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Vector Identities:

Triple Products:

♠ A • ( B × C ) = B • ( C × A) = C • ( A × B )

♠ A × ( B × C ) = B ( C • A) = C ( A • B )

Product rules:

♠ ∇ ( fg ) = f ( ∇g ) + g ( ∇f )

♠ ∇ ( A • B ) = A × ( ∇ × B ) + B × ( ∇ × A) + ( A • ∇ ) B + ( B • ∇ ) A

♠ ∇ • ( fA ) = f ( ∇ • A ) + A • ( ∇f )

♠ ∇ • ( A × B ) = B ( ∇ × A) − A ( ∇ × B )

♠ ∇ × ( fA ) = f ( ∇ × A ) − A × ( ∇f )

♠ ∇ × ( A × B ) = ( B • ∇ ) A − ( A • ∇ ) B + A ( ∇ • B ) − B ( ∇ • A)

Second derivatives:

♠ ∇ • ( ∇ × A) = 0

♠ ∇ × ( ∇ × A) = ∇ ( ∇ • A) − ∇2 A

♠ ∇ • ( ∇f ) = ∇ 2 f

♠ ∇ × ( ∇f ) = 0

Fundamental theorems:

As is known, the volume is always enclosed by a closed surface and the surface is

always is enclosed by closed path. The path is a vector, is a directed curve, direction

normally being indicated with an arrow over the curve. The surface is also by

definition a vector and, by definition, is always surrounded by a closed path. The

direction of the surface at a point over it can be found by drawing a closed path,

direction being same as that of the path surrounding the total surface, surrounding

that point. The direction pointed by the right hand thumb when wrapped by the

fingers around the point gives the direction of the surface at that point. The

integration of a vector over the closed surface can be related to the integration of the

same vector throughout the volume enclosed by the surface through the divergence

theorem. Similarly the integration of a vector along a closed path can be related to

the integration of the same vector over the surface enclosed by the path through Curl

theorem.

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Gradient theorem

gradient of a scalar function along a path from ' a ' to' b ' is the difference of the

function values at ' a ' and ' b ' i.e. f ( a ) and f ( b ) . '

b

∫ ( ∇f ) • dl = f ( b ) − f ( a )

a

This theorem connects surface integral with volume integral. In word form it can

be stated as 'the integral of the normal component of a vector over a closed

surface is equal to the integral of the divergence of the same vector through any

volume enclosed by that surface.' Analytically

∫ ( ∇ • A) dτ = ∫ A • da

Curl theorem or Stokes theorem

This theorem connects line integral with surface integral. In word form it can be

stated as 'the integral of the tangential component of a vector around a closed

path is equal to the integral of the normal component of the curl of the same

vector through any surface enclosed by the path.' Mathematically

∫ ( ∇ × A) • da = ∫ A • dl

Significance:

• These are useful in converting the Maxwell's equations from point form

to integral form and vice versa.

• They relate a surface integral to its corresponding volume integral and

also a line integral to its corresponding surface integral.

∂ ∂ ∂

Operator Del ∇ i+ j+ k

∂x ∂y ∂z

• It is a three dimensional, partial differential vector operator defined in

Cartesian system only. But it can be mapped into other co-ordinate

systems. Its units are ( mt ) .

−1

• This operator can be applied over a scalar function to find its gradient,

over a vector function to find either its divergence or curl

• When applied to a position vector ' rar ' joining origin with ( x, y, z )

or ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) with ( x, y, z ) , then

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∇ r = ar

1 a

∇ = − 2r

r r

( )

∇ • r ar = ( n + 2 ) r n , n ≠ −2

n

= 4π δ 3

( r ) , n = −2

(

∇ × r n ar = 0)

∂2 ∂2 ∂2

Operator Laplacian ∇ 2 + +

∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

• It is a three dimensional, second order, partial differential scalar

operator defined in Cartesian system only. But it can be mapped into

other co-ordinate systems. Its units are ( mt ) .

−2

vector function

∂2

Operator d'Alembertian 2 ∇ 2 − µ0ε 0 2 and Helmholtz operator ( ∇ • ∇ + k 2 ) :

∂t

Both these operators are three dimensional partial differential operators. The first is

normally applied upon scalar functions.

Let dl = h1 du uˆ + h2 dv vˆ + h3 dw wˆ

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1 ∂V 1 ∂V 1 ∂V

♠ ∇V = uˆ + vˆ + wˆ

h1 ∂u h2 ∂v h3 ∂w

1 ∂ ∂ ∂

♠ ∇•D = ( h2 h3 Du ) + ( h3h1 Dv ) + ( h1h2 Dw )

h1h2 h3 ∂u ∂v ∂w

h1uˆ h2 vˆ h3 wˆ

1 ∂ ∂ ∂

♠ ∇× D =

h1h2 h3 ∂u ∂v ∂w

h1 Du h2 Dv h3 Dw

1 ∂ h2 h3 ∂V ∂ h3 h1 ∂V ∂ h1h2 ∂V

♠ ∇ 2V = + +

h1h2 h3 ∂u h1 ∂u ∂v h2 ∂v ∂w h3 ∂w

and magnetic properties of the regions i.e. parts of the space.

The region surrounding the stationary charge distribution is called electric field or to

be precise electrostatic field. The study of the electrostatic field is electrostatics.

The region surrounding the conductor carrying direct current (dc) distribution is

called magnetic field or to be precise steady magnetic field. The study of the steady

magnetic field is magnetostatics.

The electrostatic fields and steady magnetic fields together are called static fields or

dc fields. In static fields the field intensity can be function of position and independent of

time.

The region surrounding the conductor carrying time varying or alternating current

(ac) distribution is called time varying electromagnetic field. In these fields there exists both

electric field intensity and magnetic field intensity which are related to each other. This

relation i.e. the relation between electric field and magnetic field in time-varying fields is

given by Faraday’s law and Maxwell’s relation.

All the three types of fields are related because of the relation that exists in between

their respective sources. Stationary charge gives electrostatic field and charge moving with

constant velocity is the source of steady magnetic field whereas the charge moving with

acceleration/deceleration gives rise to time-varying electromagnetic fields.

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All the fields whether dc or ac are reservoirs of the energy. And it is also possible

to add or subtract energy to the fields. One difference between electric and magnetic fields

is: magnetic fields can do no work whereas electric fields can do.

Time varying fields exhibit one important property which is not possessed by static

fields. There exists travelling wave and consequently energy flow called radiation in time

varying electromagnetic fields. As the antennas which are critical components of wire-less

communication systems, functions based on radiation. So the study of the properties of the

time varying fields has become an important requirement for communication engineers.

The intensity of the electric field is a vector quantity indicated by E with units

volts/meter. The magnetic field intensity is also a vector quantity indicated by H with units.

Electric field intensity is function of the medium properties where as the magnetic field

intensity is independent of the medium of the field.

For static fields intensities are always inversely proportional to the square of the

distance from the source. And functions of position only where as time varying fields are

functions of position and time also

A quantity D = ε E called electric displacement density can also be defined for

electric fields with units coul/m2. A quantity similar to this can be defined for magnetic

fields also. It is called magnetic flux density denoted by B with units of tesla or webers/m2.

It is related to the magnetic field intensity through B = µ H .

The electric displacement density is independent of the medium whereas the

magnetic flux density is dependent upon the medium properties. For static fields these are

functions of position only where as for time varying fields they are functions of time also.

Potential functions are also defined both for static and dynamic fields. For electric

field it is called electric scalar potential indicated by V with units of volts. With magnetic

fields the magnetic vector potential is defined indicated by A with units ----. For the static

sources the potentials are inversely proportional to the distance from the source. Potentials

can be related to their static sources as well their fields.

For dynamic fields the potential functions are called retarded potentials because of

the retardation or delay is incorporated into the expressions. They can be related to the

source or the fields. In this case the two potentials can be related to each other also through

Coulombs gauze or Lorentz gauge

Electro statistics

Coulomb’s Law:- The force on a point charge Q due another point charge q is

proportional

to the product of the charges,

to the inverse of the distance between them and

it is along the line joining these two charges,

attractive for dissimilar and repulsive for similar charges,

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Mathematically,

1 Qq

F= ar

4πε r 2

Q q ( x1 − x2 ) i + ( y1 − y2 ) j + ( z1 − z2 ) k

=

4πε 3

( x1 − x2 ) + ( y1 − y2 ) + ( z1 − z2 )

2 2 2 2

Q q ( r1 − r2 )

=

4πε r − r 3 2

1 2

where ε = ε 0ε r

By superposition, the force on Q due to n charges q1 , q2 , q3 ,....qn is

n

Q qk

1

F=

1 4πε

∑ar

rk2 k

The force on the unit charge i.e. Q = 1 is the electric field intensity

F 1 n qk

E= = ∑ ar

Q 4πε 1 rk2 k

1 λ dl

4πε ∫ r 2

E= ar for the line charge distribution

1 σ ds

E=

4πε ∫ r2

ar for surface charge distribution

1 ρ dτ

E=

4πε ∫ r2

ar for volume charge distribution

Field Intensities

1 Q

For a point charge ε E E = ar

4πε r 2

1 2λ

For infinite line charge E = ar

4πε r

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σ

For infinite sheet charge E = an

2ε 0

Electric Flux Density: D

It is a quantity proportional to the no. of flux lines crossing unit area equal to ε E i.e.

D =εE .

Gauss Law:

The net flux through any closed surface is equal to the net charge enclosed by that

surface.

∫ D.da = Qenc Integral form

∇•D = ρ Differential form

Gauss law is useful to compute the field intensity when the charge distribution is highly

symmetrical i.e. plane symmetry, cylindrical symmetry or spherical symmetry.

Depending upon the symmetry exhibited by the charge distributions, the Gaussian

surfaces (surfaces over which integration is performed) can be a pill box, coaxial

cylinder or a concentric sphere.

The application of the Gauss law to find the field intensity of charge distribution requires

the prior knowledge of the field.

The integration of the Gauss law becomes simpler only if the field is either normal or

tangential to the Gaussian surface and when ever it is normal its value must remain

constant.

Scalar Potential: V

work done to bring a unit positive charge from infinity to the point P

P

V = − ∫ E.dl

∞

a

Potential of a point ‘a’ with respect ‘b’ is Vab = − ∫ E.dl

b

1 Q

For a point charge V =

4πε r

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1 λ dl

4πε ∫

For line charge distribution V =

r

1 σ da

4πε ∫

For surface charge distribution V =

r

1 ρ dτ

4πε ∫ r

For volume charge distribution V =

Field intensity E in terms of the potential V

ρv

Considering divergence both sides and using Gauss Law ∇ 2V = − which is Poisson’s

ε

Law.

If the volume charge density ρ v = 0 then ∇ 2V = 0 which is Laplace Equation.

1 a

E (r ) = ∫ ρ ( r ') dτ ' where r% = r − r '

r

4πε r% 2

1 a a

∇.E = ∫ ∇. ρ ( r ') dτ ' : But ∇.

r r

= 4πδ 3 ( r% )

4πε r% 2

r% 2

1 1

Thus ∇.E = ∫ 4πδ ( r − r ')ρ ( r ') dτ ' = ρ ( r )

3

4πε ε

∇.D = ρv

CONDUCTORS

Basics properties: E = 0 inside a conductor, E can be only perpendicular to the surface just

σ

outside the conductor, E = nˆ , ρ = 0 inside a conductor, the charge can reside only over

ε0

the surface, V is constant through out the conductor,

Polarization of materials

When a piece of dielectric material is placed in an electric field

The field will induce in each atom a tiny dipole moment pointing in the same direction

as the field, if the material is made up of non-polar molecules.

Each permanent dipole will experience a torque, tending to line it up along the field

direction, of the material is made up of polar molecules.

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In either case, the result is a lot of little dipoles pointing along the direction of the field and

the dielectric is said to be Polarized. A convenient measure of this effect is polarization P=

Dipole moment per unit volume.

Field of a polarized object:

A single dipole P gives potential

1 ar • P

V= .

4πε 0 r 2

A differential volume dτ with dipole moment p = P dτ gives rise to a potential

1 ar • P

dV = dτ .

4πε 0 r 2

1 P • ar

The total potential due to the entire object is V = ∫

4πε 0 vol r 2

dτ

1 1

=

4πε 0 ∫ P • ∇ r dτ

vol

1 P • da 1 ∇•P

= ∫

4πε 0 sur r

− ∫

4πε 0 vol r

dτ

1 σ b da 1 ρb

= ∫

4πε 0 sur r

− ∫

4πε 0 vol r

dτ

It means the potential and hence also the field of a polarized object is the same as

that produced by a volume charge density ρb = −∇ • P plus a surface charge density

σ b = P • nˆ

Gauss law in the presence of dielectrics:

With in the dielectric, the total charge density can be written as ρ = ρb + ρ f where ρb = a

result of polarization, bound charge density and ρ f = which is not a result of polarization,

free charge.

Now the Gauss law reads ε 0∇ • E = ρ = ρb + ρ f = −∇ • P + ρ f where the E is total

field → ∇ • ( ε 0 E + P ) = ρ f → D ≡ ε 0 E + P

In terms of the D , the electric displacement, Gauss law reads ∇ • D = ρ f → ∫ D • da = Q enc

Linear dielectrics:

in linear dielectrics, the polarization is proportional to the field P = ε 0 χ e E . The

proportionality constant χ e is called electric susceptibility. So in linear media, we have

D = ε 0 E + P = ε 0 E + ε 0 χ e E = ε 0 (1 + χ e ) E . Now D = ε E where ε = ε 0 (1 + χ e ) is called the

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ε

permittivity of the material. k = 1 + χ e = = ε r . where k is called the dielectric constant of

ε0

σ

the material. For lossy dielectric ε&r = ε r − j = ε '− jε '' = ε ' (1 − j tan θ ) where

ωε 0

ε '' σ

tan δ =loss tangent = =

ε ' ωε 0ε r

Biot-savart law: the magnetic field intensity dH at an arbitrary point P due to a steady line

current element Idl is proportional to the current element Idl , inversely proportional to r 2 ,

r being the distance between the current element and the field point P and it is directed

perpendicular to both the current element and the distance

1 Idl × ar I dl × ar

4π ∫ r 2

vector dH = →H =

4π r 2

K da × ar

4π ∫ r 2

For surface currents H = and

1 J × ar

4π ∫ r 2

for volume currents H = dτ

Lorentz force law: the force on a moving charge Q with velocity v in a magnetic field B

plus electric field E is F = Fele + Fmag = QE + Q ( v × B )

Fmag = I ∫ ( dl × B ) for line currents

( )

Fmag = K ∫ da × B for surface currents

Fmag = ∫ ( J × B )dτ for volume currents.

Magnetic forces can do no work.

Ampere’s law for steady currents: The magnetomotive force around a closed path is equal

to the net steady current through any surface enclosed by the

path. ∫ H • dl = I enc → integral form and ∇ × H = I enc → differential form

Ampere’s law is useful in finding the field intensity when the current distribution exhibits

symmetry like infinite straight line, infinite plane, infinite solenoid and toroid.

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Magnetization of materials

When a magnetic field is applied to a material, a net alignment of the magnetic dipoles

inside the material occurs resulting in

Magnetization of the material parallel to B ( paramagnets ) or

Magnetization opposite to B ( diamagnets ) or

Retention of substantial magnetization indefinitely after the external field has

been removed ( ferromagnets )

A quantity used to describe the state of magnetic polarization of a material is Magnetization

M = magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.

Field of a magnetized object:

The vector potential of a single dipole m is

µ m × ar

A= 0 .

4π r 2

µ M × ar

In the case of a magnetized object, the vector potential is A = 0 ∫ dτ

4π vol r 2

µ0 M × da µ0 ∇ × M

=

4π ∫

sur

r

+

4π vol∫ r dτ

µ K da µ J

= 0

4π ∫sur br + 4π0 vol∫ rb dτ where Kb = M × nˆ and J b = ∇ × M

This relation says that the potential and hence also the field of a magnetized object is the

same as would be produced by a volume current density J b ≡ ∇ × M through out the

material plus a surface current K b = M × nˆ on the boundary.

Amperes law in magnetized materials

The total current of the material can be expressed as J = J b + J f where J b is bound current,

a result of magnetization and J f is free current, not a result of magnetization.

1

Amperes law is (∇ × B ) = J = J f + Jb = J f + (∇ × M )

µ0

B B

→ ∇ × − M = J f : let −M = H

µ0 µ0

→ ∇ × H = J f → ∫ H • dl = I fencl

Linear media:

For most substances the magnetization is proportional to the field M = µ0 χ m H , the

proportionality constant χ m is called the magnetic susceptibility.

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B = µo ( H + M ) = µo (1 + χ m ) H so

B = µ H where µ = µo (1 + χ m ) which is called the permeability of the material.

Hence

Magnetism

The origin of magnetism lies in the orbital and spin motions of electrons and how the

electrons interact with one another. The magnetic behaviour of the materials can be

classified into the following five major groups;

• Diamagnetism

• Paramagnetism

• Ferromagnetism

• Ferrimagnetism

• Antiferromagnetism

The first two groups of materials exhibit no collective magnetic interactions and are not

magnetically ordered where as the materials of the last three groups exhibit long range

magnetic order below a certain critical temperature.

Ferromagnetic and Ferrimagnetic materials are strongly magnetic where as the other

three are weakly magnetic.

• Diamagnetism The substances are composed of atoms which have no net magnetic

moments because all the orbital shells are filled with no unpaired electrons. It is usually

weak with temperature independent negative susceptibility. Examples for the materials

that exhibit diamagnetism are quartz, calcite and water.

• Paramagnetism in this class of materials, some of the atoms or ions in the materials have

a net magnetic moment due to unpaired electrons in partially filled orbitals. One of the

most important atoms with unpaired electrons is iron. However the individual magnetic

moments do not interact magnetically and the magnetization is zero when the field is

removed. They have temperature dependant positive susceptibility.

• Ferromagnetism the atomic moments in these materials exhibit very strong interactions

produced by very large electronic exchange forces and result in parallel alignment of

atomic moments. Two distinct characteristics of ferromagnetic materials are spontaneous

magnetization and the existence of magnetic ordering temperature. The elements Fe, Ni

and Co and many of their alloys are typical ferromagnetic materials. It is due to the

magnetic dipoles associated with the spins of unpaired electrons, each dipole likes to

point in the same direction as its neighbour, the alignment occurs in relatively small

patches called domains and they themselves are randomly oriented. For ferromagnetic

materials the susceptance is positive and is approximately 20 to 200 times that of

paramagnetic materials.

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atoms on different sub-lattices are opposed and unequal. This happens when the sub-

lattices consists of different materials or ions. Ferrimagnetic materials have high

resistivity and external field induced anisotropic properties. Ferrimagnetism properties

are similar to Ferromagnetism in that spontaneous magnetization, Curie temperature,

hysterisis and remanence. But they have different magnetic ordering. Ferrimagnetism is

exhibited by ferrites and magnetic garnets. The oldest known magnetic substance

magnetite is a ferrimagnet. Widely used ferrimagnetic materials are YIG and ferrites

composed of iron oxides and other elements such as aluminium, nickel, cobalt,

manganese and zinc.

• Antiferromagnetism an ferromagnetic material is one in which the magnetic moment

of the atoms on different sub-lattices are opposed and equal resulting in a net moment of

zero.

Electrodynamics

Faraday’s law: In 1831 Michael Faraday performed three important epoch making

experiments.

• Exp I: He pulled a loop of wire through a magnetic field resulting flow of current

through the loop.

• Exp II: He moved a magnet moving its field holding the loop still resulting in

current through the loop.

• Exp III: With both the loop and the magnet at rest, he changed the strength of

the field by varying the current in the coil resulting the flow of current in the

loop.

In case of first experiment, which is an example of motional emf, it is the Lorentz force law

at work; the emf is magnetic. To explain the generation of emf in the last two experiments,

Faraday assumed that 'a changing magnetic field induces an electric field' and this particular

electric field caused the emf. So in the last two cases the emf is electric.

A time varying magnetic field produces an emf which may establish a current in a

dφ

suitable closed circuit. If the circuit is an N turn coil then emf = − N . A non-zero value

dt

dφ

of may result due to a time changing flux linking a stationary closed path, relative

dt

motion between a steady flux and a closed path or a combination of the above two.

Lenz’s law: The induced emf due to the time varying magnetic field is in such a direction as

to produce a current whose flux, if added to the original flux would reduce the magnitude of

the emf.

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Motional emf: it is due to the motion of a conductor is a magnetic field. The force on charge

F

Q located in the conductor F = Q ( v × B ) → = ( v × B ) = Em

Q

Maxwell's correction:

In the case of steady magnetic fields ∇ × H = J which is ampere's law. The relation that

holds for time varying magnetic fields must converge to this expression in case of no time

variations. With this aspect in consideration, let us suppose, for time varying fields

∇ × H = J + X where X is unknown to be determined.

Now consider divergence both sides of this relation.

∇ •∇× H = ∇ • J + ∇ • X

The left hand side of this equation is always is zero. And the first term of the right hand side

∂ρ

is, according to equation of continuity, ∇ • J = − . But the Gauss law says ∇ • D = ρ .

∂t

∂D

With this relation the equation continuity becomes ∇ • J = −∇ • resulting in

∂t

∂D ∂D

0 = −∇ • + ∇ • X which gives X =

∂t ∂t

∂D

Hence ∇ × H = J + in case of time varying fields.

∂t

Note the relations used in the above derivation, equation continuity and Gauss law

both are valid for time varying fields. Therefore the resultant expression must also be valid

for time varying fields.

According to this Maxwell's correction of Ampere's law 'a changing electric field

induces a magnetic field'. Maxwell called the term ∂D ∂t as displacement current.

Poynting Theorem

• It states that the net power flowing out of a given volume v is equal to the time rate

of decrease in the energy stored with in v minus the power dissipated plus the power

output of the source. According to this theorem the vector product P = E × H at any

point is a measure of the rate of energy flow per unit area at that point.

d 1

∫ ( E × H ) • da

S

=−

dt 2 V∫

(ε 0 E 2 + µ0 H 2 )dv + ∫ ( E.J )dv − σ ∫ E 2

V V

• It can also be stated as the work done on the charges by the electromagnetic force is

equal to the decrease in the energy stored in the field less the energy that flowed out

through the surface. In fact it is the work energy theorem of the electrodynamics.

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d 1 dW

∫ E • Jdv = − dt 2 ∫ (ε E )

+ µ0 H 0 dv − ∫ ( E × H ).da =

2

0

V V S

dt

Importance:

• This theorem gives the energy relations of the fields in any volume. It also gives the

net flow of the power out of given volume thorough its surface.

• The pointing vector is the power density on the surface of a volume. The direction of

the pointing vector is the direction of the flow of the power.

Total complex power fed into a volume is equal to the algebraic sum of

• Active power dissipated as heat, plus

• Reactive power proportional to the difference between time-average magnetic and

electric energies stored in the volume, plus

• Complex power transmitted across the surface enclosed by the volume.

1 1 1

−∫

2

( )

E • J 0∗ dv = ∫ σ E dv + j 2ω ∫ ( wm − we ) dv +

2

2

2 ∫ P • ds

v v v s

Maxwell’s Equations

current density and as such would produce a magnetic field has had far-reaching effects.

Faraday’s law indicates that a changing magnetic field produces electric field.

These two together lead to ‘wave equations’ predicting the existence of

electromagnetic ‘wave propagation’ even thirty years before Hertz’s experimental

verification.

The following four electromagnetic equations are known as Maxwell’s equations

because of the contribution to their development and established them as a self-consistent

set.

When equations are transformed from time varying form into phasor form two

changes take place: one is apparent ∂ ∂t gets replaced by jω , another is hidden fields and

sources become independent of time. In the phasor form of equations the fields and sources

are functions of just position only.

Word form of equations:

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• The magneto motive force around a closed path is equal to the conduction current

plus the time-derivative of electric displacement through any surface.

• The electromotive force around a closed path is equal to the time derivative of the

magnetic flux through any surface bounded by the path.

• The net electric displacement through the surface enclosing a volume is equal to the

total charge with in the volume.

• The net magnetic flux emerging through any closed surface is equal to zero.

∂D ∂B

∫ H • dl = ∫ J + • ds

∂t ∫ E • dl = −∫ ∂t • ds

∫ D • ds = ρ v ∫ B • ds = 0

∫ H • dl = ∫ ( J + jωε E ) • ds ∫ E • dl = − ∫ jωµ H • ds

∫ D • ds = ρ v ∫ B • ds = 0

Equations in Differential Form

• The curl of the magnetic field at a point in a time varying field is the sum of the

conduction and displacement current densities at that point.

• The curl of the electric field at a point in a time varying field is equal to the negative

time-rate of change of the magnetic flux density at that point.

• The divergence of the electric displacement density at a point in a time varying field

is equal to the volume charge density at that point.

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• The divergence of the magnetic flux density at a point in a time varying field is zero.

.

∂D ∂B

∇× H = J + ∇× E = −

∂t ∂t

∇ • D = ρv ∇•B = 0

∇ × H = J + jωε E ∇ × E = − jωµ H

∇ • D = ρv ∇•B = 0

Significance:

o Electromagnetic phenomenon of any type i.e. any frequency ranging dc to

infinity, any amount of intensity can be explained interpreted and understood

using the Maxwell’s equations.

o The time varying fields at a point, both electric and magnetic, obey Maxwell’s

equations the fact of which is used to compute the fields many times. In the

absence of the relations connecting the time varying fields with their sources, this

observation is of very significant and useful.

o Maxwell’s equations lead to the development of wave equations. The field

intensities of the time varying fields obey wave equations proving the existence

of the wave or energy flow in the time varying fields.

Boundary Conditions

• The tangential component of E is continuous at the surface. It means E is same just

outside the surface as it is just inside.

• The tangential component of H is continuous across a surface except at the surface of

a perfect conductor. The tangential component of H is discontinuous by an amount

equal to the surface current per unit width at the surface of the perfect conductor.

• The normal component of B is continuous at the surface of any discontinuity.

• The normal component of D is continuous except in the presence of surface charge

density. The normal component of D is discontinuous by an amount equal to the

surface charge density in the presence of surface charge density.

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Wave equations

In perfect dielectric

∇ × ∇ × E = − µ∇ × H&

But in free space, according to Amperes law with Maxwell’s correction

∇ × H = ε E&

So

∇ × ∇ × E = − µε E&&

The vector identity is

∇ × ∇ × E = ∇∇ • E − ∇ 2 E

So

∇∇ • E − ∇ 2 E = − µε E&&

According to gauss law, as the medium is free space without any charge,

1

∇•E = ∇•D = 0

ε

Hence

∇ 2 E = µε E&&

Similarly it can be derived using the Maxwell’s equation

∇ 2 H = µε H &&

In phasor form these two equations become

∇ 2 E = −ω 2 µε E

∇ 2 H = −ω 2 µε H

These two equations are called vector Helmholtz equations.

In conducting media

∇ × ∇ × E = − µ∇ × H&

But in free space, according to Amperes law with Maxwell’s correction

∇ × H = J + ε E& = σ E + ε E& as J = σ E is Ohms law.

So

∇ × ∇ × E = − µσ E& − µε E&&

The vector identity is

∇ × ∇ × E = ∇∇ • E − ∇ 2 E

So

∇∇ • E − ∇ 2 E = − µσ E& − µε E&&

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According to gauss law, as the medium is free space without any charge,

1

∇•E = ∇•D = 0

ε

Hence

∇ 2 E = µσ E& + µε E&&

This is the wave equation in E and similarly the wave equation for H

∇ 2 H = µσ H& + µε H &&

can be derived using the Maxwell’s equation

In phasor form, these two equations become

∇ 2 E = ( jωµσ − ω 2 µε ) E

= jωµ (σ + jωε ) E = γ 2 E

(

∇ 2 H = jωµσ − ω 2 µε H )

= jωµ (σ + jωε ) H = γ 2 H

Propagation constant γ

The constant γ is known as propagation constant of the medium and in general a complex

quantity having both the real and imaginary β parts. The real part is called attenuation

constant σ and the imaginary part is called phase shift constant β .

γ = α + jβ

γ= jωµ (σ + jωε )

µε σ2

α =ω 1 + 2 2 − 1

2 ωε

µε σ2

β =ω 1 + 2 2 + 1

2 ωε

For good dielectrics

µε σ2

α =ω 1 + 2 2 − 1

2 ωε

µε σ2 σ µ

≅ω 1 + − 1 =

2 2ω 2ε 2 2 ε

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µε σ2

β =ω 1 + 2 2 + 1

2 ωε

µε σ2

≅ω 1 + + 1

2 2ω ε 2 2

σ2

= ω µε 1 + 2 2

8ω ε

γ= jωµ (σ + jωε )

jωε

= jωµσ 1 +

σ

≅ jωµσ = ωµσ ∠450

Therefore

ωµσ

α =β =

2

Vector Helmholtz equations

1

∇ × ∇ × E − k 2ε r E = 0

µr

1

∇ × ∇ × H − k 2 µr H = 0

εr

Scalar Helmholtz equations

1

∇ • ∇Ez + k 2ε r Ez = 0 . Similarly for other components of the E .

µr

1

∇ • ∇H z + k 2 µ r H z = 0 . Similarly for other components of the H .

εr

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Wave:

• A physical phenomenon that occurs at one place at a given time is reproduced at

other places at later times, the time delay being proportional to the space separation

from the first location then the group of phenomenon constitutes wave.

Plane wave:

• It is a wave whose equi-phase surfaces are planes.

• it is a wave whose magnitude and phase, both are constant over a set of planes.

• In uniform plane wave E and H are independent of two dimensions and dependant

only on one dimension and time.

• These are transverse in nature i.e. E and H are perpendicular to the direction of

propagation of the wave.

• They i.e. E and H are perpendicular to each other. In fact E, H and direction of

propagation of the wave form RH vector system.

• The direction of propagation is given by E × H . In fact E, H and direction of

propagation of the wave form RH vector system.

Ex µ Ey µ E µ

• = , =− also =

Hy ε Hx ε H ε

Classification of electromagnetic waves: where ever time varying fields exists, there

the wave exists and the converse is also true. The electromagnetic waves can be classified

into four categories.

In this wave, also known as Principal wave, the electric vector E and magnetic

vector H both are entirely normal to the direction of the propagation of the wave.

In addition, the electric vector E , magnetic vector H and the direction of propagation

all the three vectors form a right handed vector system.

The energy travels as TEM wave in free space and over parallel wire transmission

line. The coaxial lines can also hold this type of wave.

The phase velocity and group velocity is same for TEM wave. Neither one depends

upon the frequency. So the TEM wave is non-dispersive wave.

• Transverse electric (TE) wave:

In this wave, the electric vector is entirely normal to the direction of propagation and

hence no component in the direction of propagation. The magnetic vector has both the

normal and parallel components.

• Transverse magnetic (TM) wave:

In this wave, the magnetic vector is entirely normal to the direction of propagation

and hence no component in the direction of propagation. The electric vector has both the

normal and parallel components.

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It is a linear combination of TE and TM waves. In this wave, both the electric and

magnetic vectors posses both the components, normal and parallel to the direction of

propagation of the wave.

Non-TEM waves i.e. TE, TM and TE+TM waves exist in hallow pipe waveguides.

The phase velocity differs from group velocity in case of non-TEM waves. And both depend

upon the frequency. So the non-TEM waves are always dispersive in nature.

The coaxial line, in addition to the TEM wave, can carry higher order forms of TM and

TE waves with components of electric or magnetic field in the direction of the line axis.

However for the usual coaxial lines the dimensions are small enough that the lines are

operating at frequencies far below cutoff for these modes.

Perfect conductor:

Normal incidence: The amplitude of the reflected electric field strength is equal to that of

the incident electric field strength, but its phase is reversed on reflection i.e. Er = − Ei

The electric field intensity in the standing wave pattern is E% ( x, t ) = 2 E sin β x sin ωt

T i

♠ The magnetic field strength gets reflected without phase reversal i.e. H r = H i

The magnetic field strength in the standing wave pattern is H% ( x, t ) = 2 H cos β x cos ωt

T i

♠ In the reflected wave, the E%T and H% T are 90 apart in time-phase. Also there exists a

0

Oblique incidence: The plane of incidence is the plane containing the incident ray and the

normal to the surface.

− jβ y

♠ Perpendicular polarization: ET = 2 jEi sin β z z e y

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♠ Parallel polarization:

− jβ y

H T = 2 H i cos β z z e y

− jβ y y

E y = 2 jη H i cos θ sin β z z e

− jβ y y

E z = 2η H i sin θ cos β z z e

exists standing wave distribution along the

z − axis i.e. cos β z z or sin β z z and

− jβ y y

travelling wave along the y − direction i.e. e

Perfect dielectric:

♠ Normal incidence: Ei = η1 H i , Er = −η1 H r and Et = η 2 H t

Tangential components are continuous Ei + Er = Et and H i + H r = H t

Er ε − ε 2 Et 2 ε1

= 1 ; =

Ei ε1 + ε 2 Ei ε1 + ε 2

♠ Perpendicular polarization:

ε

cos θ1 − 2 − sin 2 θ1

Er ε1 ε1 cos θ1 − ε 2 cos θ 2 sin (θ 2 − θ1 )

= = =

Ei ε ε1 cos θ1 + ε 2 cos θ 2 sin (θ 2 + θ1 )

cos θ1 + 2 − sin 2 θ1

ε1

♠ Parallel polarization:

ε2 ε2

cos θ1 − − sin θ1

2

= = 2 =

Ei ε ε2 ε 2 cos θ 2 + ε 1 cos θ1

sin (θ1 + θ 2 )

cos θ1 + − sin θ1

2 2

ε1 ε1

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♠ Brewster angle: it is the angle of incidence at which there is no reflected wave when the

ε2

incident wave is parallel or vertical polarized. It is θ1 = tan −1 .

ε1

♠ Total internal reflection: it takes place if the medium 1 is denser than medium2 and θ1

ε2

is large enough to satisfy θ1 > sin −1

ε1

♠ Fields across media: If θ1 and θ 2 are the angles made by the fields with normals in the

tan θ1 ε1 tan θ1 µ1

two different media then = and =

tan θ 2 ε 2 tan θ 2 µ2

Skin depth or depth of penetration: when the medium is conductive, the wave gets

attenuated as it progresses into the medium. Skin depth or depth of penetration δ is defined

as the depth in which the wave gets attenuated to 1 e or approximately 37 percent of its

original value.

As the amplitude of the wave decreases exponentially with depth αδ = 1

1 1 2

δ= = ≈ for a good conductor.

α µε σ2 ωµσ

ω 1 + 2 2 − 1

2 ωε

Surface impedance: At high frequencies, when wave falls over the conductor the current

flows which is confined almost entirely to a very thin sheet at the surface of the conductor.

Surface impedance is defined as the ratio of tangential electric field strength

at the surface of the conductor to the surface current density that flows as a result of the

incident wave.

Etan

Zs =

Js

If the conductor is flat plate with its surface at y = 0 plane, then the current

distribution in the y − direction will be J = J 0 e −γ y where J 0 is the current density at

the surface which is related to the tangential electric field through J 0 = σ Etan .

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Assuming the thickness of the conductor plate to be larger than the depth of

penetration so that no reflection from the back surface of the conductor, the surface

∞ ∞

J

current density becomes J s = ∫ J dy =J 0 ∫ e −γ y dy = 0

0 0

γ

Etan J 0γ γ

Therefore, the surface impedance Z s = = =

Js σ J0 σ

γ jωµ ωµ

Hence Z s = = = ∠450 .

σ σ σ

The surface impedance is complex quantity and its real part is called surface resistance Rs

whereas its imaginary part is called surface reactance X s . For a thick good conductor their

ωµ ωµ

magnitudes are same. Rs ≈ , Xs ≈

2σ 2σ

Observations:

• The surface impedance is equal to the intrinsic impedance η for the conducting

medium.

• It is also equal to the characteristic impedance of the thick plane conductor.

• This is also input impedance of the thick plane conductor when viewed as a

transmission line conducting energy into the interior of the metal.

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• The surface resistance, with units of ohms, is same as the high frequency skin

effect resistance per unit length of a flat conductor of unit width.

• The surface resistance Rs is related to the depth of penetration or skin depth δ in

1

a conductor through Rs =

σδ

• The surface resistance of a flat conductor at any frequency is equal to the dc

resistance of a thickness δ of the same conductor. This means that the conductor

having a thickness very much greater than δ and having exponential current

distribution throughout its depth has the same resistance as would a

thickness δ of the conductor with the current distributed uniformly throughout

this thickness.

• The power loss per unit area of the plane conductor is J s2eff Rs

Polarization of waves

o Polarization of a radiated wave is defined as “that property of an electromagnetic

wave describing the time-varying direction and relative magnitude of the electric

field vector. Specifically the figure traced as a function of time by the extremity of

the vector at a fixed location in space and the sense in which it is traced as observed

along the direction of propagation”. Basically polarization refers to the time-varying

behaviour/orientation of the E vector in an uniform plane wave at some fixed point.

o Linear polarization: if the direction of the resultant E vector in the uniform plane

wave remains same with respect time then the wave is said to be linearly polarized.

o Elliptical polarization: if the tip of the E vector of a travelling plane wave traces an

ellipse, then the wave is said to be elliptically polarized.

o Circular polarization: if the tip of the E vector of a travelling plane wave traces a

circle, then the wave is said to be circularly polarized.

o Consider a plane wave travelling in z − direction. If the x and y components of

the E vector are in phase, then the wave is linearly polarized. If the x − and y −

components are not in phase and/or unequal in magnitude then the wave is

elliptically polarized. Circular polarization results when x − and y − components

have 900 phase difference and equal in magnitude.

o Sense of polarization: when the wave is receding, if the resultant E vector rotates

clockwise the wave is said to be clockwise or right circular/elliptical polarized wave.

Anti-clock wise or left circular/elliptical polarized wave results when the E vector

rotates in anti-clock wise direction.

o For a z-travelling wave

o E0 = (ax + ja y ) Ea LCP or CCW

o E0 = (ax − ja y ) Ea RCP or CW

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o E0 = A ax + jB by LEP or CCW

o E0 = A ax − jB by REP or CW

o Reversal of the sense of rotation can be obtained by giving 1800 phase shift to

either x or y component of the E field.

o Polarization is specified by

Shape (axial ratio)

Orientation

Sense of polarization of the polarization ellipse.

o Other representations are

Polarization ratio

Stokes parameter

Poincare sphere

b semi min or axis of the ellipse

o Axial ratio = =

a semi major axis of the ellipse

Ey

o Polarization ratio P = = P e jδ

Ex

Basically there are two types for representing polarization states;

• Wave polarization representation: ( ± AR,τ ) it uses Axial ratio AR which

is +ve for LH, and −ve for RH polarizations, tilt angle τ which is the

angle the major axis makes with the x − axis.

• Electrical quantities representation: ( E yo Exo , φ ) it uses the ratio

E yo Exo , the angle between them φ .

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either by the pair ( ε ,τ ) or ( γ , φ ) .

• AR varies from 1 for circle to ∞ for line, ε varies from −π 4 to π 4 and

τ varies from 0 to π .

• φ varies from −π 2 to π 2 and γ from 0 to π .

Poincare sphere provides a compact graphical representation of all the two types

and it also corresponds the above two representations. it is useful to find how

close two polarization states are or how much interaction takes place between

two states of polarization. Its salient features are

• Equator ε = 0, AR = ∞ represents linear polarization. Longitude point

τ = 0 represents horizontal and τ = 900 vertical polarization.

• North pole represents Left circular and South pole Right circular

polarization

• Northern hemi-sphere represents left handed and Southern hemi-sphere

represents right handed polarization.

• Point is denoted by ( 2ε , 2τ ) . The xy plane or horizontal plane represents

ε = 0 and xz vertical plane representsτ = 0 .

Matched states: when two states of polarization fall on the same point over the

Poincare sphere then they are said to be Matched states of polarization. And they

can interact maximum.

Orthogonal states: when the two states of polarization fall on radially opposite

points on the Poincare sphere, then they are said to be orthogonal states. And no

interaction is possible between them.

Antennas And Polarization

antenna in a given direction is defined as “ the polarization of the wave transmitted by the

antenna “.

Polarization pattern of an antenna represents it’s polarization characteristics and it is

defined as “ the spatial distribution of the polarization of a field vector radiated by the

antenna taken over its radiation sphere. At each point over the sphere the polarization is

usually resolved into a pair of orthogonal components along θ and φ directions. These

components are called co-polarization and cross polarization.

Polarization mismatch occurs due to the mismatch between the polarization of the receiving

antenna and the polarization of the receiving wave. .Due to this mismatch the receiving

antenna cannot extract maximum amount of power from the incoming wave.

If the incoming wave is linearly polarized, the receiving antenna can be

Linearly polarized with its polarization aligned to the polarization of the

incoming wave or

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Circularly polarized or

Elliptically polarized with its major axis aligned to the polarization the

incoming wave.

If the incoming wave is circularly polarized, the receiving antenna can be

Linearly polarized.

Circularly polarized with the sense of rotation same as that of the

incoming wave.

Elliptically polarized with the sense of rotation same as that of the

incoming wave.

If the incoming wave is elliptically polarized, the receiving antenna can be

Linearly polarized with its polarization aligned to the major axis.

Circularly polarized with the sense of rotation same as that of the

incoming wave.

Elliptically polarized with the sense of rotation same as that of the

incoming wave, respective axes of the both pointing in the same

direction.

The above observations are based on the fact that the power transfer efficiency between two

∠MOM '

states represented by M and M ' on the Poincare sphere is given by η pol = cos 2

2

Transmission-Line Theory

Transmission lines:

• These are metallic conductor systems involving two or more conductors

separated by an insulator used to transfer low frequency electrical energy in TEM

form from one point to another.

Types

Balanced or differential Tr system:

• Both the conductors in this line carry signal currents of equal magnitude wrt the

electrical ground but in opposite directions.

• Any pair of wires can be operated in balanced mode provided that neither wire

is at ground potential.

• A balanced wire pair has the advantage of noise interference getting cancelled at

the load due to high CMRR of 40 to 70db.

• One conductor is at ground potential where as the other one is at signal potential.

• Because one wire being at ground potential, the probability of noise being

induced is more.

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• The standard two conductor coaxial cable is an unbalanced line as the second

conductor or shield is generally connected to ground.

• Suitable for low frequency applications

• At high frequencies they become useless as radiation and dielectric losses increase

• Susceptible for noise pick up.

• Ex. Open wire TL, Twin lead(ribbon) cable, Twisted pair cable etc.

• Extensively used for high frequency applications as they give low radiation and

dielectric losses.

• Also they give shield against external interference.

• Ex. Solid flexible (low losses), rigid air filled(relatively expensive)

• must be used in unbalanced mode and expensive.

Baluns:

• These are circuit devices used to connect a balanced TL to an unbalanced load like

antenna or unbalanced TL such as a coaxial cable. Ex. Transformer balun, bazooka

balun

Non-resonant line:

• A line terminated in its characteristic impedance is called non-resonant or flat

or smooth line. The voltage and current over such a line are constant

throughout its length if it is loss-less and decreases exponentially if the line is

lossy.

Resonant line:

• It is loss-less line terminated over a short or open circuit.

Reflection factor k:

• It is defined as the ratio of the current actually flowing in the load to that

which might flow under image matched conditions.

This ratio indicates the change in current of the load due to reflection at the

mismatched junction.

2 Z1 Z 2

k= where Z 1 and Z 2 impedances at the junction seen looking

Z1 + Z 2

towards both the sides.

Reflection loss:

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load under image matched conditions would exceed the current actually

flowing in the load.

Z1 + Z 2 Z1 + Z 2

R L = ln nepers = 20 log db

2 Z1 Z 2 2 Z1 Z 2

Stub:

• A stub is a piece of transmission line whose input impedance is pure

reactance. Normally short circuited stubs are used as open circuited stubs

tend to radiate.

Infinite line:

wave and the current over the line depends only on its characteristic

impedance not on the termination.

Velocity factor:

• The velocity factor of a dielectric substance or a cable is the velocity

1

reduction ratio. It is given by v f = where ε r is dielectric constant of the

εr

medium.

• Its input impedance is equal to the terminating impedance, this

property is independent of characteristic impedance Z 0 but frequency

dependant.

• The short circuited λ 2 line can act as a band stop filter, can be used to

measure velocity factor and dielectric constant of medium.

• Half wave line is also used to measure the impedance that is not

accessible physically.

• Short circuited λ 4 line is equivalent to parallel LC circuit.

• Open circuited λ 4 line is equivalent to series LC circuit.

• Short circuited line with length > λ 4 is equivalent to capacitor C .

• Open circuited line with length > λ 4 is equivalent to an inductor L .

• Short circuited line with length < λ 4 is equivalent to an inductor L .

• Open circuited line with length < λ 4 is equivalent to capacitor C .

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Applications of λ 4 line:

• Quarter wave transformer:

9 it is a loss-less uniform line of length λ 4

9 Its input impedance is inversely proportional to its terminating impedance.

9 Provided the characteristic impedance is resistive, its input impedance is

inductive if the termination is capacitive and vice versa

9 It acts as impedance transformer or inverter as it can step up or step down the

impedance. It is used for load matching purposes.

9 It disadvantage is sensitivity to frequency change.

• Opened out parallel wire λ 4 transmission line is used as wire radiator called ‘half wave

dipole’.

• Opened out parallel wire transmission line of length less than λ 4 is used as wire

parasitic radiator called ‘director’ in Yagi-Uda array. So the director carries capacitive

currents. In other words, an opened out line excited at a frequency less than resonant is

capacitive.

• Opened out parallel wire transmission line of length more than λ 4 is used as wire

parasitic radiator called ‘reflector’ in Yagi-Uda array. So the reflectors carry inductive

currents. In other words, an opened out line excited at a frequency more than resonant is

inductive..

Since each conductor has a certain length and diameter it must have resistance and

conductance.

wires close to each other,

there must be capacitance

between them. Dielectric

materials, which cannot be

perfect in its insulation,

separate the wires: the

leakage through it can be represented by a short conductance.

and C are proportional to the

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length of the line and unless measured and quoted per out length they are meaningless.

These are distributed through out the length of line. Under no circumstances can they be

assumed to be limped at any one point.

Losses in TR Lines:

heating.

Radiation losses arise because a TR line may act as an antenna if the separation of the

conductors is an appreciable fraction of wavelength.

proportional to characteristic impedance. It also increases with frequency because of the

skin effect.

Dialectic heating is proportional to the Voltage across the dielectric and inversely

proportional to the characteristic impedance. It increases with frequency.

the secondary constants of the transmission line.

Z 0 is the impedance measured at the input of the line when its length is infinite : It can

also be defined as the input impedance of a transmission line when it is terminated on its

characteristic impedance.

V

Z 0 = S when the length of line is infinite or when the line is terminated over Zo. it is

IS

( R + jωL )

related to the primary constants of the line through Z 0 =

(G + jωC )

I

logarithm of the ratio of the input to the output current. γ = log e S , where

IR

I S and I R are at a unit distance apart on the line of infinite length. It is a

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Attenuation constant and β is known as the phase shift constant. It is related

to the primary constants through γ = ZY

• loss- less line or RF line R = 0 = G

this section will be ( R + jωL) dx and the shunt admittance will be

(G + jωC )dx

Then

V − (dV + V ) = I (R + jωL )dx , I − (dI + I ) = V (G + jωC )dx

dV dI

⇒ − = ( R + jωL) I and − = (G + jωC ) I

dx dx

2 2

d V dI d I dV

⇒ 2

=− Z and 2

= −Y Q Z = R + jωL , Y = G + jωC

dx dx dx dx

d 2V d 2I

⇒ = ZY V and = ZYI

dx 2 dx 2

d 2V d 2I

=γ 2V and = γ 2I

dx 2 dx 2

The general solution to the above equations can be expressed in either of the two forms:

In terms of exponential functions.

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V = a e γ x + b e −γ x : I = c e γ x + d e −γ x

V = A cosh γx + B sinh γx ; I = C cosh γx + D sinh γx

Out of the four constants A, B, C and D only two are independent. The last two equations

can be written as

1

V = A cosh γx + B sinh γx ; I = − ( B cosh γx + A sinh γx)

Z0

• In terms of sending end voltage and currents

V = V S cosh γx − I S Z 0 sinh γx

V

I = I s cosh γx − s sinh γx

Z0

• In terms of receiving end voltage and currents

VR

V = V R cosh γ (l − x) + I R Z 0 sinh γ (l − x) ; I = I R cosh γ (l − x) + sinh γ (l − x)

Z0

• In terms of sending end impedance Z s and Z 0

V=

Is

2

[

(Z s + Z 0 ) e −γ z + (Z s − Z 0 ) e γ z]

I

[

I = s (Z s + Z 0 ) e − γ z − (Z s − Z 0 ) e γ z

2Z 0

]

• In terms of receiving end impedance Z l and Z 0

V=

Il

2

[

(Z l + Z 0 ) e γ d + (Z l − Z 0 ) e − γ d ]

I

[

I = l (Z l + Z 0 ) e γ d − (Z l − Z 0 ) e − γ d

2Z 0

]

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Waves on Lines

The reflected wave is generated at the load as a result of reflection of the incident wave

by the load impedance. This reflection is of such a character as simultaneously to meet

the following conditions. If E = E '+ E '' and I = I '+ I '' then

o The voltage and current of the incident wave at the load must satisfy

E ' I ' = Z0

o The voltage and current of the incident wave at the load must satisfy

E '' I '' = − Z 0

o The load voltage EL is the sum of the voltages of the incident and

reflected waves at the load, that is EL = E1 + E2

o The load voltage I L is the sum of the currents of the incident and reflected

waves at the load, that is I L = I1 + I 2

o The vector ratio of EL I L = Z L must equal the load impedance Z L

• Pure travelling wave is one whose SWR is unity indicating no reflections from the

load.

o In this wave V and I are in-phase.

o It occurs when the line is terminated with its matched impedance.

o The ratio of V to I is constant Z 0 , Characteristic impedance of the line.

o In pure travelling wave the phase varies continuously along the length of the

line but not the amplitude.

• Pure standing wave is one whose SWR is infinity indicating the total reflection of the

incident wave by the load.

o In this wave V and I are 900 out of phase.

o It occurs when the line is terminated with oc or sc or pure reactance.

o The ratio of V to I is function of the position along the length of the line.

o At all points between a pair of successive voltage nulls i.e. in one half cycle,

the voltage is in phase. All the points in the next half cycle exhibit 1800 phase

difference with the points of previous half cycle. Similar is the case with the

current wave form.

• Impure standing wave is a combination of pure travelling wave and pure standing

wave.

o In this case V and I are not 900 out of phase and in general it varies along the

length of the line.

o It occurs when the termination is different from oc, sc, or pure reactance or

matched termination.

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Reflection coefficient

The vector ratio E '' E ' of the voltage of the reflected wave to the voltage of the

incident wave at a distance ‘ l ’ from the load is defined as Reflection coefficient at the point

‘ l ’ and denoted usually by Γ . It has both magnitude and phase so is a complex quantity.

If the reflection coefficient is considered at the load then it is called reflection

E

coefficient of the load and equals to Γload = 2 = L 0

( Z Z ) −1

E1 ( Z L Z 0 ) + 1

In case of zero loss line, the reflection coefficient has everywhere has the same

magnitude and equals the reflection coefficient of the load. In case of lossy line the reflected

wave becomes smaller and the incident wave larger with increasing distance from the load

causing Γ to decrease correspondingly.

The relation between the load voltage and current and the voltages of the incident

and reflected waves at the load can be deduced as

E E +I Z

E1 = L = L L 0

1+ Γ 2

ΓE L E L − I L Z 0

E2 = ΓE1 = =

1 + Γ 2

Standing Waves

• The distance between two successive nodes or anti-nodes of voltage (or current) is

always λg 2 . And it is λg 4 between voltage node to current anti-node or voltage

anti-node to current node.

• When the termination is open circuit, the current gets reflected with 1800 phase shift

where as the voltage gets reflected without any phase shift. It results in current node

and voltage anti-node over the open circuit termination.

• When the termination is short circuit, the voltage gets reflected with 1800 phase shift

where as the current gets reflected without any phase shift. It results in voltage node

and current anti-node over the short circuit termination

• When the termination load is either open circuit or short circuit or pure reactance the

total incident wave gets reflected, as the load cannot dissipate any power. In such

case the amplitude of the reflected wave is same as that of the incident wave

resulting in perfect cancellation at the nodes. Consequently SWR becomes zero.

• When the termination is pure

resistance, then voltage node

and current anti-node occurs

over the termination for

RL < R0 . For the case RL > R0

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• The ratio of voltage to current at a point over the line is the impedance of the line at

that point. The impedance at two points A and B are equal if they are separated by a

distance equal to integer multiples of λg 2 . The impedances have inverse

proportionality if the distance is odd multiples of λg 4

• The line impedance is capacitive in a distance of λg 4 right side of voltage node and

it is inductive in a distance of λg 4 to its left side.

Standing-wave Ratio

voltage or current distribution is defined as standing-wave ratio and denoted by’ ρ ’.

conveniently described by SWR.

Thus a SWR of unity denotes the absence of a reflected wave, while a very high SWR

indicates that the reflected wave is as large as the incident wave.

Theoretically, for the case of zero attenuation, the SWR will be infinite when the

load is either open- or short-circuited or is a lossless reactance.

The SWR is one means of expressing the magnitude of the reflection coefficient

‘ Γ ’: the exact relation between the two is

1+ Γ ρ −1

ρ= or Γ =

1− Γ ρ +1

Significance of SWR:

The importance of the standing wave ratio arises from the fact that it can be very

easily measured experimentally.

The SWR indicates directly the extent to which reflected waves exist on a system.

In addition, Standing wave measurements provide an important means of measuring

impedance.

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Line Impedance

• In terms of sending end impedance Z s and Z 0

Z s − Z 0 tanh γz

Z = Z0

Z 0 − Z s tanh γz

Z + Z 0 tanh γd

Z = Z0 l

Z 0 + Z l tanh γd

Input Impedance

Z l + Z 0 tanh γl

Z in = Z 0

Z 0 + Z l tanh γl

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• Maximum efficiency in power transfer can be achieved.

• Load power is independent of β l

• With Lesser Peak voltage over the line, power can be transferred.

• Eliminates modulation distortion

• Prevents the frequency shift in the source

• Minimize errors in measurement systems

Single-stub matching

λ ZL

Stub position l = tan −1

2π Z0

λ Z ZLZ0

Stub length l ' = tan −1 0

2π Z OS Z L − Z 0

Line Distortion:

• The deviation of the waveform at the output of the line from that at its input

is called line distortion.

• It is due to the fact that all frequencies in the waveform do not have same

attenuation and same delay during the propagation.

• The characteristic impedance being function of the frequency, attenuation

being function of the frequency and velocity of propagation on the line being

function of frequency are causes of distortion.

• Types of distortion: frequency distortion and delay distortion.

• Frequency distortion is due to various frequency components of the signal

undergoing different amounts of attenuation when the attenuation

constant α is function of frequency. To

eliminate this distortion the attenuation constant α must be made independent

of frequency.

• Phase or delay distortion is due to different frequency components of the

signal undergoing different amounts of phase delays while reaching the

destination thus spoiling the original phase relation between them. To

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frequency ω .

• Frequency distortion can be reduced by cascading the lines with networks

known as ‘equalizers’. Equalizer is network whose attenuation versus

frequency characteristic is just opposite to that of the line. Delay distortion

can also be reduced with equalizers, but it must be designed in such a way

that the β for the total circuit is proportional to ω . For audio transmission

frequency distortion is serious problem whereas for video transmission both

are serious.

• Distortion-less line: it is a line which transmits the input signal without any

distortion. This occurs when the primary constants the line are related

R G

through the relation = . With this interrelation among the primary

L C

R

constants of the line the attenuation constant α = LC becomes

L

independent of the frequency, the phase shift constant β = ω LC is

proportional to angular frequency ω making the velocity of propagation

independent of the frequency thus eliminating both types of distortion.

R G R

• Loading: in the actual lines >> . To make the line distortion-less is

L C L

decreased by increasing the inductance L . This is affected by either by

changing the line configuration or by using high inductance coils. The

method of reducing the distortion by increasing the inductance of the line is

called ‘loading’. It is of two types.

• Continuous loading: the tape of steel or some other magnetic materials such

as ‘perm alloy’ or ’mumetal’ is wound around the conductor to be loaded. It

increases the permeability of the surrounding medium and thereby increasing

the inductance. It is costly and used in sub-marine cables

only.

• Lumped loading: in this method inductance coils are introduced at definite

and uniform intervals along the length of the line to increase its inductance.

ωCR 2ω

• For telephone cable Z = R and Y = jωC . α = β = ;v = as α

2 CR

and v are functions of frequency distortions of both types take place.

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Smith Chart

• Smith chart developed by P.Smith in 1939, is the best known and widely used

graphical aid in solving transmission line problems.

• The real utility of the smith chart lies in the fact that it can be used to convert the

reflection coefficients to normalized impedances or admittances.

admittance in a unity circle.

Z l 1 + Γl 1 + Γ r + jΓ i

zl = = → r + jx =

Z 0 1 − Γl 1 − Γ r − jΓ i

1 − Γ 2r − Γi2 2Γi

→r= and → x = . These can

(1 − Γ r ) (1 − Γ r )

2 2

+ Γi2 + Γi2

2

r 1

be rearranged as Γ r − + Γi =

2

it represents

1+ r 1+ r

a family of constant resistance circles with radius

1 (1 + r ) and centre at r (1 + r ) along the real axis.

2 2

( Γ r − 1) + Γi − = it represents a family of

2 1 1

x x

1

constant reactance circles with radius 1 x and centre at Γ r = 1, Γi = .

x

o The constant resistance ‘r’ circles whose centres lie on the straight line of the

chart. They represent the normalized resistance along the transmission line.

o The constant reactance ‘x’ loci, arcs of the circles lie on both sides of the

horizontal line. They represent various values of the normalized reactance of

the transmission line.

o The circles and arcs are orthogonal

o Upper half of the chart represents inductive reactance/susceptance where as

the lower half represents the capacitive reactance/susceptance.

o Smith chart describes the line of half-wavelength only

o It can be used only with normalized impedances or admittances.

o The movement towards the generator corresponds to clockwise motion on the

chart and towards the load corresponds anti-clockwise motion.

• The constant resistance ‘r’ and constant reactance ‘x’ loci form two families of

circles and all of them pass through the point Γr = 1, Γi = 0

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• The constant SWR circle is drawn on the chart with SWR as radius and ‘1’ of the

horizontal line as centre.

o The impedances of represented by various points over the SWR circle denote

the impedances of the line in a distance of λg 2 .

o Distance along the line is represented by angular distance around the chart,

total circumference or 3600 corresponding to the line length of λg 2

o The point at which the constant SWR circle intersects the horizontal straight

line corresponds the SWR the load

• The upper half of the diagram represents inductive or positive reactance and lower

half represents capacitive or negative reactance.

• There exists Vmin on the line at a point of zmin =1 ρ and Vmax exists where

zmax = ρ on the line.

• The horizontal radius to the right of the chart centre corresponds to

Vmax , I min , zmax and ρ and left of the chart centre corresponds to

Vmin , I max , zmin and 1 ρ

• Circles of constant SWR ρ are concentric with the centre of the chart. These circles

intersect the zero reactance or susceptance axis at points z0 ρ and z0 / ρ

• Radial lines represent loci of the constant line angle β z . In the chart wavelength

scales corresponding to the line angle are included around the outside edge of the

chart.

• For a lossy line not terminated in its characteristic impedance the path of travel on

the chart from the load to the generator is a decreasing logarithmic spiral.

• Plot the normalized impedance and draw the constant SWR circle on Smith chart.

• Move a distance of λ 4 along the constant SWR circle to locate load admittance.

Let it be P1

• On the SWR circle nearest to the load admittance point locate a point, which

represents admittance 1 ± jb . This is the point of intersection of constant SWR circle

and r =1 circle. Let it be P2

o Read the distance between P1 and P2 using the scale provided at the

circumference of the chart. This gives the distance in wavelengths where the

stub has to be placed from the load.

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o Starting from the point ( ∞ , j∞ ) find the distance of the point at which the

susceptance is ± jb . This gives the length of the short-circuited stub in

wavelengths to be connected for matching.

Double-Stub Matching

• Single stub matching is impractical when the stub is not being able to be placed

physically in the ideal location. Particularly it is very difficult to place the stub at the

exact required location in the case of coaxial lines.

impedance and draw the

constant SWR circle on

Smith chart. Move a

distance of λ 4 along the

constant SWR circle to

locate load admittance.

Let it be P1

• From the point P1 move a

distance equal to that of

the first stub from the

load along the constant

SWR circle towards the

generator and locate its

admittance. Let it be yd 1

• Matching is not possible if yd 1 is within g = 2 circle for stub spacing is λ 8 or 3λ 8

and g =1 circle for stub spacing of λ 4

• Draw the spacing circle, which is the constant conductance unity circle, rotated

360

counter clockwise by × d λ degrees, d λ is the distance between the stubs in

λ 4

wavelengths.

• Move from yd 1 along constant g − circle to intersect spacing circle at two points

representing y11 and y11' . And then find the lengths of the SC stubs which can

neutralize the reactive parts of y11 and y11'

• If the load admittance is inside the forbidden region, move out of it clockwise along

constant SWR circle. The distance thus travelled gives the position of the stub from

the load.

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a) A Polar plot b) represents complex reflection coefficient

c) Inscribed in a unity circle d) all

a) Normalized resistance

b) Normalized conductance

c) Both d) none

a) Normalized reactance

b) Normalized susceptance

c) Both d) none

a) Orthogonal b) opposite to each other

c) At 450 d) None

5. The upper half of the smith chart represents [C ]

a) Inductive reactance b) inductive susceptance

c) Both d) None

a) Capacitive reactance b) capacitive susceptance

c) Both d) None

7. The radius of the constant SWR circle is [C ]

a) Voltage SWR b) current SWR

c) Both d) None

8. The centre of the constant SWR circle is [C ]

a) ‘1’of horizontal line b) centre of the chart

c) Both d) None

a) λg 2 b) λ 2

c) λ d) None

and reactance values are

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c) Both d) None

reactance values are

a) Less than 1 b) more than 1

c) Both d) None

a) ( 0, 0 ) b) ( ∞, ∞ )

c) Either one d) None

a) ( 0, 0 ) b) ( ∞, ∞ )

c) Either one d) None

14. The top most point of the chart represents [ ]

a) (1,1) b) ( −1, −1)

c) Either one d) None

15. The bottom most point of the chart represents [ ]

a) (1,1) b) ( −1, −1)

c) Either one d) None

16. Smith chart is always used with [B ]

a) Normalized impedances

b) Normalized admittances

c) Both d) None

a) Loss-less lines b) lossy-lines

c) Both d) None

a) Vmax , I min b) Vmin , I max

c) Both d) None

a) Vmax , I min b) Vmin , I max

c) Both d) None

20. Towards load over the line corresponds [ ]

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b) Anti-clockwise rotation over the smith chart

c) Both d) none

21. Towards source over the line corresponds [ ]

a) Clock-wise rotation over the smith chart

b) Anti-clockwise rotation over the smith chart

c) Both d) none

opposite to load impedance point represents

a) Load admittance b) load impedance

c) either one d) None

opposite to load admittance point is

a) Load admittance b) load impedance

c) Either one d) None

24. Travel of length λg 2 over the line corresponds [ ]

rotation over the chart

a) 1800 b) 3600

c) 900 c) None

over the smith chart stays

a) At the periphery b) over the horizontal line

c) In the lower half d) in the upper half

over the smith chart stays

a) At the periphery b) over the horizontal line

c) In the lower half d) in the upper half

27. The centre of the arcs of the smith chart is [C ]

a) ( r 1 + r , 0 ) b) (1,1 x )

c) ( r (1 + r ) ,1) d) (1, r 1 + r )

a) ( r 1 + r , 0 ) b) (1,1 x )

c) ( r (1 + r ) ,1) d) (1, r 1 + r )

29. The load impedance is pure resistance equal to [ ]

characteristic impedance of line, then the

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a) At the centre b) at the periphery

c) in the upper half d) in the lower half

a) Oscillatory b) Rotary

c) Stationary d) None

a) Attenuator b) Isolator

c) Wave meter d) Detector

a) 1 KHz b) 10 KHz

c) 100 KHz d) None

a) VSWR meter b) Slotted section

c) Attenuator d) None

a) Slotted line method b) Double minimum method

c) Both d) None

a) ten b) five

c) three d) None

is set to

a) One b) zero db

c) Both d) None

37. In high VSWR method, in VSWR meter the pattern minimum [C ]

is set to

a) One b) zero db

c) Three db d) None

38. While measuring guide wave length, the termination of the bench [A ]

must be

a) Short b) Matched termination

c) Open d) None

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39. While measuring guide wave length, always minimum points are [C ]

considered because

a) Minima are sharp b) minima are easily locatable

c) Both d) None

40. Guide wave length does not depend upon [A ]

a) Termination b) frequency

c) Mode of the wave d) none

41. While measuring attenuation, the termination of the bench must be [B ]

a) Short b) Matched termination

c) Open d) None

λ λg

a) b)

4 4

λ

c) d) None

2

to input

a) 180o b) 0o

c) 90o d) None

a) Rotary type phase shifter b) Rotary type attenuator

c) Both d) None

of the probe is [ ]

a) Inductive b) Capacitive

c) Nil d) None

46. The range of VSWR in db indicated VSWR meter is [B ]

a) 0-2db b) 0-10db

c) 0-5db d) 0-100db

a) Bolometer technique b) Calorimeter technique c)

Reflect meter technique d) Calorimetric wave meter technique

a) Positive b) negative

c) Zero d) None

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a) Transmission method b) Double minimum method

c) Both d) None

41. Barretters have [ ]

a. Positive temp efficient of resistance

b. Negative temp coefficient of resistance

c. Both d) None

42. The magic T can be used for the measurement of [B ]

a) Frequency b) Impedance

c) Q factor d) None

a) Inductive b) capacitive

c) High resistance d) low resistance

a) Inductive b) capacitive

c) High resistance d) low resistance

a) Inductive b) capacitive

c) High resistance d) low resistance

a) Inductive b) capacitive

c) High resistance d) low resistance

a) Two similar metals b) Two dissimilar metals

c) Identical but different lengths d) None

48. The relation between VSWR (S) & reflection coefficient (P) is [ ]

1− P 1+ P

a) S = b) S =

1+ P 1− P

P

c) S = d) None

1+ P

the reflection coefficient ‘P’ is

a) Pr Pi b) Pr Pi

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c) Pi Pr d) Pi Pr

a) Reflect meter method b) Transmission method

c) Power ratio method d) None

of resistivity that is called

a) Barrater b) Varistor

c) Thermisters d) Calorimeter

Klystrons are modulated by square waves because

a) It is easy generative a square wave b) It prevents frequency modulation

c) Detector circuit is easy to design d) The termination is less complicated

53. In microwave power measurement using bolometer the principle of working is the

variation of

a) Inductance with absorption of power b) Resistance with absorption of

power

c) Capacitance with absorption of power d) All

detectors in which technique of impedance measurement

a) Slotted line b) Reflecto-meter

c) Heterodyne technique d) None

technique of q factor measurement [ ]

a) Slotted line b) Reflectometers

c) Heterodyne technique d) None

a) Slotted line b) Waveguide method

c) Reflect meter method d) Wave meter method

a) Reflex klystron tube oscillator b) Gunn oscillator

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c) a and b d) a or b

Logarithmic units

9 Two voltages, or currents, differ by one neper when one of them is ‘ e ’ times

as large as the other.

V1 I

N nepers = ln = ln 1 .

V2 I2

P1

The ratio of input to output power can be expressed as = e2 N

P2

9 The bel is defined as the logarithm of a power ratio,

P1

number of bels=log

P2

As it is more convenient to handle with a smaller unit, decibel abbreviated ‘db’

which is one tenth of a bel has been defined.

P1

db=10 log

P2

V1 I

In terms of voltages and currents db = 20 log = 20 log 1

V2 I2

9 Nepers and dbs are related through e 2 N = 10db 10 giving 1neper = 8.686 db

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MICROWAVE ENGINEERING

Microwaves:

• The term microwaves refer to ac signals of small or tiny wavelengths. Even though the

limits of the microwave frequency range are not defined, the frequencies which fall in

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between 0.3 GHz to 300 GHz with corresponding wavelength between 1m to 1mm

respectively are considered as microwave region..

VHF 30-300 MHz 10-1 mts

UHF 0.3-1 GHz 100-30 cm.

L-BAND 1-2 GHz 30-15 cm.

S-BAND 2-4 GHz 15-7.5 cm.

C-BAND 4-8 GHz 7.5-3.75 cm.

X-BAND 8-12 GHz 3.75-2.5 cm.

Ku-BAND 12-18 GHz 2.5-1.67 cm.

K-BAND 18-26 GHz 1.67-1.0 cm.

Ka-BAND 26-40 GHz 10-7.5 mm.

MILLIMETER WAVES 40-300 GHz 7.5-1 mm.

SUB-MILLIMETER >300 GHz < 0.1 cm.

WAVES

Salient Features

possible

• Possibility of smaller sized systems: Miniaturized communication systems possible

because high gains are possible with a given physical size of antenna at microwave

frequencies.

• Frequency reusability: Satellite and terrestrial communication links with high capacities

are possible with frequency reuse at minimally distant locations because wave signals

travel by line of sight.

• Achievability of larger antenna gains: More radar cross section and more antenna gain at

microwave frequencies make these frequencies preferred for radar systems.

• Various molecular, atomic and nuclear resonance occur at microwave frequencies giving

rise to applications in the areas of remote sensing, medical diagnostics and treatment and

heating methods.

Major Applications

• Radar: these are the systems used for detecting and locating air, ground or sea going

targets and also for air-traffic control systems, missile tracking radars, automobile

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remote sensing systems.

• Communication systems: a large fraction of the wire less communication systems is micro

wave communication systems that include long haul trunk telephone, data, and television

transmissions. Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) television, cellular video(CV) systems and

global positioning satellite systems(GPS) also use the microwave technology.

• Microwave Heating: Microwave oven is one application which is used not only for

heating food but also in industrial and medical applications. The source used is in general

a Magnetron tube operating at 12.5GHz with power out of either 500 or 1500W. When

compared to conventional cooking, microwave cooking generally gives faster and more

uniform heating of food more cooking efficiency.

• Energy Transfer: It is still in a stage of conception or infancy. Electrical power

transmission lines are very efficient and convenient to transfer energy but there are cases

where it is inconvenient or impossible to use such power lines. In such cases it is

conceivable that electrical power can be transmitted with out wire by a well focussed

microwave beam. One example is power transmission from solar satellite power station to

earth. Another concept is transmission of electrical power from earth to a vehicle such a

small helicopter or airplane.

• Electronic Warfare: Crippling the military radar and communication systems by deliberate

means such as interference, jamming and other counter measures, is known as electronic

warfare which can be divided into three major heads:

o Electronic support measures (ESM): these are the methods to detect the presence of

a search or tracking radar, or the presence of a jamming signal using a receiver

placed on aircraft, ships or ground vehicles.

o Electronic countermeasures (ECM): these are the methods used to either confuse or

deceive a radar or communication system.

o Electronic counter countermeasures (ECCM): the aim of ECM is to make the radar

or communication system ineffective. The purpose of the ECCM is to make the

crippling too costly to achieve.

Hallow-Pipe Wave-Guides

• George C. Southworth and W.L Barrow invented wave-guides independently in 1930s. Earlier

in 1893 Heaviside considered the possibility of the propagation of the wave inside closed

hallow tube and Lord Raleigh later proved mathematically the possibility of propagation in

wave-guide.

• Hallow-pipe wave-guides are single-conductor systems; usually made with highly conducting

metal walls, which can support TE or TM waves. Wave guides have dimensions that are

convenient in the frequency range of 3 to 100 GHz only.

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cross-section then the guide is called rectangular wave guide and if the cross-section is

circular, the guide is called circular waveguide.

• Wave guides have the advantages of

o Higher power handling capability and low loss

o Mechanical simplicity, simpler to manufacture

o Flash-over less likely

o Higher max. Operating frequency (325 GHz.)

But they are bulky and expensive.

• Coaxial lines have

o very large band width and are convenient for test applications

o But low max. operating frequency(18GHz.) and also it is difficult to fabricate

complex microwave components with coaxial lines

• The wave travels through the dielectric filling the wave guide after getting reflected from the

walls instead of conduction along them. So it is the hallow region through which the wave

actually travels and the purpose of the walls is to confine the wave.

• Even though the behaviour of the wave

is same, the CWGs have geometry,

mode designation and applications

different from that of RWGs.

• CWGs are easy to join, easy to

manufacture but their cross sectional

area is bigger than RWGs for a given

frequency and also rotation of the

plane of polarization occurs in them.

• A serious disadvantage with CWG is

that there is only a very narrow range between the cut-off wavelength of the dominant mode

and the cut-off wavelength of the next higher mode. Thus the frequency range over which

pure mode operation is assured is relatively limited.

• RWGs have the plane of the polarization of the wave uniquely defined with E across the

narrow dimension but CWG is the most common form of a dual polarization transmission

line.

• Guide wave length is an important parameter of waveguides which can be defined as the axial

length corresponding to one cycle of variation of the field configuration in the axial

direction. It also represents the distance that a wave travels down the guide when undergoing

a phase shift of 2π radians.

• Wave guides are single conductor systems where as transmission lines are multi-conductor

systems.

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• Energy travels in the form of TE or TM or hybrid mode wave in wave guides whereas in

transmission lines it travels always in TEM wave.

• The frequency of the wave must be larger than certain value known as cut off frequency in

order to be propagated through the wave guide whereas the wave of any frequency can be

transmitted along the transmission line.

• Modal propagation is an important and special feature of the energy transfer through the

waveguides where as the field distribution in transmission lines is non-modal in nature.

Analysis

In this section we find the field-distribution in the hallow pipe waveguides of both

the rectangular as well as circular geometries. As the rectangular waveguide involves

rectangular symmetry, Cartesian co-ordination is used in their analysis where as cylindrical

coordinate system is used for circular waveguides as they involve cylindrical symmetry.

The procedure to be followed is same in the both the cases. Using Maxwell’s curl

equations the transverse components are expressed in terms of longitudinal components in

order to reduce the volume of the problem to one third: now the no. of unknowns is two.

These two unknowns are then found by solving their respective wave equations.

Let us suppose the wave-guide with inner dimensions a and b , a ≥ b is lying along

z − axis carrying a travelling wave in the positive z direction. The walls of the waveguide

are made with perfect conductor i.e. conductivity σ of the walls is ∞ and that hallow region

is a perfect dielectric i.e. its conductivity σ is zero.

Let us also suppose the time variations of the field quantities are exponential i.e. e jωt . If

the time variations are exponential then the fields

must vary in the same manner i.e. exponentially

along the direction of the propagation of the wave,

according to transmission line theory. So the fields

must vary with z as eγ z where γ is known as the

propagation constant which in general is a complex

quantity α + j β .

The propagation constant γ is an important

parameter describing the behaviour of the medium

with respect to the wave. The real part α is known

as the attenuation constant representing the attenuation offered to the wave by the medium.

Te imaginary part β is known as the phase shift constant representing the phase change in

the wave motion. If the medium offers no attenuation to the wave motion, then attenuation

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If the medium does not allow the wave into it behaving like a pure attenuator then β = 0

making the propagation constant γ a pure real quantity i.e. γ = α . In general, when the

wave is travelling through the medium, some amount of attenuation is offered by the

medium; for such case the propagation constant is complex γ = α + j β .

In the present case, where the walls of the waveguide are made with perfect conductor

and hallow region is a perfect dielectric, the power of the can not be absorbed by any one of

them. Because perfect conductor walls are equivalent to a short circuit load and perfect

dielectric region is equivalent to a open circuit load of circuit theory. The net result is

unattenuated transmission of the wave with the propagation constant a pure imaginary

quantity i.e. γ = j β .

If E and H are electric and magnetic fields at an arbitrary point P in the hallow region,

∂D ∂B

they must be related through the Maxwell’s curl equations. ∇ × H = ;∇ × E = − .

∂t ∂t

Here the fields are function of x, y, z and t . Apart from this the fields and also their

individual components separately obey wave equations.

In the analysis we aim to find the fields E and H which are vectors and so in

general each one must have three components.. We find all the six components

Ex , E y , Ez , H x , H y and H z of the fields first by expressing the transverse components

Ex , E y , H x and H y in terms of the longitudinal ones, Ez and H z and then finding the

longitudinal components by solving their wave equations.

The longitudinal components of the fields can be expressed in terms of the transverse

components.

jωε

γ ∂H z ∂Ez γ ∂H z jωε ∂Ez

Hx = − + : Hy = − 2 − 2

h ∂x2

h2 ∂y h ∂y h ∂x

γ ∂Ez jωµ ∂H z γ ∂Ez jωµ ∂H z

Ex = − 2 − 2 : Ey = − 2 + 2

h ∂x h ∂y h ∂y h ∂x

where h 2 = γ 2 + ω 2 µε is called the characteristic equation. The constant h is also

denoted frequently as kc and called cut-off wave number. In the above relations all the field

quantities are functions of x and y only.

Critical Observations that can be made are: With E z = 0 , H z = 0 simultaneously all the

field components become zero indicating TEM cannot exist inside the wave-guide.

With E z ≠ 0 , H z = 0 all the components are not zero indicating the possibility of TM wave

in the waveguide. With E z = 0 , H z ≠ 0 there exist non-zero field components indicating

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possibility of TE wave. With E z ≠ 0 , H z ≠ 0 the wave can exist in the guide, as there are

non-zero field components. This wave called hybrid or mixed wave.

We find Ez and H z by solving the wave equations which are partial differential

equations and hence their particular solution requires boundary conditions.

The boundary conditions to be used in the present context while solving the wave

equation are derived from the fact that the tangential component of the electric field at the

surface of the perfect conductor is zero. At y = 0 and y = b lies inner surfaces of the

broader walls E x = 0 = E z . At x = 0 and x = a lies the inner surfaces of the narrow walls

E y = 0 = Ez

∂ 2 Ez

∇ 2 E z = µε .

∂t 2

With exponential time-variations as well as z -variations i.e.

E z ( x, y, z , t ) = Ez ( x, y ) e −γ z e jωt

the wave equation becomes

∂ Ez

2

∂ 2 Ez

+ + γ 2 Ez = − ω 2 µε Ez .

∂x 2

∂y 2

∂ Ez ∂ Ez

2 2

+ + ( γ 2 + ω 2 µε ) Ez = 0

∂x 2 ∂y 2

∂ 2 Ez ∂ 2 Ez

+ + h 2 Ez = 0

∂x 2

∂y 2

This equation, known as Helmholtz equation, is a second order, two dimensional partial

differential equation in which E z is function of the x and y only i.e. it doesn’t involve z or

t.

This equation can be solved using method of variable separation. According to this

method, let Ez = XY where X is function of variable x alone and Y is a function of variable

y alone. With this assumption the above wave equation can be decomposed into two second

order ordinary differential equations for which solutions are readily available.

1 d 2 X 1 d 2Y

+ + h2 = 0

X dx 2 Y dy 2

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Let us suppose

1 d2X

2

= − A2 where A is an arbitrary constant. They the above equation becomes

X dx

1 d 2Y

−A +

2

2

+ h2 = 0

Y dy

2

1d Y

2

= − ( h 2 − A2 ) = − B 2 where B is another arbitrary constant. Here h 2 = A2 + B 2 .

Y dy

The general solutions to the above equations are

X = c1 cos Ax + c2 sin Ax and

Y = c3 cos By + c4 sin By making

E z = XY = ( c1 cos Ax + c2 sin Ax )( c3 cos By + c4 sin By ) where c1 , c2 , c3 and c4 are arbitrary

constants whose values can be fixed with the boundary conditions.

Now applying the boundary conditions Ez = 0 at x = 0, y = 0 give c1 = 0, c3 = 0 whereas the

mπ nπ

conditions Ez = 0 at x = a, y = b give A = and B = . Now if the product

a b

c2 c4 = C , another arbitrary constant , then

2 2

mπ nπ − j β z mπ nπ

Ez = C sin x sin ye and h 2 = +

a b a b

With these values of H z and E z other components can be computed using the

relations connecting transverse components to longitudinal ones. After including the

exponential time variations and z − variations, the complete set of the field components in

the wave guide are

mπ nπ − j β z jωt

H z = 0 ; Ez = C sin x sin ye e

a b

− jβ mπ nπ − j β z jωt

E x = B 2 C cos x sin ye e

h a b

− jβ mπ nπ − j β z jωt

E y = A 2 C sin x cos ye e

h a b

jωε mπ nπ − j β z jωt

H x = A 2 C sin x cos ye e

h a b

− jωε mπ nπ − j β z jωt

H y = B 2 C cos x sin ye e

h a b

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∂2H z

∇ 2 H z = µε .

∂t 2

When the time and z -variations are exponential i.e. H z ( x, y, z , t ) = H z ( x, y ) e −γ z e jωt

the wave equation becomes

∂2H z ∂2H z

+ + γ 2 H z = − ω 2 µε H z .

∂x 2 ∂y 2

∂2H z ∂2H z

+ + ( γ 2 + ω 2 µε ) H z = 0

∂x 2

∂y 2

∂ H z ∂2 H z

2

+ + h2 H z = 0

∂x 2

∂y 2

In this equation H z is function of the x and y only. Solving this equation using method

of variables separation, the general solution will be

H z = XY = ( c1 cos Ax + c2 sin Ax )( c3 cos By + c4 sin By )

where c1 , c2 , c3 and c4 are arbitrary constants whose values can be fixed with the boundary

conditions. As the boundary conditions are not available on H z and available on Ex and E y ,

find these transverse components of the electric field using the available expressions for H z

and Ez . Then apply the boundary conditions to fix the values of the arbitrary constants.

mπ nπ

E y = 0 at x = a and Ex = 0 at y = b give A = and B = . Now if the product

a b

c1c3 = C ' , another arbitrary constant , then

2 2

mπ nπ

h =

2

+ and

a b

mπ nπ − j β z

H z = C ' cos x cos ye

a b

As the boundary conditions are not available on H z , with the general solution for H z

obtain E x , E y using the relations connecting transverse components to lateral components

and then fix the values for the constants with the available boundary conditions. With these

values of H z and E z other components can be computed using the relations connecting

transverse components to longitudinal ones.

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mπ nπ − j β z jωt

E z = 0 ; H z = C 'cos x cos ye e

a b

jωµ mπ nπ − j β z jωt

Ex = A 2 C 'cos x sin ye e

h a b

− jωµ mπ nπ − j β z jωt

E y = B 2 C 'sin x cos ye e

h a b

jβ mπ nπ − j β z jωt

Hx = B 2

C 'sin x cos ye e

h a b

jβ mπ nπ − j β z jωt

Hy = A 2

C 'cos x sin ye e

h a b

The hallow pipe waveguides behave like high-pass filters. They admit and allow the wave to

propagate through them only if the frequency of the wave is more than certain value known

as the cut off frequency whose value depends upon the dimensions of the guide and the

mode of the wave.

Cut-off frequency f c : It is the frequency above which the frequency of the wave should

be in order to get entry into the wave guide for propagating through it. It depends upon the

dimensions of the guide and as well on the mode of the wave.

Cut-off wavelength λc : The wavelength corresponding to cut-off frequency is called cut-

off wavelength. It can be defined as the wavelength below which the wavelength of the

wave should be in order to get entry into the waveguide for propagating through it. Its value

is related to the dimensions of the guide and mode numbers of the wave through

2 2

m n

λc = 2 + .

a b

Proof:

We know the propagation constant γ can be related to the frequency ω of the wave

through

γ 2 = h 2 − ω 2 µε or γ = h 2 − ω 2 µε

Depending upon the relation between h 2 and ω 2 µε the propagation constant γ can be pure

real or imaginary.

When h 2 > ω 2 µε the propagation constant is pure real quantity indicating that the

wave guide is acting as a pure attenuator without wave motion refusing entry to the wave.

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When h 2 < ω 2 µε the propagation constant is pure imaginary quantity indicating that the

wave guide is acting as a pure transmission line without any attenuation to the wave. This

must be the case to which the waveguide under consideration belongs because the wave is

already in and loss less condition is assumed.

The change over in the behaviour of the waveguide from pure attenuator to pure

transmission line takes place as the frequency is increased from low to high when

h 2 = ω 2 µε . The frequency of the wave which satisfies this relation is called cut off

frequency ωc . Hence

2 2

mπ nπ

ω µε = h . But h =

2

c

2

+

2

a b

Solving for f c we get

2 2

m n

1

fc = +

2 µε a b

The corresponding wavelength, cut off wave length can be found from

2 2

v 1 m n

λc = = =2 +

fc µε f c a b

Cut-off frequency f c and Cut-off wavelength λc are same for both the types of the wave i.e.

TE or TM in rectangular wave guides.

The electromagnetic energy propagation along a wave guide in the form of some

definite field patterns known as ‘modes’ is an important and special feature of the energy

propagation through the wave guides. The mode subscripts in RWG are denoted with m

and n in that order as TEmn or TM mn .

• Subscripts m and n indicate the number of half period variations of the fields along

x and y directions respectively. For TM wave m and n can assume any integer value

from 1, 2, 3 etc. For TE wave m and n can assume any integer value from 1, 2, 3 etc.

but either m or n only one at a time can assume zero value.

• Dominant mode of a wave-guide is one, which has the lowest cut-off frequency. It is

TE10 for RWG. The significance of the dominant mode is smaller wave-guide is

sufficient to transmit a given frequency dominant modes. Another advantage is as the

frequency can be transmitted in dominant mode in a guide that is too small to hold

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higher order modes the energy loss through the generation of spurious modes is

prevented.

• For this mode the cut-off wavelength is twice the inner distance between side

walls:: λ0 = 2a .

• The field components when the wave is in dominant mode are

π

Ez = 0 ; H z = C 'cos x e− j β z e jωt

a

jβ π

Ex = 0 ; H x = B 2 C 'sin x e − j β z e jωt

h a

− jωµ π

E y = B 2 C 'sin x e− j β z e jωt ; H y = 0

h a

• We can observe the electric field is entirely in y − direction whereas the magnetic field

is devoid of a component in y − direction.

• Regarding the field distribution in y − direction, the electric field is maximum at the

middle of the guide becoming nil at the ends.

• The magnetic field has both x and z components; so it can only be in the xz − plane

• Any plane containing E vector and parallel to the narrow walls of the waveguide is

called E − plane where as the plane containing H vector and parallel to the broader

walls is called H − plane.

• Higher order modes i.e. modes with large m and n values can be used to transmit several

signals simultaneously through one wave-guide. These modes, as they require the wave

guides of larger dimensions, are also capable of transmitting higher frequencies. But

they are difficult to excite and also require wave-guides of larger dimensions to transmit

a given frequency.

• Degenerate modes are different modes of wave-guides having the same cut-off

frequency. Ex. TEmn and TM mn .

• Evanescent modes are modes which are beyond cut off i.e. wavelength more than cut-off

value and so cannot propagate. They represent localized field distribution i.e. induction

fields, that introduce reactive effects but do not carry energy away from the point of

origin as does the dominant mode.

• Suppression of unwanted modes: It is preferred to operate waveguides so that only single

pure mode is present because coupling systems and terminations can be designed on the

basis of a definitely known type of field pattern. Waveguide carrying more than one

mode is called ‘overmoded’

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o In most of the cases, the dominant mode is preferred because the guide then has

the smallest possible dimensions and the undesired modes can be very simply

eliminated.

• By proportioning the guide so that it is large enough to transmit the dominant

mode while too small to permit propagation of any other mode, the higher modes

do not travel down the guide, but rather are confined to the region where they are

generated.

• In rectangular guides, when the guide is so proportioned that a b = 2 there is a

two to one frequency range over which only the dominant mode propagates. In

contrast if the guide were square, the TE01 mode would have the same cut off

wavelength as the TE10 mode, and there would be no frequency range over which

only a single mode would propagate. Because of the considerations of this type,

rectangular guides are practically always proportioned so that a b = 2 , as this

ratio gives the best mode separation of all possible proportions.

• If the ratio a b < 2 then the range frequencies over which single mode

propagation is possible gets reduced. If the ratio a b > 2 then the power handling

capability of the waveguide decreases. So the optimum ratio is a b = 2

o Dimensions versus frequency: Single mode propagation exists in rectangular wave guide

proportioned so that a b = 2 from a frequency of c 2a to c a . If lower frequencies are

to be transmitted then c 2a should be low thus requiring the waveguide of larger

dimensions. To be used for transmitting higher frequencies, c a should be large thus

requiring waveguide of smaller dimensions.

The bandwidth of a rectangular waveguide is for all practical purposes, less than a

2:1 frequency range because the mode TE20 begins to propagate at a frequency equal to twice

the cut off frequency of the TE10 mode.

The cut off frequency of the dominant mode can be lowered and consequently the

bandwidth increased by loading the waveguide with a conducting ridge on the top and/or

bottom walls.

Apart from increasing the bandwidth, the loading gives better impedance

characteristics making the guide suitable for impedance matching purposes.

The presence of the ridge however reduces the power handling capacity of the

waveguide.

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The mode of propagation of the wave is determined by the type and location of the

excitation. Although either probes or loops may be used as excitation sources, the probes

are normally preferred for their simplicity.

The guide is closed at one end by a conducting wall and an appropriate exciting

probe is inserted through the end or side of the guide. The end of the guide serves as a

reflector and if the distance between the probe and the wall is properly adjusted, the

reflected waves arrive at the probe in phase with the emitted wave, and the two propagate

down the guide as one wave.

The probes should coincide with the positions of maximum electric field intensity in

the modes they are intended to excite, with attention being given to the proper phasing of the

potentials supplied to the probes in accordance with the phasing of the fields to be excited. If

the loops are used for excitation, the plane of the loop will be made normal to the magnetic

field and the loop will be located at a point of maximum magnetic field intensity.

The sources excite not only the desired modes but also higher order unwanted

modes. But the choosing the guide dimensions appropriately, it is possible to have only the

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desired wave above cutoff frequency, the other waves then being attenuated and not

propagated.

Let us suppose the circular wave-guide of inner radius ‘ a ’ is lying along z − axis

carrying travelling wave in positive z direction. The walls of the waveguide are made with

perfect conductor i.e. conductivity σ of the walls is ∞ and that hallow region is a perfect

dielectric i.e. its conductivity σ is zero.

Let us also suppose the time variations of the field quantities are exponential i.e. e jωt . If

the time variations of the field quantities are exponential then the fields must vary in the

same manner i.e. exponentially along the direction of the propagation of the wave, according

to transmission line theory. So let us assume the fields vary with z as eγ z . Here γ is the

propagation constant along the direction of propagation i.e. z − direction, which is in

general a complex quantity α + β .

the wave.

o β is known as the phase shift constant

along z − direction representing the phase shift in

the wave motion.

o Pure real γ indicates no wave motion, only

attenuation.

o Pure imaginary γ indicates wave motion

with out attenuation.

o Complex quantity γ indicates wave motion

with attenuation.

According to Maxwell where ever time varying

fields exist there electromagnetic field exists and the

converse is also true. As the wave exists inside the waveguide there fields must exist. If

E and H are fields at an arbitrary point P in the hallow region, they must be related through

the Maxwell’s curl equations. As we consider this problem in cylindrical coordinate system,

the fields are functions of ρ , φ , z and t.

The longitudinal components of the fields can be expressed in terms of the transverse

components.

Hρ = − + 2 : Hφ = − 2 − 2

h ∂ρ

2

h ρ ∂φ h ρ ∂φ h ∂ρ

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Eρ = − − 2 : Eφ = − 2 + 2

h ∂ρ

2

h ρ ∂φ h ρ ∂φ h ∂ρ

wave number.

o The boundary conditions to be used while solving the wave equation are derived based

on the fact that the tangential component of the electric field at the surface of the perfect

conductor is zero. At ρ = a the inner surface of the CWG exists so the tangential

component of the electric field must be zero i.e. Eφ = 0 = E z at ρ = a .

Wave equation for E z is

∂ 2 Ez

∇ E z = µε 2 .

2

∂t

When time variations and z -variations are exponential i.e.

E z (ρ , φ , z , t ) = E z (ρ , φ )e −γ z e jωt then the wave equation becomes

∂ 2 Ez ∂ 2 Ez ∂E z

+ + γ 2 Ez + = − ω 2 µε E z .

∂ρ 2

ρ ∂φ

2 2

ρ ∂ρ

In this equation E z is function of the ρ and φ only.

This equation can be solved using method of variable separation. According to this method,

let Ez = PQ where P is function of variable ρ alone and Q is a function of variable φ

alone. With this substitution the above wave equation can be decomposed into two second

order differential equations for which solutions are readily available.

1 d 2Q

2

= −n2

Q dx

∂ 2 P ∂P 2 n 2

+ + h − 2 P = 0 where n is an arbitrary integer constant.

∂ρ 2 ρ ∂ρ ρ

The first one is standard second order differential equation for which solution is available.

Q = An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ

The second equation is known as the Bessel equation. Its solutions which can represent the

physical fields are known as Bessel functions J n ( ρ h) . These are called Bessel functions of

first kind and n order. Now

E z = PQ = ( An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ ) J n ( ρ h) .

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This is general solution and to fix the arbitrary constants we use the boundary conditions.

Applying Ez = 0 at ρ = a gives

(ha )nm = h where ha are the roots of the equation J (ha) = 0 in the

h = nm ( )nm n

a

increasing order of their magnitude. Hence

Ez = ( An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ ) J n ( ρ hnm ) e − j β z

It is also possible to orient the reference to φ axis so that Bn = 0 . Therefore

Ez = An cos nφ J n ( ρ hnm ) e− j β z

With these values of H z and E z other components can be computed using the relations

connecting transverse components to longitudinal ones. And attaching the time-variations

they become

jωε β

Hρ = − nAn J n ( ρ hnm ) sin ( nφ ) e− j β z e jωt ; Eφ = − H

ρ hnm

2

ωε ρ

jωε β

Hφ = − An J n' ( ρ hnm ) cos ( nφ ) e − j β z e jωt ; Eρ = H

hnm ωε φ

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∂2H z

∇ 2 H z = µε .

∂t 2

When both the time and z -variations are exponential i.e. H z (ρ , φ , z , t ) = H z (ρ , φ )e −γ z e jωt

the wave equation becomes

∂2H z ∂2H z ∂H z

+ 2 2 + γ 2H z + = − ω 2 µε H z .

∂ρ 2

ρ ∂φ ρ ∂ρ

∂2H z ∂2 H z ∂H z

+ 2 2 + = − (ω 2 µε + γ 2 ) H z = −h 2 H z

∂ρ 2

ρ ∂φ ρ ∂ρ

Note in this equation H z is function of the ρ and φ only.

o Solving this equation using method of variable separation and with the initial conditions

(ha )nm

'

= h nm and; H z = An' J n ρhnm

' '

( )

cos (nφ ) e − j β z

a

o As the boundary conditions are not available on H z , with the general solution for H z

obtain E x , E y using the relations connecting transverse components to lateral components

and then fix the values for the constants with the available boundary conditions

o With these values of H z and E z other components can be computed using the relations

connecting transverse components to longitudinal ones.

H z = An' J n ( ρ hnm

'

) cos ( nφ ) e− j β z

− jβ ' ωµ

Hρ = '

hnm

(

An J n′ ρ hnm

'

)

cos ( nφ ) e − j β z ; Eρ = H

β φ

jβ n ' ωµ

Hφ =

ρ hnm

' 2

An J n ρ hnm

'

( )

sin ( nφ ) e − j β z ; Eφ = − H

β ρ

Cut-off frequency f c and Cut-off wavelength λc : The frequency of the wave should be more

than a certain value, known as cut-off frequency, in order to get admitted into the waveguide

to propagate further. Its value depends upon the dimensions of the guide as well on the mode

of the wave.

hnm

fc = for TM and

2π µε

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'

hnm

fc = for TE wave.

2π µε

The wave length corresponding to the cut off frequency is cut off wavelength and it can be

formally defined as the wavelength below which the wavelength of the wave should be in

order to get admitted into the guide to propagate further. Its value depends upon the

dimensions of the guide as well as on the mode of the wave. It is

2πa

λc = for TM and

(ha )nm

2πa

λc = for TE wave.

(ha ),nm

Proof:

We know the propagation constant γ can be related to the frequency ω of the wave

through

γ 2 = h 2 − ω 2 µε or γ = h 2 − ω 2 µε

Depending upon the relation between h 2 and ω 2 µε the propagation constant γ can be pure

real or imaginary.

When h 2 > ω 2 µε the propagation constant is pure real quantity indicating that the

wave guide is acting as a pure attenuator without wave motion refusing entry to the wave.

When h 2 < ω 2 µε the propagation constant is pure imaginary quantity indicating that the

wave guide is acting as a pure transmission line without any attenuation to the wave. This

must be the case to which the waveguide under consideration belongs because the wave is

already in and loss less condition is assumed.

The change over in the behaviour of the waveguide from pure attenuator to pure

transmission line takes place as the frequency is increased from low to high when

h 2 = ω 2 µε . The frequency of the wave which satisfies this relation is called cut off

frequency ωc . Hence

ωc2 µε = h 2 . But h 2 = hnm

2

in case of TM wave and it is

′ in case of TE wave.

= hnm2

hnm

fc = for TM and

2π µε

'

hnm

= for TE wave.

2π µε

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The corresponding wavelength, cut off wave length can be found from

2πa

λc = for TM wave and

(ha )nm

2π a

= for TE wave.

( ha )nm

,

In case of the circular wave guides, both the cut-off frequency and cut-off

wavelength depends upon the type of the wave i.e. their values are different for TE and TM

waves in circular wave guides.

o The mode subscripts in CWG are denoted with n and m in that order as TE nm or

TM nm .

o ‘ n ’ indicates the order of the Bessel function and m indicates the roots of the equation

J n ( x ) = 0 or J n' ( x ) = 0 in the order of the magnitude.

o The subscript ‘ n ’ can assume any integer value 0, 1, 2, 3 etc. but for the subscript ‘ m ’

zero value is forbidden and so it can assume any integer value 1, 2, 3 etc. Note TE10 and

TM 00 are not possible.

o Dominant mode of a wave-guide is one, which has the lowest cut-off frequency. It is

TE11 for CWG.

o Degenerate modes are different modes of wave-guides having the same cut-off

frequency. Ex. TE0 m and TM 1m .

The media in which the velocity of the wave depends upon its frequency are called

dispersive media. Otherwise they are called non-dispersive media. The velocities of the

wave, both phase as well as the group velocity, in the wave guide vary with the frequency

and hence hallow pipe wave guide is a dispersive medium. Also the TE/TM waves carried

by these media are dispersive waves.

Dispersion of the signal spoils the original phase relation between different frequency

components as it travels down the guide leading to signal distortion.

the wave-guide.

1 − ( λ λc )

2

It is related to cut-off wavelength through the relation λg = λ

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o Phase/wave velocity v p : It is the velocity at which the phase of the wave changes along

the length of the guide.. It is more than or equal to the velocity of wave in free space. It is by

definition equal to v p = (ω β ) = v 1 − ( λ λc )

2

o Group velocity vg : It is the velocity with which a narrow band signal travels in the guide.

( )

−1

= v 1 − ( λ λc )

2

It is always less than velocity of wave in free space. vg = d β d ω

Proof:

We know for the hallow pipe waveguide, either rectangular or circular, the propagation

constant is

γ = h 2 − ω 2 µε

In the present case, it is given that the waveguide is lossless and the wave is inside, so the

propagation constant γ must be pure imaginary i.e.

γ = h 2 − ω 2 µε = j β

And hence the phase shift constant becomes

β = ω 2 µε − h 2

But we have h 2 = ωc2 µε . So the phase shift constant becomes

β = ω 2 µε − ωc2 µε

= ω µε 1 − (ωc ω ) = ω µε 1 − ( f c f ) = ω µε 1 − ( λ λc )

2 2 2

To be precise, γ is the propagation constant along the z − direction i.e. along the length of

the waveguide. So β must be the phase shift constant along the length of the waveguide. By

definition phase shift constant is phase shift per unit length and in this case the length has to

be considered along the z − direction. Hence

2π

β=

λg

where λg is the wavelength along the z − direction called guide wavelength. Now

2π

λg =

β

2π 2π f λ λ

= = = .

ω µε 1 − ( λ λc ) 2π f 1 − ( λ λc ) 1 − ( λ λc )

2 2 2

The phase velocity of the wave, from its basic definition, is

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ω

vp =

β

Substituting

β = ω µε 1 − ( λ λc )

2

we get

1 − ( λ λc )

2

vp = v

Similarly from its basic definition, the group velocity of the wave can be related to free

space wavelength and guide wavelength by

( )

−1

= v 1 − ( λ λc )

2

vg = d β d ω

As the frequency of the wave is increased from the cut-off value to infinity, guide

wavelength and phase velocity vary from infinity to their free space value where as the

group velocity varies from zero to its free space value.

The phase velocity and group velocity are same for TEM wave. None of these two

depends upon the frequency and so TEM wave is non dispersive.

Oliver Heavyside first coined the term impedance in nineteenth century to describe the

complex ratio V I in AC circuits. Schelkunoff extended this concept to electromagnetic

fields in a systematic way and noted that impedance should be considered as a characteristic

of the type of field as well as the medium.

o Wave impedance Z z of a wave-guide is defined as the ratio of transverse electric field

strength to transverse magnetic field strength.

E Ex2 + E y2

In case of rectangular waveguides Z z = trans =

H trans H x2 + H y2

2

=η

2

E Eρ2 + Eφ2

In case of circular waveguides Z z = trans =

H trans H ρ2 + Hφ2

2

=η

2

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Proof:

For TE mode

jωµ ∂H z jωµ ∂H z

Ex = − 2 : Ey = + 2

h ∂y h ∂x

γ ∂H z γ ∂H z

Hx = − 2 : Hy = − 2

h ∂x h ∂y

Substituting these expressions with γ = j β in the basic defining relation we get

ωµ 2π f µλg

Zz = =

β 2π

f λµ vµ µ

= = =

1 − ( λ λc ) 1 − ( λ λc ) µε 1 − ( λ λc )

2 2 2

µ

1 − ( λ λc ) = η 1 − ( λ λc )

2 2

=

ε

For TM mode

γ ∂Ez γ ∂Ez

Ex = − 2 : Ey = − 2

h ∂x h ∂y

jωε ∂E z jωε ∂Ez

Hx = + 2 : Hy = − 2

h ∂y h ∂x

Substituting these expressions with γ = j β in the basic defining relation we get

β 2π

Zz = =

ωε 2π f ελg

1 − ( λ λc ) 1 − ( λ λc ) µε 1 − ( λ λc )

2 2 2

= = =

f λε vε ε

µ

1 − ( λ λc ) = η 1 − ( λ λc )

2 2

=

ε

The relations for circular waveguide can be derived by following the procedure similar to

that for rectangular waveguides.

In general the wave impedance is a characteristic of the particular type of wave TEM,

TE, and TM which may depend upon the type of line or guide, the material and the

operating frequency.

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The wave impedance of the waveguide medium can be likened conceptually to the

intrinsic impedance of the free space medium.

borrowed into wave guides from the transmission line theory. It has been defined in several

different ways for a finite length line in transmission line theory in terms of the voltages and

currents over the line and power through the line in the following forms.

V

Voltage-current formula Z 0 (V , I ) = ,

I

2P

Power-current formula Z 0 (P, I ) = ∗ ,

II

VV ∗

Power-voltage formula Z 0 (P,V ) =

2P

where V and I are voltage and current and P is the power flowing over the line

when extended to infinity, all represent peak phasors.

o All the above formulae give same value for low frequency line carrying TEM

wave, but different values for different modes of wave-guide, which carry TE and TM

waves.

o In case of rectangular waveguides, for dominant wave

πb

Voltage-current formula gives Z 0 (V , I ) = ZTE ,

2a

π

Power-current formula Z 0 (P, I ) = Z 0 (V .I ) ,

4

4

Power-voltage formula Z 0 (P,V ) = Z 0 (V , I )

π

o In case of circular waveguides, for dominant wave

λg

Voltage-current formula gives Z 0 (V , I ) = 520 ,

λ

λg

Power-current formula Z 0 ( P, I ) = 354 ,

λ

λ

Power-voltage formula Z 0 ( P,V ) = 764 g

λ

o Since voltages and impedances are not uniquely defined for TE and TM waves

their characteristic impedance cannot be unique and for such waves it can be defined in

several ways.

To match a wave-guide to an uniquely defined impedance, the usual approach is to use the

definition that gives best agreement between theory and experimental data.

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attenuation and dissipative attenuation.

.

o Reflective attenuation When the frequency of the wave is less than the cut-off frequency

( f < f c ) it cannot enter into the wave-guide. This behaviour of the wave-guide is described

mathematically by ascribing large amount of attenuation to the wave-guide known as the

‘Reflective attenuation’

o When a waveguide is excited at a wavelength greater than cut-off, the electric and

magnetic fields decay exponentially with distance at a very much more rapid rate than is

accounted for by the dissipative losses.

o More over the rate of attenuation depends only on the ratio λ λc of the free space

wavelength to the cut-off wavelength; unlike the wave shorter than the cut-off wavelength,

the attenuation is independent of the material of the guide walls.

54.6

1 − ( λc λ )

2

o The exact law of attenuation per unit length in db is α =

λc

54.6

When the actual wavelength is much greater than cut-off then α ≈

λc

These relations apply to all modes of propagation in all types of waveguides.

An important observation from these relations is when λ λc large, the attenuation is

substantially independent of frequency.

o Waveguides operated at wavelengths greater than cut-off are called waveguide

attenuators and are often used as attenuators in signal generators.

o Dissipative attenuation. The energy of wave when it is travelling through the wave-guide

( f > f c ) gets absorbed by the walls due to their finite conductivity and also by the hallow

region due to its non-zero conductivity resulting in ‘Dissipative attenuation.’

k 2 tan δ

αd = Np / m .

2β

Proof:

Consider a perfect dielectric, then its permittivity

ε = ε 0ε r .

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σ

ε = ε 0ε& = ε 0 ε r − j = ε ( ε − jε r tan δ )

ωε 0 0 r

Here tan δ is known as loss tangent of the dielectric and it is equal to

σ

tan δ =

ωε oε r

If the wave guide hollow region is filled with perfect dielectric material, then

γ = j β = h 2 − ω 2 µε = h 2 − ω 2 µ0ε 0ε r assuming µr = 1

If the wave guide hollow region is filled with imperfect dielectric material, then

σ

γ = h 2 − ω 2 µ 0ε 0 ε r − j = h − ω µ0ε 0ε r + jω µ0ε 0ε r tan δ assuming µr = 1 .

2 2 2

ωε 0

Let a = h − ω µ0ε 0ε r and x 2 = jω 2 µ0ε 0ε r tan δ

2 2 2

1 x2

But a + x ≈ a + for x

2 2

a.

2 a

Using this relation

ω 2 µ0ε 0ε r tan δ ω 2 µ0ε 0ε r tan δ

γ = h 2 − ω 2 µ 0ε 0ε r + j = jβ + .

2 h 2 − ω 2 µ0ε 0ε r 2β

ω 2 µ0ε 0ε r tan δ

From this α d = Np/meter for TE or TM wave.

2β

In case of TEM wave this quantity becomes

tan δ

α d = ω µ 0ε 0ε r Np/meter.

2

It can be observed that the dielectric loss becomes zero when the conductivity or loss

tangent of the dielectric is zero. The above relations for attenuation constant due to the

dielectric loss can be used for both the rectangular as well as circular wave guides.

power dissipated / unit length

αc = Np / m .

2 × power flow down the wave − guide

Proof:

Let us suppose the voltage and current phasors along the line of infinite length are

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V = V0 e −α z e − j β z and I = I 0 e −α z e− j β z

1 1

Then the average power transmitted is Pav =

2

{ }

Re VI ∗ = Re V0 I 0∗ e −2α z

2

{ }

∂P

The rate of decrease of transmitted power along the line will be − av = +2α Pav

∂z

The decrease of transmitted power per unit length of line is −∆Pav = 2α Pav

Power lost per unit length

And this is the power dissipated per unit length = 2α leading

Power transmitted

Power lost per unit length

to α =

2 × Power transmitted

o Power flow down the wave-guide

1 2

= Z z ∫ H trans dx dy

2

= Re ∫∫ E × H ∗ • az da = Re ∫∫ (E x H y∗ − E y H x∗ )dx dy

1 1

2 2

o Power dissipated/unit length

R 2

= s ∫ H tan da

2

R

[

= 2 × s ∫∫ ax × H x = 0 dy dz + ∫∫ a y × H

2

2 2

y =0

dx dz ]

For circular waveguides,

1 2

= Z z ∫ H trans ρ dρ dφ

2

1

2

1

( )

= Re ∫∫ E × H ∗ • az da = Re ∫∫ Eρ H φ∗ − Eφ H ρ∗ ρ dρ dφ

2

o Power dissipated/unit length

R 2

= s ∫ H tan da

2

=

Rs

2 ∫∫[ 2

aρ × H ρ = a ρ dφ dz ]

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It can be easily integrated with other passive and active micro-wave devices.

It can be fabricated by photolithographic processes.

It can be viewed as a two wire line consisting of two flat strip conductors of width ‘ w ’

separated by a distance ‘ 2d ’ in the absence of the dielectric.

The micro-strip line can not support a pure TEM wave. In most practical applications,

the dielectric substrate is electrically very thin i.e. d λ and so the fields are quasi-TEM.

The phase velocity v p = c ε e

The propagation constant β = ω µ0ε 0 ε e

ε r +1 ε r −1 1

εe = +

2 2 1 + 12d w

Micro strip has most of its field lines in the dielectric region and some fraction in the air

region above substrate.

It is an asymmetrical type strip transmission line.

Planar type transmission line widely used in microwave integrated circuitry.

It is a sort of ‘flattened out’ coaxial line.

It has two conductors and a homogenous dielectric. It supports TEM wave

and this is the usual mode of operation.

Strip-line can also support higher order TM and TE modes but these are

suppressed with shorting screws between the ground planes and restricting ‘ b ’ to

less than λ 4

The analysis of the strip-line is quite complex and difficult process. A

reasonable approximation to the exact results with the application of Laplace

equation gives.

Cavity Resonators

These are tuned circuits at the highest frequencies. Their behaviour is identical to a

LC tuned circuit. Theoretically a given resonator has an infinite number of resonant modes

and each mode corresponds to a definite resonant frequency. So each cavity resonator has an

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infinite number of resonant frequencies. The mode having the lowest resonant frequency is

known as the dominant mode.

In practice the rectangular-cavity resonators, circular-cavity resonators and re-

entrant-cavity resonators are commonly used in many microwave applications.

Types: Regular shaped resonators like spheres, cylinder or rectangular prisms. But their

various resonant frequencies are harmonically related which is a defect. Irregular shaped

resonators known as re-entrant cavities are also useful as tuned circuits as well as they can

be easily integrated into the structure of the microwave device. It is also convenient to

couple the signal to and take the signal form the re-entrant cavity.

metallic boundaries extend into the interior of

the cavity. The examples are coaxial cavity,

radial cavity, butterfly cavity etc. They are

designed to for use in klystrons and microwave

triodes. One of the commonly used re-entrant

cavities is the coaxial cavity.

Tuning: With adjustable screws or posts, by

introducing solid dielectric material or ferrites,

by moving a wall in and out slightly with screw

are some of the commonly used methods of

cavity tuning.

Coupling: Power can be coupled using slots, loops and probes. But they load the cavity and

also change its resonating frequency. Beam coupling is another method of power coupling

of the cavity which is widely used in microwave tubes.

Applications: Used as input and output circuits of amplifiers as well as in oscillators. These

are also used in filters, with mixers. Another major application of the cavity resonator is as

cavity wave meter

Consider a piece of rectangular wave guide lying along z − axis carrying a travelling

wave in positive z direction.

When the opening at the output side is closed with a shorting plate, made with

perfect conductor, the forward travelling or positive z travelling wave hits the shorting plate

and gets reflected. Now there comes into being another wave travelling in negative

z direction. Due to the interference between the two waves travelling in opposite directions

but over the same path, the standing wave pattern comes into being.

When the opening at the inlet side is also closed with another shorting plate, the

input to the forward wave is cut off but its place is taken over by the wave resulted due to

reflection of the negative z travelling wave. The net result is the trapping of a travelling

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wave which keep on travelling in between the shorting plates for ever in case of loss free

conditions.

The frequency at which the wave hits the walls is called resonant frequency and in

general it depends upon the dimensions of the wave guide as well as the mode of the wave.

Consider the case Rectangular Cavity Resonator. Structurally it is a piece of

waveguide closed at both the ends. So we start with a piece of rectangular wave guide of

length ‘ d ’lying along z direction. When both the openings are remained opened and a wave

is travelling in positive z direction then the fields in phasor form at an arbitrary point in the

waveguide can be expressed as

Eiy = Eiyo e − j β z and H iy = H iyo e − j β z

Eiz = Eizo e − j β z and H iz = H izo e − j β z

When the opening at the outlet is closed, the forward travelling wave gets reflected and the

fields of the reverse or –z travelling wave

Erx = Erxo e j β z and H rx = H rxo e j β z

Ery = Eryo e j β z and H ry = H ryo e j β z

Erz = Erzo e j β z and H rz = H rzo e j β z

Due the combining or interference of these two waves standing wave pattern comes into

being. The fields of the standing wave pattern are

Esx = Eixo e − j β z + Erxo e j β z ; H sx = H ixo e − j β z + H rxo e j β z

Esy = Eiyo e − j β z + Eryo e j β z ; H sy = H iyo e − j β z + H ryo e j β z

Esz = Eizo e − j β z + Erzo e j β z ; H sz = H izo e − j β z + H rzo e j β z

It is possible to relate the amplitudes of the reflected waves with those of the incident waves.

Magnitude wise: As the waveguide walls are made with perfect conductor and hallow region

is made up of perfect dielectric the resonator under consideration is a loss-less system. So

the magnitudes of the reflected waves remain same as that of the incident waves.

And phase wise: The tangential component of the E fields and normal components of the

H fields suffer180 o phase shift and the normal components of the E fields and tangential

components of the H fields suffer no phase shifts on reflection at the surface of the perfect

conductor resulting in

Eixo = − Erxo Eizo = Erzo

Eiyo = − Eryo H ixo = H rxo

H izo = − H rzo H iyo = H ryo

With these relations the fields in the standing wave become

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Esy = − 2 jEiyo sin β z H sy = 2 H iyo c os β z

Esz = 2 Eizo c os β z H sz = − 2 jH izo sin β z

mπ nπ

H izo = 0 ; Eizo = C sin x sin y

a b

− jβ mπ nπ

Eixo = B 2 C cos x sin y

h a b

− jβ mπ nπ

Eiyo = A 2 C sin x cos y

h a b

jωε mπ nπ

H ixo = A 2 C sin x cos y

h a b

− jωε mπ nπ

H iyo == B 2 C cos x sin y

h a b

mπ nπ

Eizo = 0 ; H izo = C 'cos x cos y

a b

jωµ mπ nπ

Eixo = A 2 C 'cos x sin y

h a b

− jωµ mπ nπ

Eiyo = B 2 C 'sin x cos y

h a b

jβ mπ nπ

H ixo = B 2 C 'sin x cos y

h a b

jβ mπ nπ

H iyo = A 2 C 'cos x sin y

h a b

2π λ

β= and λg =

λg λ

2

1 −

λ0

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When the both ends are closed, the wave gets trapped inside the waveguide and keep on

travelling from one end to another end with a certain frequency know as resonant frequency.

Certain field components like Ex , E y and H z get reflected with phase reversal and as a result

there exists minima or nodes occur at both the ends in their standing wave pattern. Other

field components like H x , H y and Ez get reflected with out any phase reversal resulting in

maxima or anti-nodes at both the ends in their standing wave pattern. From the properties of

the standing waves we know the distance between two nodes or anti-nodes and hence the

distance p between the ends must be an integral no. of half (guide) wave lengths. i.e.

λg pπ

d =p ⇒ β =

2 d

With both the openings closed , the fields inside the resonator become

pπ pπ

Eres , x = − 2 jEixo sin z H res , x = 2 H ixo cos z

d d

pπ pπ

Eres , y = − 2 jEiyo sin z H res , y = 2 H iyo cos z

d d

pπ pπ

Eres , z = 2 Eizo cos z H res , z = − 2 jH izo sin z

d d

Resonant frequency:

β = ω 2 µε − h 2 . In the case of the resonator, this relation becomes

pπ

β = ωr2 µε − h 2 = .

d

2 2

mπ nπ

Solving this equation for f r with h 2 = + leads to the expression for the

a b

2 2 2

1 mπ nπ pπ

resonating frequency fr = + +

2π µε a b d

The physical significance of the mode subscripts m , n and p depends upon the fact that

they represents the number of half-wave periodicity in x, y and z directions respectively.

The allowed integral values for them are

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n =1, 2, 3,.....

p = 0,1, 2, .....

For TE mode:: m = 0,1, 2,3,.....

n = 0,1, 2, 3,.....

p = 1, 2, 3, 4 .....

Dominant mode of the resonator is one having the lowest resonant frequency. It is TE101

for a > b < d in the case of rectangular cavity resonator..

Consider the case Circular Cavity Resonator. We start with a piece of rectangular

wave guide

Fields of the forward or +z travelling wave

Eiρ = Ei ρ o e − j β z H iρ = H iρo e− jβ z

Eiφ = Eiφ o e − j β z H iφ = H iφ o e − j β z

Eiz = Eizo e − j β z H iz = H izo e − j β z

Fields of the reverse or –z travelling wave

Er ρ = Er ρ o e j β z H r ρ = H r ρo e jβ z e j β z

Erφ = Erφ o e j β z H rφ = H rφ o e j β z

Erz = Erzo e j β z H rz = H rzo e j β z

Esρ = Ei ρ o e − j β z + Er ρ o e j β z H sρ = H iρ o e− jβ z + H r ρ o e jβ z

Esφ = Eiφ o e − j β z + Erφ o e j β z H sφ = H iφ o e − j β z + H rφ o e j β z

Esz = Eizo e − j β z + Erzo e j β z H sz = H izo e − j β z + H rzo e j β z

But the tangential component of the electric fields and normal components of the magnetic

fields suffer 180 o phase shift and the normal components of the electric fields and tangential

components of the magnetic fields suffer no phase shifts on reflection at the surface of the

perfect conductor resulting in

Ei ρ o = − Er ρ o Eizo = Erzo

Eiφ o = − Erφ o H iρo = H r ρo

H izo = − H rzo H iφ o = H rφ o

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Esφ = − Eiφo 2 j sin β z H sφ = H iφo 2 cos β z

Esz = Eizo 2 cos β z H sz = − H izo 2 j sin β z

jωε n

H iρo = − An J n (ρhnm ) sin (nφ ) e − j β z

ρhnm

2

jωε

H iφo = − An J n' (ρhnm ) cos (nφ ) e − j β z

hnm

β

Eiρo = Hφ

ωε

β

Eiφo = − H iρo

ωε

o TE mode fields. Eizo = 0 ; H izo = An' J n ρhnm

'

( )

cos (nφ ) e − j β z

− jβ ' '

H iρo = '

hnm

(

An J n ρhnm

'

)

cos (nφ ) e − j β z

jβ n

H iφo =

' 2

(

An' J n ρhnm

'

)

sin (nφ ) e − j β z

ρh nm

ωµ

Eiρo = H iφo

β

ωµ

Eiφo = − H iρo

β

2π λ

β= and λg =

λg 1 − ( λ λ0 )

2

When the both ends are closed, the distance between the ends must correspond to an integer

no. of half(guide) wave lengths.

λg pπ

i.e. d = p ⇒ β =

2 d

Resonant frequency:

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β = ω 2 µε − h 2 . In the case of the resonator, this relation becomes

pπ

β = ωr2 µε − h 2 = .

d

2 2

mπ nπ

Solving this equation for f r with h =

2

+ leads to the expression for the

a b

2 2 2

1 mπ nπ pπ

resonating frequency fr = + +

2π µε a b d

(ha )nm qπ

2 2

1

fr = + for TM

2π µε a d

(ha )'nm qπ 2

2

1

=

2π µε a + d for TE

• For TE mode n = 0,1,2,... , m =1,2,3..... , q = 1,2,3....

• n … indicates the periodicity in the φ direction

• m ….indicates the number of the zeros of the field in the radial direction.

• q …the number of half-waves in the axial direction

If d < a the dominant mode is TM 110 and it is TE111 when

maximum energy stored W ε 2 µ 2

circuit. Q = 2π =ω where W = ∫ E dτ = ∫ H dτ

energy dissipated per cycle P v

2 v

2

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Rs

∫H

2

P= t da here E and H are peak values of the field intensities and H t is the peak

2 s

ωµ ∫ H dτ

2

ωµ ( volume )

value of tangential magnetic field intensity. Q = v

≈

Rs ∫ H t da

2

2 Rs ( surface area )

s

a) TE01 b) TE11

c) TE20 d) TE10

a) TE mode b) TM mode

c) Mixed mode d) All

2 2aπ

a) ) b)

2

m n

2 (ha) nm

+

a b

2aπ

c) d) None

(ha )'nm

2 2

a) b)

2 2 2 2

m n m n

+ +

a b b a

c) both d) None

2

2

f

a) λ 1 − λ b) λ 1− 0

λ0 f

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c) both d) None

2

a) η 1 − λ b) η 1 − (λ / λ0 ) 2

λ0

c) both d) None

a) TE11 b) TE10

c) Either d) None

a) TE111 b) TE110

c) Either d) None

9. Non existent modes in circular wave guides are [ B ]

a) TE10 b) TE00 c) both d) None

2 2 2

1 m n p 1 m n p

a) + + b) + +

2 µε a b d 2 µε a b d

2 2 2

1 m n p

c) + + d) None

2π µε a b d

2

β tan δ 2β

a) b) 2 tan δ

2β β

ω2 ω 2 µ 0ε 0ε r

c) tan δ d) tan δ

2β 2β

power dissipated / unit length 2 x power flow

a) b)

2 x powerflow Dissipated power / unit length

2 x powerdissi / unit length

c) c) None

Power flow

13. Reflective attenuation comes into being when

the frequency of the wave is [ A ]

a) < cut off frequency b) > cut off frequency

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c) both d) None

a) no of half wave patterns b) No. of full wave patterns

c) no of the zeros of the field d) None

15. In RWG, for dominant mode, the cut off- wave length is [ A ]

a) 2a b) 2b c) a d) None

16. The wave whose frequency is 1.5 GHz falls in the band [ A ]

a) L b) S c) C d) None

17. The wave whose frequency is 2.5 GHz falls in the band [ B ]

a) L b) S c) C d) None

a) L b) 5 c) C d) None

a) L b) X c) C d) None

a) TE01 & TM11 b) TE22 & TM22

c) Both d) None

a) Infinite b) Free space wave length

c) cut-off wavelength d) None

22. An air filled rectangular waveguide has dimensions of 6 X 4cm. [ A ]

Its cut-off frequency for TE10 mode is

a) 2.5GHz b) 25GHz

c) 25MHz d) 5GHz

of 3.0GHz in TE10 for the above problem(probno:1) is [ ]

a) 0.1m/s b) 5.42×108 m/s

c) 5.4×106 m/s d) 3.78×108 m/s

a) 1.659×108 m/s b) 5.42×108 m/s

c) 0.185×108 m/s d) 3.78×108 m/s

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a) 120π b) 681.72

c) 300 d) 600

a) 69 rad/m b) 100 rad/m

c) 34.5 rad/m d) 50rad/m

a). dimensions of the waveguide

b). the dielectric property of the medium in the waveguide

c). wave mode d) all

a). the phase velocity is greater than the group velocity

b). The phase velocity is greater than the velocity of light in free space

c) both d) none

a). half wavelength of E field and full wavelength of H field

b) half wavelengths of E and H fields

c) full wavelength of E field and half wavelength of H field

d) half wavelengths of H and E fields

a). travel along the border walls of the waveguide

b).are reflected from side walls but do not travel along them

c). travel through the dielectric without touching the walls

d). travel along the all the four walls

TE10 b) TE11

c) TM11 d) TM10

a) guide-wavelength is never less than the free space wavelength

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a) TE10 b) TE11 c) TE01 d) TE12

a) 2 b) 1 c) 4 d) 0

β ωµ

a) b)

ωµ β

ωβ

c) d) ωµβ

µ

a) Zero b) One

c) 2 d) Infinite

37. The primary mode in a rectangular resonant cavity [ B ]

a) TE111 b) TE101

c) TE100 d) TE001

a) E×H* b) H×E*

39. A disadvantage of microstrip compared with strip-line is [ ]

a) Does not readily lend itself to printed circuit technique

b) More likely to radiate

c) Bulkier d) complex and expensive

a) Microstrip b) Rectangular waveguide

c) Circular waveguide d) Strip line

a) Smaller bulk b) Greater bandwidth

c) Higher power handling capability

d) Greater compatibility with solid state devices

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a) Easier integration with semiconductor devices

b) Lesser tendency to radiate

c) Higher isolation between circuits d) Higher ‘Q’

Attenuators

Attenuation in db of a device is ten times logarithmic ratio of power flowing into the device

to the power flowing out of the device when both the input and output circuits are matched.

P

Attenuation in db =10 log i

Po

Of the input circuit is not matched to the device then the Pi is equal to the power incident

minus the power reflected. If the output circuit is not matched then the Po becomes equal to

the power consumed in the output circuit plus the power reflected into the circuit.

o Resistive-card attenuator: This type can provide either fixed amount or a variable

amount of attenuation..

• In the fixed version, the resistance card tapered at both ends is bonded in place. The

tapering of the card helps in maintaining low SWR at the input as well as at the output

ports over the useful wave-guide band.

• Maximum attenuation per unit guide length can be achieved by placing the card parallel

to the electric field and at the centre of the wave guide where the field is maximum for

the dominant mode.

• The amount of attenuation provided is a function of frequency, a disadvantage. It in

general increases with frequency.

• In the variable version, called Flap attenuator, the resistance card enters into the wave

guide through the slot provided in the broader wall thereby intercepting and absorbing a

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portion of the wave. A hinge arrangement is used to change the depth of penetration of

the resistance card, there by changing the amount of attenuation from 0db to

typically 30db .

• The biggest disadvantage with Flap attenuators is their attenuation is frequency sensitive

and also the phase of the output signal is function of attenuation.

o Rotary-vane attenuator: The essential parts of this device are; two fixed and one rotary

wave-guide sections. It also includes input and output transition sections to provide low

SWR connections to rectangular wave-guides.

Structure: The two fixed circular waveguide sections are identical in all respects; each

attached to a transition and each consists of a piece circular wave guide with a lossy

dielectric plate lying horizontal in it. In middle exists a rotatable circular waveguide section

with a dielectric plate which can be placed at any angle by rotating the waveguide section.

The plates are normally thin with ε r > 1 , µr = 1 and conductivity σ a finite nonzero value.

The plates attenuates the wave travelling, the amount of attenuation being dependant

upon the properties of the material from which the plate is cut, the dimensions of the slab

and also the angle between the plane of the plate and the E vector of the wave.

When the E vector of the wave is normal to it, the plate does not attenuate the wave in

any significant manner, whereas it attenuates the wave in good amount when the E vector is

parallel. In the present case, the lengths of the plates are selected in such a way that after

travelling past the plates with its E vector parallel, the wave amplitude becomes

insignificant.

( )

A = 10 log 1 cos 4 θ m when the rotatable section is rotated by an angle equal to θ m from

horizontal..

When the wave with its E vector vertical falls over and crosses the input fixed section in

which plate is horizontal, it does so without any attenuation.

The unattenuated wave at the input of the rotatable section can be resolved into two

components, one parallel to the rotatable plate and another normal to it. The parallel

component gets absorbed and attenuated almost completely by the plate whereas the normal

component crosses without any significant attenuation.

Now it is the only the normal to rotatable plate component that exists at the input of the

fixed output section. This component can be resolved into two one horizontal and the other

vertical. The horizontal component is parallel to the fixed section plate and hence gets

absorbed whereas the vertical one comes out unattenuated which is E cos 2 θ m .

If the amplitude of the input field is E , then the output field strength will be E cos 2 θ m .

(

Hence the attenuation provided by the device in db is A = 10 log 1 cos 4 θ m . )

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θ m = 0 and maximum at θ m = 900 .

The attenuation provided by this device depends only on the rotation angle θ m and

not upon the frequency. This device is very accurate and hence being used as a calibration

standard. Its accuracy is limited only by imperfect matching and by mis-alignment of the

resistance cards.

Phase shifters

These devices find wide applications in test and measurement systems, but most

significant use is in phased array antennas where antenna beam is steered in space by

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electronically controlled phase shifters. The phase shifters which use ferrites in their

construction are non-reciprocal where as others in general are reciprocal.

The phase shift that can be introduced into the wave by a waveguide section of length

2

‘ l ’ is given by β l = 2π l λg where λg = λ

observe that the phase of the wave can be controlled either by varying ε r or the guide width

Dielectric phase-shifters: The variable type dielectric phase shifters employ the a low

loss dielectric insertion into the air filled guide at a point of max electric field to increase its

effective dielectric constant thereby causing the guide wavelength λg to decrease. Thus the

insertion of the dielectric increases the phase shift in the wave passing through the fixed

length wave guide section. Tapering of the dielectric slab is resorted to reduce the

reflections. In another version, a pair of thin rods is used to move the dielectric slab from a

region of low electric field intensity to one of the high intensity to increase the effective

dielectric constant.

long non-radiating slots. A clamping arrangement is used to reduce the guide width a thus

increasing the guide wavelength λg resulting in a decreased phase shift in the wave through

the wave guide section. It is also called line stretcher.

Rotary phase-shifters: The essential parts of this phase shifter are three wave guide

sections, two fixed and one rotary. The fixed sections consist of quarter wave plates and the

rotary section consists of half wave plate, all the plates are of dielectric type.

Structure: The two fixed quarter wave sections identical in all respects and the rotatable

half wave section is just the double of a quarter wave section. Each of the two fixed sections,

attached to a transition, consists of a piece circular wave guide with a dielectric plate making

an angle of 450 with the horizontal. The dielectric plate is normally thin with ε r > 1 , µ r = 1

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and σ ≈ 0 . When the E vector of the wave is normal to it, the plate does not effect the wave

in any way, whereas it adds an additional phase lag when the E vector is parallel. The

additional phase lag depends upon the properties of the material from which the slab is cut

and the dimensions of the slab. The length of the plate is selected in such a way that this

additional phase lag is 900 in case of quarter wave plate and 1800 in case of half wave plate.

As same materials are used to make half and quarter wave plates, the length of one becomes

the double of the other.

Analysis: It can be shown that the output wave experiences an additional phase delay of

2 θ m when the half-wave plate is rotated by an angle equal to θ m .

When the wave with its E vector vertical falls and crosses over the quarter wave plate

which is making an angle of 450 with the horizontal, the component of the wave parallel to

the plate undergoes a phase shift of 900 in addition to the regular phase shift of β l where as

the component normal to the plate undergoes only the regular phase shift of β l .

The above two components having phase shift of 900 can be resolved into two

components each making total of four, one pair parallel to the half wave plate and another

pair normal to the plate. The resultant of the pair normal to the half wave plate will have a

lagging phase angle of β l + θ m where as the pair parallel to the half wave plate results in a

lagging phase angle of β l + 900 + θ m .

The two components one normal and the other parallel to the half wave plate while

crossing undergoes a phase change 2 β l and 2β l + 1800 resulting in a net phase lag of

3β l + θ m and 3β l + 2700 + θ m respectively. These two components which are available at the

output of the half wave plate, can now be resolved into two components each , one along the

quarter wave plate and the other normal to it. The resultant of the two components normal to

the plate will have a phase lag equal to 3β l + 2θ m whereas the component parallel posses

3β l + 2700 + 2θ m .

These two components, one is normal and the other is parallel to the quarter wave plate,

while travelling through the output quarter wave plate undergoes phase delays β l and

β l + 900 resulting in a net phase lag of 4β l + 2θ m and 4β l + 3600 + 2θ m = 4β l + 2θ m

respectively. These two equi-phase components whose magnitudes are E 2 , can be

combined into one equal to E ∠4β l + 2θ m .

In the absence of the plates the magnitude and phase of the out put would have been

E∠4β l .The presence of the plates makes the output to have an additional phase equal to

2θ m when the half-wave plate is rotated by an angle equal to θ m .

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The output remains vertically polarized, which means that the phase shifter is loss less

and reflection less for any position of the rotary section.

It is used as calibration standard because of its high accuracy.

Hybrid phase-shifters: The usefulness of the rotary phase shifter is limited to power

levels of a few watts or even less. For higher power applications, the hybrid-type phase

shifter is often used. These consist of a 3db short slot coupler and a pair of moving shorts.

The shorts are coupled mechanically so that they can move as a unit. Moving the two shorts

as a unit can vary the phase of the output wave. Moving them back a distance d causes the

output wave to be delayed by an additional 2d , since the round the trip path of the wave

is 2d . Thus the phase change in a hybrid phase shifter is ∆θ = 2β d = ( 4π λg ) d . Even

though the phase change is showing a linear relationship with shorts movement, in practice

the ∆θ versus d curve exhibits some deviation from linearity due to the imperfect operation

of the 3db coupler.

Ferrite Phase shifters: They are two-port devices which can provide variable phase

shift with the change of the bias field. One of the most useful designs is the latching or

remnant non-reciprocal phase shifter employing ferrite toroid in a rectangular wave-guide.

Fixed phase-shift sections: To achieve a differential phase shift, the guide wavelength

can be altered by changing the guide width. It gives a differential phase shift of

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1 1

∆θ = 2π l − ' . Another method of introducing differential phase change is by

λg λg

inserting reactive elements into wave guide. Fixed phase sections are used in microwave

bridge circuits which require a wave guide section in which the phase delay differs from that

associated with wave propagation thro a standard RWG of equal length.

These are used for impedance matching purpose at microwave frequencies.

• Inductive windows: The conducting diaphragms extending into the wave guide from

either one or both of the sidewalls produce the effect of adding an inductive susceptance

across the wave guide at the point at which the diaphragm is placed. These are called

inductive diaphragms.

The amount of normalized susceptance added by the window depends upon the

window insertion distance. The susceptance increases with the depth.

If the insertion is from both the side walls with two diaphragms then the resultant

window is called symmetrical one. If the insertion is from either one wall only then it is

called un-symmetrical window. The choice between symmetrical and unsymmetrical

type is governed by mechanical considerations such as ease of machining and

installation of pressurized windows.

guide either from top or bottom or both walls produce the effect of adding capacitive

susceptance shunted across the wave guide at that point. They are therefore called

capacitive windows.

The amount of normalized susceptance due to the window depends upon the

window insertion depth, in general increasing with the depth. These are not used

extensively because of the lowering of the breakdown voltage and the consequent

reduction in the maximum power that can be transferred through the wave guide.

• Resonant windows: A conducting diaphragm with a rectangular opening inside gives the

effect of a parallel LC circuit shunted across the guide at that point. This window is

called resonant window.

It can give zero susceptance at a chosen frequency whose value

depends upon the dimensions of diaphragm opening. It acts as a band-pass filter centred

around this frequency, giving inductive susceptance on side and capacitive susceptance

on the other side.

Obtainable Q values are of the order of 10 and decrease as the size of

the aperture is increased.

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• Limitations: the windows suffer with two drawbacks; one is they cannot be made

readily adjustable and provide only fixed amount of susceptance and the second one is;

difficulty in maintaining the perfect contact between the diaphragm and walls of the

wave guide.

purposes.

of the wave guide walls, parallel to the E field

lines can give variable amount of susceptance.

A screw of length less than λ 4 produces

capacitive susceptance whose value increases with

depth of penetration.

When the depth of penetration is λ 4 the

screw is in series resonance and further insertion

causes the susceptance to be inductive.

The most direct method of impedance

matching with a matched screw is to use a single

screw adjustable both in length and position along

the wave guide. But it requires a slot in the wave

guide.

An alternative arrangement is to use

double or triple screw units spaced at λg 8 or

λg 4 .

• Posts: A metal post or screw extending completely across the wave guide, parallel to E

field adds an inductive susceptance in parallel with the wave guide.

A post extending across the wave guide at right angles to the E field

produces an effective capacitive susceptance in shunt with the wave guide at the position

of the post.

Probes and loops are used to couple coaxial line to wave guide or resonator.

• Probes: They consist of an extension of the centre conductor of the coaxial line at the

mid point of one of the broader walls of the guide where E field is maximum and

normal to the wall.

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Usually the wave guide is terminated in a short and the probe is placed

approximately λg 4 from the termination. To minimize the reflections at the junction,

the probe must be matched to the wave guide by proper choice of the length and position

of the probe relative to the closed end of the wave guide.

The centre conductor of the coaxial line may extend completely across the wave

guide or it may project an appreciable distance into the wave guide. In that case the

magnetic as well as electric coupling is effective.

For matching over an appreciable frequency band one or more of the following

methods may be adopted:

9 The centre conductor may be flared at the point at which it enters the wave

guide.

9 Height of the terminating section of the wave guide can be increased.

9 A tapered section or some other type of impedance transformer can be used.

To excite a particular mode, the probe or probes should be placed parallel to the E

field at a position where the field has its largest value. When several probes are used, then

they must be excited with appropriate phasing relation.

• Loops: Loop coupling is principally magnetic, so the loop must be placed at or near a

point of high H field strength and turned in such a way that its plane is normal to the flux

lines.

Loops can be mounted in the end wall of a shorted wave guide or in the middle of

the top or bottom wall at a distance of integral λg 2 from the shorted end. The plane of the

loop should be normal to the H -field lines for maximum coupling. The amount of coupling

obtainable with the loop depends upon its size and shape and in general increases with the

area of the loop.

• Comparison: The choice between loop and probe coupling is dictated partly by

mechanical and partly by electrical considerations. The important factors are

• Likelihood of voltage breakdown in the vicinity of voltage anti-node.

• Ease in adjusting the coupling

• Constancy of coupling when mechanical changes are made.

• Avoidance of interference with electron streams.

In microwave oscillators loops rather than probes are usually used because a probe in proper

position for adequate coupling may interfere with electron movement with in the tube.

Bends

These are used to alter the direction of propagation in a wave-guide system. If the bending

of the wave-guide is in the E − plane then the resultant structure is called E − plane Bend.

H − plane Bend results when

the bending is in the H − plane.

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• The reflection due to the bend is a function of its radius: the larger the radius, the lower

the SWR.

• When the space available is limited, a double-mitred bend can be used. It gives a low

VSWR when the spacing between the joints is λg 4 .

Twists

• These are used to change

the plane of polarization

of the propagating wave.

The Gradual twist

changes the plane of

polarization in a

continuous manner. It

gives a SWR of less than

1.05 when the twist

length is greater than few

wavelengths.

The step twist is used

when the space available in the propagation direction is limited. It contains a rectangular

guide section that is oriented 450 with respect to the input and output guides.

Microwave Junctions

The important parts of microwave junctions are ports, arms and junction regions.

These are used to describe the structures of the junctions. Ports are openings to which the

source or load is connected. H.A.Wheeler introduced the term ‘port’ in 1950s to replace the

less descriptive and more cumbersome phrase, ‘two terminal pair’. Arms are pieces of the

transmission lines or waveguides with which the junction device is fabricated and Junction

region is the common space where all the arms of the device meet each other

A port is said to be perfectly matched to the junction if nothing out of the power

incident at the port is reflected back to the port by the junction. Two ports are said to be

perfectly isolated if nothing out of the power incident at one port appears at the other port.

Three-port junctions: E-plane tee and H-plane tee are examples for three port junctions.

As they are in the shape of English capital letter ‘T’ these are called ‘tees’.

Reciprocal three port junctions suffer with one drawback i.e. lack of isolation

between the output ports resulting in dependence of the power consumed at one port on the

termination at the other out-put port. This lack of isolation between the output ports limits the

usefulness of the three port junctions, particularly in power monitoring and divider

applications.

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H − plane tee

• As the side arm port is in the H − plane, it is called H − plane tee. It is also called,

current junction, shunt junction or parallel junction

arms whereas the other arm is called side arm or H − arm or shunt arm.

• Port 3 is perfectly matched to the junction.

• Ports1 and 2 are electrically symmetrical with respect to port3 when the collinear arm

lengths are same

• For an ideal tee i.e. loss-less reciprocal junction the S-matrix is

1 2 −1 2 1 2

− 1 2 1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 0

• The transmission line equivalent circuit is

As power divider:

• If the amplitude of the input wave at port 3 is A , then the amplitude of the waves at

port 1 and 2 are same and equal to A 2 . They are in-phase when its collinear arm-

lengths are same

• When the power incident at port 3 is P then the powers that appear at ports 1 and 2

is P 2 each. That is why it is called 3db splitter.

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• If the power incident at ports 1 or 2 is P , then the power out of ports 1 and 2 is

P 4 each and at port3 it is P 2

As power combiner:

• When equal input signals are given at both the collinear ports then the output signal

appears at the side arm port whose power is sum of the powers of the input signals provided

the collinear arm lengths same and sources are in phase

• The output power is zero and SW formation takes place in the collinear arms preventing

the power entering into the junction when the sources are equal, out of phase and collinear

arms lengths are same.

E − plane tee

• As the side arm port is in the E − plane, it is called E − plane tee. It is also called Series

junction or voltage junction

• The two arms which are in line are called coplanar arms whereas the other arm is called

side arm or E − arm or series arm.

• Port 3is perfectly matched to the junction.

• Ports 1 and 2 are electrically anti -symmetrical with respect to port3 when its

collinear arm lengths are same.

12 12 1 2

12 12 −1 2

1 2 −1 2 0

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As power divider

• If the amplitude of the input wave at port 3 is A , then the amplitude of the waves at

port1 and 2are same and equal to A 2 . They are out of phase when its collinear arms

lengths are same

• When the power incident at port 3 is P then the powers that appear at ports1 and

2 is P 2 each. That is why it is called 3db splitter.

• If the power incident at ports 1 or 2 is P , then the power out of ports 1 and 2 is

P 4 each and at port3 it is P 2

As power combiner

• When equal input signals are given at both the collinear ports then the output signal

appears at the side arm port whose power is sum of the powers of the input signals

provided the collinear arm lengths are same and sources are out of phase.

• The output power is zero and standing wave formation takes place in the collinear

arms preventing the power entering into the junction when the sources are equal, in phase

and collinear arms lengths are same.

o A short circuit may always be placed in one of the arms of a three port junction

in such a way that no power can be transferred through the other two arms

o If the junction is symmetric about one of its arms, a short circuit can always be

placed in that arm so that no reflection occurs in power transmission between the other

two arms.

o It is impossible for a general three port junction of arbitrary symmetry to present

matched impedances at all three arms

o Tuners by placing a short circuit in the symmetrical arm

o Power dividers and adders

o In the duplexer assemblies of the radar installations.

Four-port junctions: Magic tee and Directional couplers are examples for four port hybrid

junction devices..

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Magic tee:

o It is formed by attaching sidewalls to the slots cut in the narrow wall and

broad wall of a piece of wave-guide. Structurally. It is a combination of E-

plane Tee and H-plane Tee.

o It is a hybrid in which the power is divided equally between the out put

ports. The outputs can exhibit either 00 or 1800 phase difference

o It is also known as anti-symmetric coupler, 3db hybrid and 3db

coupler.

o One of the main advantages

of magic tee, in fact for any

hybrid, is that the power delivered

to one port is independent of the

termination at the other output port

provided the other port is match

terminated.

9 All the ports are perfectly matched to junction and the E & H arm ports are

decoupled, as are the coplanar arm ports.

9 A signal into a coplanar arm splits equally between E & H arms. For each

output signal Pout = Pin 2 and Aout = Ain 2

9 A signal into H arm splits equally between the coplanar arms, the outputs

being in phase, equidistant from the junction.

9 A signal into E arm splits equally between the coplanar arms, the outputs

being out of phase, equidistant from the junction.

9 For signals into both coplanar arms.

1. The signal output from the E-arm equals 1/ 2 times the

phasor difference of the input signals. (Difference arm).

2. The signal output from the H-arm equals 1/ 2 times the

phasor sum of the input signals. (Sum arm).

0 0 1 1

1 0 0 1 − 1

[S ] =

2 1 1 0 0

1 − 1 0 0

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and also as ‘mixer’.

Hybrid Ring or Rat race Circuit:

Structure: The hybrid rings consists of an annular waveguide of proper electrical length to

sustain standing waves, to which four arms are connected at proper intervals by means of

series or parallel junctions.

The arrangement shown consists of a piece of

rectangular wave guide bent in the E − plane to form a

complete loop whose median circumference is1.5λg . It

has four openings from each of which a waveguide

emerges forming parallel junctions. If there are no

reflections from the terminations in any of the arms

then any one arm is coupled to two others but not to the

fourth.

Hybrid rings can also be constructed by bending

them in the H − plan also with the connection of series

junctions.

Functioning: The hybrid ring has the characteristics similar to those of hybrid tee. The wave

fed into port 1 can not appear at port3 because the difference of phase shifts for the waves

travelling in the clockwise and counter clockwise directions is 1800 thus cancelling each

other. Similarly the waves fed into port 2 can not emerge at port4 and waves fed into port

3 can not emerge at port1.

But the perfect cancellation takes place only in ideal hybrid rings and at the

designated frequency. In actual hybrids there exists always a small amount of leakage wave

resulting in non-zero wave where it is supposed to be nil.

The S matrix for an ideal hybrid ring can appear as

0 s12 0 s14

s 0 s 0

[ S] = 21 23

0 s32 0 s34

s41 0 s43 0

The rat race and magic tee may be used interchangeably but

o The hybrid tee is less bulky but requires internal matching which

doesn’t require for hybrid ring if the thickness is properly chosen.

o Hybrid ring seems preferable at higher frequencies since its

dimensions are less critical.

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Directional couplers:

network in which portions of the forward and reverse traveling waves on a line are

separately coupled to two of the ports.

• DC is also called symmetric coupler and quadrature type hybrid

(i) In an ideal DC all the four ports are perfectly matched and also ports 1,2and

3,4 are perfectly isolated

(ii) A portion of the wave travelling from the port 1 to 4 is coupled to port 3

but not to port 2. Similarly a portion of the wave travelling from the port 4

to 1 is coupled to port 2but not to port 3.

(iii) A portion of the wave travelling from the port 2 to 3 is coupled to port 4

but not to port 1. Similarly a portion of the wave travelling from the port

3to 2is coupled to port 1 but not to port 4.

(iv) The coupling between port 1 and port 3is same as that between port 2 and

4. Similarly the coupling between port 1 and 4is same as that between port

2 and 3.

(v) The outputs are always at phase quadrature i.e. exhibit a phase difference of

900 . For this reason DC is called quadrature type hybrid.

0 0 p jq

1 0 0 jq p

[S ] = p is equal to coupling coefficient kc related to

2 p jq 0 0

jq p 0 0

1

coupling factor K c , through kc =

Kc

Two hole directional coupler:

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Structure:

• A two-hole directional coupler is formed by placing one piece of RWG over another and

λg

cutting two holes at a distance of (2n + 1) in the common broader wall. The size,

4

shape and location of the holes decide the amount of coupling.

• The waveguide system into which input is given is called primary or main wave guide

system whereas the waveguide system from

which the coupled output is extracted is called

secondary or auxiliary waveguide system.

• Any one of the four ports can be the input port. If

the port1 is input port, then the port2 which is

opposite to the input port becomes through port or

output port, the port3 which is just below the

input port is called decoupled port and the port4

which is below the through port is called coupled

port. With matched terminations on all the output ports,

Functioning:

a fraction of the wave energy entered into port1 passes through the holes and is radiated

into the secondary guide as the holes act as slot antennas. The forward waves in the

secondary guide are in the same phase, regardless of the hole space and are added at port4.

The backward waves in the secondary guide are out of phase resulting in cancellation at

port3.

Two hole directional coupler:

Structure:

It has two versions. One is parallel guide coupler and the second one is skewed guide

coupler. In parallel guide coupler version the two guides are parallel, one lying over the

broad wall of the other with a small hole aperture in the common broad wall whose offset s

from the side wall of the guide controls the coupling.

In the skewed guide coupler version, one guide is over the other at an angle θ which

controls the amplitude of the coupled waves.

The geometry of the skewed Bethe hole coupler is often a disadvantage in terms of

fabrication and application. Also both coupler designs operate properly only at the design

frequency.; deviation from this frequency will alter the coupling level and the directivity.

small hole in the common broad wall between the two guides. According to small-aperture

coupling theory, an aperture can be replaced with equivalent sources consisting of electric

and magnetic dipole moments. The normal electric dipole moment and the axial magnetic

dipole moment radiate with even symmetry in the coupled guide, while the transverse

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magnetic dipole moment radiates with odd symmetry. Thus by adjusting the relative

strengths of these two equivalent sources, we can cancel the radiation in the direction of the

isolated port, while enhancing the radiation in the in the direction of the coupled port

In case of parallel guide coupler, the coupling is controlled by the aperture offset s

from the side wall where as the angle θ between the guides controls the coupling in case of

skewed wave guide coupler.

directivity.

o Coupling is a measure of the power being sampled from the incident wave.

Pi

Coupling in db = C= 10 log = 10 log K c where K C is known as the

Pc

incident power Pi

Coupling factor =

coupled power Pc

and reverse traveling waves.

pc

Directivity in db = D= 10 log = 10 log K d where is known as the

pd

coupled power Pc

Directivity factor =

de − coupled power Pd

o Isolation is also a performance index of directional coupler used.

P

Isolation in db I = 10 log i . The three are related through I = C + D

Pd

o For an ideal DC the directivity is infinite. But in practice D >30db.Loose

coupling means C>20db

Uses: -Extensively used in systems that measure the amplitude and phase of travelling

waves. The major applications are

• In power monitors and

• In reflectometers

Hybrids: These are directional couplers where the coupling factor is 3db. There are two

types of hybrids: One is Magic-T hybrid or rat-race hybrid which has a 1800 phase

difference between the outputs and second one is quadrature hybrid which has 900 phase

difference between the outputs

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Ferrites:

Microwave isolators, gyrators and circulators use non-reciprocal transmission

materials such as ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic materials.

A ferrites or ferrimagnetic materials are non-metallic insulators but with magnetic

properties similar those of ferrous metals. Commonly used ferrites are manganese

ferrite MnFe 2 O3 and zinc ferrite MnFe 2 O3 . Apart from these compounds one widely used

Ferromagnetic material is Yttrium-Iron-Garnet [Y3Fe 2 (FeO 4 )3 ] or YIG in short.

The magnetic anisotropy of a ferrimagnetic material is exhibited only upon the

application of a DC magnetic bias field. This field aligns the magnetic dipoles in the ferrite

to produce a net non-zero magnetic dipole moment and causes these dipoles to precess at a

frequency which depends upon the strength of the bias field. A microwave signal circularly

polarized in the same direction as this precession interact strongly, while an oppositely

polarized field interact lesser with the dipole moments. Since, for a given direction of

rotation, the sense of polarization changes with the direction of propagation, a microwave

signal propagate through ferrite differently in different directions. This effect is utilized in

the fabrication of directional devices such as isolators, circulators and gyrators.

Another useful characteristic is that the interaction with the applied microwave

signal can be controlled by adjusting the strength of the bias magnetic field. This property is

used in the design of phase shifters, switches, tunable resonators and filters.

The ferrite is non-linear material and its permeability is an asymmetric tensor given

χ m jκ 0

by µˆ = µo (1 + χˆ m ) where χˆ m = jκ χ m 0 which is tensor magnetic susceptibility.

0 0 0

ωω

µ = µ0 (1 + χ xx ) = µ0 (1 + χ yy ) = µ0 1 + 2 0 m 2

ω0 − ω

ω0ωm

κ = − j µ0 χ xy = j µ0 χ yx = µ0

ω02 − ω 2

µ jκ 0

[ µ ] = − jκ µ 0 ___ zˆ − bias

0 0 µ0

A material having a permeability tensor of this form is called 'Gyrotropic'. Here x̂ or ŷ

component of H gives rise to both x̂ and ŷ components to B with a phase shift of 900 in

between them.

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µ0 0 0

[ µ ] = 0 µ jκ ___ xˆ − bias

0 − jκ µ

µ 0 − jκ

[ µ ] = 0 µ0 0 ___ yˆ − bias

jκ 0 µ

The two properties of the ferrites which are important and relevant to microwave

engineer are Faraday rotation and gyromagnetic resonance.

Faraday rotation: Consider the linearly polarized plane wave propagation through the

ferrite in the direction of bias. The linearly polarized wave can be considered as sum of an

RHCP and an LHCP wave. Due to creation of a preferred direction for magnetic dipole

precession by the bias field, one sense of circular polarization causes the precession in this

preferred direction where as the other causes the precession in the opposite direction. For the

RHCP wave the ferrite material offers an effective permeability of µ + κ and it is µ − κ for

the LHCP wave. So these waves travel through the ferrite medium with different

propagation constants.

At any point in the ferrite medium, the total wave, sum of RHCP and LHCP waves,

is still linearly polarized but with the polarization rotated. This phenomenon in which a

linearly polarized wave undergoes a change in its direction of polarization is called Faraday

effect.

It can be shown a wave that travels from one end to other and back to the first in the

ferrite rod undergoes a total polarization direction change of 2φ where φ is polarization

change when travelled from one end to another. So Faraday rotation is a non-reciprocal

effect.

Gyromagnetic resonance: It occurs when the forces precession frequency is equal to

the free precession frequency making the elements of permeability tensors infinite. In the

absence of loss the loss may be unbounded.

o Line width which is the range of magnetic field strengths over which absorption will

take place. It is defined between the half-power points for absorption. A wide line

width indicates the wide band properties.

o Curie temperature is one at which a magnetic material loses its magnetic properties.

It is up to 6000C for ferrites. For YIG it is 2800C.

Curie temperature places a limitation on the maximum temperature at which a ferrite

may be operated and therefore the power that it can handle.

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upon the maximum field strength that can be generated. At present it is more than

220GHz.

Isolator

• It is a two-port non-reciprocal lossy device having unidirectional transmission

characteristics.

• A common application uses isolator between a high power source and a load to

prevent possible reflections from damaging the source.

0 1

• For an ideal isolator the scattering matrix is [S ]=

1 0

• The ferrite isolators, which have practical importance, are field displacement

isolator, Faraday rotation isolator and resonance absorption isolator.

• Isolators can be fabricated with one 450 twist and one 450 ferrite rod. If one

gives rotation in clockwise the other must be selected to give the rotation in the

opposite direction i.e. anti-clockwise direction..

Field displacement isolator:

Field displacement isolators are based on the fact that the electric field distributions

of the forward and reverse waves in a ferrite slab-loaded wave-guide are quite different. The

electric field for a forward wave can be made to vanish at the side of the ferrite slab where

the electric field of the reverse wave can be quire large. Then if a thin resistive sheet is

placed in this position the forward wave will be unaffected while the reverse wave will be

attenuated.

Its bandwidth is around 10%, high values of isolation can be obtained with this

relatively compact device. Another advantage is relatively much smaller bias field is

required

Faraday rotation isolator:

It consists of a piece of

circular wave guide capable of

carrying wave in the dominant mode

TE11 with transitions to a standard

rectangular guide which can carry

TE10 at both the ends. The end-

transitions are twisted through 450

and the input transition carries a

resistive plate attenuator whose

plane is parallel to horizontal. A thin

ferrite rod is placed inside the

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magnet which produce dc magnetic field in the ferrite rod.

The forward travelling wave while travelling through the waveguide gets its plane of

polarization rotated by 450 in clock wise direction by the ferrite and comes out of the

rectangular wave guide transition without any attenuation because it is already twisted by

the same angle.

When the wave is travelling in the reverse direction, the polarization of the wave gets

rotated by 450 and also in clock wise direction same as that of the forward travelling wave.

This when the wave emerges into the input transition, not only it gets absorbed by the

resistive vane but also it cannot propagate in the input rectangular wave guide because of its

dimensions.

The ferrite isolators based on Faraday rotation are useful only for powers up to a few

hundred watts where as those based on resonant absorption they can handle higher powers.

This type of isolator is limited in its power handling capability to about 2kW. It has

wide range of applications in the low-power field mostly in low power microwave

amplifiers and oscillators.

principle that a circularly polarized plane wave

rotating in the same direction as the precessing

magnetic dipoles of a ferrite medium will have a

strong interaction with the material, while

circularly polarized wave rotating in the opposite

direction will have weaker interaction. It results

large attenuation of the wave near the gyro

magnetic resonance of the ferrite, while the

attenuation of the wave travelling in the opposite direction is very low.

It consists of a piece of RWG capable of carrying the wave in dominant mode TE10

with a piece of longitudinal ferrite material placed about a quarter of the way from one side

of the waveguide and half way between its ends. A permanent magnet is placed around to

generate the required strong magnetic field.

The ferrite is place where the magnetic field is strong and circularly polarized. This

polarization is clockwise in one direction and anti-clockwise in the opposite direction. When

the wave is travelling in one direction, resonant absorption takes place while travelling in the

opposite direction it gets unaffected.

These are commonly used for high powers and they handle powers up to 30MW

peak. The maximum power handling ability of resonance isolators is limited by temperature

rise and consequently by Curie temperature. Its bandwidth is less than 2%

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Gyrator

differential phase shift.

• For an ideal gyrator i.e. loss-less, matched and non-reciprocal one the scattering

0 1

matrix is [ S ] = .

−1 0

• Using the gyrator as a basic

nonreciprocal building block in

combination with reciprocal dividers

and couplers can lead to useful

equivalent circuits for non reciprocal components such as isolators and circulators.

• Gyrators can be fabricated with one 900 twist and one 900 ferrite rod. Both must

rotate the E vector in the same sense i.e. either in clockwise or anti-clockwise.

Circulator

which power flow occurs from ports 1to 2, 2 to 3…n to 1but not in the reverse

direction.

practice, changing the polarity of the bias field produces this result.

• A 3-circulator can be used as an isolator by

terminating one of the ports with a matched

load

• For an ideal three-port circulator the

0 0 1

scattering matrix is [S ]= 1 0 0

0 1 0

Faraday rotation circulator:

It consists of a piece of

circular wave guide capable of

carrying wave in the dominant

mode TE11 with transitions to

a standard rectangular guide

which can carry TE10 at both

the ends. The end-transition

ports ‘1’ , ‘2’ and two

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rectangular side ports‘3’ and ‘4’ placed with their broader walls along the length of the

waveguide are twisted through 450 . A thin ferrite rod is placed inside the circular waveguide

supported by polyfoam and the waveguide is surrounded by a permanent magnet which

produce dc magnetic field in the ferrite rod.

The wave travelling from port ‘1’ to ‘2’ passes port ‘3’ unaffected as its electric

field is not cut significantly, gets rotated 450 by the ferrite rod, continues past the port ‘4’

unaffected reaching and emerging from the port ‘2’. Power fed into port ‘2’ travels past the

port‘4’ unaffected, gets rotated 450 by the ferrite and reaches the port ‘3’ to emerge from it.

In this case the wave cannot come out port ‘1’ because of its dimensions. Similarly, port ‘3’

is coupled only to port ‘4’ and port‘4’ only to port ‘1’.

This type of circulator is power limited and so eminently suitable for low power

applications. It is bulkier restricting its use to highest frequencies, in the millimetre range

and above.

s-Parameters

• The concept of s-parameters was first popularized around the time Kaneyuka

Kurokawa of Bell labs wrote his 1965 IEEE article ‘Power Waves and Scattering

Matrix’ even though a good work of E.M. Mathews, Jr. titled ‘The use of Scattering

Matrices in Microwave Circuits’ appeared a decade earlier that is in 1950’s and

Robert Collins text book 'Field Theory Of Guided Waves’ published in 1960 has a

brief discussion on scattering matrix. Scattered waves refer to both the reflected and

transmitted waves.

• The S-parameters relate the amplitudes and phases of the traveling waves that are

incident on, transmitted through or reflected from a network port. The s -parameters

are based on the concepts of (a) traveling waves and (b) matched terminations. These

are useful to characterize linear networks at microwave frequencies.

• Formulation: - Let a ’s and b ’s are the incident waves into and scattered waves out of

various ports of an n − port network respectively. And in general these are complex

quantities.

incident waves a ’s at various ports. That is, b1 depends on a1 , a2 ,......an and

so it can be expressed as

b1 = s11a1 + s12a2 + s13a3 + .... + s1r ar + ... + s1n an

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The scattered wave at port '2' which is b2 also depends on a1 , a2 ,......an and

its dependence can be expressed as

b2 = s21a1 + s22 a2 + s23a3 + .... + s2r ar + ... + s2n an

The scattered wave br at a port ‘ r ’ depends upon the incident waves a ’s at

various ports i.e.

br = sr1a1 + sr 2 a2 + sr 3a3 + .... + srr ar + ... + srn an

Similarly for the scattered wave from port ' n ' that is bn depends on

a1 , a2 ,......an through

bn = sn1a1 + sn 2a2 + sn3a3 + .... + snr ar + ... + snn an

b s s22 .. .. s2 n a2

2 21

.. = .. .. .. .. .. .. or [b]= [s ][a]

.. .. .. .. .. .. ..

bn sn1 sn 2 .. .. snn an

• The matrix [ s ] relates scattered waves b ’s with the incident waves a ’s of various

ports. Hence it is called scattering matrix of the circuit being modelled. The elements

of the matrix are called scattering parameters or s -parameters. The s-parameters of

a network are properties only of the network itself and are defined under the

condition that all ports are match terminated.

• Chain s -parameters: - Another formulation that is very much useful when the circuit

is in cascaded configuration uses Chain s − parameters. These are a set of parameters

defined relating the incident wave and scattered wave at a port to the waves at an

another port. For example the waves at port '1' can be related to the waves at port '2'

through

a1 T11 T12 b 2

b = T

1 21 T 22 a 2

The parameters which relate the waves at one port to the waves at other port in the

manner shown above are called ' Chain s -parameters'. These parameters are useful

to model circuits which are in the form of cascaded sections. For cascaded

networks [T]=[T’][T’’]

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• Features:

bi

o sij = all ports except port j and the s -parameters are in general complex

a j match terminated

quantities.

o When the circuit is connected to transmission lines of unequal characteristic

b z0 j

impedances then sij = i allportsexcept port j

a j z0i match terminated

o When port i is perfectly matched to the junction then sii = 0

o When ports i and j are perfectly isolated then sij = s ji = 0

o The diagonal elements of the matrix represent reflection coefficient. s -

parameter sii is reflection coefficient at port i with matched termination at

all other ports.

• For some components and circuits, the scattering parameters can be calculated using

network analysis techniques. Otherwise they can be measured directly with a vector

network analyzer.

• The s-matrix is always a square one. For a n − port network, the S-matrix is a n × n

square matrix

impedances, the S-matrix is symmetric sij = s ji for i ≠ j . In addition if the ports i and

j are electrically symmetrical with respect to port r then sii = s jj , and sir = s jr and

if the ports i and j are electrically anti-symmetrical with respect to port r then

sii = s jj and sir = − s jr

• For loss-less passive networks i.e. with no resistive components the S matrix is

Unitary

[S ]t [S ]∗ = [I ]

o Zero property of unitary matrix: - The sum of products of each term of any

row multiplied by the complex conjugate of the corresponding terms of any

other row is zero. Mathematically it can be stated as

N

∑s

j =1

s ∗

pj qj =0 p ≠ q. Similarly the sum of products of each term of

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N

∑s

i =1

∗

ip iqs =0; p≠ q

o Unity property of unitary matrix: - The sum of the products of each term of

any one row multiplied by its complex conjugate is unity. Mathematically it

can be stated as

N N

2

j =1 j =1

Similarly the sum of the products of each term of any one column multiplied

by its complex conjugate is unity. Mathematically

N N

∑s sij* = ∑ sij

2

ij =1

i =1 i =1

• Shifting of reference plane:- The location of reference plane has a bearing over the exact

phase of the s -parameter. In general

′

s11 s12′ .. .. s1′n e ± j β l1 0 .. .. 0 s11 s12 .. .. s1n e ± j β l1 0 .. .. 0

s′

21

′

s22 .. .. s2′ n 0 e ± j β l2

.. .. 0 s21 s22 .. .. s2 n 0 e ± j β l2

.. .. 0

.. .. .. .. .. = .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

sn′1 sn′ 2 ′ 0

.. .. snn 0 .. .. e ± j β ln sn1 sn 2 .. .. snn 0 0 .. .. e ± j β ln

or in short hand form [ S '] = diag e ± j β ln [ S ] diag e± j β ln where +/- sign is if the shift is

towards/away from the junction.

We can observe that for diagonal elements, sii′ = sii e − j 2 β li whereas for the off-diagonal

− j β (l +l )

elements, sij′ = sij e i j

• Uses:

o They provide a means by which complete characterization of a network at

microwave frequencies is possible.

o They make the requirement of open and short circuits completely

unnecessary.

o They are defined with matched loads for termination avoiding the possibility

of serious reflections back towards the source.

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tee with the

corresponding port

designations as

shown.

The E-plane tee is a

three port junction. So its s-matrix must be a 3 × 3 square matrix. Let it be

s11 s12 s13

[ s ] = s21 s22 s23 .

s31 s32 s33

As the junction is ideal it is reciprocal. So the matrix is symmetrical i.e.

sij = s ji for i ≠ j . In addition port 3is perfectly matched to the junction so

s11 s12 s13

s33 = 0 . Incorporating these two aspects, [ s ] = s12 s22 s23 .

s13 s23 0

In E-plane tee, the port3 is electrically anti-symmetrical with respect to the

s11 s12 s13

ports1 and 2 so s11 = s22 and s23 = − s13 resulting in [ s ] = s12 s11 − s13 .

s13 − s13 0

As the junction is ideal it must be lossless and its s-matrix is unitary obeying unit

property and also zero property. Applying unit property to column one C1

2 2

s13 + s13 = 1 resulting s13 = 1 2 . Now adjusting the reference plane at

either port 1 or 3 the phase of s13 can be made zero. So s13 = 1 2 resulting

s11 s12 1 2

in [ s ] = s12 s11 −1 2 .

1 2 −1 2 0

1 1

Now applying the zero property to R1 and R3, s11 − s12 = 0 resulting in

2 2

2

2 2 1

s11 = s12 . Now apply the unit property to row one R1 s11 + s11 + =1

2

2 2 1 1 1

giving s11 + s11 = leading to s11 = . But s12 = s11 = . Now the reference

2 2 2

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planes at ports 1 and/or 2can be adjusted to make the phases of s11 and s12 are

1

zeros. So s11 = s12 = .

2

Incorporating all these findings into the matrix it becomes

12 12 1 2

[ s ] = 1 2 1 2 −1 2 .

1 2 −1 2 0

S-matrix of an ideal H-plane Tee:

with the corresponding

port designations as

shown.

The H-plane tee is a three

port junction. So its s-matrix must be a 3 × 3 square matrix. Let it be

s11 s12 s13

[ s ] = s21 s22 s23 .

s31 s32 s33

As the junction is ideal it is reciprocal. So the matrix is symmetrical i.e.

sij = s ji for i ≠ j . In addition port 3is perfectly matched to the junction so

s11 s12 s13

s33 = 0 . Incorporating these two aspects, [ s ] = s12 s22 s23 .

s13 s23 0

In E-plane tee, the port3 is electrically symmetrical with respect to the ports1

s11 s12 s13

and 2 so s11 = s22 and s23 = s13 resulting in [ s ] = s12 s11 s13 .

s13 s13 0

As the junction is ideal it must be lossless and its s-matrix is unitary obeying unit

property and also zero property. Applying unit property to column one C1

2 2

s13 + s13 = 1 resulting s13 = 1 2 . Now adjusting the reference plane at

either port 1 or 3 the phase of s13 can be made zero. So s13 = 1 2 resulting

s11 s12 1 2

in [ s ] = s12 s11 1 2 .

1 2 1 2 0

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1 1

Now applying the zero property to R1 and R3, s11 + s12 = 0 resulting in

2 2

2

2 2 1

s11 = − s12 . Now apply the unit property to row one R1 s11 + s11 + =1

2

2 2 1 1 1

giving s11 + s11 = leading to s11 = . But s12 = − s11 = − . Now the

2 2 2

reference planes at ports 1 and/or 2can be adjusted to make the phases of s11

1

and s12 are zeros. So s12 = − s11 = −

2

Incorporating all these findings into the matrix it becomes

1 2 −1 2 1 2

[ s ] = −1 2 1 2 1 2 .

1 2 1 2 0

S-matrix of an ideal Magic Tee:

designations as shown in the diagram.

The Magic tee is a four port junction. So

its s-matrix must be a 4 × 4 square

matrix. Let it be

s11 s12 s13 s14

s s22 s23 s24

[ s] = s s s s .

21

31 32 33 34

s s s

41 42 43 44 s

In Magic tee all the ports12 3and 4 are perfectly matched to the junction so

s11 = s22 = s33 = s44 = 0 and ports12 and 34 are perfectly isolated i.e.

s12 = s21 = s34 = s43 = 0 . Incorporating these two aspects,

0 0 s13 s14

0 0 s23 s24

[ s] = s s 0 0 .

31 32

s s

41 42 0 0

As the junction is ideal it is reciprocal. So the matrix is symmetrical i.e.

sij = s ji for i ≠ j . Also in Magic tee, the E arm port3 is electrically anti-

symmetrical with respect to the ports1 and 2 so s11 = s22 and s23 = − s13 , the H

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0 0 s13 s14

0 0 − s13 s14

s11 = s22 and s24 = s14 resulting in [ s ] =

s13 − s13 0 0

s14 s14 0 0

.

As the junction is ideal it must be lossless and its s-matrix is unitary obeying unit

property and also zero property. Applying unit property to column three C3

2 2

s13 + s13 = 1 resulting s13 = 1 2 . Now adjusting the reference plane at either

port 1 or 3 the phase of s13 can be made zero. So s13 = 1 2 resulting in

0 0 1 2 1 2

0 0 −1 2 1 2

[ s] = . Now applying unit property to column

1 2 −1 2 0 0

1 2 1 2 0 0

three C4

2 2

s14 + s14 = 1 resulting s14 = 1 2 . Now adjusting the reference plane at

either port 1 or 4 the phase of s14 can be made zero. So s14 = 1 2 resulting

0 0 1 2 s14

0 0 − 1 2 s14

in [ s ] =

1 2 − 1 2 0 0

s s14 0 0

14

S-matrix of an ideal Directional coupler:

with the port designations as

shown in the diagram.

The directional coupler is a four

port junction. So its s-matrix must

be a 4 × 4 square matrix. Let it be

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s s22 s23 s24

[ s] = s s s s .

21

31 32 33 34

s s s

41 42 43 44 s

In the directional coupler all the ports12 3and 4 are perfectly matched to

the junction so s11 = s22 = s33 = s44 = 0 and ports12 and 34 are perfectly

isolated i.e. s12 = s21 = s34 = s43 = 0 . Incorporating these two aspects,

0 0 s13 s14

0 0 s23 s24

[ s] = s s 0 0 .

31 32

s s

41 42 0 0

As the coupler is ideal it is reciprocal. So the matrix is symmetrical i.e.

0 0 s13 s14

0 0 s23 s24

sij = s ji for i ≠ j . So [ s ] =

s13 s23 0 0

s14 s24 0 0

.

In ideal directional coupler the coupling between ports 13and 24 is same

making s13 = s24 . the coupling between ports 14and 23is also must be same

making s14 = s23 . Incorporating these changes the matrix becomes

0 0 s13 s14

0 0 s s13

[ s] = s s 0 0

14

13 14

s14 s13 0 0

As the junction is ideal it must be lossless and its s-matrix is unitary obeying unit

property and also zero property. Applying zero property to row one and row two

R1R2

s13 s14∗ + s14 s13∗ = 0 . Now if s14 is real quantity equal to p then this equation

( )

becomes p s13 + s13∗ = 0 . To satisfy this equation the s13 must be pure imaginary

and let it be jq . Incorporating these changes the matrix becomes

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0 0 jq p

0 0 p jq

[ ] jq p 0 0 . One observation from this matrix is outputs of the coupler

s =

p jq 0 0

exhibit quadrature phase difference.

Any loss-less, reciprocal three port microwave junction cannot be matched at all the

three ports.

Let us suppose the junction can be matched at all the three ports. Then , when

0 s12 s13

reciprocal, its s-matrix becomes [ s ] = s12 0 s23 .

s13 s23 0

As the junction is loss-less its s-matrix is unitary obeying zero property and unity

property. Applying zero property to rows one and two R1 R2

∗

s13 s23 = 0 . So either s13 or s23 or both must be zero.

Now apply unity property to all the rows to have

2 2

s12 = 1 − s13

2 2

s23 = 1 − s12 . From these relations we can see if s13 is zero s12 is one, s23 is zero

2 2

s13 = 1 − s23

and the last relation gives s13 as one which is contradictory to that with which we

started i.e. s13 is zero. This contradiction also exist even when s23 or both are zero.

So the junction cannot be matched at all the three junctions

Carlin’s theorem: Any loss-less, matched and non-reciprocal three port microwave

junction can be a perfect three port circulator.

The s-matrix of a perfectly matched three port junction is

0 s12 s13

[ s ] = s21 0 s23 . As the junction is non-reciprocal, the matrix is not

s31 s32 0

symmetrical. But as it is loss-less, its s-matrix is unitary exhibiting unity and

zero laws. So

2 2 ∗

s12 + s13 = 1; s13 s23 =0

2 2 ∗

s21 + s23 = 1; s12 s32 =0

2 2 ∗

s31 + s32 = 1; s21s31 =0

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From the above equations it can be seen if s21 ≠ 0 then s31 = 0 leading to s32 = 1 .

If s32 ≠ 0 then s12 = 0 leading to s13 = 1 . If s13 ≠ 0 then s23 = 0 leading to s21 = 1 .

So there exists perfect transmission form port 1 to 2 as s21 = 1 , from port 2to3 as s32 = 1

and from port 3 to 1 as s13 = 1 . And zero transmission in any other direction defining a

perfect three port circulator.

0 0 s13

Its scattering matrix becomes [ s ] = s21 0 0 .

0 s32 0

matrix i.e. [ S ]t [ S ] = [U ] .

∗

Let us suppose Vn+ , I n+ represent incident wave voltage and current and Vn− , I n− represent

scattered wave voltage and current respectively at port ‘n’. For a loss-less junction, the total

N 2 N 2

power leaving its N-ports must be equal to the total incident power i.e. ∑V

1

n

−

=∑V

1

n

+

− ∗ ∗

which can be expressed as V V = V V . But

− + +

t t

( ) ([ S ] V )

∗ ∗ ∗

V − V − = [ S ] V + = V + [ S ]t [ S ] V + . So

+ ∗

t t t

+ ∗ ∗

V + V = V + [ S ]t [ S ] V + . It results in

∗

t t

( ) ∗

V + [U ] − [ S ]t [ S ] V + = 0 giving [ S ]t [ S ] = [U ] .

t

∗ ∗

symmetrical i.e. snm = smn provided the equivalent voltages have been chosen so that

1 2

power into port ‘n’ is given by Vn+ for all modes.

2

With the necessary normalization, the total voltage and current at port ‘n’ can be expressed

as Vn = Vn+ + Vn− and I n = I n+ − I n− = Vn+ − Vn− , [V ] = [ Z ][ I ] . Now

V + + V − = [ Z ] V + − [ Z ] V −

([ Z ] + [U ]) V = ([ Z ] − [U ]) V + so [ S ] = ([ Z ] + [U ]) ([ Z ] − [U ])

− −1

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1 1

Alternatively V + = ([V ] + [ I ]) = ([ Z ] + [U ]) [ I ] and

2 2

1 1

V −1 = ([V ] − [ I ]) = ([ Z ] − [U ]) [ I ] = V −1 = ([ Z ] − [U ]) ([ Z ] + [U ]) V + after

−1

2 2

substituting [ I ] from the expression for V + . From this [ S ] = ([ Z ] − [U ]) ([ Z ] + [U ]) and

−1

−1

t

. but in this expression the

matrices in the parentheses are symmetrical so they are equal to their transposes. Therefore

[ S ]t = ([ Z ] + [U ]) ([ Z ] − [U ]) . Comparing both the underlined equations [ S ]t = [ S ] and

−1

Multiple choice questions

a) In phase b) out of phase

c) Either d) None

a) Coupled b) Decoupled

c) Either d) None

3. When the co-planar arm lengths are not same, then outputs in H plane T can be

[C ]

a) In phase b) Out of phase

c) With phase difference d) either

4. When the co-planar arm lengths are not same, then outputs in E plane T can be

[C ]

a) In phase b) Out of phase

c) With phase difference d) either

a) Coupled b) Decoupled c) Either d) None

a) Coupled b) Decoupled c) Either d) None

a) 90o b) 45o c) 180o d) None

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c) either d) None

a) Reciprocal b) loss-less

c) Both d) None

a) ABCB parameters b) Transmission line parameter

c) Both d) None

a) 1:1 b) 1:3

c) 2:3 d) None

a) When third output port in match terminated b) Always

c) When all ports match terminated d) None

a) Magic Tee b) Directional Coupler

c) Both d) None

a) Magic Tee b) Directional Coupler

c) Both d) None

15. The power division in a Tee when the input is at a coplanar arm is

[D ]

a) 2:2:1 b) 3:2:1

c) 1:1:2 d) None

b) [A]t = [A]

−1

a) [A]t [A]* = [I]

*

c) Both d) None

a) Voltage junction b) Series Junction

c) Both d) None

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c) Both d) None

a) Reciprocal b) unitary

c) Symmetric d) None

a) Power dividers b) Combiners

c) Both d) None

20. A ferrite is [A ]

a) A non conductor with magnetic properties

b) An inter-metallic compound with particularly good conductivity

c) An insulator which heavily attenuates magnetic fields

d) A microwave semiconductor invented by Faraday

21. Manganese ferrite (MnFe2O3) may be used in [C ]

a) Circulator b) Isolator

c) Both d) none

a) Curie temperature b) Saturation magnetization

c) Line-Width d) Gyro-magnetic resonance

1. A microwave circulator is a [C ]

a) 4 port µw junction b) 3 port µw junction

c) Multi port Uni-directional coupler d) 3db µw coupler

2. An isolator or Uniline is a [A ]

a) two- port µw passive device b) single port µw passive device

c) Two port µw active device d) Multi port active device

a) The length of the rod b) The length of rod and diameter of the rod

c) The length of the road and diameter of the rod and applied ‘dc’ magnetic field

d) None

a) Rotary type b) Flap type

c) Either a or b d) neither a nor b

a) Rotary type b) Flap type

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a) From port 1 to 2 it offers 00 phase shift b) From port 1 to 2 it offers 1800 phase

shift

c) From port 2 to 1 it offers 00 phase shift d) From port 2 to 1 it offers 1800 phase

shift

o During interaction between particle and field energy transfer takes place.

o When the field favours the particle motion, energy transfer takes place from

the field to particle.

o If the field opposes the particle motion, the particle loses and field gains the

energy.

o The gain of the energy by one is equal to the loss by the other.

o The amount of energy transferred is proportional to

The charge on the particle

Intensity of the field.

Length or duration of the interaction.

o When the gap voltage is sinusoidal time varying and the charge is distributed

If the particle crossing at positive peak effects maximum transfers of

energy to field, the crossing of particle at negative peak effects

maximum energy transfer to particle

the distributed charge must be compressed into a thin sheet or bunch,

where it requires lesser amount time to cross the gap for effecting

maximum amount of energy transfer.

constant rate:

For maximum unidirectional flow of energy there is only one instant,

either at positive peak or negative peak where the bunch has to cross

the gap. So the bunch crossing must be once per cycle of the gap

voltage.

In case of bunch-crossing at a uniform rate f , maximum energy

transfer can takes place only to a component of grid gap field whose

frequency is also f .

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different amounts of energy(but not maximum) from the bunches.

Other components of the grid gap voltage like 2 f , 4 f , 8 f etc. don’t

involve in the energy transfer, where as the components 3 f , 5 f ,

6 f etc. and f 2 , f 3 , f 4 etc. they take/ give negligible

amount of energy

o Lead inductance and inter-electrode capacitance

o Transit-angle effects

o Gain-bandwidth product limitations

• Disadvantages of solid-state µ wave devices are

o Low efficiency at frequencies below 10GHz.

o Small tuning range

o Large dependence of frequency on temperature.

o Higher noise.

• Advantages of tubes are

o For generation of very high powers (10kw to 1Mw)

o Generation of higher millimetre wave frequencies (100GHz and higher)

• Types of tubes

o Linear type or ‘O’ type tubes: the electron beam traverses the length of the

tube and is parallel to the electric field. Ex. Klystrons, TWTs

o Crossed-field or ‘M’ type tubes: the focusing field is perpendicular to the

accelerating electric field. Ex. Magnetron

• Klystrons

o Varian brothers invented klystron amplifier in 1939.

o The major disadvantage is their narrow bandwidth, which is a result of the

high-Q cavities required for electron bunching.

o They have very low AM and FM noise levels.

• TWTs

o Kompfner invented the helix TWT in 1944.

o It has the highest bandwidth of any amplifier tube ranging from 30 to 120%.

o Its power rating can be increased to several kilowatts by using an interaction

region consisting of a set of coupled cavities.

o The efficiency is relatively small ranging from 20% to 40%

• Magnetron

o Hull invented the magnetron in 1921.

o It is the first high power microwave source. And now they are capable of

very high power outputs on the order of several kilowatts.

o Their efficiency is 80% or more.

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o Their disadvantage is they are very noisy and cannot maintain frequency or

phase coherency when operated in pulsed mode

o The application of magnetrons is now primarily for microwave cooking.

• Difference between the Klystron and TWT

o The interaction of electron beam and RF field in the TWT is continuous over

the entire length of the circuit, but the interaction in the klystron occurs only

at the gaps of a few resonant cavities.

o The wave in the TWT is a propagating wave where as in the klystron it is not

a travelling one.

o In the coupled cavity TWT there is coupling effect between the cavities,

whereas each cavity in the klystron operates independently.

o The electron beam is with uniform density in the cross section of the beam.

o Space charge effects are negligible

o The magnitude of the input signal is assumed much smaller than the dc

accelerating voltage.

buncher cavity and the other is output cavity known as catcher cavity.

• The region in between the cavities is called drift region, which is a field-free

space.

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• At one end exists an electron gun and at the other end electron collector, a

metal plate grounded.

WORKING

• An uniform electron beam is formed from the divergent electrons emitted by

the cathode using a focusing grid and accelerated to high velocities by an

accelerating voltage.

2eV0

• All the electrons enter the grid gap with one velocity v 0 = . In the grid

m

gap they encounter the signal voltage, which we assume a single sinusoid

V s = V1 sin ω t of frequency ω resulting in ‘velocity modulation’ given

β iV1 θg

by v(t1 ) = v 0 [ 1 + sin(ωt1 − )] .

2V0 2

o All the electrons which cross during positive half cycle of the gap

voltage gets accelerated and that cross during the negative half cycle

get decelerated.

o Different electrons that enter the gap at different instants during the

positive/negative half cycle get different amounts of acceleration..

o As the amount of acceleration is equal to the deceleration the average

acceleration or deceleration of the electrons is nil i.e. the average

velocity of the electrons with which they leave the grid gap is same as

that with which they entered.

• While travelling through the drift region the beam undergo ‘density

modulation’. All the electrons that cross the gap during the gap voltage

changes from negative peak to positive peak come together forming ‘bunch’,

a thin dense electron cloud.

• One bunch per cycle forms and the length of the drift region is selected so

that bunch formation completes by the time it reaches the grid gap.

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• While crossing the grid gap, the bunch gives energy to the cavity to be taken

out using a loop.

ANALYSIS

• Let us suppose the device is along the z-axis with its first grid walls at z=0 and z=d.

If v 0 is the velocity of the electrons with which they enter the cavity gap then. It is

2eV0

given by v 0 =

m

• If the gap voltage due to the input signal is V s = V1 sin ω t , then the average gap

θg

voltage during the transit of the reference electron is V S = V1 β i sin (ω t 0 + )

2

where

o β I is known as Beam coupling coefficient. It is the ratio of the alternating

current induced in the resonator to the alternating component of beam current

θg

sin

that produces it. For the present case it is β I = 2

θg

2

o θ g is the average gap transit angle for the electrons = ωτ and τ is average

d

gap transit time for the electrons = ≈ t1 − t 0

v0

β iV1 θg

gap v(t1 ) = v 0 [ 1 + sin(ωt1 − )] . This is the equation of velocity modulation,

2V0 2

which describes the variation of velocity of electrons in the drift space. The quantity

β iV1

is known as the depth of velocity modulation.

V0

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L βV θ g

= T0 1 − i 1 sin ωt1 −

v(t1 ) 2V0 2

• The

transit

angle

of the

β iV1 θ g

electron in drift space is θ = ωT = θ 0 1 − sin ωt1 −

2V0 2

θg

or θ = θ 0 − X sin ω t1 − where

2

ωL

o θ0 = is the transit angle of the dc electron and

v0

β iV1 β iV1 ωL

o X is Bunching parameter of the two cavity klystron = θ0 = which

2V0 2V0 v 0

determines the degree of bunching and the waveform of the density –modulated

beam

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3.6 v 0V0

• Optimum length of the drift space L0 =

ω β iV1

o Let i2 (t2) be the current at catcher cavity and from the principle of the charge

conservation i 2 dt 2 = I 0 dt 0

I0

i2 =

dt 2

dt 0

βV θ g

o t 2 = t 0 + τ + T0 1 − i 1 sin ωt 0 + giving

2V0 2

θg

dt 2 = dt 0 − ωT0 cos(ωt 0 + ) dt 0

2

I0 I0 I0

= =

dt 2 θg θg

1 − X cos(ωt 0 + ) 1 − X cos(ωt 2 − θ 0 − )

dt 0 2 2

[ ]

∞

i 2 (t 2 ) = I 0 + ∑ 2 I 0 J n (nx ) cos n(ωt 2 − θ 0 − θ g ) . Out of these infinite number of

n =1

components only the primary or fundamental component that is useful to amplify the

signal. The amplitude of the fundamental component I2 = 2I0 J1 (x) which assumes is

β iV1 ωL

maximum value when X = 1.841 = leading to the optimum length of the

2V0 v 0

3.6 v 0V0

drift space L0 =

ω β iV1

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• Equivalent circuit

o It consists of a parallel combination of

wall resistance of the catcher cavity,

beam loading resistance and external

load resistance

• Output power

= β 0 I 2 = β 0 2I 0 J 1 ( X )

β 0 I 2V 2 [ β 0 2 I 0 J 1 ( X )]

2

(β 0 I 2 ) 2

o Pout = Pout = R sh = = R sh

2 2 2

Pout β 0 I 2V2

• Electronic efficiency = η = =

Pin 2 I 0V0

If the coupling is perfect β0 = I1 , max I2 is 2I0 (0.58), and V2 = V0 , then the max

electronic efficiency η = 58%, in practice it is 15 to 30%.

• Voltage gain Av

V2 β0 I 2 J1 ( X ) Rsh

Av ≅ = Rsh = β 02θ 0 = Av

V1 V1 X R0

V0

R0 = dc beam resistance.

I0

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• Mutual conductance G m

Gm ≅ = =

V1 Input voltage V1

2V1 β i V1

∴But V1 = X from X = θ 0 so

β iV 2V 0

J1 ( X ) 1

G m = β 02θ 0 . = Gm

X R0

Av and Gm are related thro Av= Gm Rsh

• PERFORMANCE

• Efficiency about 40% (58% max)

• Power output: CW power up to 500 kW

Pulsed power up to 30 MW

Power gain: about 30 db

• Beam Loading: The production of an electronic admittance between two grids when an

initially un-modulated beam of electrons is shot across the gap between them is called

“Beam Loading”.

• If the buncher cavity gap width is more, the gap transit angle will be large and the

buncher cavity supplies energy to the beam to bunch. The power PB required to produce

bunching action is given as PB = V12 GB where GB is known as beam loading

G0 2 θ

conductance equal to β 0 − β 0 cos g .

2 2

I 0 θ g θ g

2 2

1−

V0 24 15

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alternating gap voltage. If the voltage source is resonator reduction in its Q

broadening its tuning.

• Negative Gb indicates * Beam is delivering power to the source of alternating

gap voltage. If the source of alternating gap voltage is resonator, it may go into

oscillations.

I 0 θ g 3θ g

2

V0 12 20

• It affects the resonance frequency of a resonator connected across the gap and

therefore cause the frequency of an oscillator to change with beam current and

voltage.

MULTICAVITY KLYSTRON:

• It gives more power gain than two-cavity Klystron. In a multi-cavity klystron each of the

intermediate cavities, placed at a distance of the bunching parameter X of 1.841 away

from the previous cavity acts as a buncher with the passing electron beam inducing a

more enhanced RF voltage than the previous cavity, which in turn sets up an increased

velocity modulation. The spacing between the consecutive cavities would therefore

3.6 ϑ0V0 1

distinguish [∴ From Lopt = ,L ∝ ]

w β iV1 V1

• The multi-cavity klystrons are often operated with their cavities stagger tuned to obtain

greater bandwidth.

Power gain: 40 to 50 dB

Bandwidth: several percent

Frequency: 0.5 GHz to 14 GHz

Power range: 25 kW to 40 MW

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• These are noisy because the bunching is never complete and so the electrons arrive at

random at catcher cavity. So it is too noisy for use in receivers.

REFLEX KLYSTRON

• Reflex Klystron is a low power, low efficiency µ -wave oscillator; used as signal source

in Microwave generators, as local oscillator in microwave receivers,

as pump oscillator in parametric amplifiers, as frequency modulated oscillators in

portable microwave links. Its power output ranges from 10 mW to 3W and frequency

from 4 to 200 GHz

• Its basic parts are one reentrant cavity, beam emitter, accelerator and repeller.

• The electron beam emitted is accelerated to high velocities by the accelerating voltage

and while passing through the grid gap the beam gets velocity modulated.

• The velocity-modulated beam enters the repeller region to face repulsive field of the

repeller region.

• All the electrons, which cross the grid gap during the period from the positive peak to

negative peak, come together forming a bunch after spending different amounts of time

in the repeller region.

• The thin dense electron cloud i.e. bunch crosses the gap giving energy to the gap. For

maximum transfer of energy the gap voltage must be large and opposing the bunch

movement.

• Repeller protection:

o The voltage to repeller is always applied before the cathode and

o A cathode resistor is often used to ensure that the repeller can never be more

positive than the cathode.

• Tuning:

o Frequency can be adjusted by adjustable screw, bellows or dielectric insert

(mechanical methods)

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varied by adjusting the

repeller voltage

(electronic tuning). It is

an important feature of

the reflex klystron

because it provides a

means of obtaining fine

tuning and also a means

of introducing frequency

modulation. In a typical

case, a total frequency

variation of the order of 1

percent can be obtained.

ANALYSIS

• Suppose the oscillator is lying along the z-axis with it grid walls at z=0 and z=d Let

t0 is the instant at which the reference electron enters the cavity gap at z = 0, t1 is the

instant at which the electron leaves cavity gap at z = d and t2 is the instant at which

the same electron returned back to the gap by retarding field at z = d and collected

by the walls of cavity

• Let v0 is the velocity with which the electrons enter the cavity gap after getting

2eV0

accelerated by potential V0 . Then it must be equal to . So the velocity with

m

2eV0

which the electron enters the cavity gap at t = t0 and z = 0 is .

m

• The electrons while traversing the grid gap undergo a process known as ‘velocity

modulation’ with the following features. Assuming the presence of single frequency

component in the grid gap,

o The electrons that cross the gap during the positive half cycle of the gap

voltage get accelerated and those that cross during the negative half cycle

undergoes deceleration.

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o Different electrons that enter the gap at different instants during a half cycle

undergo different amounts of acceleration/deceleration.

o The amount of acceleration is equal to the amount of deceleration during one

cycle of the gap voltage as the beam is uniform. So the average amount of

acceleration/deceleration is zero.

o The average velocity of the electrons is same as the velocity with which they

enter the gap i.e. v0

o Different electrons leave the gap with different velocities Let v(t1 ) is the

velocity with which the reference electron leaves the cavity gap at t = t1 and

βV θ

z = d . Then it is equal to v(t1 ) = v0 1 + i 1 sin ωt1 − g . This is known as

2V0 2

the equation of velocity modulation.

• The electrons crossing the gap enter into the repeller region in the face of retarding

force and spend different amounts of time before returning back to the gap..

Electrons accelerated during the gap transit enter deep into the repeller region and

hence require more time to come back to gap when compared to the electrons that

got decelerated.

o E = Retarding electron field in the repeller space =

Vr + V0 + V1 sin( wt ) Vr + V0

≅

L L

o The force equation for an electron in the repeller region is

md 2z Vr + Vo

2

= − eE = − e . Integrating this equation twice and applying the

dt L

dz

conditions = v (t1 ) and z = d at t = t1 we have

dt

− e (Vr + V0 )

z = (t − t1 ) 2 + v(t1 ) (t − t1 ) + d

2mL

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• After the round trip the electron returns to the gap at t = t2, so at t = t2 , z = d giving

− e (Vr + V0 )

z =d = (t2 − t1 ) 2 + v (t1 ) (t2 − t1 ) + d . The transit time of the electron in the

2mL

repeller region is t2 − t1 = = T 1 . Form this T ' = T0' 1 + sin ωt1 −

e(Vr + V0 ) 2V0 2

2mLv0

where T01 = . This equation for the repeller transit time can be put in the

e(Vr + V0 )

θg

form of θ ' = θ 0' + X ' sin(ω t1 − )

2

o where θ 01 = ω T0' , round the trip de transit angle of the center of the bunch

2mwLV0

electron is θ 01 = ω T0' = and

e(Vr + V0 )

β iV1

o X ' is the Bunching parameter of the reflex klystron oscillator X ' = θ 0'

2V0

o all the electrons that cross the grid gap during the gap voltage variation from

positive peak to negative peak spend different amounts of time in the repeller

region and comeback to the gap at one instant forming into a ‘Bunch’. The

electron bunch gives maximum energy to the gap field when it faces maximum

deceleration which is possible only when the transit time of electrons in the

1

repeller space is T0' = n − where n is a positive integer two onwards. So the

4

round trip transit angle referring to the center of bunch electron θ 01 should be

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1

θ 0' = ω (t2 − t1 ) = ω T0' = 2π n −

4

= N 2π = 2πn - π/2 where N = mode number of the reflex klystron.

• Power output of the RKO: By comparing with that of the two-cavity klystron the

beam current of a reflex klystron oscillator can be written

∞

i2 = − I 0 − ∑ 2 I 0 J (nx1 ) cos[ n(ωt2 − θ 0' − θ g )]

n =1

V1 I 2

The ac power delivered to the load Pac = = V1 I 0 βi J1 ( X ' )

2

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but = ⇒ Pac = 0 0

V0 β (2π n − π ) π

(2π n − )

i

2 2

Pac 2 X ' J1 ( X ' )

η= ; with Pdc =V0 I 0 η=

Pdc π

(2π n − )

2

Maximum output occurs at n = 2 . X ' J1 ( X ' ) reaches a

ηmax = 22.7%

• Repeller voltage versus mode number:

1 1m 2

eV0 = m v02 ⇒ V0 = v0

2 2e

π

(2nπ − ) 2 e(Vr + V0 )

2 ω mLv π 2

θ 01 = 0

= 2nπ − ⇒ v0 =

e(Vr + V0 ) 2 2ωmL

π

(2nπ − ) 2 e(Vr + V0 )

1 m 2

V0 =

2 e 4ω 2 m 2 L2

π

(2nπ − ) 2

V0 2 e (θ 0' ) 2 e

⇒ = =

e(Vr + V0 ) 8ω 2 L2 m ω 2 L2 8m

• Power output versus repeller voltage:

X 1 J1 ( X 1 ) (Vr + V0 ) e

PAC = V0 I 0

ωL 2mV0

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V0 1 π e

= 2 2 ( 2nπ − ) from this relation differentiating Vr with respect to ω .

(Vr + V0 ) 8ω L

2

2 m

dVr L 8V0 m

=

dω ( 2 nπ − π ) e

2

This expression gives change of frequency with respect to the repeller voltage as

π

( 2n π − )

df 2 e θ '0 e

= =

dVr 2π L 8 mV0 2π L 8 mV0

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to the voltage V2 across the gap at t2.

1 π

2 I β J ( X ' ) e − jθ 0 I β 2θ 1 2 J1 ( X ' ) j ( 2 − θ 0' )

Ye = 0 i 1− jπ / 2 = 0 i 0 e

V1e V0 2 X'

one capacitor, one inductor both representing the energy storage elements of the cavity,

three inductances representing copper losses, beam loading and load conductance.

o C and L represent energy

storage Elements of the cavity

o Gc = Copper losses of cavity

o Gb = Beam loading conductance

o Gl = the load conductance

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• The necessary condition for oscillations is that the magnitude of the negative real part of

the electronic admittance should be greater than or equal to the total conductance of the

cavity circuit. i.e.

|- Ge | ≥ G where G = Gc + Gb + Ge and Ye = Ge + jBe

MAGNETRON

TYPES:

1. Split-anode magnetron: it uses the static negative resistance between two anode

segments. It operated at frequencies below µ wave region.

2. Cyclotron-frequency magnetron: It operates under the influence of synchronism

between an alternating component of electric field and a periodic oscillations of the

electrons in a direction parallel to the field. It operates at frequencies in the µ wave

range, power output very low and very efficiency.

3. Travelling-wave magnetrons: they depend on the interaction of electrons with a

travelling electromagnetic field of linear velocity.

• Cavity Magnetron is a high power, high efficiency microwave oscillator which

depends upon the interaction of electrons with a traveling electromagnetic wave for

its operation..

• It is a diode with several connected re-entrant cavities in the anode structure. The

connected re-entrant cavities results in the existence of a rotating rf field in the

dφ

interaction region whose angular frequency is ω = β0 where β0 = phase

dt

constant = (2πn)/NL

• It is a crossed – field device as it employs axial dc magnetic field and radial dc

voltage. If the values these fields are adjusted property, the electrons follow cycloid

paths in the interaction space.

• In total there exists three fields in the interaction region of magnetron.

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direction

π Static magnetic field in

axial direction

π Rotating rf field

field/electric field required to return the electrons to the cathode after they have just

grazed the anode in the absence of RF field.

difference between the adjoining anode poles is nπ / 4 where n =1,2,3 etc. For best

results n = 4 is used in practice which gives a phase difference of π between two

successive poles and the resulting mode is known as π - mode.

• Strapping: Magnetrons using identical cavities in the anode block employs

strapping to prevent mode jumping. For π mode of operation it consists of two rings

of heavy gauge wire connecting alternate anode poles.

π At very high frequencies, rising–sun anode structure is used to prevent mode

jumping.

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• Frequency pulling: The resonant frequency of the magnetron alters with the

changes in the load admittance. Such frequency variation is known as frequency -

pulling.

• Frequency Pushing: It is the variation of the frequency of the magnetron due to the

changes in anode voltage..

known as phase – focusing effect without it, the favoured electrons (i.e. which

contribute energy to the RF field) would fall behind the phase changes of the electric

field across the gaps, since such electrons are retarded at teach interaction with the RF

field. The wheel spoke bunches rotate counter clockwise with correct velocity allowing

continuous interchange of energy. In this interchange, the RF field receives much more

than it gives.

FUNCTIONING:

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• The dc field strengths are to be adjusted to cut-off values i.e. V0 should be set to

1/ 2

m

2 8V0

e 2 2 a2 e

Voc = B0 b 1 − 2 for a given B0 or B0 should be set to Boc =

8m b a2

b1 − 2

b

for a given V0 .

• Under the influence of the dc fields and the rotating rf field the emitted

electrons from the cathode revolve around the cathode with a cyclotron angular

eB0

frequency ωC =

m

• When the cyclotron frequency of the electrons is equal to the angular frequency

dφ

of the field i.e. ωc = β 0 where β0 = phase constant = (2πn)/NL the

dt

interactions between the field and electron occurs and the energy is transferred .

ANALYSIS:

Equations of Electron motion:

• The Lorenz force acting on an electron because of the presence of both the electric

field E and the magnetic flux B is given by

dv

F = - e ( E + v× B ) = m

dt

• In Cylindrical-coordinate system the general expression for the acceleration is a =

dv d 2 ρ dφ

2

1 d ρ 2 dφ d 2z

= 2 − ρ vp + vφ + 2 vz

dt dt dt ρ dt dt dt

0 , with this information we can write the equations of motion for electrons

in φ direction as

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1 d ρ 2 dφ e dρ

= Bz

ρ dt dt m dt

d ρ 2 dφ 1 d 2 e

= ωc ( ρ ) where ωc = Bz is known as the cyclotron angular

dt dt 2 dt m

ρ 2 dφ 1

= ωc ρ 2 + cons tan t ; the integration constant can be found from the fact at

dt 2

dφ 1 dφ 1 a2

ρ =a, = 0 . Now the constant = ωc so = ωc 1 − 2 (1)

dt 2 dt 2 ρ

Since the magnetic field does no work on the electrons, the kinetic energy of the electron

1 2 2e

is mv = eV ⇒ v 2 = V = v 2p + ρ 2 vφ2

2 m

2 2

2e dρ dφ

V = + ρ (2)

m dt dt

dρ

When the electrons just graze the anode, ρ = b ,V = V0 and = 0 and B = BOC

dt

dφ 1 a2

And (2) becomes = ωc (1 − 2 ) (3)

dt 2 b

2

dφ 2 e

b = V0

2

(4)

dt m

2

1 a 2 2e

Substituting (3) and (4) b ωc 1 − 2 = V0

2

2 b m

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1/ 2

m

8V0

e

Boc =

a2

b1 − 2

b

If B0 > Boc for a given V0 the electron will not reach the anode.

Hull Cut-off voltage equation:

2

e 2 2 a2

Voc = B0 b 1 − 2

8m b

If V0 < Voc for a given B0 the electrons will not reach the anode.

• Cyclotron Angular frequency ωC : Since the magnetic field is normal to the

out-ward centrifugal force is equal to the pulling force

mv 2 v eB

= evB ⇒ ωC = =

R r m

π Radar transmitters

π Linear particle accelerators.

• Performance chart: It is a chart containing the contours of constant power output,

constant efficiency, constant flux density and occasionally constant frequency.

Plotted on coordinates of direct anode voltage Vs direct anode current at a specified

load admittance.

efficiency and of constant frequency plotted in coordinates of load resistance and

load reactance. When polar coordinates are used these diagrams are called “Rieke

Diagrams”

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ρ b

• Potential in the interaction region:: V ( ρ ) = V0 ln ln ;

a a

1/ 2

e

• Velocity of the electron in the interaction region:: v ( ρ ) = 2 V ( p )

m

• Powers - 10 kW to 5 Mw

• Efficiency - 50 % (40 to 70%)

• TWT is a linear beam tube in which the interaction between the beam and the RF field is

continuous over a length.

• Complete bunching results due to continuous interaction between axial RF field and

beam ultimately giving high gain

• TWT uses non-resonant microwave circuit and is capable of enormous bandwidths.

• Slow-wave structures are special circuits used in microwave tubes to reduce the wave

velocity in a certain direction so that the electron beam and signal wave can interact;

Ex: Helix, Folded back line, Zigzag line, inter-digital line, corrugated wave-guide and

coupled cavities are slow-wave structures widely used.

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• HELIX: When the signal is travelling along the coil with velocity C, the phase velocity

of the wave in the axial direction is

CP PC ω

vp = ≈ = C sinψ =

P 2 + (πd ) 2 πd β

• The axial electric field E (x, y, z) is periodic along axial direction i.e z- direction with

periodicity equal to patch. This field can be expressed as linear combination of several

spatial harmonics using Fourier theorem.

∞

2πn

E ( x, y , z ) = ∑ ( x , y) e − jpn z

; βn = β0 + [L = P ]

n= − ∞ L

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ω ω

v pn = =

β n β + 2πn

0

L

• PRINCIPLE OF WORKING:

o There exists a spatially periodic travelling wave co-axial to the helix when the

signal is travelling along the length of its conductor.

o The electron beam is accelerated to a velocity, which is slightly more than the

phase velocity of the axial wave.

o The axial wave accelerates the electrons during one half cycle and decelerates

during the second half cycle but at any point of time there exists more electrons

in the decelerating half cycle

resulting in net transfer of energy

from the electrons to the wave.

o The strengthened wave offers more

deceleration to the incoming

electrons, increasing electron

concentration in its region thereby

increasing energy transfer to the

beam manifold.

o It results in the exponential growth

of the signal along the length of the

helix.

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spatial harmonics. The second

quadrant of the ω -β diagram

indicates the negative phase

velocity that corresponds to the

negative n .The shaded areas are

the forbidden regions for

propagation. It is because if the axial phase velocity of any spatial harmonic exceeds the

velocity of light, the structure radiates energy.

• Attenuator: Oscillations are possible in this high gain device, especially if poor load

matching causes significant reflections along the slow wave structures very close

coupling of slow-wave circuits further aggravates the problem. Attenuator is used to

prevent oscillations in TWT and it has the subsidiary effect of reducing the gain. The

attenuator may be a lossy metallic coating such as Aquadag or KANTHAL on the

surface of the glass tube.

Both forward and reverse waves are attenuated, but the forward wave is able to

continue and grow past the attenuator because bunching is unaffected.

• Electronic Equation: It determines the convection current induced by the axial electric

field.

jβ e I 0 jβ e E1

i= E1 = , where γ is the propagation constant of the axial

2V0 ( jβ e − γ ) 2

( jβ e − γ ) 2 R0

2

ω

waves γ = α e + jβ e , β e = , γ 0 = γ with i = 0

v0

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• Circuit Equation: It determines how the spatial ac electron beam current affects the

axial electric field of the slow-wave helix.

γ 2γ 0 Z 0

E1 = − where Z 0 = characteristic impedance of helix

γ 2 − γ 02

1/ 3

I Z

• TWT gain parameter C ≡ 0 0

4V0

• Propagation constants: The four propagation constants represent four different modes

of wave propagation in the O-type helical TWT.

3 C

o γ 1 = − βe C + jβ e (1 + ) : It represents forward traveling wave. The beam

2 2

velocity is slightly more than the phase velocity of this wave. Energy transfer

takes place from the beam to the wave so its amplitude increases as it progresses.

3 C

o γ 2 = βe C + jβ e (1 + ) : It represents forward traveling wave. The beam

2 2

velocity is slightly more than the phase velocity of this wave Energy transfer

takes place from the wave to beam so its amplitude decreases as it progresses.

o γ 3 = jβ e (1 − C ) It represents wave traveling in the forward direction. The beam

velocity is less than the phase velocity of this wave. There exists no transfer of

power between the beam and wave.

C3

o γ 4 = − jβ e (1 − ) It represents a wave traveling in the reverse direction with

4

no transfer of energy. The beam velocity is less than the phase velocity of the

wave

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GUNN DIODE

• Gunn oscillators and amplifiers are most important microwave devices that

have been extensively used as local oscillators and power amplifier covering

the frequency range 1 to 100 GHz in which Gunn diode is a critical part.

• Gunn diode is an n-type slab of GaAs, InP, InAs, InSb and CdTd.

• Gunn diode exhibits dynamic negative resistances when it is biased to a

potential gradient more than a certain value known as threshold field Eth due

to Gunn effect or Transferred Electron Effect (TEE).

• In any n-type semi-conductor the drift velocity, the following relations

govern current, field and drift velocity.

dv dJ

vd = µ E → d = µ and J = n q µ E → =nqµ

dE dE

When the field is less than the Eth , increase in the field E causes the

vd to increase resulting in the positive mobility µ . Hence an increase

in the E causes J to increase resulting in positive resistance.

When the field is in between Eth and Ev increase in the field E causes

the vd to decrease due to the onset of TEE resulting the negative

mobility µ . Hence an increase in the field E causes J to decrease

resulting in the manifestation of differential negative resistance.

When the field is more than Ev increase in field E causes vd to

increase resulting in the positive mobility µ due to the disappearance

of the TEE. Hence an increase in the E causes J to increase resulting

in positive resistance.

• The threshold field values are GaAs-3.3kv/cm, InP-10.53kv/cm, InAs-

1.63kv/cm, InSb-0.63kv/cm CdTd-13.03kv/cm

• TEE is ‘a field induced transfer of conduction band electrons from a high

mobility lower energy satellite valley to low mobility higher energy satellite

valley’

o It is bulk material property i.e. it takes place at each

and every point in the body of the Gunn.

o Due to this effect the mobility of the electrons in the

diode become negative.

• In the InP diode

o There exists three satellite valleys in its conduction

band where as in others it two.

o The peak to valley current ratio is larger because the

electron transfer proceeds faster with increasing field.

o Thermal excitation of the electrons has less effect

leading to the lower degradation of the peak to valley

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between lower and its nearest valley.

• In the InAs and InSb diodes TEE can be observed only under hydrostatic

pressures that reduce the energy difference between the satellite valleys.

Their energy difference is more than that of the forbidden gap under normal

pressures.

• The electrons drift through the diode with velocities depending upon the field

intensity and its

maximum

when the

diode is

biased to

threshold

value.

• Peak

velocities in

various diodes are

GaAs-2.2,

InP-2.5, InAs-3.6, InSb-5.0 and CdTd-1.5 times 107 cm/sec.

• Noise is due to ‘AM noise’ normally small, due to amplitude variations plus

‘FM noise’ which is due to frequency deviations.

• The upper frequency of the TEDs is limited to 150GHz mainly due to the

‘finite response time’.

1

• The output power falls as 2

f

• Gunn oscillators and amplifiers are being widely used as local oscillators and

power amplifiers covering 1 to 100GHz range

GUNN DOMAINS

The transfer to lower mobility valley starts with the electrons located in a small region

where the field intensity is more due to lower carrier concentration. These regions are called

high field domains. The domains travel to anode shifting all the electrons in their path to

lower mobility valley. The velocity of the domains is slightly more than the drift velocity of

the electrons.

• Domains start to form whenever the electric field in a region of the sample increases

above the threshold value and with the stream through the device.

• If additional voltage is applied to the diode with a domain then the domain will

increase in size and absorb more voltage than was added and the current will

decrease.

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• The domain disappears after reaching the anode or in the mid-way if the field drops

to a value less than sustain field value Es.

• Decreasing the field slightly lower than the threshold value can prevent the

formation of new domain.

• The domain modulates the current through the device as the domain passes the

regions of different doping and cross-sectional areas.

• The domain length is inversely proportional to the doping concentration.

resistance in certain type of bulk semiconductor materials.

• In the conduction band of n-type GaAs a high mobility lower valley is separated

from a low mobility upper valley by an energy difference of 0.36ev.

• Under equilibrium conditions the electron densities in both the valleys remain

same.

• When the applied field is lower than the field corresponding to the energies of

the electrons in the lower valley then the no transfer of electrons takes place from

one to other valley. The mobility of the carriers is positive.

• When the applied field is higher than the field corresponding to the energies of

the electrons in the lower valley and lower than the field corresponding to the

energies of the electrons in the upper valley, then transfer of electrons takes place

from high mobility lower to low mobility upper valley. The mobility of the

carriers becomes negative.

• When the applied field is higher than the field corresponding to the energies of

the electrons in the higher valley, then no transfer of electrons takes place

because by that time all the electrons of the lower valley must have been

transferred to the upper valley. The mobility of the carriers is positive.

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• The nobilities of the electrons in the two valleys must satisfying the relation

µ − µ E dn n

l u

− l

− P > 1 where f = u , µ = E P

µl + µu f nl dE nl

RWH THEORY

Ridley, Watkins and Hilsum proposed this theory to explain the phenomenon of Negative

Differential Resistance (NDR) in bulk materials. Its salient features are

• Bulk NDR devices are classified into two groups. One voltage controlled NDRs and

second current controlled NDRs.

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• The characteristic relation between Electric field E and the current density J of

voltage controlled NDRs is ‘N’ shaped and that of the current controlled NDRs is ‘S’

shaped.

• The electric field is multi-valued in the case of voltage controlled NDRs and it is

electric current that is multi-valued in case of current controlled NDRs.

• The differential resistivity increases with field in case of voltage controlled NDRs

and decreases in case of current controlled NDRs.

• A semi-conductor exhibiting bulk NDR is inherently unstable because a momentary

space charge, which might have been created due to random fluctuation in the carrier

density, grows exponentially with time because the relaxation time is negative.

• Because of NDR, the initially homogeneous semi-conductor becomes heterogeneous

to achieve stability. It results in ‘high field domains’ in voltage controlled NDRs and

‘high current filaments’ in current controlled NDRs.

• The high field domain starts forming at a region where the field intensity is higher

extending further perpendicular to the direction of current flow separating two low

E − E1

field regions. The width of the domain is d = L A

E2 − E1

• The high current filament starts forming at a region where the field intensity is

higher extending further along the direction of the current flow separating two low

J − J1

current regions. Its cross-sectional area is a = A A

J 2 − J1

• The separation energy between the lower valley and the upper valley must be

several times larger than the thermal energy of the electrons at room

temperatures i.e.

• The separation energy between the valleys must be smaller than forbidden energy

gap between the conduction band and valence band.

• Electrons in the lower valley must have high mobility, small effective mass and

low density of state whereas those in the upper valley must have low mobility,

large effective mass and high density of state.

As Si and Ge don’t meet these criteria, they can not exhibit dynamic negative resistance.

GUNN MODES

• Major factors that determine the modes of operation are

9 Concentration and uniformity of the doping

9 Length of the active region

9 Operating bias voltage

9 Cathode contact property

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• An important boundary separating the various modes of operation is

n0 L =1012 cm−2

• The TEDs with n0 L products smaller than 1012 cm−2 exhibit a stable field

distribution.

fL ≅107 cm / sec

Gunn oscillation mode: −2

nL >10 cm

12

• This mode is operated with the field more than the threshold value i.e. E > Eth

• The high field domain drifts along the specimen until it reaches anode or low

field value drops to below the sustaining field value ie E < Es

v

• The frequency of oscillation is given by f = dom where vdom is the velocity

Leff

of the domain and Leff is the effective length the domain travels before a

new domain gets nucleated.

[

9 Transit time domain mode: fL ≈107 cm / sec ]

• The high field domains are stable in the sense that they propagate with a

particular velocity but don’t change in any way with time.

• When the high field domain reaches the anode the current in the external

circuit increases.

• The frequency of the current oscillations depends on among other things,

the velocity of the domain across the sample. If the velocity increases the

frequency increases and vice versa. It also depends upon the bias voltage.

• The shape of the domains in GaAs and InP TEDs is triangular.

• In this mode the oscillation period is transit time. The efficiency is below

10%.

• In this mode the domain is collected by the anode when E < Eth and the

new domain formation gets delayed until the rise of the field to above

threshold.

• The oscillation period is greater than the transit time.

• The oscillations occur at the frequency of the resonant circuit.

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9 Quenched domain mode: [106 cm / sec < fL < 107 cm / sec]

• While the domain is traveling, the bias field drops to a value less than ES

during negative half cycle quenching the domain. A new cannot form

until the field again rises above the Eth .

• Oscillations occur at the frequency of the resonant circuit rather than the

transit time frequency.

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• The operating frequencies are higher than the transit time frequency.

• Formation of multiple high field layers takes place.

• The upper frequency limit for this mode is determined by the speed of

quenching.

• In this mode the efficiency can be 13%.

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fL > 2 X 107 cm / sec

LSA mode:

2 x10 4 < n0 > 2 x103

f

o As the frequency is high the domains do not get sufficient time to form.

o Most of the domains find them selves in the negative conduction state

during a large fraction of voltage cycle.

o A large portion of the device exhibits a uniform field resulting in efficient

power generation at the circuit controlled frequency.

o This mode is suitable to generate short pulses of high peak power

o Its maximum operating frequency is much lower than the that of the TT

devices.

fL ≅107 cm / sec

Stable amplification mode: −2

nL =10 to10 cm

11 12

o In this mode the devices exhibits stable amplification at the transit time

frequency.

o Negative conductance is utilized to prevent the formation of the domains.

o There exists three regions of amplification depending on the fL product

range from 107 to 0.5 x108

Bias ciruit oscillation mode:

• This mode occurs when there is either GUNN or LSA oscillation and fL

is small.

• When the diode is biased to the threshold GUNN oscillation begin

leading to sudden decrease in the average current of the circuit driving it

to oscillations.

• The frequency of the oscillations may be in the range from 1KHz to 100

MHz.

IMPATT

• The IMPATT diode is now one of the most powerful solid-state sources for the

generation of microwaves. It can generate higher CW power outputs in millimeter-

wave frequencies i.e. above 30 GHz of all solid-state devices. These are compact,

inexpensive, moderately efficient and with improved device fabrication technology

these diodes also have become reliable under high temperature operation

• IMPATT stands for ‘IMPact ionization Avalanche Transit Time’.

• IMPATT diodes employ ‘impact ionization’ and ‘transit time’ properties of semi-

conductor structures to get negative resistance at microwave frequencies.

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conductors in which the generation and multiplication of hole-electron pair takes

place due to knocking off the valence electrons into conduction band by the highly

energetic carriers when the electric field is increased above certain value’.

The rate of pair production is a sensitive non-linear function of field.

• The negative resistance occurs from the delay, which cause the current to lag behind

the voltage by half cycle time, have two components:

One is Avalanche time delay caused by ‘finite buildup time of the

avalanche current.’

Other is transit time delay by the finite time for the carriers to cross

the drift region.

• These diodes are made from GaAs, Ge, Si.

• Extremely high voltage gradient 400kv/cm back biasing the diode is required for its

operation.

• In all the structures there exists two regions

o Avalanche region: in this region avalanche multiplication takes, doping

concentration and field intensity are high.

o Drift region: in this region avalanche multiplication does not take place,

doping concentration and field levels are low.

o Depletion region is AR plus DR.

• Maximum negative resistance is occurs when the transit angle θ = π at which the

v

operating frequency becomes f = d where vd is drift velocity of the carriers and L

2L

length of the drift region.

• IMPATT is the name of a diode family. It’s basic members are

o Read diode p + − n − i − n + or its dual n + − p − i − p +

o Single drift diode p + − n − p +

o Double drift diode or RIMPATT diode p + − p − n − n +

o Pin diode p + − i − n +

• The noise measure in GaAs is low when compared to Si and for Ge it is in between

GaAs and Si. The main reason for the low noise behavior of GaAs is that for a given

field the electron and hole ionization rates are essentially same, where as in Si these

are quite different.

• The highest powers, frequency and efficiency are obtained from double drift diodes

that are also known as RIMPATTs. The power-frequency2 product is highest for

these diodes. The improved performance results mainly from the fact that holes and

electrons produced by the avalanche are allowed to give energy to RF signal while

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traversing the drift region. In the case of single drift diodes only one type of carriers

is so utilized.

• Comparison:

o When compared to GUNN diode these diodes have more efficiency around

30%, more powerful around 15w CW and their frequency can reach up to

200GHz where as in the case of GUNN it is only 100GHz.

o But when compared to GUNN diodes these are more noisy.

o Below 40GHz GaAs IMPATTs have higher powers and efficiency than do

Si IMPATTs.

o Between 40-60 GHz GaAs IMPATTs show higher power and efficiency

whereas Si IMPATTs give high reliability and yield.

o Above 60GHz Si IMPATTs outperform the GaAs IMPATTs.

o Around 10GHz efficiency is close to 40%.

• Power output:

as f –1 ;

At higher frequencies (>50 MHz) the power is electronic limited and

varies as f –2

• Difficulties:

The noise is high mainly because of the statistical nature of the

generation rates of electron-hole pairs in the avalanche region.

Highly sensitive to operational conditions.

Large electronic-reactance, which can cause detuning or even

burnout of the device unless proper care is taken.

• Applications:

In microwave links

In CW radars

In electronic counter measures.

TRAPATT

• TRAPATT diode is a high power, high efficiency device.

• For a TRAPATT diode, the design and performance are more complicated because

of strong device-circuit interaction that dictates most of the device performance.

• Silicon p + − n − n + or n + − p − p + structures are used to get high powers. The

doping of the depletion region is generally such that the diodes are well punched

through at break down i.e. depletion region extends from p + − n to n − n + junction.

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• OPERATION:

o It is mounted at a distance of λg/4 from a short in a wave-guide or coaxial

line so that a high RF field exists across the diode

o Initially the diode charges up like a linear capacitor, driving the magnitude of

the field above the breakdown voltage.

o High field avalanche zone or shock front passes through the diode and fills

the depletion layer with a highly conductive dense plasma of electrons and

holes whose space charge depresses the voltage to low values.

o The plasma generated takes time to get removed from the depletion region

followed by the residual charge from the ends of the depletion layer, raising

the voltage across the diode.

o The diode once again charges up like a fixed capacitor until current moves to

zero. The same voltage is maintained across the diode until the current rises

again.

o As the voltage across the diode is low during the drift of the pulse, drift

velocity becomes less leading to more transit time, dissipation becomes less

giving rise to higher efficiencies, operating frequencies lower and active

regions become thinner.

o This diode requires a circuit that can support harmonics of fundamental

frequency of high voltage amplitudes. The rich harmonic content is necessary

to get the required phase delay in the current at such low frequencies.

• Difficulties:

o It has higher noise figure when compared to IMPATT diodes.

o Its operation is quite complicated and requires good control over the device

and circuit.

o The upper operating frequencies are practically limited to below millimeter-

wave range i.e. 10GHz.

o It is highly sensitive even to small changes in circuit or operating conditions

or temperature.

• Performance:

o The output power of a series connection of five diodes under pulse condition

reaches 1.2kw with a efficiency of 25%.

o The upper frequency limit is close to 10GHz and highest obtained efficiency

is 75%

o Its high pulse power output is much larger than most other microwave semi-

conductor devices.

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a) increases b) decreases

c) Remains constant d) zero

a) Inductance of cathode lead b) Cpg

c) Cgk d) CPK

lines in field the K.E of an electron [A ]

a) Increases b) decreases

c) do not change d) zero

a) position where bunching forms

b) position where fundamental frequency component is maximum

c) Where Velocity of electrons is minimum

d) Where Velocity of electrons is maximum

a) Resonance b) Degenerative feed back

c) Velocity modulation d) Taking high velocity electrons.

a) Coupler b) Wave guide

c) oscillator d) Amplifier

7. The electrons of the bunch in a reflex klystron must remain in the repeller field for the

minimum number of cycles [ ]

a) 3 ¾ b) 1 ¾

c) ¾ d) 4

8. If the electrons in a Reflex Klystron remain in the repeller field for 1 ¾ cycles, the

mode of operation is [ ]

a) 3 b) 1

c) 2 d) 4

a) Decreases b) increases

c) No charge i d) none of the above

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10. ______ limits the tuning range around the center frequency of a Reflex Klystron in a

particular mode of operation [ ]

a) bunching b) half power points of the mode

c) Velocity of electrons d) input Voltage

in Klystrons is

2eV0 eV0

a) b)

m 2m

mV0 2mV0

c) d)

2e e

a) Cavity grid gap b) Drift space

c) Repeller region d) Cathode region

a) Grid gap b) Drift space

c) Cathode region d) Depletion region

a) 22.7% b) 27.2%

c) 72.2% d) 77.2%

a) 58% b) 85%

c) 55% d) 88%

16. Magnetron is [A ]

a) High power oscillator b) Low efficiency oscillator

c) Low Power oscillator d) High efficiency Amplifier

a) Cycloid b) Circular

c) Elliptical d) Parabolic

a) 1 ¾ mode b) ¾ mode

c) 2 ¾ mode d) 3 ¾ mode

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a) Band width b) Efficiency

c) Gain d) Power output

a) Equally b) Increasing distance

c) Decreasing distance d) In any way

21. Beam coupling coefficient ρ is [B ]

sin (θ g 2 ) sin (θ g 2 )

a) b)

θg θg 2

Sinθ g Sinθ g

c) d)

θ g/ 2 θg

22. Equation of Velocity modulation is [A ]

β V θ g

a) v(t1 ) = v0 1 + i 1 Sin ωt1 −

2V0 2

βV θ g

v(t1 ) = V0 1 + i 1 Sin ωt1 −

2V0 2

βV θ

v(t1 ) = V1 1 + i 0 Sin ωt1 − 0

2V0 2

β V θ

v(t1 ) = 1 + i 1 Sin ωt1 − 0

2V0 2

23. Bunching Parameter of two cavity Klystron is [ ]

β V ωL 2v0 ωL

a) i 1 b)

2V0 v0 βiVi V0

β i V1 v β i V1 2ω

c) d)

2V0 ωL 2V0 V0

24. Optimum length of drift space is Lopt [ ]

3 .6 v 0 V 0 ω v0 V0

a) b)

ω β i V1 3.6 β i V1

3.6 βi V1 3.6 V0 v0

c) d)

ω V0v0 ω βi V0

a) Positive Peak to Negative Peak b) Negative

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a) 10 mw b) 1 Mw

c) 10 Mw d) 100 Mw

a) Two b) Three

c) Four d) One

28. Magnetron is [D ]

a) Crossed Field Device b) Oscillator

c) Electron beam rotates d) All

a) Frequency Pulling b) Frequency Pushing

c) Mode jumping d) Skipping

30. The magnetic field at which electron from cathode, grazes over the anode and falls

back into the cathode in a Magnetron is [ ]

c) RWH cut-off d) None

31. The total phase of the n-cavity Magnetron, to generate sustained oscillations should be

equal to [ ]

nπ

a) n π b)

2

c) 2πn d) none

a) Frequency Pulling b) Frequency Pushing

c) Mode jumping d) Skipping

33. The magnet surrounding the body of a TWT serves ______ purpose [A ]

a) Focus electrons into a tight beam b) for higher Velocities

c) For denser bunching d) for larger amplification

a) 2- cavity Klystron b) Reflex Klystron

c) Multi cavity Klystron d) TWT

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a) attenuators b) buncher cavity

c) paddles d) slugs

a) straight line b) circular

c) spiral d) parabolic

37. XJ ( X ) is maximum when X is equal to [ ]

a) 0.582 b) 2.408

c) 1.25 d) 0.52

1

[ ]

a) 2 π n b) 2 π n - π

c) 2 π n – n d) 2 π n - π / 2

a) TRAPATT b) IMPATT

c) GUNN d) LSA

a) TRAPATT b) GUNN

c) IMPATT d) BARITT

a) P+ - n – P+ b) n+ - P – P+

c) n+ - P – I – P+ d) P+ - I – n+

42. Diodes which does not work at high frequencies (> 40 GHz) is [ ]

a) GUNN b) IMPATT

c) TRAPATT d) All the above

a) Transfer electron effect b) Avalanche Transit effect

c) Trapped plasma d) Impact ionization

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a) GUNN b) TRAPATT

c) IMPATT d) all the above

a) same b) opposite

c) alternating a&b d) none of the above

a) length of slow wave structure

b) changing the load at the output

c) changing the accelerating anode potential

d) taking reflectors

47. Gunn diodes are [D ]

a) Junction devices b) Avalanche devices

c) Both d) None

a) Transferred electron effect b) Bulk material effect

c) Both d) None

a) Ge b) Si c) both d) None

a) Positive resistance b) Negative resistance

c) Both d) None

a) Cathode region b) Anode region

c) Middle of the diode d) None

a) Drift Velocity of electron b) More than drift Velocity of electron

c) Less than drift Velocity of electron d) None

a) 107 cm.- sec. b) 106 cm./ sec.

6

c) 10 cm- sec d) 107 cm / sec.

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c) 106 cm / sec. d) 107 cm / sec.

a) Reaches the anode b) Disappears on its way to anode

c) Both d) None

a) Reaches the anode b) Disappears on its way to anode

c) Both d) None

a) LSA mode b) Transit time domain mode

c) Both d) None

a) n-type b) p-type

c) No doping d) All

a) Zero b) Infinity c) One d) None

n n

a) 104 < < 105 b) 104 > < 105

f f

n

c) 106 < < 107 d) None

f

a) Ga As b) Ia P c) In As d) Ge As

a) TED’s b) ATT’s

c) Paramps d) TWT’s

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a) Polarization effect b) Avalanche effect

c) Phase dissemination effect d) Phase focusing effect [D ]

a) Stimulated emission b) spontaneous emission

c) Simultaneous emission d) all the above

Microwave bench in the lab is a rectangular wave-guide run over which various

components like source, attenuator, frequency meter, tunable probe etc. are mounted.

It provides an unexcelled tool for learning basic concepts of standing waves and

mismatched transmission lines at microwave frequencies. Its length is proportional to

wavelength, as a result at low frequencies it becomes unwieldy long and at high

frequencies it becomes too small to work comfortably with it.

The mode of the wave that exists in the bench of the lab is TE10 i.e. dominant

mode. So the cut-off wavelength is λC = 2a where ‘ a ’ is the inner distance between

the sidewalls of the wave-guide. The equipment is designed to work in the X-band,

which ranges in frequency from 8.2 to 12.4 GHz, wavelength from 2.5 cm to 3.75

cm. The guide wavelength ranges from 2.98cm to 6.47cm, the guide dimensions are

2.286 X 1.016 cm with cut-frequency 6.557 GHz and cut-off wave length is 4.56 cm.

max possible power output. To achieve this condition set the beam voltage to around

300 V and increase repeller voltage until max deflection is observed in the VSWR

meter. If the source is Gunn, it must be operated in the middle of its negative

resistance region by varying its bias voltage until max deflection is observed in

VSWR meter.

The micrometer head provided at the source end of the bench is to change to the

frequency of the microwave source. The power output and frequency of the source

are dependent upon the output impedance and power reflected. The isolation must be

sufficient to prevent reflected wave entering back into the source.

While measuring guide wavelength, the termination should be short, which can

give sharp and hence easily locatable minima leading to accurate measurements.

Even though the distance between two consecutive maxima is λg 2 only minima

should be used to measure λg as they are more accurately locatable than the maxima.

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VSWR meter to be of any use its input and hence the output of the microwave source

must be a modulated signal to this frequency. If the source is RK the modulation is

done internally, in case of Gunn oscillator it is performed externally with PiN diode.

VSWR directly. It can also be used as a reference to measure power levels. Most of

the measurements require a power level in the bench at which it can give a deflection

in VSWR meter when its gain is 30 db. For the double min method to be used, the

VSWR on the line must be more than 3 db. Other wise 3db points do not exist over

the standing wave pattern.

Slide-screw tuner is a wave guide equivalent of transmission line stub with two

degrees of freedom. It is designed to provide the necessary mismatch to establish

high VSWR over the line. If the depth of insertion d < λ 4 it provides capacitive

susceptance and for d > λ 4 it is inductive susceptance.

In the wave-guide detector or tunable probe, for better response the short must be

maintained at a distance of λg 4 from the diode and also in the tunable probe. The

diodes of the wave-guide detector and movable probe give voltage or current

proportional to the power incident over the surface of the diode. This fact can be

used to measure microwave power ratio with ammeter or voltmeter. Relative power

I V

in db is P = 10 log 1 db or 10log 2 db .

I2 V1

The length of the slotted section is such that to accommodate at least three

minima (one guide wavelength) at the lowest frequency of operation. Low power

levels in the bench necessitate too much insertion of the probe leading to distortion

of the standing wave pattern giving rise to erroneous results. So attenuation of the

wave should not be too high.

• The source used in the microwave bench is either Reflex Klystron or Gunn

oscillator. In either case the frequency of the wave can be varied using the

micrometer head provided at one end of the bench.

• Isolator always follows the source. Its purpose is to prevent the reflected wave

entering back into the source. In the lab the Isolator that is configured with three port

circulator and matched termination is used.

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• The attenuator used in the bench set up is flap attenuator providing attenuation of 0

to 25 db. The amount of attenuation provided by the device can be read from the

micrometer scale provided.

• Wave-meter: It is designed to measure the microwave frequencies in the X band

directly. Outwardly it is cylindrical in shape with a rotary cap at the top, rotary scale

which is a tuning dial directly calibrated in frequency and a vertical pointer over a

transparent plastic enclosure attached to the fixed base which has a wave-guide

through it. In the grooves over its surface two rings move upwards when the scale is

rotated clock-wise and downwards when it is rotated anti-clockwise. At the top of

the scale it is 12.4 and at the bottom of the scale it is 8.2 frequencies in GHz. Inside

it is a circular cavity with a movable short attached to the cap to allow the

mechanical tuning of the resonant frequency, and the cavity is loosely coupled to

wave-guide with a small aperture. In operation, power will be absorbed by the

cavity as it is tuned to the frequency of the wave travelling through the wave-guide.

The absorption can be monitored by a ‘dip’ in the deflection of the VSWR or power

meter connected to the system.

• The standing wave detector is designed to observe the standing wave pattern existing

in the slotted section and consists of

• Slotted wave-guide: It is a piece of rectangular wave-guide with a non-

radiating slot over its broad wall. Probe can be inserted through the slot into

the guide to sense the field

• Tunable probe: It is movable with its probe into the slot along the slotted

section. The output of the tunable probe is proportional to the power of the

wave into which its probe is inserted and it is normally given to the VSWR

meter. The cap of the tunable probe can be pulled out or pushed in to match

the slotted section to the wave-guide.

• Vernier scale: This is provided along the length of the slotted section to

locate the position of the tunable probe exactly thereby the nodes or

antinodes of the sw pattern.

• Rack and pinion arrangement: it is to move the probe and place it at any

desired location over the SW pattern.

• VSWR meter: It is basically a high gain voltmeter consisting of basic meter

movement and a high (to be able to measure low quantities) variable (to have multi-

range facility) gain (60db) ac (to avoid the drift problems associated with dc

amplifiers) amplifier. To vary the gain three knobs are provided one in steps of 10db

and the remaining two in continuous manner. Its scale has two parts one to measure

absolute VSWR: top ‘1’ to ‘ ∞ ’and just below to it ‘3’ to ‘10’, another part below the

ordinary scale to measure VSWR in db’s: from ‘0’ to ‘10’. In addition both have

extended scales to measure ‘accurately’ the VSWR in between ‘1.3’to ‘2’.

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piece of wave-guide. For maximum response the short must be maintained at a

distance of λg/4. It is designed to detect the presence of wave. Its output is

proportional to the power of the wave incident. So it is a square law device.

FREQUENCY

• Dip method or wave meter method:

• The wave meter is connected in the bench with attenuator on one side and the

waveguide detector on the other side. The output of the wave-guide detector is given to

the VSWR meter and power flow in the bench is adjusted until proper deflection is

observed in the meter.

• The wave meter is rotated until it is one end of the scale i.e. the indication of the meter

is either 12 or 8 GHz.

• Rotate the wave meter in the opposite direction slowly but continuously by pressing

the centre finger of the left hand over its cap while observing the deflection in the

VSWR meter.

• At one point of time a ‘dip’ in the deflection of the meter can be observed. Stop the

rotation of the wave meter and note down the indication of the meter in between rings

against the pointer. This is the frequency of the wave running in the bench.

• Slotted line method:

• This method uses cut-off wavelength and guide wavelength to calculate the free space

wave length. From the free space wave length frequency can be calculated.

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c λ

• f= and λg =

λ 1 − ( λ λ0 )

2

• As the mode of the wave in the bench is dominant, the cut-off wavelength is twice the

inner distance between the sidewalls of the wave guide. By measuring this distance

using a scale and multiplying it with two cut-off wavelength can be obtained.

• To find the guide wavelength terminate the bench with a short resulting in the

formation of the standing wave pattern in the slotted section. The output of the tunable

probe is given to the VSWR meter and the distance between two consecutive minima

is measured using the Vernier scale provided. Twice this amount gives the guide

wavelength.

VSWR

• Low VSWR:

• This method can be used to measure the VSWR when it is less than ten with

reasonable accuracy.

• The bench is terminated with the DUT for which VSWR is to be determined resulting

in the formation of the standing waves in the slotted section. In the laboratory, the

DUT is usually a Horn antenna. The output of the tunable probe is connected to the

VSWR meter.

• Place the probe over a maximum and using the gain varying knobs provided over the

front panel of the VSWR meter move the pointer of the meter to ‘1’ over the scale.

• Then move the probe to minimum and note down the indication of the pointer over the

scale which gives the VSWR of the wave over the bench.

• In the case of the pointer drops to no deflection position while moving to minimum,

then increase the gain of the meter by 10db, move the probe to minimum, note down

the indication of the pointer on the scale 3-10 which is the VSWR of the wave.

• Double minimum method:

• Double minimum method can be used only if the SWR over the line is more than 3db

and it requires to be used only when SWR is more than 10. To be able to apply this

method, a VSWR more than 10 has to be established first over the line. In the

laboratory it is done using a match terminated slide screw tuner. With match

terminated slide screw tuner connected to the slotted section, place the tunable probe

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over a maximum of the standing wave pattern and move the pointer of the VSWR

meter over to ‘1’ by varying the gain. Now move the probe to a minimum and vary the

position and depth of the probe of the slide screw tuner until the pointer in the VSWR

meter is over ' ∞ ' of the top scale. Increase the gain of the meter by 10db and if the

pointer is still over' ∞ ' (or 10 of the scale below) then the SWR over the line is 10 or

more. If the pointer stays over in between two extreme positions of the scale even after

increasing the gain, then the setting of the slide screw tuner should be changed in such

an amount in such a direction so that the pointer is over ' ∞ '. Now the VSWR over the

line is 10 or more and we can use the double minimum method to measure it

accurately.

• The bench is to be terminated with the DUT, which can establish high VSWR i.e. more

than 3db over the slotted section. The output of the tunable probe is given to the

VSWR meter.

• Move the tunable probe over to a minimum and by varying the gain place the pointer

• Move the tunable probe to either side until the pointer moves to ‘0’ in the db scale.

Note down the position of the tunable probe over the Vernier scale. Let it be d1.

• Now move the probe in the opposite direction until the pointer again stands over the

‘0’ after passing over the ‘3’ in the db scale. Note down the position of the probe. Let

it be d2.

• Now replace the termination of the bench with short and measure the distance between

two consecutive minima. Twice this distance gives the guide wavelength λg .

λg

• The VSWR can be obtained using the formula VSWR =

π ( d1 d 2 )

To establish to high VSWR in the lab:

ATTENUATION:

Power ratio method:

o The DUT for which attenuation is to be measured is placed before the slotted section of

the bench terminated with matched load.

o The output of the tunable probe is given to a power meter.

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o Let us suppose the indications of the power meter are P1 and P2 with the DUT and with out

DUT in the bench.

P2

o Then the attenuation of DUT is A in db = 10 log

P1

o In case of the non-availability of the power meter, the power ratio can still be obtained by

measuring the output current or voltage of the tunable probe using multi-meter or CRO.

The ratio P1 P2 = V1 V2 = I1 I 2 as

o This method uses two different points on the characteristic of curve of the diode detector

at which the detector may not be obeying square law characteristic leading to erroneous

readings.

RF substitution method:

o Place the DUT before the slotted section and connect the tunable probe output to VSWR

meter. Termination of the bench must be matched. Note down the deflection of the pointer

in the VSWR meter.

o Replace the DUT with standard variable precision attenuator and vary its attenuation until

the deflection of the pointer is same as that in the previous step.

o At this position the attenuation of the standard attenuator which can be noted down gives

the attenuation of the DUT

IMPEDANCE

Slotted line method:

o The bench is terminated with the DUT for which impedance is to be measured. And the

position of a minimum is located along with the measurement of SWR ρ .

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o Replace the termination with a short. Measure the guide wavelength and shift in minimum

both in magnitude and direction.

o If the shift is towards left the load is inductive and if it is right the load is capacitive.

jθ

Z L 1+ Γ e

o Use the formula shown below to calculate the impedance of the DUT. =

Z 0 1 − Γ e jθ

ρ −1

where the magnitude of the reflection coefficient Γ = and θ = π ± 2β d where

ρ +1

2π

d is shift in the minimum and β = phase shift constant, + in case of right shift and – in

λg

case of left shift. Z 0 is characteristic impedance of the slotted section.

Magic Tee method:

o The matched source and null detector are connected to the side arms of the magic tee.

o The standard variable precision impedance and unknown impedance are connected to the

coplanar arms of the magic tee.

o The standard variable precision impedance is varied until the null is observed in the

detector.

o The indication over the standard variable precision impedance is the impedance to be

known.

Power

Bridge methods:

o Bolometers are devices which change their resistance with temperature. When µ wave power

falls over its surface, it gets converted into heat rising its temperature. With change in

temperature the resistance changes. The change in the resistance, which can be measured

conveniently using bridge methods, is a measure of the µ wave power incident.

o Bolometers can be divided into two categories one Barretters whose resistance rises with

temperature and thermistors whose resistance falls with temperatures.

o Barretters are thin short platinum wires used to measure low µ wave power levels. They

change 5ohm per milli-watt of incident µ wave power. These are very delicate and sensitive

devices useful to measure very low power levels less than few milli-watts. They have

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positive temperature coefficient of resistance. Thermistors are semi conductor devices with

negative temperature coefficient of resistance. Used to measure low and medium µ wave

power levels. The change in resistance is 60 ohm per milli-watt of incident µ wave power.

o Power meter: it is a balanced bridge circuit in which one of the arms is a bolometer. The

µ wave power incident over this arm changes its resistance driving the bridge into

unbalance. The amount of unbalance which is proportional to the incident µ wave power is

amplified using the bridge amplifier and measured using a voltmeter. The voltmeter is

calibrated to read the power directly.

o Single bridge circuits give erroneous readings due to mismatch at the µ wave input port and

also due to sensitivity of thermistor to ambient temperature. These shortcomings can be

overcome by adopting double identical bridge.

Calorimetric methods:

o This method is useful to measure high µ wave powers. It involves conversion of the

µ wave energy into heat, absorption of heat by some liquid or dielectric and then

measurement of the rise of the temperature of the liquid/dielectric.

o Static calorimeter: it consists of a 50ohm coaxial cable filled with a dielectric load with a

high hysterisis loss. The incident µ wave power is dissipated in the load. The average

4.18 mC pT

input is P = watts where t is time in sec, T is the temperature in 0C and m

t

is the mass of the medium in gms.

o Circulating calorimeter: in this method the power is made to incident on the water

flowing at a constant rate through a water load. The heat introduced into the fluid makes

the exit temperature to be higher than the input temperature. The incident power is then

measured using the relation P = 4.18 v d C p T watts where v is rate of the flow of the

fluid in cc/sec, d is the specific gravity of the fluid in gm/sec, C p is the specific heat in

cal/gm.

‘Q’ of cavity:

By transmission:

• This method is used when the cavity for which ‘Q’ is being measured has two ports or

openings. It is to be connected before the slotted section in the bench with tunable

source. The termination of the bench must be matched and the output of the tunable

probe is given to a power meter.

• The power that is transmitted by the cavity is measured using the power meter at

different frequencies and a graph is drawn. It resembles inverted ‘U’.

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• From the graph find the resonant frequency, the frequency at which the transmitted

power is maximum and also the half-power frequencies at which the transmitted power

half of the maximum.

• Using the relation

resonant frequency

Q= find the Q of the cavity.

bandwidth

By measuring VSWR:

• This method is useful when the cavity has single opening or port. The bench with

tunable source is terminated with the cavity and output of the tunable probe is

connected to VSWR meter.

• The VSWR due to the cavity is measured at different frequencies and graph is drawn

whose shape is similar to ‘U’.

• The resonant frequency S r , frequency at which the VSWR is lowest and the lowest

VSWR both can be noted down from the graph

• From the lowest VSWR using one of the following relations which ever gives more

1 1

than one find the half-power VSWR. ρ 1 = ρ r + + ρ r2 + or

2 2ρr 4 ρ r2

1 ρr 1 ρ r2

ρ1 = + + +

2 ρr 2 ρ r2 4

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• Using the computed ρ 1 from the already drawn graph find the half-power

2

frequencies and from them band-width.

resonant frequency

• Now using the formula Q = find the Q of the cavity.

bandwidth

Parameters of DC

The important characteristics of the DC are coupling factor, directivity and isolation.

• Measure the output power of the source Pin . In case of non-availability of the power

meter, use the wave-guide detector –CRO combination to measure the voltage

proportional to the power. Let it be Vin

• Give input at the port 3. Measure the output power at port 1 with port 2 match

terminated. Let it be Pc . If the voltage proportional to power is measured using wave-

guide detector–CRO combination, let it be Vc

• Give input at the port 2. Measure the output power at port 1 with port 3 match

terminated. Let it be Pd . If the voltage proportional to power is measured using

wave-guide detector–CRO combination, let it be Vd

• Give input at the port 2. Measure the output power at port 3 with port 1 match

terminated. Let it be PT . If the voltage proportional to power is measured using

wave-guide detector–CRO combination, let it be VT

• Now coupling in db C = 10 log ( Pin Pc ) = 10 log (Vin Vc ) , directivity in db

D = 10 log ( Pc Pd ) = 10 log (Vc Vd ) and isolation in db I = 10 log ( Pin Pd )

= 10 log (Vin Vd ) . If the measurements of correct I = C + D

• Precaution: After the power output of the source Pin in measured, the settings of the

source, attenuator or waveguide detector should not be changed.

s-parameters

• S-parameters are complex quantities and to measure them network analyzer is required. If

the device is assumed an ideal, reciprocal with equal arm lengths, then the s-parameters

become pure real quantities.

• Let us try for the s-matrix of the magic tee assuming it an ideal one. As power meters are

not usually available, we can use wave-guide-CRO combination to measure the relative

powers.

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• Step I: Measure the output of source. Let it be Vin . The settings of the sources and

attenuator should not be varied until the completion of the experiment.

• Step II: Give input to port1 and measure output at ports 2,3 and 4 while maintaining

matched terminations at the other ports. Let them be V21 , V31 and V41 .

• Step III: Give input to port3 and measure output at ports1,2 and 4 while maintaining

matched terminations at the other ports. Let them be V13 , V23 and V43 .

Now s31 = V31 Vin , s21 = V21 Vin , s41 = V41 Vin , s23 = V23 Vin , s43 = V43 Vin . As the

device is reciprocal s31 = s13 , s21 = s12 etc. Then the diagonal elements of the s-matrix can be

found using unity property. If the measurements are correct them the diagonal elements

must be zeros.

a) Becomes too lengthy b) becomes too small

c) Standing waves do not occur at lower frequencies d) none

a) to test transmission line theory principles

b) to observe standing wave pattern

c) both d)none

a) X b) L

c) S d) C

13. The minimum frequency that can exist in the Bench (approx.) is [A ]

a) 9 GHz b) 12 MHz

c) 9 MHz d) None

14. The maximum frequency that can exist in the Bench (approx.) is [B ]

a) 9 GHz b) 12 MHz

c) 9 MHz d) None

15. The minimum free space wave length of the Bench in the lab is [ ]

a) 2.5 cm b) 3.3 cm

c) 3.3 mm d) None

16. The max free space wave length on the Bench in the lab is [ ]

a) 2.5 cm b) 3.75 Cm

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c) 3.3 mm d) None

17. The inner dimensions of the waveguide run of the bench are [ ]

a) 2.5 cm b) 3.75 Cm

c) 3.3 mm d) None

the bench can be [ ]

a) 2.0 cm b) 6.47 cm

c) 2.98 cm d) None

the bench can be

a) 2.98 cm b) 3.3 cm

c) 6.47 cm d) None

a) Dominant mode b) degenerate mode

c) any one of the above two d) none

a) 2a b) 2b

c) c f d) none

used for Impedance measurement is [A ]

a) Slotted line b) Impedance Bridge

c) Either of the method d) None

a) Avoid harmonics in the source

b) to prevent the reflected wave entering back into the source

c) A & B d) None

a) Input to meter in low b) To provide multi range facility

c) Both d) None

a) Input to meter in low b) To provide multi range facility

c) Both d) None

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a) 1 KHz b) 2 KHz

c) 10 KHz d) 100 KHz

a) VSWR b) Power

c) Attenuation d) None

55. The PiN diode in the bench is used to modulate the output of [B ]

c) Both c) None

18. In VSWR meter the amplifier used is ac type because [A ]

a) to avoid drift problem of dc amplifiers b) Cheap

c) Small size d) All

a) Non linear b) Square

c) Both d) None

a) Dominant b) TE10

c) Both d) None

a) Cavity b) Resonator

c) Both d) None

a) Oscillatory b) Rotary

c) Stationary d) None

a) Attenuator b) Isolator

c) Wave meter d) Detector

a) 1 KHz b) 10 KHz

c) 100 KHz d) None

a) VSWR meter b) Slotted section

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c) Attenuator d) None

a) Slotted line method b) Double minimum method

c) Both d) None

a) ten b) five

c) three d) None

is set to

a) One b) zero db

c) Both d) None

66. In high VSWR method, in VSWR meter the pattern minimum [C ]

is set to

a) One b) zero db

c) Three db d) None

67. While measuring guide wave length, the termination of the bench [A ]

must be

a) Short b) Matched termination

c) Open d) None

68. While measuring guide wave length, always minimum points are [C ]

considered because

a) Minima are sharp b) minima are easily locatable

c) Both d) None

69. Guide wave length does not depend upon [A ]

a) Termination b) frequency

c) Mode of the wave d) none

70. While measuring attenuation, the termination of the bench must be [B ]

a) Short b) Matched termination

c) Open d) None

λ λg

a) b)

4 4

λ

c) d) None

2

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to input

a) 180o b) 0o

o

c) 90 d) None

a) Rotary type phase shifter b) Rotary type attenuator

c) Both d) None

of the probe is [ ]

a) Inductive b) Capacitive

c) Nil d) None

75. The range of VSWR in db indicated VSWR meter is [B ]

a) 0-2db b) 0-10db

c) 0-5db d) 0-100db

a) Bolometer technique b) Calorimeter technique c)

Reflect meter technique d) Calorimetric wave meter technique

a) Positive b) negative

c) Zero d) None

40. The ‘Q’ of Cavity with single opening can be measured [ ]

a) Transmission method b) Double minimum method

c) Both d) None

41. Barretters have [ ]

a. Positive temp efficient of resistance

b. Negative temp coefficient of resistance

c. Both d) None

42. The magic T can be used for the measurement of [B ]

a) Frequency b) Impedance

c) Q factor d) None

a) Inductive b) capacitive

c) High resistance d) low resistance

a) Inductive b) capacitive

c) High resistance d) low resistance

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a) Inductive b) capacitive

c) High resistance d) low resistance

a) Inductive b) capacitive

c) High resistance d) low resistance

a) Two similar metals b) Two dissimilar metals

c) Identical but different lengths d) None

61. The relation between VSWR (S) & reflection coefficient (P) is [ ]

1− P 1+ P

a) S = b) S =

1+ P 1− P

P

c) S = d) None

1+ P

the reflection coefficient ‘P’ is

a) Pr Pi b) Pr Pi

c) Pi Pr d) Pi Pr

a) Reflect meter method b) Transmission method

c) Power ratio method d) None

of resistivity that is called

a) Barrater b) Varistor

c) Thermisters d) Calorimeter

Klystrons are modulated by square waves because

a) It is easy generative a square wave b) It prevents frequency modulation

c) Detector circuit is easy to design d) The termination is less complicated

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66. In microwave power measurement using bolometer the principle of working is the

variation of

a) Inductance with absorption of power b) Resistance with absorption of

power

c) Capacitance with absorption of power d) All

detectors in which technique of impedance measurement

a) Slotted line b) Reflecto-meter

c) Heterodyne technique d) None

technique of q factor measurement [ ]

a) Slotted line b) Reflectometers

c) Heterodyne technique d) None

a) Slotted line b) Waveguide method

c) Reflect meter method d) Wave meter method

a) Reflex klystron tube oscillator b) Gunn oscillator

c) a and b d) a or b

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