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THE STATE HERMITAGE MUSEUM

ARCHAEOLOGICAL
PAPERS
issue

40

STUDIES
IN ARCHAEOLOGY OF EURASIA
To ommemorate Lyudmila Galanina

Saint Petersburg
The State Hermitage Publishers
2015

40



. .

-

2015

930.26(082)
63.4
87

. .

. 40 :
87 . . . / . . :
- . , 2015. 254 . : .
ISBN 978-5-93572-616-4
40
. . , , . ,
.
.

930.26(082)
63.4

: .
VII . . . ,

ISBN 978-5-93572-616-4

, 2015

CONTENTS


(19292010)
7
. . c-

17
. . , . .

:
,
-

35
. . .

54
. . :
. . .
40
- 2
68
. . . -
- -
74
. .

88
. .

99
. .
(
)
120
. .


125
. .

143
. .
(
)
157
. .

I II
189
. .

232
. .
.
XIII -
240

248
c
253

Lyudmila Konstantinovna
Galanina (19292010)
7
Svetlana Demeshchenko. Spatulas and bone
awls with ornamental handles from Kostenki
and Avdeevo
17
Elena Starkova, Anna Zakoscelna. Features
of pottery production in Eastern European
Aeneolithic cultures: A comparative
technological analysis of Tripolye,
Late Malytska and Lublin-Volhynia
pottery
35
Vladimir Kisel. The beginnings of the nomad
culture in Central Asia
54
Appendix to Vladimir Kisels paper:
Aleksey Kasparov. On two horse skeletons from
Kurgan 40 in the Dogee-Baary 2
Gravesite
68
Sergey Senatorov. The Kizil-Koba settlement
of Tas-Tepe in the South-West Crimea
74
Andrey Alekseev. On radiocarbon dating
of Scythian mounds in the North Black
Sea Region
88
Tatiana Kuznetsova. The chronology of the
Kelermes burial ground and Scythian borrowings 99
Leonid Babenko. A Solokha Mound amphora
(Kharkov Historical
Museum)
120
Elena Stepanova. Scythian saddles and their
impact on riding on horses and riders
during the Scythian period
125
Lyudmila Barkova. The cockerel design
in Ancient Altai art
143
Elena Korolkova. Tracks of beasts youve
never met (Towards the interpretation
of imaginary creatures)
157
Irina Zasetskaya. On the stylistic features
of three Sarmatian knives (1st century BC
2nd century AD)
189
Aleksey Furasyev. A Roman military buckle
from Artek
232
Zlata Lvova. The fall of the Khazar Khaganate.
New data from the 13th-century Bulgarian
chronicle Gazi-Baradj Tarihi
240
Summaries
248
Abbreviations
253


(19292010)

(19292010)

1953 ., .
,
. . . , ,
- .
. .
,
(
), 57 ,
- .

, , , .
1950 1960- .
, , ,
.

. .

.


, XIX .
, . .

, ,

.
. , , , 1975 .

1980 . .

IV . . .. .

( 1977 .
) ( . . ),
,
7

. .

.

.

, XX .
. . . . ,

,
19031904 . , .
-,

, -,
,

. . ,
. . , . . . . ,
. . , . . .

15 ,

.
,
,
, . .

. 1997 . ,
( ,


).
, , , ,

-.
. .
, (
) ,
-
.
, ,
,
-,


(, . . , ,
. . ),

, , -, VII . . ., 19701980 .
( )
,
, , . . , ( . ,
. . , . . , . . ,
. . ),
.
, ;
, .

(
) -
VIIVI . . .
,
. . XX .
, :

8

(19292010)

.

,
. ,
, ( . .
, ,
),
.
. . Corpus tumulorum
scythicorum

.
. . , -
, , .

,
.
,
.
.
, ,
,

, ,

.
, , . , - 1970
2000- ,
.
. .

. .

. . 1

, . , ,
. . , , .
1962
. ., 1962. 22 .: .
// . [.] 22. 1962.
. 36: . ( . . .).
1964
. . . ; ., , 1964: .
( . . .).
1965
// . [.] 7. . ; ., 1965. . 527: .
1966
. . . ; ., 1966: . ( . . ., . .,
. .)
1967
. [1- .]. ., 1967, 94 .: . ( .
. ., . .).
1969
// . [.] 11. 1969. . 92103: .
1970
// . [.] 12. 1970. . 3544: .
// 1969 . ., 1970. . 237
238 ( . . ., . .).
. . . 2-, . . ., 1970: .
( . . .).
1

. . .

10

(19292010)

1972
. . . 2-, . ., 1972. 95 .: .
( . . ., . .).
1973
I . . . // . 2. 1973. . 4559: .
//
. [.] 36. 1973. . 2933: .
: . . ., 1973 ( . . .,
. . .).
1974
IV . . . // . [.] 39. 1974. . 2932: .
// . [.] 39. 1974.
. 100101.
1975
( ) : . ... . . . ., 1975.
1977
( ) // 1-33.
., 1977: .
1979
. . ., 1979. 95 .: . ( . . .,
. .).
// . [.] 44. 1979. . 86, 87: .
1980
. IV . . ., 1980: .
// . [.] 45. 1980. . 103104.
1981
:
. ., 1981 ( . . ., . .).
: - // . [.] 46. 1981. . 80.
( ) // . . :
. . ., 1981. . 1618.
11

. .

[ ] : . , 1981: . ( . . ., .
., . .; . .).
1983
// 1981 . ., 1983. . 11.
( ) // . [.]
24. 1983. . 3255: .
1984
// 1982 . ., 1984. . 113114.
// XIII : . . , 1984. . 22, 23 (.: - . . VIII:
19712006. ., 2008. . 338339).
1985
( ) //
. ., 1985. . 169183: .
(
) // . 3. 1985. . 156165: .
//
. ., 1986. . 524: . ( . . .).
// 1983 . ., 1985. . 112, 113: .
Frhskythische Zaumzeug-Garnituren. Nach den Materialien der Kelermes-Kurgane //
Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran. Bd 18. 1985. S. 88117. Abb. 110.
1986
Scythian Art: The legacy of the Scythian world: Mid 7th to 3rd century BC. Leningrad, 1986: .
( . . ., . .; . . .).
1987
Die Kelermes-Kurgane als Quelle fr die Erforschung der Kontakte zwischen den Skythen
und den altorientalischen Kulturen // Skythika: Vortrge zur Entstehung des skytho-iranischen
Tierstils und zu Denkmlern des Bosporanischen Reichs / Hrsg. Franke H. Mnchen, 1987. S. 718.
(Bayerische Akad. der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-historische Klasse).
12

(19292010)

: // . [.] 52. 1987. . 90


91: .
( ) //
// , . . : . .
, 1987. C. 4648 ( . . .).
1988
// . 11. 1988. . 1821.
//
I : . . , 1988. . 68.
1989
( ) //
. 4. 1989. . 255267: .
// . , 1989. . 74102: .
(
) // 3- . - ( ) : . . . I. ,
1989. . 9496.
1990
// . [.] 30. 1990.
. 3454: . ( . . .).
1991
( ) //
. [.] 32. 1991. . 1529: .
1992
. . // . 4. 1992. . 154158.
1994
Les kourganes de Kelermes // Les dossiers darchologie. 194. Juin 1994. P. 1221: .
// . 1. 1994. . 92107: .
// :
. . . ., 1994. . 2022.
13

. .

//
- . ., 1994. . 7681.
1995
// . [.] 32. 1995.
. 4052: .
1996
VIV . . .: ) //
XIX : . . ., 1996. . 5456
( . . . ; .: -
. . VIII: 19712006. ., 2008. . 558559).
// :
. . : . . ., 1996. . 1315.
1997
: . ., 1997. 269 .: .
(., , . .: Die Kurgane von Kelermes: Knigsgrber der frhskythischen Zeit). Moskva, 1997 (Steppenvlker Eurasiens 1).
// . 3. 1997. . 125137: .
, , , : // . [.] 57. 1997. . 121, 122.
1999
( . . 1910 .) // . [.] 34. 1999. . 5867: .
2000
. . // . 9. 2000.
. 1720: . ( . . .).
2001
Nomades des steppes. Les Scythes VIIe IIIe sicle av. J. -C. Paris, 2001. 144 p., ill. ( .
. ., . . ).
2003
// . [.] 36. .,
2003. . 5867: .
2005
IV . . . ( , . . 1913 .) // . [.] 37. 2005. . 97108: .
14

(19292010)

2006
: ,
., 2006: .
2009
( ) //
. , 2009. . 8690: .
2010
,
( . . 1914, 1915, 1917 .) // .
[.] 38. 2010. . 107122: .
// . . III. ., 2010.
. 170196: . ( . . .).
2012
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/ . . ., . . // Corpus tumulorum scythicorum et
sarmaticorum. . 2. ; ; , 2012 ( . . .,
. ., . ., . ., . .,
. .; . .: Ulskii Burial-mounds. Cultic and Burial Ensemble of the
Scythian Period in the Northern Caucasus / d. by A. Ivantchik, A. Leskov // Corpus tumulorum scythicorum et sarmaticorum. Vol. 2. Berlin ; Bordeaux ; Moscow, 2012).
. .
. . . . // . [.] 69. 2011. . 229231.

,
. .
Zoto scytyjskie : katalog wystawy. Warszawy, 1976.
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Loro degli Sciti : Catalogo (Firenze, Museo Bardini, 19771978). Venezia, 1977.
: . . , 1978.
El oro de los escitase : exposicin. Mxico, 1979.
. . 1982 ( . . .
. .).
. , 1981.
Gold der Skythen aus der Leningrader Eremitage. Mnchen, 1984.
15

. .

Szkitk aranya. A leningrdi Ermitzs vendgkillitsa: katalgus. Budapest, 1985.


Cultural Contacts between East and West in Antiquity and Middle Ages. Osaka, 1985
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Gold der Skythen aus der Leningrader Eremitage. Wien, 1988
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Lor des Scythes: Trsors de lErmitage, Leningrad. Bruxelles, 1991.
The Scythian Gold from the Hermitage. Seul, 1991 ( . .).
Aus den Schatzkammern Eurasiens: Meisterwerke antiken Kunst. Zrich, Kunsthaus, 1993.
Het Rk der Scythen. Amsterdam, 1993.
Gold der Skythen. Schtze aus der Staatlichen Eremitage St. Petersburg. Hamburg, 1993.
Dal Mille al Mille: Tesori e popoli dal Mar Nero. [Rimini], Milano, 1995.
Zwei Gesichter der Eremitage. Bd I: Die Skythen und ihr Gold. Bonn, 1997.
Olimpism in antiquity (III). Lausanne, 1998.
LAsie des steppes dAlexandre Le Grand Gengis Khn. Barcelona ; Paris, Madrid, 20002001.
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54. . . -
(
) // . 8. .,
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55. . . - :
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. , 2009. . 347349.
56. . .
:
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. .

40 - 2


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3. . .

25
// : ( 25 ). . 1. , 2002. . 173195.

4. . ., . .
// . . (- ). , 1994. . 106111.
5. Eisenmann V., Beckouche S. Identication and
discrimination of metapodials from Pleistocene
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Wiesbaden, 1986. S. 117163.

69

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. 2740.
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. 3239.
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11. . . - : :
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13. . . - VI IV . . . // . . XII. 2003. . 1428.
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. 354362.
15. . ., . . : . , 2009. ( ; . I).
16. . . : . , 2010.
( ;
. II).
17. . ., . . -
// .
, 1995. . 331, 171181.
18. Sparkes B. A., Talcott L. Black and Plain Pottery of
the 6th, 5th and 4th Centuries B. C. New Jersey,
1970. Pt 1: Text. XIX, 382 p.; Pt 2: Indexes and
Illustrations. IX. . 383472. (The Athenian
Agora; Vol. 12).

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: (233328 BP) 404385 . . . (1),
(232518 BP) 400389 . . .
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. ., 400389 .
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,


.


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,
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.

8. . . //
.
. . 1. ., 2006.
. 146161.
9. . .
. ., 2003.
10. . .
// . 21. 1954. . 281305.
11. . . //
. 2. ., 2012.
. 342359.
12. . . .
VIIII . . , 1999.
13. . ., . ., .-.

-
// . . , . ,

1. . .
// . 4. 2001.
. 6976.
2. . .
VIIIV . . . ., 2003.
3. . .
// . : . . . ., 2013. . 349352.
4. . ., . .
. , 2012.
5. . . ( ) //
. . 24. 1983. . 3255.
6. . . .
.
., 1997.
7. .
. ., 2005.
97

. .

14.
15.

16.

17.

. .

( ). .,
2012. . 507523.
. . :
. , 1997.
. . //
: . . . .
., 2005. . 535546.
. .

( ,
IVIII . . .) //
,
. ., 2013. . 116122.
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.
,
,
[9].
1903 . . . ( ). 1904 ., . . ,
( )
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(
6 ).
19801995 . ,

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1995 .). 1981 . ,
57 , (
),
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101

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. 5158.
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141

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50.

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B. Slowianie i ich saiedzi we wczesnym
redniowiecu. Profesorowi dr. Hab. Wojcichowi
Szymanskiemu tom ten powicajce przyjaciele,
koledzy, wspotracownicy i uczniowie / red. M.
Dulinicz. Instytut archeologii i etnologii Polskiej
Akademii Nauk. Lublin ; Warszawa, 2003.
11. . . ? // . .
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SUMMARIES

SVETLANA DEMESHCHENKO
SPATULAS AND BONE AWLS WITH ORNAMENTAL HANDLES FROM KOSTENKI
AND AVDEEVO
Several bone spatulas and awls retrieved from the Late Paleolithic sites of Kostenki 1 and Avdeevo are
studied in terms of their shape, dcor and function. Their culture of origin can be determined by the ornamental
handles carrying stylized images of women and predators. Our experimental ndings and design studies suggest
that the spatulas and bone awls were used for hide processing, leather production and clothes-making (sewing
and braiding). The bone nds include awls with decorative camel leg handles, special tools for making laces
and sewing threads as well as hole-makers and seam smoothers for leather goods. The coded imagery on the
handles of the spatulas and bone awls and the characteristic geometric dcor are associated with the emergence
of sacral tools also used in the manufacturing of signicant artefacts such as clothes.

ELENA STARKOVA, ANNA ZAKOSCELNA


FEATURES OF POTTERY PRODUCTION IN EASTERN EUROPEAN AENEOLITHIC
CULTURES: A COMPARATIVE TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF TRIPOLYE,
LATE MALYTSKA AND LUBLIN-VOLHYNIA POTTERY
The comparative analysis of the pottery-making technologies of Tripolye, Malice and Lublin-Volhynia
cultures presented in the article has demonstrated the existence of a considerable gap between these
technologies. Although the cultures under study co-existed simultaneously on the Podolsk Upland from the
rst half of the 5th to rst half of the 4th millennium BC, the Tripolye ceramic production was by that period at
an essentially more advanced level. This fact is proved not only by the diversity of the shapes and categories of
the ware but also by the presence of specialized production complexes necessary for provision of the numerous
Tripolyan population which had considerably expanded its territories by the end of the middle period. The
high-temperature oxidative ring in special pottery kilns, careful working of the surface and diversity of
ornamental compositions are among the main features of the Tripolye pottery-making complex.
The people of Malice and Lublin-Volhynia cultures, occupying for a certain time span the same territory
with the Tripolye population, did not attain an equally high level of pottery-making. This is suggested by the
irregular (now oxidizing, now reducing) baking of the vessels since the process apparently was conducted in
pits, as well as by poor preservation of the ornamental painting and the surface of the ware in general. Of note
is also the presence of numerous particular technological variations in the Malice and Lublin-Volhynia pottery
which indicated the incompleteness of the development of the pottery technologies. To compare, in Tripolye
during the same period, one observes standardization of forms and unication of the techniques of shaping the
vessels. These dierences are explained, primarily, by rather small sizes of the Malice and Lublin-Volhynian
settlements and, correspondingly, by the absence of the demand in large-scale manufacturing complexes.
248

SUMMARIES

Nevertheless, at the Tripolye sites on the Podolsk Upland, pottery imported from the other two cultures
considered above is encountered. At the same time, imports of Tripolye pottery are absent at the Malice and
Lublin-Volhynia settlements. Evidently, pottery was no subject of exchange and was brought to the sites of
foreign cultures together with the people manufacturing it. Moreover, among the Tripolye objects, along with
the imports, their fairly numerous imitations are found. The latter retain the foreign shapes and decoration but
are manufactured from local clay and using the local Tripolye technology. The explanation is that apparently
particular representatives of the Malice and Lublin-Volhynia population might have stayed for some time in
the Tripolye community.
Transl. by E. Starkova
VLADIMIR KISEL
THE BEGINNINGS OF THE NOMAD CULTURE IN CENTRAL ASIA
In 2011 the Tuva Archaeological and Ethnographical Expedition (Museum of Anthropology and
Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences) explored Kurgan 40 in the Dogee-Baary 2 Gravesite. The site
is located 8 km north of Kyzyl in the Piy-Khemsky District, Tuva Republic. The kurgan consisted of a stone
mound (15 m in diameter, 0.20.3 m in height) overlying a ring of boulders (1314 m in diameter) and crossshaped log structures. The central log structure on the ancient surface level contained a burial of a man (aged
4050) and two male horses (both aged about 20). Although the burial had been robbed, it was still possible
to establish that initially the body had been laid on the left side, with knees bent, head facing north-west; the
horses had been placed on their stomachs parallel to each other to the south-east of the body, with legs doubled
up and heads also facing north-west. The grave goods were limited to a single bended copper needle.
The wooden structure was burned after the funeral; however, the bodies were left nearly intact. Our analysis
has shown that the funeral rite closely resembled the one frequently encountered in the monuments of the
North Caucasus and the Lower Volga Region dating to the period from the Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age;
the needle is typologically similar to artefacts of Qoba (Koba) culture. Given the above, the mound could be
dated by the 12th 9th centuries BC, when the budding nomad culture period rst gained access to Tuva.
SERGEY SENATOROV
THE KIZIL-KOBA SETTLEMENT
OF TAS-TEPE IN THE SOUTH-WEST CRIMEA
The remains of utility pits of the Tas-Tepe settlement connected with Kizil-Koba (Qizil-Qoba) culture were
opened during excavations in 1995. This settlement is located on the right side of the Kacha River just nearby
the Tenistoe (Shady) Village in the Bakhchisaray District of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Thus closed
ceramic complexes of the 8th to the second third quarters of the 4th century BC were revealed for the rst
time in the region. This discovery of the Attic black-lacquered skythos of the 5th century BC may indicate that
there existed trade and business ties between the local Barbarian population of the South-West Crimea and the
Greek towns of Chersonesos and Kerkinitis.
ANDREY ALEKSEEV
ON RADIOCARBON DATING OF SCYTHIAN MOUNDS
IN THE NORTH BLACK SEA REGION
The article reviews the practice of radiocarbon dating in the Scythian archaeology of the North Black Sea
Region. Experience has shown that results obtained with this method may conrm or contradict archaeological
data and therefore require special verication in each individual case. It is important that specimens for dating
be carefully selected, with preference given to wooden funerary structures which allow for wiggle matching.
249

SUMMARIES

TATIANA KUZNETSOVA
THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE KELERMES BURIAL GROUND
AND SCYTHIAN BORROWINGS
The article investigates some issues relating to the chronology of the Kelermes burial ground and the origins
of some grave goods retrieved from the mounds.
After analyzing Herodotuss data on Scythians in the same order as they were presented by him and
comparing these with four types of data sources (astronomical, documentary, literary and archaeological), we
have been able to date the arrival of the Scythians of King Madius, son of Protothyes in the North Black Sea
Region by the period between 614613 and 608 BC; the invasion of Scythians of King Madius in Media to
608 BC (most modern sources date the fall of Nineveh to 612 BC) and the twenty-eight-year-long Scythian
presence in the Middle East to the period from 614613 BC to 585 BC (the rebellious Scythians, who
initiated the Median-Lydian war, remained there for ve to six years; Scythians of King Madius stayed for
another twenty-three years).
Our study has shown that the Kelermes mounds may date from the time of the arrival of King Madius (son
of Protothyes/Bartatua) and his army; consequently, the rst Scythians (the only ethnicity ousted from Asia
by the Massagetae and/or Issedones) migrated to the North Black Sea Region and North Caucasus, crossed the
Caucasus to the Near East and returned (after 585 BC).
The author believes that the Near-Eastern toreutics in the Kelermes burial, along with the arrows and horse
gear, were the result of borrowing; this contradicts the viewpoint shared by the majority of researchers, who
suggest that most of these objects were manufactured for Scythian customers by Near Eastern artisans.
Unfortunately, the Scythian origin of many items (not limited to arrows and bridles) recovered from
Scythian mounds in the North Caucasus and North Black Sea Region was taken for granted rather than
scientically proved; this also applies to Kelermes.
Excavations of burial grounds across the North Caucasus and North Black Sea Region preceded
archaeological explorations in the Near East and provided extensive materials which were linked with
Scythians. As a result, Scythians came to be seen as having exerted major inuence on the ethnicities they
came into contact with.
However, the number of surviving archaic monuments recognized as Scythian (ca. 220 sites) is too small to
claim any considerable impact, especially on the civilizations of the Ancient East, despite the fact that mounds,
predictably, oer many more nds compared to destroyed fortresses or settlements.
In this context, it becomes crucial to identify Scythian borrowings in various cultures because supposedly
Scythian items may be non-Scythian in origin and their distribution may suggest interethnic contacts which
did not involve Scythians.

LEONID BABENKO
A SOLOKHA MOUND AMPHORA
(Kharkov Historical Museum)
The collection of the State Hermitage Museum contains some materials recovered from the four largest
Scythian mounds of the late 5th and 4th centuries BC (Solokha, Chertomlyk, Oguz and Aleksandropol) which
historians have traditionally identied with Scythian royal burials. None of these collections, however, was
retrieved in full.
One of the amphorae recovered from the western niche of the entry burial in the Solokha Mound is held
in the Kharkov Historical Museum, where it was transferred from the Kherson Museum of Local History and
Culture in 1953 under a decree of the Ukrainian Ministry of Culture.
The amphora measures exactly 17 litres in volume (measured by pouring water), which places it within the
class of 5-Attic-choe vessels (16.41 litres).
250

SUMMARIES

ELENA STEPANOVA
SCYTHIAN SADDLES AND THEIR IMPACT ON RIDING ON HORSES
AND RIDERS DURING THE SCYTHIAN PERIOD
The article considers the impact of pad-saddle use on horse and rider health during the Scythian times. It
is suggested that Scythian saddles quite eectively prevented the risk of injuries to both horses and riders and
provided a secure riding position.
Transl. by E. Stepanova
LYUDMILA BARKOVA
THE COCKEREL DESIGN IN ANCIENT ALTAI ART
The article explored the cockerel design as a highly prevalent animal motif in the Altai Region in the 5th
and 4th centuries BC.
About 70 specimens of this design have been found in the Altai, whereas 36 items come from the North
Black Sea Region (Kuban), and one from Kirgizia (Kyrgyzstan). Only a minority of these are isolated artefacts;
most are series of identical items which used to decorate clothes, horse gear and household equipment.
Nearly all Altai cock designs are made in leather, with only a few in gold. The material inuenced the
stylistic techniques used by ancient artisans. All the known cockerel images of the Altai origin are decorated
with gold and tin foil. Colour played an important role in the worldview of the ethnicities populating Ancient
Altai; thus, gold was associated with the sun, silver with the moon, etc. The sun symbols were particularly
common and universally understandable. Emerging, along with the deer and horse, as a symbol of the sun
during the ancient period, the cockerel later came to be interpreted as a protector from evil.
Many researchers have pointed out the links between the animal style of the early nomads and Slavic
art where the cockerel design was extensively used as an amulet and appeared on metal objects (e.g. noise
pendants) and embroideries on towels or trimmings. In mediaeval Europe the cock design was often shown on
weathervanes as a symbolic protection of the town from enemies.
ELENA KOROLKOVA
TRACKS OF BEASTS YOUVE NEVER MET
(Towards the interpretation of imaginary creatures)
The article focuses on polymorphic animal imagery in ancient art, early Eurasian nomadic art in particular.
Patterns and mechanisms in the development of hybrid monster imagery in ancient visual arts are analyzed
with a focus on the ScythianSiberian animal style and the Sarmatian nomad art. An intricate combination of
features borrowed from real animals clearly marks a mythological creature as belonging to the other world. The
author discusses some problems of composition in the ScythianSiberian animal style directly related to the
combination of heterogeneous features in a single image.
IRINA ZASETSKAYA
ON THE STYLISTIC FEATURES OF THREE SARMATIAN KNIVES
(1st century BC 2nd century AD)
Our study of three similar knives retrieved from the monuments of the 1st century BC 2nd century
AD (the Dachi Mound in the Lower Don area, Tillya Tepe in Afghanistan and a vault burial in Gorgippia)
demonstrates the importance of stylistic features in identifying the origin of art works.
251

SUMMARIES

The knives show considerable stylistic dierences in the dcor, including the artistic rendition of the
zoomorphic images as well as the composition, subject and technological features.
Given our ndings on the origin of the dcor and the dating of the knives, we can conclude that the knives
were manufactured in dierent workshops, each following their own art traditions.

ALEKSEY FURASYEV
A ROMAN MILITARY BUCKLE FROM ARTEK
The article studies a unique nd which was made in the late 19th century in the ruined Artek Gravesite in
the South Crimea and has gone unnoticed by experts, namely, a fragment of a Roman sword belt buckle (ill. 1,1)
with a copper frame made up of dolphin gures (a so-called dolphin buckle). The closest analogues were found
along the Roman Limes on the Rhine, in Gaul and Britain (ill. 2, 3). This is the only dolphin buckle retrieved
in Eastern Europe and the Black Sea Region. Judging by similar known objects discovered in Western Europe,
the nd can be dated by the latter half of the 4th century early 5th century AD and may be related to the
presence of the Roman garrison in Chersonesos.

ZLATA LVOVA
THE FALL OF THE KHAZAR KHAGANATE.
NEW DATA FROM THE 13TH-CENTURY BULGARIAN CHRONICLE
GAZI-BARADJ TARIHI
The article describes and analyzes some previously unknown information on the fall of the Khazar Khaganate
contained in the 13th-century Bulgarian chronicle Gazi-Baradj Tarihi. The chronicle mostly supports the
data available from other sources and the hypotheses of the leading experts in Khazar culture. However, the
document does oer some surprises. For example, Gazi-Baradj Tarihi mentions that, in order to capture Sarkel,
Prince Svyatoslav sought aid from Byzantium through the mediation of Dima-Tarkhan (Tmutarakan). After
the split of the Khaganate, its eastern part was annexed to Great Bulgaria rather than Khwarezm, as previously
suggested.

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Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts. Athenische Abteilung

40


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19.06.15. 84 108 1/16


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