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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)

Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org


Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

ISSN 2319 - 4847

Flexure strength measurement for cement


replacement with recycled glass
Mustafa A. Mahmoud1, Asmaa S.khalil2, Ikram A.Al-Ajaj3
Baghdad University College of Science Physics Department, Al-jadiria, Baghdad, Iraq

ABSTRACT
The most important environmental Impediments at the present time is the accumulation of glass waste (transparent glass
bottles) many experiments and researches have been made on waste and recycling to get use of it as much as possible. this
research study recycling of colorless glass waste and turn them into raw materials alternative for cement to save the
environment from glass waste and reduce some of the disadvantages of cement and its interactions with conserving the
mechanical and physical properties of concrete.This research include recycling of colorless glass bottle which is locally used
and turn them into a fine powder to be replaced by a certain percentages of cement. A set of required samples were prepared for
mechanical tests at a rate of ten samples for different weight percentage which is (2% ,4% ,5% ,6% ,8% ,10% ,15% ,20% ,25%) .
Three point bending was measured to American standard for calibration (ASTM C133-97) to measure the results showed that
the highest Maximum applied of rupture is at the low ratios 2% ,4% ,5% which is (280.52, 233.49, 277.20) KN respectively for
indigenous mix recorded bending resistance (272.60) KN.

Keywords:-transparent glass bottles, cement, Three point bending, flexure strength

1.INTRODUCTION
Cement (cement Portland )is ceramic materials [1] The importance of ceramic materials in the possession of a high
melting points and good mechanical properties and chemical and the provide first-hand in most parts of the world
[2,3].The most important hydraulic cement used extensively in various types of construction , as mortars , plasters
grouting and concrete . The Portland cement mainly as calcium silicates and aluminates and even smaller quantities of
potassium and sodium oxide may also be present [4]. Cement is one of the most cost and energy intensive components
of concrete. Across the world, significant environmental problems result from the manufacture of Portland cement. [5].
The heat produced by the hydration of cement may prevent freezing of the water in the capillaries of freshly placed
concrete in cold weather, and a high evolution of heat is therefore advantageous[6]. Many of the world suffer from the
problem of the accumulation of industrial waste and special waste resulting from the concentration of defective material
Or because of consumer use, such as broken glass and causing other environmental and health problems that require
the development of practical solutions to get rid of them through the re-use or by taking advantage of them partial
substitute for some construction materials (cement, sand,) involved in asphalt or concrete admixtures[7,8,9,10]. The
reuse of waste glass is one of the most important issues around the world due to the increase of solid wastes in the
landfill and non-degradable nature of its disposal. The use of recycled waste glass in concrete has attracted much
interest worldwide and numerous researches have been carried out, showing the possibility of use of waste glass as
building materials by partially replacing concrete mixtures (Shi and Zheng 2007)[11]. The glass powder pozzolanic of
materials that can be added to concrete or mortar (pozzolanic material) or cement paste. pozzolanic and materials are
natural materials or industrial contain the active silica (amorphous) and which are the Association of properties when
they interact with calcium presence of water and varying unusual heat hydroxide, (Ca (OH)2) and calcium hydroxide is
one of the outputs of the process of cement interaction with water Shown in the Figure (1).

Figure 1Schematic representation of the formation and hydration of Portland cement [6].

Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

Page 58

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

ISSN 2319 - 4847

2.THREE-POINT BENDING
The stress at fracture using this flexure test is known as the flexural strength, modulus of rupture, fracture strength or
bend strength are an important mechanical parameter for brittle ceramics. For a rectangular cross section, the flexural
strength fs is equal to [12].
fs = 3PL/2bd2(1)
where
P: is the load (force) at the fracture point
L: is the length of the support (outer) span
b: is width
d: is thickness

3.Experimental work
3.1Raw materials
3.1.1Cement
Iraq ordinary Portland cement, commercially known as (TASLUJA) It was stored in dry place to minimize the effect of
humidity on cement properties.
Examination particle size the Mastersizer 2000 laser diffraction particle size analyzer delivers rapid. The diameter
from (5.344 m- 57.822 m)as shown in figure (2)

Figure2 partial size of cement.


Chemical analysis
Portland cement was analyzed according to ASTM C150- 02a Theresult agreeswith the standard value as show in table
(1), the Calculation potential composition of Portland cement by Bogues equation [13]is shown in table (2)
Table (1): - Chemical composition and main compounds (Bogues) equation) of Portland cement *

Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

ISSN 2319 - 4847

Table (2) Potential composition result for Portland cement (Bogues equations)[13]
C3S

39.99

C2S

39.33

C3A

2.286

C4AF

7.945

3.1.2Fine aggregate (sand)


the proportion of salt in the sand used in this research shows a good agreementwith the stander ASTM C33-03 as
shown in table (3) .Then the particle size of sand was measured using different size of sieves (9.5, 4.75, 2.36, 1.18,
0.60, 0.30, 0.15)mm respectively , the process of measuring was according to the ASTM C33-03 by sifting (1kg) of
sand and then weight the out com of sand in each sieve as shown in table (4).
Table (3): - Chemical composition of sand

Table (4): Grading of fine aggregate*


Sieve size
(mm)
9.5

% Passing by
Weight
100

Specification Limit[15]

4.75

93.2

90-100

2.36

84.2

75-100

1.18

68.0

55-90

0.60

37.8

35-59

0.30

19.6

8-30

0.15

8.8

0-10

100

3.1.3 Recycled Transparent Glass Bottles (RTGB)


The glass used in this study isfrom the waste,it is colorless glass bottles used as partial substitute for cement , at first all
bottles washed carefully and then crushed in a mill specification.The particle size of the glass powder was examined by
the Mastersizer 2000 laser diffraction particle size analyzer delivers rapid. The diameter is in between (3.733 m51.938 m)as shown in Figure (3)

Figure3 the partial size of Glass powder

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

ISSN 2319 - 4847

Chemical analysis
The used Glass was analyzed according to ASTM C618, and The result showed a good agreement with standard values
of element as shown in table (5).
Table (5): - Chemical composition of glass powder
Element

Content %

stander %[16]

SO3

0.7%

---

Na2O

13.626%

12-15%

Fe2O3

1.321%

---

SiO2

72.52%

73%

CaO

7.21%

10%

K2O

0.227%

---

MgO

2.208%

---

AL2O3

1.75%

---

L.O.I

0.347%

---

3.1.4 Water
Ordinary Tap water ofthe drinking net was used for all concrete admixtures according to (IQS 1992/1703 ).

4.SAMPLE

PREPARATION

The molds were made out of wood according to ASTM C133-97 standar, the volume of the samples are as shown in
table (6)
Table (6) for used molds

The weight percentages Mixing of the components of concrete cement, sand and water (1:2.75:0.485) respectively
according to ASTM C109/C109M . The details and proportions of mixes are shown in Table (7).
In order to achieve what it takes to search the mixes were divided into two sets as follows:
At first the Controled mix where prepared is composed of cement ,water and natural sand.
9 mixes that are and them composed of cement , natural sand and fine waste glass as a partial substitute of cement in
weight percentages of 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25 %. The weight percentage of replacement glass was add to cement
and then mixed with cement , sand and water.
Mixing process was carried out by using 0.1 m3 rotary type mixer for all mixes. To prepare the first set of the controlled
mix, the sand and cement were initially mixed for 2-5 minutes, then the required amount of water was added with
mixing for additional 2 minutes until achieving a homogenous mixture. For preparing fine aggregate substitution
mixes, the fine glass aggregate with differentweightpercentage was mixed with cement before adding it to the mixer.
Finally, the mixed cement and glass were added and mixed for 10 minutes until achieving a homogeneous mixture.
To prepare samples with dimension as shown in table (2-7)all the molds were cleaned and thoroughly oiled before
casting. A vibrating table was used for a sufficient period to extract the air voids. The top surfaces of the molds were

Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

ISSN 2319 - 4847

leveled and covered with nylon sheets to prevent evaporation. All samples surfaces were cleaned and polish as show in
figure (5)and Scheme 2 show Stages of sample .
Table (7): - Descriptions of Investigated Mixes

Scheme 2 Stages of sample preparation

Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

ISSN 2319 - 4847

5.THREE POINT BENDING MEASUREMENT


Electronic universal test mechanical WDW-200E. (maximum load is carrying device 200 kN). The Molds for the
samples was prepared according to ASTM for compression measurement as shown in table (2-6).samples and the
dimensions of the standard are cubic, is shown in Figure (4).

Figure 4 Dimensions of three point bending test specimen


All the samples were de-molded after 242 hours from casting, marked and then completely immersed in tap water.
All samples casted according to ASTM with demotion as shown in figure (5) and to obtain a smooth surface

Figure5 Concrete samples for three point bending measurement

6. RESULT AND DISCUSSION


Figures ( 6-15 ) show The effect of waste glass recycled on flexure strength when replacing a few percentages of
thecrushed waste glass with cement, Were used to calculated flexure strength equation (1) .result show that the flexure
strength decrease With increased weight percentage and which keeps on the original value of the control mix where
few percentages recorded the Maximum applied of rupture(280.52 KN) We note that large proportions, the flexure
strength decreases with increasing replacement weight percentage as shown in table(8) and this can be attributed to
reactions Article pozzalanic ground glass that appear to speed up the time sclerosis with the passage of time and help
to improve the madder bending .A similar behavior was also reported byVandhiyan R. et al [2013][17]Shehata et al
(2005)[18] .experimented on replacement of cement by waste glass powder and concluded that a considerable
improvement in the flexural strength was seen at 10% replacement of cement.

Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

ISSN 2319 - 4847

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

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Table (8) three point bending results for cement mortar samples

7. CONCLUSION
Depending on the results obtained from the production of glass concrete and study some properties Compared with the
results of the control concrete (C) can be concluded the following:
1.Possible to produce concrete replacement of part of the cement waste glass powder after grinding to the asymptotic
size of the cement.
2.The results showed that the replacement of part of the cement powder glass gives strength to bending greater or the
nearest strength to the control mixture (C) compared with other weight percentage .

Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2015

ISSN 2319 - 4847

3.In economic terms it would prefer to take advantage of waste glass to return of use in concrete with good production
properties.

REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]

C. Suchicital, "Ceramic processing", MSE-4424, 1998.


WWW.mse.eng. Ohio-State. edu/mse 205/lecture/ch.14.
Ryan W. &Fric C. ,Properties of Ceramic Raw Materials ,John Wiley and Sons ,Inc. ,New York (1967).
The Nature and properties of engineering materials " second edition by Zbigniew D .Jastrzebski
ACI Committee 201., Guide to Durable Concrete (ACI 74-53), American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Dec. 1977.
A.M Neville "Properties of Concrete " . Fifth Edition, pitman -1 publishing limited , London ,UK,1981 .
C Shi, Y Wu, C Riefler H Wang ,"Characteristics and Pozzolanic Reactivity of Glass Powders "Cement and
Concrete Research, 2004.
[8] Ahmad Shayan, "Value-added Utilisation of Waste Glass in Concrete", Iabse Symposium Melbourne, 2002.
[9] N. N Eldin,., &Senouci , A. B. ," Rubber-tire Particles as Concrete Aggregate" ,Journal of Materials in Civil
Engineering, ASCE, pp. 478-496, 1993.
[10] W. Chesner, "Waste Glass and Sewage Sludge Ash Use in Asphalt Pavement" ,Utilization of Waste Materials in
Civil Engineering Construction ,American Societyof Civil Engineering, 1992.
[11] C. Shi, and K. Zheng, (2007) A review on the use of waste glasses in the production of cement and concrete.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 52 (2), 234247.
[12] [12] P. J. F. WRIGHT, The effect of the method of test on the flexural strength of concrete, Mag. Concr. Res., 4,
No. 11, pp. 6776 (1952).
[13] R. H. BOGUE, Chemistry of Portland Cement (New York, Reinhold, 1955).
[14] ASTM: C 150-02a : Standard Specification for Portland Cement.
[15] ASTM: C 33-03 : Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates.
[16] ASTM: C 150-02a : Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in
Concrete.
[17] Shehata MH, Thomas MDA. The effect of fly ash composition on the expansion of concrete due to alkalisilica
reaction. CemConcr Res2000;30:106372.
[18] R.Vandhiyan, K. Ramkumar and Ramya R.(2013)Experimental Study On Replacement Of Cement By Glass
Powder International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT) Vol. 2 Issue 5, May, ISSN: 22780181

AUTHOR
Mustafa A. Mahmoud((born in Baghdad in December,1990). Received a B.Sc (2013) in physics department\
collage of science\university of Baghdad and now she is student, she is publishing this paper as a required part
to get MSc in material physics from Baghdad university

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