercourse. Semen contains sperm, the male reproductive gametes, along with a number of
chemicals suspended in a liquid medium. Semen is the fluid produced by males for sexual reproduction
and is ejaculated out of the body during sexual intercourse. Semen contains sperm, the male reproductive
gametes, along with a number of chemicals suspended in a liquid medium.

ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


OVARIES are a pair of small glands about the size and shape of almonds, located on the left and
right sides of the pelvic body cavity lateral to the superior portion of the uterus. Ovaries produce female
sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone as well as ova (commonly called "eggs"), the female
gametes.

FALLOPIAN TUBES are a pair of muscular tubes that extend from the left and right superior
corners of the uterus to the edge of the ovaries.The inside of each fallopian tube is covered in cilia that
work with the smooth muscle of the tube to carry the ovum to the uterus.

UTERUS is a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ located posterior and superior to the urinary
bladder. Connected to the two fallopian tubes on its superior end and to the vagina (via the cervix) on its
inferior end, the uterus is also known as the womb, as it surrounds and supports the developing fetus
during pregnancy.

VAGINA is an elastic, muscular tube that connects the cervix of the uterus to the exterior of the
body. It is located inferior to the uterus and posterior to the urinary bladder.

VULVA is the collective name for the external female genitalia located in the pubic region of the
body. The vulva surrounds the external ends of the urethral opening and the vagina and includes the
mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, and clitoris. The mons pubis, or pubic mound, is a raised layer of
adipose tissue between the skin and thepubic bone that provides cushioning to the vulva.

BREASTS are specialized organs of the female body that contain mammary glands, milk ducts,
and adipose tissue. The two breasts are located on the left and right sides of the thoracic region of the
body. In the center of each breast is a highly pigmented nipple that releases milk when stimulated.

ZYGOTE: A zygote is a fertilized egg containing two sets of chromosomes, one from the egg
(oocyte) and one form the sperm. The zygote is a single cell and the result of a fusion between two
gametes, an egg (female) and one sperm cell (male).
OVULATION: The process of menstruation cycle in females, in which the mature ovarian follicle
ruptures to discharge an ovum or egg to participate in reproduction.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with
oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this

through breathing. It consists of the nose,


larynx, trachea, diaphragm, bronchi, and
lungs.

ANATOMY OF RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
NOSE: the main entry point of air. Inside
the

nose is a passageway called the nasal


cavity. It has tiny hair called vibrissae that
help filter out dirt, smoke and other nasty
particles that need to be removed. It also
has mucous glands that secrete mucus
and hair-like structures called cilia. Both
mucus and cilia warm and humidify or
add moisture to the air that goes down
into your lungs.

MOUTH: a very important part of the


respiratory system for babies. This is
because they have not yet learned how to
breathe through their nose. Therefore, the mouth acts as a supplemental airway.

PHARYNX: serves as the airway that connects the nasal cavity and the oral cavity with the
larynx and the oesophagus. It is, therefore, an important part of both the respiratory and digestive
systems.

EPIGLOTTIS: a tissue that shuts off the larynx when you swallow. When it is positioned
downward, you are able to swallow. When this tissue is positioned upward, air moves into your trachea.

LARYNX: or voicebox is responsible for voice generation. It has two pairs of vocal cordsa false
pair and a true pair. As you breathe, air is forced through the true vocal cords. When you want to make a
sound, your nervous system sends signals to these vocal cords, which tighten or loosen according to the
pitch you want.

TRACHEA: Also called the windpipe, the trachea is composed of cartilage rings. You can feel
these rings when you run your palm over the front of your neck. It branches into two airways called
bronchi.

BRONCHI: You have two bronchi. One bronchus goes to your right lung and the other goes to
your left lung. Both bronchi are lined with cilia and mucous glands, which also help prevent infection.

LUNGS: They are lobed elastic organs that expand when air goes in and contract when air goes
out. Their main function is to facilitate gas exchange. Deoxygenated blood (blood without oxygen) from
your organs goes to the lungs for removal of carbon dioxide and for absorption of oxygen.

OXYGENATED BLOOD: Blood that supplies oxygen bound to haemoglobin that is carried in
red cells to the various tissues, and cells of the body is known as oxygenated blood. The heart pumps out
the oxygenated blood through the important artery known as coronary artery.

SKELETAL SYSTEM: The skeletal system provides the shape and form for our bodies in addition to
supporting and protecting our bodies, allowing bodily movement, producing blood cells, and storing
minerals. This system consists of bones, cartilage, and joints.

ANATOMY OF SKELETAL SYSTEM


SKULL: composed of 22 bones that are fused together except for the mandible. These 21 fused
bones are separate in children to allow the skull and brain to grow, but fuse to give added strength and
protection as an adult.

VERTEBRAE: Twenty-six vertebrae form the vertebral column of the human body. They are
named by region: Cervical (neck) - 7 vertebrae, Thoracic (chest) - 12 vertebrae, Lumbar (lower back) - 5
vertebrae, Sacrum - 1 vertebra, Coccyx (tailbone) - 1 vertebra

STERNUM: or breastbone, is a thin, knife-shaped bone located along the midline of the anterior
side of the thoracic region of the skeleton.

JOINT: is a point of contact between bones, between a bone and cartilage, or between a bone
and a tooth.

URINARY SYSTEM: The purpose of the urinary system is to filter out excess fluid and other
substances from your bloodstream. Some fluid gets reabsorbed by your body but most gets expelled as
urine. The organs found in this system are the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.

ANATOMY OF URINARY SYSTEM


KIDNEYS are a pair of bean-shaped organs found along the posterior wall of the abdominal
cavity. The kidneys filter metabolic wastes, excess ions, and chemicals from the blood to form urine.

URETERS are a pair of tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. The ureters
are about 10 to 12 inches long and run on the left and right sides of the body parallel to the vertebral
column.

URINARY BLADDER is a sac-like hollow organ used for the storage of urine. The urinary
bladder is located along the bodys midline at the inferior end of the pelvis. Urine entering the urinary
bladder from the ureters slowly fills the hollow space of the bladder and stretches its elastic walls. The
walls of the bladder allow it to stretch to hold anywhere from 600 to 800 milliliters of urine.

URETHRA is the tube through which urine passes from the bladder to the exterior of the body.
The female urethra is around 2 inches long and ends inferior to the clitorisand superior to the vaginal
opening. In males, the urethra is around 8 to 10 inches long and ends at the tip of the penis. The urethra
is also an organ of the male reproductive system as it carries sperm out of the body through the penis.

ORGAN: A body part composed of a collection of differing cells and tissues organized to perform a
specic function.

MICRO-ORGANISM: A living thing that is too small to be seen without the help of a microscope. For
example, bacteria and some algae are micro-organisms.

VIRUS: A microscopic infectious agent that has the ability to reproduce only in a host cell .
SENSE ORGANS in humans and other animals, faculties by which outside information is received for
evaluation and response. This is accomplished by the effect of a particular stimulus on a specialized

organ, which then transmits impulses to the brain via


a nerve or nerves.

HEARING a sense by which sound waves are


perceived by the organ of hearingthe earin
vertebrate animals. The process of sound perception
is called audition. The physical stimulus of auditory
sensation is the vibration of some material object.
The vibration is transmitted from the object to the ear,
under ordinary conditions, by a wave movement of air
particles.

SIGHT (vision), is the ability to see the features of


objects we look at, such as color, shape, size, details,
depth, and contrast. Vision is achieved when the eyes
and brain work together to form pictures of the world
around us. Vision begins with light rays bouncing off
the surface of objects. These reflected light rays enter
the eye and are transformed into electrical signals.
Millions of signals per second leave the eye via the
optic nerve and travel to the visual area of the brain.
Brain cells then decode the signals into images,
providing us with sight.

SMELL a sense by which odors are perceived. The nose, equipped with olfactory nerves, is the special
organ of smell. The olfactory nerves also account for differing tastes of substances taken into the mouth,
that is, most sensations that appear introspectively as tastes are really smells.

TASTE a sense by which four gustatory qualities (sweetness, sourness, saltiness, and bitterness) of a
substance are distinguished. Taste is determined by receptors, called taste buds, the number and shape
of which may vary greatly between one person and another. In general, women have more taste buds
than men. A greater number of taste buds appears to endow a greater sensitivity to sweetness, sourness,
saltiness, and bitterness.

TOUCH a sense by which the body perceives contact with substances. In humans, touch is
accomplished by nerve endings in the skin that convey sensations to the brain via nerve fibers. Nerves
end in or between the cells of the epidermis, the outer layer of the skin, in all parts of the body.

MAIN PARTS OF THE EYE AND THEIR FUNCTION


Part
Cornea
Iris
Lens
Retina

Optic nerve

Description
Front part of the tough outer coat, the sclera. It is convex
and transparent.
Pigmented - decides the colour of your eyes - so light
cannot pass through. Its muscles contract and relax to alter
the size of its central hole or pupil.
Transparent, bi-convex, flexible disc behind the iris attached
by the suspensory ligaments to the ciliary muscles.
The lining of the back of eye containing two types of
photoreceptor cells - rods - sensitive to dim light and black
and white - and cones - sensitive to colour. A small area
called the fovea in the middle of the retina has many more
cones than rods.
Bundle of sensory neurones at back of eye.

Function
refracts light - bends it as
it enters the eye
controls how much light
enters the pupil
focuses light onto the
retina
contains the light
receptors

carries impulses from the


eye to the brain

PARTS OF

THE EAR AND THEIR


FUNCTIONS
Outer Ear

Description
and Function

The outer ear is the portion of the ear that sits atop the skull, which is
made of flesh and cartilage.
It is the visible part which serves to protect the eardrum. It also collects
and guides sound waves into the middle ear.

Compositiona
l parts and
their
functions

Pinna (ear flap)


The ear flap or pinna is the outer portion of the ear. This is the physical
portion of the ear that you see on the side of your head, which is used like
a satellite dish to collect sound and transmit it inward where it can be
translated into the appropriate medium.
Meatus (ear canal)
This is the ear canal, which extends inward from the outer ear. This 2 cm
canal helps to amplify sound as it enters the middle ear so it can be
interpreted properly. This area also contains cells which produce ear wax,
which helps keep debris out of the middle ear.
Middle Ear

Description
and Function

The middle ear contains tissue and bone but no skin, and is the area
where sound is translated into mechanical energy so it can pass through
the body. Most diseases such as ear infections will take hold in the middle
ear, though some can also affect the inner ear.
It translates sound waves from the outer ear into the form of pressure
waves.

Compositiona
l parts and
their
functions

Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum)


The eardrum, known scientifically as the tympanic membrane Is a thin
piece of tissue that is stretched between the outer and middle ear. It is
called the drum because sound waves will hit it and cause it to vibrate,
which will take the sound from acting as wave energy and translate it to
mechanical energy that can travel through the rest of the ear.
Malleus (Hammer)

The malleus or hammer of the ear is one of the smallest bones in the
body. It is connected to the ear drum, and will vibrate as the drum is hit by
the sound waves, passing the sound on to the rest of the ear.
Incus (Anvil)
The anvil bone or the incus sits on top of the hammer, and will collect the
vibrations coming from the ear drum, sending them on to the stirrup.
Stapes (Stirrup)
The stirrup or stapes sits below the anvil, and is the final bone in the inner
ear to collect and pass on sound. These sound waves will cause the
stirrup to compress, compressing the waves so they can be passed on to
the inner ear.
Inner Ear (Labyrinth)
Description
and Function

The inner ear is the portion of the ear which is responsible for translating
the message and sending it to the brain where it can be interpreted. It is
filled with fluid that helps to balance the ear organs and comprise the
hearing so it can be passed to the nerves.

Compositiona
l parts and
their
functions

Cochlea
This is a spiral tube that is covered in a stiff membrane. This membrane is
filled with nerve cells, commonly known as ear hairs. These hairs
are each designed to pick up on a different type of vibration, which hits in
different frequencies. As the nerves begin to vibrate they will turn these
frequencies into an electrical pulse which will be sent up to the brain. If the
ear is exposed to sound that is too high pitched or too loud, these hair-like
nerves can break off, and they will not grow back. This is one of the
biggest contributors to hearing loss.
Auditory Nerve
These nerves receive the electrical impulses generated by the ear and
pass this information up to the brain so it can be interpreted.
Semicircular Canals
These are attached to the cochlea, but do not spend much time interacting
with the hearing portion of ear function. Instead, these fluid filled tubes will
turn and sway with movement, helping you keep your balance.

EARTHQUAKE (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy
in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.

FOCUS point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins


EPICENTER point on Earths surface above focus

FAULT is an area of stress in the earth where


broken rocks slide past each other, causing a crack
in the Earth's surface.

STRIKE-SLIP FAULTS involve motion which is


parallel to the strike of the fault--frequently described
as a "side-by-side" motion.

THRUST AND REVERSE FAULTS form by


horizontal compressive stresses and so cause
shortening of the crust.

NORMAL FAULTS generally occur in places


where the lithosphere is being stretched.

MAGNITUDE is the amount of energy released by an earthquake. An American scientist named


CHARLES F. RITCHER developed a scale to indicate the magnitude of an earthquake. This scale is
popularly known as Ritcher Magnitude Scale that uses numbers from 1 to 10. The stronger the
earthquake is the higher the number on the scale. The feebler or weaker the earthquake is the lower is
the number.

INTENSITY is the measure of the strength of an earthquake. It refers to the effect of earthquake on
people, ground and structures.Earthquake intensities are descriptions of earthquake effects on man,
ground and structures. The scale that measures an earthquakes intensity was developed by de Rossi of
Italy and Forel of Switzerland in 1884

ANEMOMETER: A device used to measure the speed of wind.


ATMOSPHERC PRESSURE: One atmospheric pressure is 105 Newton per square meter; the
average atmospheric pressure at sea level on Earth.

CORIOLIS FORCE: The apparent force, resulting from the rotation of the Earth that deflects air or
water movement.

LIGHTNING: A powerful flash of electricity between the negative electrical charges in clouds or
between a cloud and the ground.

RELATIVE HUMIDITY: The ratio of the amount of water vapour present in a specified volume of air
to the maximal amount that can be held by the same volume of air at a specified temperature and
pressure.

CLIMATE: The weather pattern for a geographical region over a long period of time.
CLOUD: Water vapour in the atmosphere that has cooled and come into contact with tiny particles of
dust.

CONDENSATION: The process of changing from a gas or a vapour to a liquid.

THE MEASUREMENTS
The International System of Units (SI)

All systems of weights and measures, metric and non-metric, are linked through a network of
international agreements supporting the International System of Units. The International System is called
the SI, using the first two initials of its French name Systme International d'Units. The key agreement is
the Treaty of the Meter (Convention du Mtre), signed in Paris on May 20, 1875. 48 nations have now
signed this treaty, including all the major industrialized countries. The United States is a charter member of
this metric club, having signed the original document back in 1875.
The SI is maintained by a small agency in Paris, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures
(BIPM, for Bureau International des Poids et Mesures), and it is updated every few years by an
international conference, the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM, for Confrence
Gnrale des Poids et Mesures), attended by representatives of all the industrial countries and
international scientific and engineering organizations. The 24th CGPM met in 2011; the next meeting will
be in 2014. As BIPM states on its web site, "The SI is not static but evolves to match the world's
increasingly demanding requirements for measurement."
At the heart of the SI is a short list of base units defined in an absolute way without referring to any
other units. The base units are consistent with the part of the metric system called the MKS system. In all
there are seven SI base units:

the METER for distance,


the KILOGRAM for mass,
the SECOND for time,
the AMPERE for electric current,
the KELVIN for temperature,
the MOLE for amount of substance, and
the CANDELA for intensity of light.

TEMPERATURE: The measure of how hot or cold something is. In relative terms, it is a measure of the
amount of heat present.

PREDICT: Thinking by using prior knowledge about what a student knows to work out what is going to
probably happen next, in a pattern of events.

MEASURE: Using special tools to accurately determine the amount of an object without guessing or
estimating. The measured amount must be described relative to a standard unit system.

MASS: The amount of matter in something, which is measured in grams (g).


LOAD: The mass (weight) of an object to be moved.
ESTIMATE: A math and science term for referring to how students use prior knowledge to make a
reasonable and sensible decision about amounts. Amounts can be quantity, number, volume, length,
weight, or size.

CONSTRUCT: To make or build a model or to build a simple structure by joining materials together.
COMPARE: To look and identify two or more objects and see how they are different and how they are
the same.

CLASSIFY: Grouping and labelling a collections of items, objects, or living things. The grouping
arrangements match a set of classication rules and common characteristics indicating their similarities
and differences.

CALCULATE: To gure out by using mathematics the number for quantities, amounts, sizes, lengths,
or mass of items.

BUOYANCY: The ability to oat in water; the upward force of water on any object placed in water.
WEIGH: To determine the mass of a certain object
WEIGHT: Term often used as a synonym for mass in commercial and everyday use; in scientic and
technical work, this term should be replaced by mass or force, depending on the application.

DENSITY is a physical property of matter, as each element and compound has a unique density
associated with it. Density defined in a qualitative manner as the measure of the relative "heaviness" of
objects with a constant volume.

Machines
WORK: is the amount of energy necessary to move an object.
MACHINE is a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action.
Machines are usually powered by mechanical, chemical, thermal, or electrical means, and are often
motorized. Historically, a power tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine.

SIMPLE MACHINE is a non-powered mechanical device that


changes the direction or magnitude of a force. In general, they can
be defined as the simplest mechanisms that use mechanical
advantage (also called leverage) to multiply force

LEVER: is a long tool such as a pole or a rod put under an


object to lift it. The lever is more efficient when combined with a
fulcrum. The fulcrum is another object, perhaps a rock, used to
brace under the long tool. This gives the long pole something to
push down against.

INCLINED PLANE: is simply a ramp. One end is higher than


the opposite end. This allows things to go from a low place to a
higher place. Or vice versa. It takes less work to move an object
up a ramp then it does to lift that object up the vertical distance.

WEDGE: is used to separate an object apart. This is needed to


cut, tear or break something in two. A wedge can also be used to
keep things together or secure things from movement. Some
examples of wedges that are used for separating might be a
shovel, a knife, an axe, a pick axe, a saw, a needle, scissors, or
an ice pick.

PULLEY: is actually a version of a wheel and axle that is combined with a rope, chain or other cord to
allow moving something up and down or back and forth. The pulley can be combined with other pulleys to
reduce the amount of work necessary to lift huge amounts of weight or to lower them down.

SCREW: is really a twisted inclined plane. It allows movement from a lower position to a higher position
but at the same time it moves it in a circle. That makes it take up less horizontal space. A screw can also
act to hold things together in some cases.

FULCRUM: The point on which a lever rests or turns.


RADAR: An acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging. A device that sends out radio waves and picks
up any echoes that are bounced back off objects to tell the distance, speed, direction of motion, and
shape of objects.

RAMP: Interchangeable with term meaning an incline plane or sloping surface.


SCUBA: An acronym for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus; allows divers to carry their
air supply on their backs.

SONAR: An acronym for SOund NAvigation and Range; a device that ships use to chart the depth of
oceans using the echoes of sound waves.

ANIMALS
HABITAT is a special place where a plant or animal lives. Just like you have a home or place to live, so
do animals and plants. When we talk about an animals or a plant's home it is more like a neighbourhood
than a "house." An animal needs five things to survive in its habitat: food, water, shelter, air, and a

place to raise its young


POPULATION: the total of living organisms in a given area
COMMUNITY: The animals and plants that live together in a habitat.The community of living things
interacts with the non-living world around it to form the

NICHE: is the smallest unit of a habitat that is occupied by a plant or animal. The habitat niche is the
physical space occupied by the plant or animal. The niche is the role the plant or animal plays in the
community found in the habitat.

BIOME: a complex community of plants and animals

CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS
VERTEBRATES: they are animals that have a backbone. Some vertebrate animals like monkeys and
birds have bony backbones and other like fish have cartilage as support. Bones are muscles made up of
minerals and they are hard, while cartilage does not contain and they are tough and flexible.

Five Classes of Vertebrates

MAMMALS- A warm-blooded vertebrate with insulting hair and mammary glands. They do not lay eggs
and they give birth to their young. They feed their young with milk. Examples are dogs, cats carabao
cows, goats and pigs.

BIRDS- they are covered with feathers. Unlike mammals, they lay eggs with hard shells. Birds have one
pair of legs and wings. Examples are snakes, turtles lizards and crocodiles.

Amphibians- Ectothermic vertebrates intermediate without fish and reptiles that spend part of their life
on land and part of the water. When they are young they live in water and when they already mature they
live inland. Examples are frogs and salamander.

FISHES- A cold-blooded vertebrate whose gills fins and scales adapt it to living in the water. They lay
eggs and their gills used for breathing.

REPRILES: A cold-blooded vertebrate whose scales are hard and strong They lay eggs and their lungs
used for breathing.

INVERTEBRATES: They are animals with backbones.


Groups of Invertebrates
PORIFERA (SPONGES) - Pore-bearing animals
COELENTERATES (HYDRAS) - Hallow-intestine animals
PLATYMINTHES (FLATWORMS, TAPEWORMS) - Flattened elongated warm-like animals
NEMATODES (ROUNDWORMS) - Elongated unsegmented warm-like animals
MOLLUSKS (SNAILS, CLAMS, SQUIDS) - Soft-bodied animals usually living in a shell or
exoskeleton

ANTHROPODS (INSECTS, CRABS, SPIDER, CENTIPEDES) - They are segmented animals


with hardened outer skeleton and jointed appendages.

ECHINODERMS (STARFISH, SEA URCHIN) - They are spiny-skinned animals