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Quns 1? Discuss the aims of performance management


PM deals with long-term goals and is about managing an employees performance
over the next five to ten years, while PA is short term
PM, ANS: performance is strategic in nature and intended to achieve the strategic
objectives of the firm , while PA is operational in nature and covers the year in
question
therefore, is forward looking and sets the stage to create the required performance,
while PA is retrospective in nature . thus PM ensures that managers are in constant
touch with the individual and the modifies and clarifies the performance according
to the business needs, changes and mutual expectations. Because of this, manager
and the employee.
PM is a constant process and continues throughout the life of the organization while
PA is episodically in nature and lays down the episodes and their consequences. A
direct consequence of PM is that the relationship between the manager and

employee improves and mutual respect, trust and understanding develop. PA is


based on top down approach and therefore does not create trust and relationship.
PM is a process while PA is a system and is well laid out and document with formats
and the like.
PM is mortem integrated to the business while PA is a snapshot of the events and
therefore more isolated and is not so integrated to the business needs. Thus PM
embraces a whole range of activities.
Explain the aims of performance management:- the importance of
performance management lies in that it ensure that the managers manage the
people they are responsible for in an effective manner so that the people they are
responsible for in an effective manner so that the strategic goals of the organization
are achieved. According to the charted institute of personal and development it is
the primary means by which they ensure that employees.
. know and understand what is expected of them
. Have the skills and ability to deliver on these expectations
. Are supported by the organization to develop the capacity to meet these
expectations
. Are given feedback on their performance
. have the opportunity to discuss and contribute to individual and team aims and
objectives.
QUNS 2 Discuss the steps in giving a constructive feedback
Ans: If you are imitating feedback, this focus keeps the other person from having to
guess what you want to talk about if the other person has requested feedback, a
focusing statement will make sure that you direct your feedback towards what the
person needs.
I feel I need to let you know
I want to discuss.
Provide a constructive feedback to the employee, i.e, in a way which will motivate
him to perform better. I have some thoughts about.
Context: It describe the situation and one should be as specific as possible. For a
feedback related to context of keeping appointment you might say keeping
appointment with our customer is a challenge since they are high-net worth
customers and all of them want personal attention and that too immediately , they
tend to call you often and there is always scope for clash of timing.

Behavior;- Describe the behavior as clearly as possible.


Impact: What was the positive or negative impact of the behavior An example,
Goal had called me to tell me how diligent and time conscious you area, and, in
fact, he was apologetic for changing the appointment twice.
Explain any five steps in giving a constructive feedback:1. State the constructive purpose of your feedback or context:- State
your purpose briefly by indicating what youd like to cover and why it is
important. If you are initiating feedback, this focus keeps the other person
has requested feedback, a focusing statement will make sure that you direct
your feedback towards what the person needs.
2.Drscribe specifically what you have observed or give the observation:think of a certain event or action in mind and be able to say when and where it
happened , who was involved, and what the result were sick to what you personally
observed and dont try to speak for others.
3. Describe your reactions or the impact:- Explain the consequences of the
other persons behavior and how you feel about it. Give example of how you and
others are affected. When you describe your recations or the consequences of the
observed behavior, the other person can appreciate the impact their actions are
having on others and on the organization or the team as a whole.
4.Give the other person an opportunity to respond:- Remain silent and meet
the other persons eye, indicating that you are waiting for an answer. If the person
hesitates to respond, ask an open-ended question and listen with an open mind.
5. Offer specific suggestions:- Whenever possible make your suggestions helpful
by including practical, feasible examples. Offering suggestions show that you have
thought past your evaluation and moved to how to improve the situation.
Quns 3? Assume that you have joined as an HR in an organization. The
first task assigned to you is to conduct the performance appraisal process.
Heat according to you is its purpose? Describe the entire performance
appraisal process
1.Explain any three purpose of Performance Appraisal- It is believed that at
least 90% of organization have a formal PE and the rest do it informally since it
serves a number of organizational purposes such as the following:
1. If organizational goals are converted into objectives and job tasks and these are
executed by employees, it follows that the effectiveness with which tasks are
performed has a direct bearing on organizational effectiveness.

2.It helps in giving feedback of the performance which in turn helps in performance
improvement.
3. Below the performance, as in the case above, can also indicate training needs.
4.It gives insight into the contribution of employees and enables an organization to
categories employees into high value, medium value, etc.
5.It acts as a control measure and helps in evaluating the efficacy of the job and
identify whether the incumbent requires more competency or resources to execute
it effectively.
6. Reduce grievances because it is systematically comparable.
7.Gives vital input into strategic decision making since the evidence of existence of
high levels of competency in the organization encourages investment decisions,
expansion and the like.
2.Explain the performance Appraisal process:Employee fills the self-appraisal form and submits to the manager;-this is
done in format similar to part II of the PM planning format we saw in the earlier
section and is the starting point of PA. in relation to each objective and KRA, the
individual will record his performance as evaluated by him.
Manager concurs or differs with the self-appraisal:- When he /she does not
concur, it is normal to give reasons or site critical incidents to substantiate that.
Manager sets up a meeting with the employee: This is done on a one-on-one
basis and perhaps, will take 45 minutes to one hour. The manager should prepare in
advance about the feedback he has to give
Employee concurs or gives a rebuttal:- the employee should be given a chance
to rebut the decision of the manager. This is important to meet the ends of justice.
The concurrence and rebuttal should be recorded any signed by both.
The documents are sent to HR for record:- the documents are processes to HR
for post appraisal actions.
Quns: 4? Explain the concept of 360-Degree feedback system Discuss the
purpose and components of a 360-degree appraisal method.
Ans: Concept of 360-degree feedback system:-In 360-degree appraisal, the
feedback about an employees performance comes from all the sources. The
number (360) indicates all-round appraisal. while 180-degree refers to top-down and
bottom-up feedback, numbers more than this indicate feedback from various other
groups apart from the top-down and bottom-up across the organization. The data
collection is organized, i.e., prepared in a systematic way through aptitude tests or

interviews. There is both collection of data and a feedback process. Data is


collected and then fed back to the individual to promote perceptive, recognizable
and finally, behavioral change. The performance of both an individual and a group
can be calculated. Stakeholders are the source of data.
Purpose:-A 360-degree feedback helps an organization to take decisions in the
following areas:
. Self-improvement and individual analysis
. Associate training program
. Team-construction
.Managing performance
. strategic or planned organization development
.validation of training and other initiatives
.Reward management
Annual assessment by way of 360-degree feedback assists in the management and
monitoring of values, approving the prospective goals and assignment of
responsibilities and tasks. A 360-degree performance appraisal is usually
integrated into yearly compensation and grading reviews, which normally leads to
business planning for the next financial year.
A 360-degree performance evaluation commonly reviews every individuals
performance against the goals and strategies for individuals critical jobs, and for
the association as a whole.
Since a 360-degree feedback provides a proper, confirmed, frequent and regular
review of an employees performance, and objective3s for further development., it
is essential for staff motivation , brining about a change in the attitude and behavior
of the employee and discussion and implementation of individual and organizational
aims. The will encourage positive connections between the administration and the
employees. Strategies for the previous financial year the were approved and agreed
upon at the previous evaluation sessions. Performance evaluations through a 360degree appraisal are also necessary for developing goals.

Explaining the components of a 360-degree appraisal method1.Self appraisal:-Self appraisal allows the employee to compare his/her abilities, limitations,
sucesswith others and judge his/her own performance.

2.Superior appraisal:Superior appraisal follows the traditional concept-t of performance appraisal, where an employees
tasks and actual presentation is rated by the superior. This form of evaluation involves the assessment
of individuals by supervisors on pre-determined parameters, along with the evaluation of the team
and the work scenario by senior managers.
3.Subordinate appraisal: Subordinates evaluate a superior on parameters such as communication,
convincing ability, leadership quality, ability to assign work in an equitable way etc.
Quns 5? Define the term Ethics. Discuss the key factors involved in ensuring Ethics in
performance management?
Ans: 1. Definition of Ethics:- A system of accepted belief which controls behavior, especially a
system based on morals. Ethics management should be integrated along with other management
practice, for example, during the stage of strategic planning, while developing the values statement,
etc. It cannot be a standalone ethical code for PM. ethics is an ongoing process and that it involves
the incorporation of values and associated behaviors. The most important aspect from the ethics
perspective is process of reflection and discussion that produces these deliverables.
to define the ethical standards for internal actions, particularly PM. The PM document should have a
chapter containing what is considered ethical and what is not in the PM context and the consequences
of following these or disobeying them.
Plan the PM well in advance:- It is unethical to include goals in retrospect i.e. you should give the
goals at least a month prior to its being effective so that the employee has a head start.
Take collective decisions explaining the key factors to ensure Ethics in performance
management:-we will discuss issues related to creating an ethical PM system. The success of an
ethics programmed lies in the accomplishment of fair and just behaviors exhibited at the workplace:
practice that generate the lists of ethical values, or codes of ethics, must also be able to generate
policies, procedures and training required to translate these values to acceptable behaviors.
Define and describe the ethical standards:- Along with ethical standards to handle the external
agencies, It is necessary:- The decisions made as a group usually produce better quality decisions as
this will be inclusive of the diverse interests and perspectives. Such decisions taken generally
increase the credibility of the process and in turn benefit the outcome because of the reduce suspicion
of unfair bias.
Define the objectives and get it mutually accepted:-The objectives should be mutually agreed
upon. Managers often tend to argue that if the employees are permitted to define their own goals,
these will be suboptimal.
Mutually agree on the measures: The measures can often be deceptive and it is therefore important
to accept the measures mutually, including the inherent challenges and weaknesses of the measure.
The participants to the PM should accept such limitations and then agree to work within the
limitation and not bring up the issues of imperfection of the measure later to justify a performance
that is below expectations. Measures such as BARS are good ways to create objective measures.

Quns6. Write short notes on the following:


1. Force distribution Method:-Forced distribution method has its roots in normal distribution, a
topic found in statistics. The employee should normally be very good , good average, below average,
bad, etching other words, the rating should be evenly spread. In forced dist5ribution method, the
manager is told to ensure that people are evenly spread. Thus he has to fit some percentage in very
good, some in good etc. with some discretion .It is generally applied to several components taken
together rather then one component. For example, you do not do force distribution for honesty
separately and team spirit separately. You take the persons performance as a whole and then do the
forced distribution. Forced distribution is primarily used to remove rating errors such as compassion
and centralization but the process itself can cause rating errors because it forces subtle differences
between employees even where job performance is quite similar.
Concept of Essay Appraisal Method:- In the essay appraisal method, the appraiser describes the
performance of an individual in the form of a short essay. He covers what the employee did, what did
he did not, what his strengths and weaknesses are and what he should improve upon. When facts and
evidences are used objectively, it is a fairly accurate method to evaluate performance. However, if an
organization is large, the variation in the description will be so much that an objective view will be
difficult.
. Lack of consistency is a major problem and an appraiser may well write two different stories at two
different times.
. It is highly susceptible to an evaluators bias.
Straight ranking method: Ranking methods compare employees with other, resulting in an ordering
of employees in relation to one another.
Paired comparison method:- A better technique of comparison than the straight ranking method,
this method compares each employee with all others in the group one at a time thus the manager will
say than Nos.4,6, and 7, but worse than others after all the comparisons on the basis of the overall
comparisons can be accumulated to given an overall rank. This overcomes the problem related to
judging several people in an order.
Critical incidents method:-This method describes how the employee behaved during critical
incidents, with respect to performance over a period of time. Thus the manager will, for example,
record you worked late consistently for one month to complete the projecting time or even when
you knew that on qualities.

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