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Facilities Assignment

Name: WONG HAN SZE


Course:PE
Matric No: 9606
Advantages and Disadvantages of Pump and
Compressor
Pumps
1.Centrifugal pumps
Advantages

1. There are relatively inexpensive.

2. They have few moving parts and therefore tend to have greater
onstream availability and lower maintenance costs than positive
displacement pumps

3. There have relatively small space and weight requirements in relation


to throughput

4. There are no close clearances in the fluid stream and therefore they
can handle liquids containing dirt, abrasives, large solids, etc

5. Because there is very little pressure drop and no small clearances


between the suction flange and the impeller ,they can operate at low
suction pressure

6. Due to shape of the head capacity curve, centrifugal pumps


automatically adjust to changes in head. Thus capacity can be
controlled over a wide range at constant speed.

Disadvantages

1. There are only practical for achieving high pressure when they are large
flow rates.

2. They have low maximum efficiencies when compared to reciprocating


pumps.
2. Reciprocating pumps
Advantages

1. The efficiency is high regardless of changes in required head.


Efficiencies on the order of 85% to 95% are common

2. The efficiency remains high regardless of pump speed, although it


tends to decrease slightly with increasing speed.

3. Reciprocating pumps run at much lower operating speeds than


centrifugal pumps and thus are better suited for handling viscous fluids

4. For a given speed the flow rate is constant regardless of head. The
pump is limited only by the power of the prime mover and the strength
of the pump parts

Disadvantages

1. They have higher maintenance cost and lower availability because


pulsating flow and large number of moving parts

2. There are poorer at handling liquids containing solides that tend to


erode valves and seats.

3. Because of the pulsating flow and pressure drop through the valves
they require larger suction pressures( net positive suction head) at the
suction flange to avoid cavitation

4. They are heavier in weight and require more space

5. Pulsating flow requires special attention to suction and discharge


piping design to avoid both acoustical and mechanical vibrations

Disadvantages

Oscillating motion of the plungers creates disturbances(pulsations)


that travel at the speed of sound form the pump cylinder piping
system. There pulsations cause the pressure level of the system to
fluctuate with respect to time
3. Rotary pumps
Advantages

1. Required less space

2. Deliver relatively pulsation free flow

3. Unlike reciprocating and centrifugal pumps, their construction


subjects the pumped fluid to a minimum amount of shear or
turbulence

Disadvantages

1. they have close clearance that require that the liquids being
pumped have a lubricating value, be non corrosive, contain few
solid

Compressor
1. Reciprocating compressor

Advantage:

1. Can be skid mounted


2. Self contained for easily installation and easily moved

3. Low cost compared to low speed reciprocating units

4. Easily piped for multistage compression

5. Size suitable for field gathering offshore and onshore.

6. Flexible capacity limits

7. Low initial cost

Disadvantages

1. High speed engines are not as fuel efficient as integral


engines(4500 to 9000 Btu/bhp-hr)

2. Medium range compressor efficiency (higher than centrifugal;


lower than low-speed)

3. Short life compared to low-speed.

4. higher maintenance cost than low speed or centrifugal


2. Centrifugal compressor:

Advantages:

1. High horsepower per unit of space and weight

2. Turbine drive easily adapted to waste-heat to waste-heat recovery for


high fuel efficiency

3. Easily automated for remote operations

4. Can be skid mounted, self contained.

5. Low initial cost

6. Low maintenance and operating cost

7. High availability factor

8. Large capacity per unit

Disadvantages

1. Lower compressor efficiency

2. Limited flexibility for capacity

3. Turbine drivers have higher fuel rate than reciprocating units

4. Large horsepower units mean that outage has large effect on process
or pipeline capabilities

3. Rotary Compressor

3.1 Vane Type Rotary compressor


Advantages:

1. Good in vacuum service

2. No pulsating flow

3. Less space

4. Inexpensive for low hp vapor recovery or vacuum service

Disadvantages

1. Must have clean air or gas

2. Take 5 to 20 % more horsepower than reciprocating

3. Uses 10 times the oil of a reciprocating. Install after-cooler and


separator to recycle oil

3.2 Screw type Rotary Compressor


Advantages

1. Available as non lubricated especially for air service

2. Can handle dirty gas

3. Can handle moderate amounts of liquids but no slugs

4. No pulsating flow

5. At low discharge pressure can be more efficient than


reciprocating

Disadvantages

1. In hydrocarbon service needs seal oil with after cooler and


separator to recycle oil
2. At discharge pressure over 50 psig takes 10 to 20 % more
horsepower than reciprocating

3. Low tolerance to change in condition of temperature, pressure


and ratio

What is the prime mover for pumps and compressor


Prime mover:
Both reciprocating engines are used as prime movers in production
facilities to directly drive pump, compressors, generators, cranes.
Prime movers are generally fueled natural gas and can automatically
switch to diesel. So called “dual fuel” reciprocating engines run on a
mixture of diesel and natural gas. When natural gas is not available,
they can switch to 100% diesel

1. Reciprocating engine are available in 2 basic types

i) Four strokes cycle engine

ii) Two strokes cycle engine

Difference is in the number of engine strokes to complete basic


functions of intake, compression, power and exhaust

Intake-Air and fuel are permitted to the cylinder

Compression-The fuel and air mixture is compressed and ignited

Power- Combustion of fuel results in released of energy. This energy


release results in increase in temperature and pressure in the
cylinders.

2. Gas turbine engine

Gas turbine differs from conventional internal-combustion engines


in the manner in which the expanded gas are employed. The
principle of operation is to direct a stream of hot gases against the
blading of a turbine motor. 3 basic section: the air compressor
section in which air is compressed in a compressor, the combustor
section in which fuel is mixed with the compressed air and burned
and the turbine section where work is extracted from the hot gases

Electric Motors
The selection for electric motors for oil field application is the
same as for other industry. Once exception maybe the selection of motors
for areas where electric power is self-generated. It is cautioned that NEMA
Design B motors( normal starting torque) mayube not be suitable for
application requiring high starting torque such as positive displacement
pumps. A motor used in standby operation mode should be equipped with a
space heater to keep the motor windings dry. In classified areas there space
heaters must meet the surface temperature requirement of the specific
hazardous area