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Kaspil 2

History as a Discipline

Derived from the greek word Historia

Geschichte (that which has happened) German
A systematic explanation of a natural phenomenon
regardless of its chronological order (Aristotle)
Chronological explanation of events that happened to men

Herodotus of Halicarnassus

Father of history

History of the Greek and Persian Wars


Explain the cause of conflict between the Greeks and

Show the achievements of the greeks

History of

the Peloponnesian War

Explain the causes of events
Provides lesson of the event
Follows a cyclical pattern history is repeating

19th Century Europe

History = Science = Facts
Leopold von Ranke
No document = no history
Based on facts

History Writing In The Philippines

Spanish Period 16th Century (1898)
Written by friars
Religious bias
Superiority of historic culture
Hagiographic (supremacy of religion)

Non Friar Accounts

Antonio de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas
Antonio de Pigafetta (The first Voyage Round the
World by Magellan)
Foreign Travel Accounts
Propaganda Movement
Philippine Revolution
Santiago Alvarez
Gregoria de Jesus
Apolinario Mabini
American Period
Historical writing must be based on sources and facts
Dean Worcester (The Philippines, Past and Present)
Post-War Period
Teodoro Agoncillo (History of the Filipino People)
History must be written in the Filipinos POV
Renato Constantino (Marxist Perspective)
Annales School
Multi-disciplinary POV
Ferdinand Braudel
Lucien Febvre
Marc Bloch
How Can An Event Become Part of History?
Records (Sources) (Facts)
Archives (collection of documents and other
sources and facts)
It must be recorded
Oral Traditions (stories, songs, epics, myths, legends)
Oral History (memories, recollections)

Classification of Sources
Primary Sources
Contemporaneous accounts (not there when it
Not always original (oral, written)
Secondary Sources
Used primary sources as references and data
Historical Methodology
Choose a topic
Gathering of sources
Examination of sources external and internal criticism
Extraction of Data
Writing and Interpretation
3 Questions that History Answers
What happened?
Why it happened?
What can we learn?
Prescribes and Provides Lessons
Geological Foundations
Old Stone Age
New Stone Age
Metal Age
Age of Contact
Paleolithic Period (450,000-6,000 BCE)
Hunting and gathering
No permanent settlement
Nomadic way of life
Use of crude stone tools
Flake tools (sharp edges)
Cobble pebble stone (hammering)
Tabon Skull Cap
Molar of Stegodon
Neolithic Period (6,000-2,000 BCE)
Domesticate animals
Permanent homes
Storage vessels
Shape and texture of stone tools with shape

Pottery Tradition developed (burial jar)

Metal Age (2,000 BCE 1000 CE)
Use of metal tools
Malayan Forge
Cylinders pumped to heat a fire for the working of
copper and iron
Age of Contact with the Great Traditions of China
Ming Dynasty
No contact with south asia
Philippine Pre-history Sources
Callao Fossil Callao Cave, Cagayan 67,000 years
Tabon Tibia and Skull Cap Quezon, Palawan
14,000 years
Golden Tara (1922) - Sanskrit
Maitum Jars Saranggani
Manunggul Jars
Boljoon Earring
Baybayin Stones (Monreal Masbate)
Laguna Copper Stones
Catalagan Pot
Midden Sites
Prehistoric garbage areas