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IP Multicast Routing Protocol Basics

IP Multicast Routing is the routing of the multicast traffic. The nature of IP Multicast data is such that it has its own particular Cisco network routing challenges. There are four main Multicast protocols that are supported by the current Cisco IOS. The illustration shows you approximately where the protocols are used; the following is a list of the protocols:

Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP): Used to track devices on LANs that are members of multicast groups (or addresses). This protocol is used between the device and the network router.

Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM): Used to track which multicast addresses or packets need to be sent to devices on the attached network segments or to other routers that are directly attached via network segments.

Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP): Used to communicate with Internet-based devices on the Multicast Backbone (MBONE). Cisco supports communication between PIM and DVMRP. At this time, most service providers do not support multicast traffic over their networks.

Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP): A proprietary Cisco protocol used to communicate with Cisco Catalyst switches in operations that are similar to IGMP.

IP Multicast Routing Protocol Basics By <a href=Edward Tetz from Cisco Networking All-in-One For Dummies IP Multicast Routing is the routing of the multicast traffic. The nature of IP Multicast data is such that it has its own particular Cisco network routing challenges. There are four main Multicast protocols that are supported by the current Cisco IOS. The illustration shows you approximately where the protocols are used; the following is a list of the protocols:  Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP): Used to track devices on LANs that are members of multicast groups (or addresses). This protocol is used between the device and the network router.  Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM): Used to track which multicast addresses or packets need to be sent to devices on the attached network segments or to other routers that are directly attached via network segments.  Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP): Used to communicate with Internet-based devices on the Multicast Backbone (MBONE). Cisco supports communication between PIM and DVMRP. At this time, most service providers do not support multicast traffic over their networks.  Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP): A proprietary Cisco protocol used to communicate with Cisco Catalyst switches in operations that are similar to IGMP. " id="pdf-obj-0-40" src="pdf-obj-0-40.jpg">

Multicast Routing Configuration

Enabling basic multicast routing functionality on your network does not require a lot of work and can be implemented fairly quickly. Some configuration is done in Global Configuration mode and some configuration is done in Interface Configuration mode.

Enabling multicast routing

The first command that you perform in Global Configuration mode is the ip multicast­ routing command, which enables multicast routing for the router. Enabling multicast routing initially does not route any data, due in fact that the default configuration leaves all router interfaces without multicast routing in their configuration.

To have multicast routing in a working configuration, you must enter each interface and configure the PIM on those interfaces. To enable PIM on an interface, you use the ip pim command, which accepts either a dense­mode or sparse­mode option. When you enable PIM on an interface, you automatically enable IGMP on those interfaces.

Supporting Sparse-Dense mode

Some groups may require Sparse mode or Dense mode in order to operate properly. Because you configure an interface for one mode or the other, you might find yourself in a catch-22 where you need both installed. To deal with this issue, Cisco supports all modes on its IOS routers, where the mode is applied to the multicast group on the router and not its interfaces.

Because you may end up using Sparse mode for some groups, you require an RP to be configured. When using Sparse-Dense mode, you need to implement it throughout the network to avoid conflicts between Sparse mode and Dense mode interfaces. You implement the Sparse- Dense mode with the command ip pim sparse­dense­mode.

As just mentioned, an RP is a router on your network, so you need to assign this function to one or more routers on your network. Doing so does not require configuration on the RP router, but rather on the downstream router. The downstream router requires the address of an RP, which is accomplished by running the ip pim rp­address rp­address [access­list] [override] command using Global Configuration mode.

Sparse mode implementations require the RP to be specified, although Sparse-Dense mode it is an option as you can use Auto-RP.

Using Auto-RP rather than RPs

Rather than specifying specific RP routers, you can use Auto-RP to automate the selection and configuration of RP routers on your network. Auto-RP allows you to easily use multiple routers on your network because the RPs may be serving different groups or splitting the load over several routers. The routers could be based on the location of a multicast group’s receivers and connectivity issues could be caused by inconsistent configuration across your network.

To configure Auto-RP mode, you need to make two configuration changes, one on the router you want to act as an RP and one on the router that will manage group mappings to RPs. The first command is issued in Global Configuration mode:

ip pim send­rp­announce type number scope ttl­value [group­list access­ list] [interval seconds]

whereas the second command is

ip pim send­rp­discovery scope ttl­value

Testing connectivity

You can configure your router to be a member of a multicast group so that you can test connectivity. To add your router as a member, use the ip igmp join­group group­ address command in Interface Configuration mode. By default, the router uses IGMP version 2, which maximizes functionality, because version 3 has some restrictions.

To change versions, use Interface Configuration mode and enter this command: ip igmp version {3 | 2 | 1. All routers on the same network segment must use the same version of IGMP, but IGMP version 2 routers will work correctly if IGMP version 1 routers are on the network. So, given the network layout, Router2 may have the following configuration commands to enable PIM routing — Router1’s setup commands then follow.

Router2>enable

Password:

Router2#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router2(config)#ip multicast­routing Router2(config)#ip pim rp­address 192.168.1.2 Router2(config)#interface FastEthernet 0/0 Router2(config­if)#ip address 192.168.1.240 255.255.255.0 Router2(config­if)#ip pim sparse­dense­mode

Router2(config­if)#exit

Router2(config)#ip pim send­rp­announce FastEthernet 0/0 scope 16 group­ list 1 Router2(config)#access­list 1 permit 239.0.0.0 0.255.255.255

Router2(config)#exit

To set up Router 1, use these commands:

Router1>enable

Password:

Router1#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router1(config)#ip multicast­routing Router1(config)#ip pim rp­address 192.168.1.2 Router1(config)#interface FastEthernet 0/0 Router1(config­if)#ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0 Router1(config­if)#ip pim sparse­dense­mode

Router1(config­if)#exit

Router1(config)#ip pim send­rp­discovery scope 16

Router1(config)#exit