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Personnel Management in Education

The phase of management concerned with the engagement and effective utilization of
manpower to obtain optimum efficiency of human resources(MERRIAM WEBSTER).
Personnel management can be defined as obtaining, using and maintaining a satisfied
workforce. It is a significant part of management concerned with employees at work and with
their relationship within the organization. According to Flippo, Personnel management is the
planning, organizing, compensation, integration and maintainance of people for the purpose of
contributing to organizational, individual and societal goals.and according to Brech Personnel
Management is that part which is primarily concerned with human resource of organization.
A code of the ways of organization and treating individual at work so that they will each
get the greatest possible realization of their intrinsic abilities, thus attaining maximum efficiency
for themselves and their group , and thereby giving to the enterprise of which they are a part its
determining competitive advantage and its optimum result. (Spates,1944:9) It is The field of
management which has to do with planning, organizing, directing, and controlling various
operative functions of procuring, developing, maintaining, and utilizing a labor force such as: a)
objectives for which the company is established are attained economically and effectively; b)
objectives of all levels of personnel are served to the highest possible degree; c) objectives of the
community are duly considered and served. (Jucius, 123)The phase of management concerned
with the engagement and effective utilization of manpower to obtain optimum efficiency of
human resources. (Webster, 1687) From the definitions that were cited, Personnel Management
is the effective recruitment, selection, placement, development , maintenance, and utilization of
the manpower resources of an organization . It gives Equal opportunity for advancement in any
organization; Reward employees for efficient performance Motivate who failed to reached
standards as regards time, cost, quantity, and quality in the performance of their work.

Personnel Management has an important role in every sector of a country especially in
Education. Educational growth is a continuous process. From the early civilizations until the
present ,its paradigms has changed and improved from traditional to the current educational
The change in the society as an effect of globalization and demands became the reason as
to why many countries invest to improve their educational system.
This paper aims to analyse the significance of personnel management in education and in
the education process.

The Growth in Education

2.1 Growth in education in international perspective
It was a general understanding that modern education system was developed by west countries,
especially United States. In United States, growth of education was changing.
In the New England, people began to teach their children at home. The objective of the education
was to help children understand about their religion and participating in the religious ceremonies
especially at church. However, by 1642 Massachusetts passed a law requiring the all children to
be taught to read and write and to know the principle religion (Chambell, Bridges, & Nystrand,
1977:27-28). Actually this is the beginning of the education when it dominated by religious
tendency. By the 1647, the new law was written in Massachusetts ordering:
(1) That every town having fifty householders should at once appoint a teacher of reading and
writing, and provide for wages in such manner as the town might determine; and (2) That every
town having one hundred householders must provide a grammar school to fit youth for the
university, under penalty of five pounds (afterward increased to twenty pounds) for failure to do
(Cubberly in Chambel et all, 1977:28)
In the middle colonies (like New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland) where religious dominations
were represented, people built the parochial school. In the same times church also built system of
education in the reason of its domination to its own beliefs and doctrines. It was the beginning of
private school. To accommodating these two types of school in these colonies, there was a policy
launched at 1925 that parents have the right to educate children in private schools as long as
these schools met the states educational requirements. Furthermore, some state also built
school for special purpose, let say because of the Southern colonies had the larger number of
paupers and orphans, church built the special schools for accommodating them (Chambell,
Bridges, & Nystrand, 1977:27-29).
Furthermore, in the international policy perspectives, there was an evolution in education growth
from traditional education politics into structural education politics. This evolution includes main
participants, dominant coalition, dominant agenda, political cleavage, policy process, and policy
outcomes. Table 2 stated these changing.
Table 1 Traditional Education Politics vs. Structural Education Reforms Politics

Main Participants

Traditional Education Politics Structural Education Reforms

Predictable: Education
Unpredictable: Presidents,


Dominant Coalition

Education Policy Community:

Governors, non-education
Bureaucrats + Education
Moderate Structural Reformers:

National, state, and

district Education

National Politicians:
President and Prime

Legislators specializing
in education

Elite Bureaucrats: White

House, Cabinet office,
national ministries

Teachers union

Business Association

Business Association:
Keidanren, Business

State Association:
National Governors

Dominant Agenda


Instructional Strategy


redistribution of

Focus on
not on Input/Resources

Political Party

Sectoral Issue

Local vs. Elite

Political Cleavage

Policy Process
Policy Outcomes

Shifting, dependent on

Predictable, Immobile

Chaotic, Ad-Hoc

Incremental Change

Fragmented Policies

Waves of change

Widespread adoption of
trendy reforms

(Nitta, 2008:3)
Regarding the evolution of improvement, we can also learn from Japan. It is a trend that many
countries want to restructure their education system, United and Japan for example. They
improve education policy making by facilitating simultaneous structural education reform: (1)
worries that failing public schools threatened economic competitiveness, (2) the emergency of
trendy new public management solutions that promised to fix schools by simply restructuring
authority, and (3) more chaotic and competitive politics driven by the decline of labor unions
(Nitta, 2008:183).
2.2 Growth in education in Malaysia
Initially, the education in Malaysia, like other ASEAN country was informal education and
mainly focused on religious school that is managed by individual (sekolah pondok).
Education in Malaysia can be categorized into to major: pre independence and post
independence. During the pre independence, there are four countries that noted as colonist in
Malaysia: Portuguese, Dutch, English, and Japanese.
Among the colonist, the arrival of English in 1786 brought the new era in Malaysian education
system (Ministry of Education Malaysia, 2008:3). The complete colonist in Malaysia is shown in
following table.
Table 2 Features of Colonization
No Colonist



Based in Malacca

(130 years)



(130 years)


Limited impact in Education

Based in Malacca

Limited influence, focus was on

Betawi (Jakarta)

No impact in education

Significant influence on
developing in education

Development of English, Malay,

Chinese, Tamil and religious

Did not promote ethnic unity

Significant influence on relation

between ethnic groups

School curriculum promoted

Japanese culture and values


Language and cultural influence

(183 years)

(3.5 years)

(Ministry of Education Malaysia, 2008:3)

During the British occupancy, each ethnic group has its own school. In this time, children of
different ethnic background could only study together in the English schools (Ministry of
Education Malaysia, 2008:3). Teacher must come from the same ethnic.
At British occupancy, religious school was change. They improve religious school by establish
religious school more modern. These schools had a better infrastructure and more modern
compare with the traditional religious teacher (sekolah pondok). This is the decline point of
traditional religious education system (Tamuri and Saad, 2008:160). Unfortunately, some
weaknesses was still happening in the teaching and learning activities. Even it was a modern

school, the most weaknesses was not realized the Mathematics, Science, and English Language.
Some of people were very famous during the time, Sheikh Tahir Jalaluddin and Sayid Seikh
Ahmad Al Hadi for example. The pioneer of religious teacher are Madrasah Al-Iqbal (Singapore,
1907), Madrasah Al-Hadi (Malacca, 1917), and Madrasah Al-Manshoor (Pulau Pinang, 1919)
(Ministry of Education Malaysia, 2008:5).
In the post independence, Central Government kept more attention to the education for all.
There are several report during 1957-1970: Barnes Report 1950, Fenn-Wu Report 1950, Razak
Report 1951, Rahman Talib Report 1960, Higher Education Committee Report 1967, Dropout
Report 1973, Cabinet Committee Report 1979 and Cabinet Committee Report on Training 1991
(Ministry of Education Malaysia, 2008:10). Among these, the Razak Report and Rahman Thalib
Report has the most influence to the education system in Malaysia resulted the education act
1961. In both of report, the issue of unity is introduced.
During New Era of Economic Policy (1971-1990), social and economic issues had a greater
attention (Ministry of Education Malaysia, 2008:14). During the time, all pupils follow the same
curriculum and sit for the same examination. Malay language was used during the classroom
activities. Following New Era of Economic Policy is Era of National Development Policy
(1991-2000). Some of education improvement was known during this era: (1) using ICT in the
teaching and learning activities was started, and (2) the amendments of 1961 Education Act into
1996 Education Act, when preschool were involved into the act.
At 2001-2010 education in Malaysia has Era of National Vision Policy. Some efforts were
introduced in this era, including promoting education system into 11 years of schooling.
Programs to promote continuous human resources development such us in service training on
developing management and leadership and research skill were conducted.
On 16 January 2007, Government launched Education Development Master Plan 2006-2010 to
promote the education agenda under the 9th Malaysian Plan. Providing education for all is the
objective of this plan. Sixth strategies has been identified in the plan: (1) nation building, (2)
developing human capital, (3) strengthening the national school, (4) bridging the education gap,
(5) elevating teaching profession, and (6) accelerating excellence of educational institutions
(Ministry of Education Malaysia, 2008:22). Especially for elevating teaching profession, the
program is focused on implementing a stringent selection system for teacher candidates,
strengthening teacher training, strengthening teacher career, improving the working environment
and wellbeing of teachers, and strengthening human resource planning and management.
2.3 Growth in education in Indonesia
Modern education system in Indonesia was built during the colonialism of Dutch. Before the
time, Indonesian knew traditional religious school where the pondok pesantren has important
role. Under colonialism government established a village schools in 1906. During the time, the
smallest number of people can enter the school.
Under the 1945 constitution, central government developed the national education system
which stipulates that every citizen has the right to obtain education and that government has the

responsibility to provide one national education system (Kristiansen and Pratikno, 2006: 514).
The first report about the education section in Indonesia was reported in 1951. In order to
succeed the six years compulsory education, the government faced many problems: the great
shortage of teachers, the great number of unqualified or insufficiently educated teachers,
shortage of school building and shortage of material and educational equipment (Ministry of
Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, 1951: 1)
Financial constrain and politic instability during 1945 1970s made central government lack of
control of the education plan. Central governments got the momentum for improving national
education system under New Order regime of President Suharto, especially in the 1970s and
1980s. In 1980, primary education was made available to all, followed by nine years of
schooling in the mid 1990s (Kristiansen and Pratikno, 2006: 514).
Following the monetary crisis at 1998, Indonesian government got momentum of improvement.
At 2001, central government decentralized education policy into lover level government. This is
the new era of improvement when the lover levels of governments (province, district and school)
have opportunities to determine its own policy.
3. Personnel Management in Education
Personnel management has greater importance role because of many reasons: policy, decision
making process, motivation and job satisfaction, human relationship, and group development.
3.1 Personnel management in the aspect of policy
Because the importance of changing is in the grass root, school as the lower level of policy
making has important effect in the changing process. At school we can realize the interrelation
among the components in schools. Because the components of school are students, teachers, and
the staff, we need to manage the carefully, but in the same time we need to make priority. Among
these resources, teachers have more important role. Teacher is needed to give opportunity to
students to develop their thinking skill in order to get high achievement based on the curriculas
objectives. By assuming teachers as more important resources, managing teacher is the key
factor for school effectiveness. The better manage teacher, the higher school effectiveness.
3.2 Personnel management in the aspect of decision making process
In the context of decision making process, principal need to make the right decision by putting
teachers as main basis in the right position. Relating the process of decision making, participative
decision making is needed to increase teachers acceptance and commitment refers to the
schools goal. Since the common issue in the decision making process in relevance, expertise,
and trust problem, Hoy and Miskel (2001) suppose the participative decision making style can
answer three questions: (1) relevance question (do the subordinates have personal stake in the
outcome?); (2) expertise question (can subordinate contribute expertise to the solution?); and (3)
Trust question (can subordinates be trusted to make a decision in the best interest of the
organization?) (Hoy and Miskel, 2001: 345-346). A normative model for participative decision
making is shown in the following figure.

Figure 1 The Normative Model for Participative Decision Making (Hoy and Miskel, 2001: 347).
A participative school is characterized with the using of participative decision making process in
determining the decision. Most of the principals prefer to have the authority to make the final
decision by themselves; however some other tend to consult with others in making critical
decisions. Many believe that participative decision making can enhance the performance of the
school. This participation may include many parties such as teachers, students, and parents.
Participating teachers in decision making process is important. In this case, whenever the
principal wants to make a decision, he asks the teachers to attend a meeting and let him know
their opinions. Each teacher comes up with his or her views and in the end, the principal selects
the best one; however the principal may make his own decision if none of the offers seem
sensible. There are some essential factors which should be taken into consideration such as: the
serving years of the teacher, his or her competency, his or her age and so on.
Not only teachers, student can also participate in the decision making. In this case, students play
a full role as active participants and partners in their school community. Participative structures
enable students creative energies to be channeled into making school a happier and better place
for everyone. Through participating and taking on responsibility, students gain important lifeskills, self-esteem and motivation. This can be done through school councils. A school council is
a representative group of students elected by their peers to discuss about their education and
share their ideas with their teachers or managers.
As a matter of fact, parents can play a significant role at schools. Since they are much more
familiar with their childrens characteristics, they can contribute to the school administrators in
making appropriate decisions. TPA (Teacher-Parent Association) is a place in which parents,
teachers and school administrators gather together and talk about the facing concerns at school.
However, variety of opinions might lead unexpected challenges that could be harmful for the
school. To avoid such a multiplicity, instead of all the parents, there could be a number of them
who represent the others.
Furthermore, the role of principal who involve external parties in decision making is debatable.
When a principal incorporates external parties in his making decisions, it should not be the result
of his or her incapability of decision making, but it should express his leadership style; he should
be able to control different opinions. He should also have the ability to cope with the ideas
against his or hers. This can be done by coordinating several views which brings about a
democracy. However, a principal should be careful with this diversity in opinions in order not to
deviate him from his main goals.
By involving as many as parties in decision making process, the school decision is not belong to
principal only. In addition, the participative process also important in developing school
effectiveness in facing the new era. Stoll, MacBeath, and Mortimore (2001:191-207) proposed
ten process to increase school effectiveness:
1. Develop a wider range of skills and qualities for a fast changing world.

2. Emphasize learner and learning and consider implications for teaching.

3. Listen to the pupils voice.
4. Facilitate the deep learning of teachers.
5. Promote self evaluation.
6. Emphasize leadership and management.
7. Ensure high-quality critical friendship.
8. Build communities, networks and partnerships
9. Take a connected approach to improvement.
10. Strive for sustainable of improvement.
Why we are using participative decision making in decision making process? This question is
commonly, especially in the centralized system. These are the simple reason why we need to use
participative decisions making, refers to school effectiveness:
1. Decision making has important role in organizational process, especially in the
determining the goal or objective of school. To make a sure that every part of school
increase their efforts to achieve the goal principal need goal acceptance and goal
commitment among them. In participative decision making, principals involve the need
of teacher and other school part to participate in the decision making. It will increase their
commitment and their acceptance.
2. Participative decision making is the process of decision making that is regarding the
human relation and also task oriented. In the participative process, principal use their
leadership dimension to encourages the teachers need, especially in the social needs. In
the same time principal regards the task oriented. So the participative decision making is
the best way to achieve the goal of school and also individual goal.
3. Participative decision making is a process. It does not refer to principal. So, if in the
process principal is changed, and the new principal is appointed, there is no problem in
the school, because the decision is collegial decision. Whoever the principal is, the
decision is going on.
4. Principal can not do all alone. She needs to do together with community and also other
parties. So, participative decision making is a process to distribute the job based on the
collegial responsibilities. Refers to loose coupling paradigm, this style can be used to
strengthen the school.

Finally, for answering the question why personnel management has important rule in the
changing process can be seen from the perspective to increase the commitment and acceptance
and to creating the supported human resources. Participative decision making is one of solution
in the personnel management method to manage the changing. It is clear that the bottom up
changing is more succeed than top down changing. Teacher and staff as the main resources in
education and school can create their own changing climate. So, personnel management has
greater importance in the changing paradigm of growth in education, from the perspective of
decision making. Personnel management contributes to the changing by increasing goal
commitment and goal acceptance.
3.3 Personnel management in the aspect of motivation and job satisfaction
Learning from the Massachusetts where since 1947 people already thinking about wages for
teacher, we can infer that wages as one of compensation of duty is important. Discussing about
wag management actually we discuss about one of the personnel management when the principal
(or government) maintain the personality in the education system. Furthermore, it is the job
satisfaction management. We need to provide our personnel with the appropriate wage. The next
research indicates beside the wages, we need to consider our personnels motivation.
Especially about job satisfaction in secondary school teacher in England, one of the researches
was done by Crossman and Harriss at 2006. The research indicates that type of schools has
significant contribution into job satisfaction. Other factors that expect influence job satisfaction
are age, gender, and length of service (Crossman and Harris, 2006). Type of schools can
influence the level of job satisfaction among the teachers because of the type of management that
was implemented by the principal. In this research, teachers who were teaching in the
independent schools and privately managed schools were more satisfied compare than those in
the foundation and church in England (Crossman and Harris, 2006:40). It was assumed that in
independent and private-managed schools, management can maintain their teachers autonomy.
In the context of length of service, the level of job satisfaction can vary based on the length of
service. From the figure, the teachers with 0-5 years of service are more satisfied than their peers
after 6-10, 11-20, and 21-30 years; a reason for this might be the enthusiasm of newer teachers or
the alteration in the expectations of more experienced teachers. According to the descriptive
statistics given in this study, Of the 233 respondents, seventy-two teachers (30.9%) were new to
the teaching profession with 05 years length of service. This amazing number shows that most
of the teachers had newly started their professions which would justify the high number of young
teachers as another result given in the study, or maybe a large amount of them had been late
career-changers. The relatively low number of teachers with over 30 year length of service in
teaching may be due to teachers with this service having retired early. Another explanation for
increasing job satisfaction after 30 or more years of service could be the career progression
whereas those in the 11-20 years of service might be experiencing mid-career stress. There can
also be a mutual relationship between age and length of service; those with longer length of
service are probably the older and this factor may enable them to cope with changing demands
much more easily.

Figure 2 Mean overall job satisfactions by length of service group (Crossman and Harris,
In the same way, the age of teachers can also influence the level of job satisfaction. Normally,
job satisfaction will be high in the 31-40 years old.
Figure 3 Mean overall job satisfaction by age of groups (Crossman and Harris, 2006:37)
We can see that in the first stage (from 22-30 to 31-40 age group) the job satisfaction levels of
teachers decrease. It can be caused by several factors. In this stage, teachers are young so they
need more money to spend for their life and they just graduated from their schools, they have
many good wishes. When they see the differences between what they studied in university and
what real situation is, they feel dissatisfied. They want to get higher levels of needs, such as
physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self esteem and self actualization.
Therefore, the principals should have some methods to improve the level of satisfaction among
the teacher, such as the principals should have some training for young teacher when they begin
working in schools. Moreover, principles should pay more attention or have some policies for
young teachers because they are not mature, they do not have enough life experience. In the
second stage (from 31-40 to 41-50 age group), the level of satisfaction was increased. Teachers
become more satisfied because some causes. First of all, they have enough experience, so they
can understand real conditions and maintain their job. The second reason is that the teachers on
this period have stable promotion thus they satisfy with the job. In the last stage (from 41-50 to
51+), job satisfaction level falls again. At that time, teachers become older, so they bored their
job, they are willing to transfer teaching for young generation.
Refer to the relation between the job satisfaction and gender; research indicated that female
teachers are more satisfied compare with male teacher. Principal needs to consider the gender to
increase subordinate job satisfaction.
Finally, as a leader in school, principals need to maintain the job satisfaction among the teachers
and staffs because job satisfaction can influence job performance. Normally an increasing job
satisfaction among the teachers and staffs will increase teachers performance. One a gain,
personnel management has great impact in the quality of education.
3.4 Personnel management in the aspect of human relationship
As human being, we need to interact and work together with others. Usually, we use an
appropriate method for interacting and working together with others. In order to increase the
interaction effectiveness, we must use an appropriate communication way. Here, the good
personnel management ensures the appropriate communication method to achieve the education
goal. The important of communication in the context of personnel management can be seen from
the way to reduce the noise when the interaction is built and to manage the conflict in the human
relationship during the interaction process.

The changing of growth of education created the human relation especially at school at risk. But,
school can reduce the risk by implementing good communication process as part of personnel
management. Principal at school and also stake holder in education should keep their effective
communication, especially by using informal channel. Actually, the core in personnel
management is in the communication process. The best communication ensures the personnels
voice will flow at the right channel and way.
3.5 Personnel management in the aspect of group development
Tuckman presented five stages in the group development: forming, storming, norming,
performing, and adjourning. In the forming, the group comes together and begins to form its own
working relationship. The second stage, storming occurs when the various elements of the group
work together to settle any disagreement and set priorities. During the norming, the ground rules
of behavior and standards are set. By performing, the effectiveness of the group can really be
judged. Provided that all the spadework has been done in the earlier stages, the group will be
better able to achieve objectives and work cooperatively. When the group is to disband and
disengage, this is the final stage, adjourning (Dick and Ellis, 2006: 123-124).
Figure 4 The Tuckmans stages of group development (Hucznski & Buchanan, 2003)
A headmaster as a leader in school need to ensure the process of group development in every
division at school can be developed well. A good picture about personnel management gives
comprehensive understanding in team development for special purposes. Lacking of this picture
will make the team vanish.
The rapid changing in the education needs the fast adaptation at school level, and the stronger the
group, the easier school adaptation process. So, principal need to make teachers and staffs as an
effective team. And to achieve this condition, principal must following the step by step process.
The effective team cannot happen spontaneously. Principals needs to manage their teachers and
staffs to follow the right steps. Refer to the Tuckmans stages of group development; the
development of group is begun with the forming. In these stages, principal need to understand
that their subordinate is under confusion. Some times they do not know about the goal or
objective the group itself. Principal need to maintain and use her power bases to maintain the
group. After this stage, the group will achieve the storming stage. In this stage, the condition of
the group is under fraction. Some disagreement among the members toward the priorities can be
happened. In the same time the member of the group is under the beginning of mutually
understanding. The next stage is norming. The norming stage is characterized by the consensus
and the standard of the norms. Finally, the good performance of the group will be perfect in the
performance stage when the group member can work together and eliminate the egoism among

1. BASIC FUNCTIONS management of enterprise
2. OPERATIVE FUNCTIONS covers the details of the responsibilities and tasks
necessary to carry out policies and programs related to personnel.
3. PLANNING refers to the job of determining a proposed mode of action based upon
a full understanding of the factors involved, and directed at specific objectives which
take into consideration the priorities desired by management. (Sison,1991:30) The
outlining of things to be accomplished and the methods necessary for the
accomplishment. (Miranda-Miranda,2002:11) A logical and systematic approach of
formulating the objectives, programs, policies, procedures, budgets, rules and
regulations, and other types of plan. (Iigo,2000:74) Create favorable climate for
human resources in the organization; Determine in advance the anticipated
difficulties and thus, facilitate accomplishment of objectives/goals; Ability to analyze
the projected programs and policies ; Improve working relationships.
4. ORGANIZING refers to the arrangement and relationship of jobs and position
which are necessary to carry out the personnel programs as determined by top
management. (Sison,1991:30-31) the establishment of formal structure of authority
5. DIRECTING is concerned with the guidance of all efforts toward a stated
objectives. (Sison,1991:31) making decisions and giving order (MirandaMiranda,2002:12)
6. COORDINATING is a method of getting people in an organization to work
together harmoniously to achieve a common goal with minimum expenditure of effort
and materials. (Sison,1991:31) bringing together the various processes of work
(Miranda- Miranda,2002:12)
7. CONTROLLING is concerned with keeping all efforts within the channels
prescribed by management in the pursuit of personnel plan for the entire organization
to ensure that the organization is accomplishing its purpose. (Sison,1991:31) involves
the checking or evaluation and measurement of work performance and comparing it
with planned goals or objectives and making the necessary corrective actions so that
work is accomplished as planned.Ensure smooth operation of the various activities
required in achieving the objectives, i.e., to get the work done at the specified time, to
utilize the best means to conserve effort, to increase understanding and to motivate
employee in the tasks at hand.

8. PROCUREMENT OF EMPLOYEES is concerned with recruitment, selection,

hiring, and placement of employees. (Sison,1991:31) 2.2 PLACEMENT AND
UTILIZATION OF EMPLOYEES after an employee is hired and trained, he is
expected to contribute the maximum of his abilities towards attaining the productivity
objectives of the company. (Sison,1991:32)
acquisition of knowledge, development of skill in the job, and proper work attitudes.
(Sison,1991:32) 2.4 MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES means by which employees are
inspired to work to achieve the objectives of the organization effectively.
(Sison,1991:32) 2.5 COMPENSATING the objectives of a good compensation plan
are to attract and retain well qualified employees in the organization and to reward
them for good performance. (Sison,1991:32) Satisfaction of three requirements of
basic human motivation: (1) economic needs; (2) psychological feeling; and (3) extra
reward (incentive)
10. HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT is the main function and
responsibility of management specifically line supervisors and managers since it
comprise people who are responsible for planning, organizing, directing,
controlling, and coordinating of work to the subordinate to attain the desired
objectives. HUMAN RESOURCES DEPARTMENT is an organizational unit or
service unit known as staff that established by top management to assist the other
units in the organization in their performance of personnel management functions.
11. SCIENCE is defined as the systematic accumulation of facts (such as surveys,
statistics, interviews, and observations), their analysis and interpretation, and their use
to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion. (Sison,1991:35) ART is proficiency in the
practical application of knowledge acquired through study, experience, or
observation since it involves the making of sound decisions. (Sison,1991:35)
12. Sir Harry Pilkington stated: Management is a science but not only a science it is
highly individual, a matter of perception and imagination at least as much of first
principles; it deals with human beings all the time and in it is an Art, an art requiring
qualities of heart and of judgement , at least as much as of intellect. All those qualities
are required to the full if management is really to play its part in the shaping of
mankinds future. (Pilkington, 1964:27)
13. PSYCHOLOGY the science of psychology deals with the mind and the study of
behavior in relation to the physical and social environment. (Sison,1991:36)
ECONOMICS the Personnel managers function involves the human element in
the business enterprise which is set up to produce and distribute goods and services
for profit. (Sison,1991:36) LAW the Personnel manager need not to be lawyer in
order to perform his functions effectively, he must have a working knowledge of the
various laws affecting employee-employer relationship as prescribed in Labor Code
and Implementing rules and regulations as well as court decisions pertaining LaborManagement relations. (Sison,1991:36-37)

14. SOCIOLOGY a fairly good working knowledge of sociology is important in

understanding group behaviort as influenced by cultural patterns and traditional
modes of thinking. (Sison,1991:37) RESEARCH AND STATISTICS research also
plays an important role in effective personnel management and labor relations.
15. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT sometimes use as Employee relations or
Personnel administration refers to the handling, directing, and controlling of
individual employees as a group. (Sison,1991:34) LABOR RELATIONS deals with
the managements relationships with employees as members of the labor union
that represents them. (Sison,1991:34) INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS is a broad term
covering all that personnel management and labor relations generally include.
16. PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION is used for implementation of personnel
policies and programs namely administrative functions performed by Personnel
Management, Labor Relations, and Public Relations. HUMAN RESOURCES
MANAGEMENT is a new term sometimes being used in place of manpower
management or industrial relations management or personnel management.
(Sison,1991:35) PUBLIC RELATIONS covers the personnel managers
contracts with employees whether or not the latter are unionized.
(Sison,1991:35)Sison, Perfecto S. Personnek and Human Resources
Management, 6th Edition. Rex Printing Company, Mandaluyong Metro Manila,
1991. Spates, Thomas G. An Objective Scrutiny of Personnel Admnistration,
Personnel Series No. 75, American Management Association, 1944. Jucius, Michael
J. Personnel Management, 5th Edition. Homewoos, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin,
Inc. Websters Third New International Dictionary. Miranda, Gregorio S. and
Carmelita M. Miranda. Management Principles and Practices. L&G Business
House, 2002. Pilkington, Sir Harry. International Management. Vol. XIX,
January 1964.

Classification of Educational Personnel in the Philippines

School Personnel - refers to any person or persons working in a school.
Administrative Personnel - refers to the educational manager in a school.
1. Administrative Personnel
2. Principal IV - 42, 652.00
3. Principal III - 39, 483.00
4. Principal II - 36, 567.00
5. Principal I - 33, 659.00
6. Head Teacher VI - 33, 659.00
7. Head Teacher V - 31, 351.00
8. Head Teacher IV - 29, 028.00
9. Head Teacher III - 27, 578.00
10. Head Teacher II - 25, 667.00
11. Head Teacher I - 23, 044.00
Duties and Responsibilities of Administrative Personnel
1. Assigns Teaching loads to teachers and rates their performance.
2. Coordinates with the district/division supervisors with respect to classroom and
curricular supervision.
3. Is accountable for higher student learning outcomes.
4. Conducts consultation with teachers prior to making decisions.
5. Motivates and supervises the teachers to make them effective and productive.

6. Initiates action research designed to gather inputs from the teachers and students.
7. Responsible for interviewing prospective candidates for job openings within their
building as well as making recommendations to the superintendent for hiring a
new teacher.
8. They are also responsible for building community relationships within their area.
Teaching Personnel refers to all school personnel formally engaged in actual teaching
1. Master Teacher IV - 39, 483.00
2. Master Teacher III - 36, 567.00
3. Master Teacher II - 33, 659.00
4. Master Teacher I - 31, 351.00
5. Teacher III - 21, 436.00
6. Teacher II - 19, 940.00
7. Teacher I - 18, 549.00
8. SPED Teacher V - 45, 064.00
9. SPED Teacher IV - 42, 652.00
10. SPED Teacher III - 39, 483.00
11. SPED Teacher II - 36, 567.00
12. SPED Teacher I - 33, 659.00
13. Kinder Teachers
14. ALS Mobile Teachers
Duties and Responsibilities of Teaching Personnel

Teach subjects in school.

Enroll pupils in school.
Rate the accomplishments and deficiencies of students.
Keep record and prepare required reports.
Guide and counsel pupils.
Participate in seminars, conferences and workshops.

Non Teaching Personnel refers to school personnel usually engaged in administrative

1. GUIDANCE COUNSELOR provides counseling services for students who may
struggle academically, have a rough home life, may have gone through a difficult
situation, etc. A counselor also provides academic counseling setting student
schedules, getting students scholarships, preparing them for life after high school, etc.
2. LIBRARIAN oversees the operation of the library including the organization,
ordering of books, checking out of books, return of books, and re-shelving of books.
The librarian also works directly with the classroom teachers to provide assistance in
anything associated with the library. They also responsible for teaching students
library related skills and creating programs that develop lifelong readers.

3. BUS DRIVER A bus driver provides safe transportation for students to and from
4. Personnel COOK A cook is responsible for the preparation and serving of food to
the entire school. A cook is also responsible for the process of cleaning up the kitchen
and the cafeteria.
5. UTILITY/JANITOR - who maintains the cleanliness of the buildings and
surroundings of the school.
6. GUARD - who protects the school.
7. MAINTENANCE Maintenance is responsible for keeping all the physical
operations of a school running. These may including electrical and lighting, and
mechanical issues.
8. CLERK is not only in charge of school payroll and billing, but a host of other
financial responsibilities. The clerk has to be able to account for every cent a school
has spent and received. A clerk must be organized and must stay current with all laws
dealing with school finance.
9. NURSE A school nurse provides general first aid for students in the school. The
nurse may also administer medication to students who need it or are required
medication. A school nurse may also teach students about health and health related

The management in education is facing new paradigm. It can be characterized by continuous
quality improvement, autonomy, accountability, accreditation, evaluation (Nimran, 1998:82). It
can be caused by eight issues: universal education, free education, state responsibility, local
operations, federal participations, extending the school system, religion and public school, and
the melting plot influence. From the perspective of personnel management, personnel

management has a greater influence at least in the policy process, decision making process,
motivation and job satisfaction, human relationship, and group development.

Good personnel management ensures principals play they role. As we know, principal as a leader
of school has two dimensions to do five functions. Principal is a motor for doing curriculum
development, instructional improvement, student service, financial management and facilities,
and community relationship. From these functions, three of them (instructional improvement,
student service, and community relationship) belong to human. A good personnel management
is needed to guarantee the process in order to achieve the school goals, especially to adopt the
international issues in education.