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Sizing, valve, valve, temperature, control, Kv, Kvs, pressure, drop

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Cofficient Kv, Kvs, Kvo, taux de fuite. Autorit de la vanne sur circuit hydraulique. Caractristiques sur les vannes (linaire, quadratique,
logarithmique, calorifique linaire).

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Tue Jul 03 2012 18:42:58 GMT+0530 (India Standard Time)


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Control system temperature


Thematic
Quotation

Determination of Kv

Euro
Margin
Hydraulic

Linear pressure
loss
Local pressure
loss
Compressible
fluids

The value of Kv can be calculated according to the values given, such as: flow, Pressure drop and data
of the operating conditions of the installation.

Liquids
P2>PS
(water, etc.)

Q = Flow rate (m3/h)


DP = Pressure drop (bar)
r = Density (kg/dm3)

No circular duct
Thermal

Thermal fluid
flow
Pipe sizing
steam
Control valves

P2>P2/2
Saturated
steam
P2<P1/2

Orifice plate

G = Mass flow rate (kg/h)


DP = Pressure drop (bar)
P2 = Pressure downstream of the valve
(absolute bar)
P1= Pressure upstream of the valve (absolute
bar)

Pumps
Ventilators
Gas

P2>P2/2

Fuel gas

Superheated
steam
P2<P1/2

P2>P2/2

Gas
P2<P1/2

G = Mass flow rate (kg/h)


DP =Pressure drop (bar)
P1= Pressure upstream of the valve (absolute
bar)
P2 = Pressure downstream of the valve
(absolute bar)
v2 = Specific volume (m3/kg), under P2 and T1
v = Specific volume (m3/kg), under P1/2 et T1
T1 = Temprature en amont (K)
Qn = Mass flow rate at 0C and 1013 mbar
(kg/h)
rn = Density of gas at 0C and 1013 mbar
(kg/Nm3)
DP =Pressure drop (bar)
P2 = Pressure downstream of the valve
(absolute bar)
P1= Pressure upstream of the valve (absolute
bar)
T1 = Upstream temperature (K)

Le Kvs of the valve:


To characterize the standard valves, one gives a Kvs coefficient, which corresponds at the coefficient
Kv for a nominal displacement of H 100 of the valve
For each type of standard valve, one gives a nominal displacement of H100 for which the valve can
be regarded as completion open.
Le Kvo of the valve:
It is the leakage rate which crosses the valve if it presents a pressure loss of 1 bar (DPv =1 bar) when
it is completely closed. Kvo is expressed in m/h.

7/3/2012 6:43 PM

Sizing, valve, valve, temperature, control, Kv, Kvs, pressure, drop

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http://www.thermexcel.com/english/ressourc/valves.htm

Leakage rate
The leakage rate of a valve is the ratio Kvo / Kvs
For a new valve, this leakage rate must be lower than 0.05 %.
Coefficient of flow Kv for a valve
It is the flow of water Q in m3/h measured at 4C (Density = 1000kg/m3) which for a pressure loss of
1 bar, passes through the valve considered as entirely open.
A valve under dimensioned can generate a fall of pressure raised through of the device and can
consequently damage the seat of the valve by erosion.
Conversely a oversize control valve can involve an unstable operation of the installation.
For each type of valve, the manufacturer indicates a limit differential pressure acceptable which
depends on its diameter, of the method of construction, the power of the servo-motor, the temperature
of the fluid, the leakage rate and of the maximum flow which crosses it.

With:
Q = Actual flow rate in m3/h at the temperature x
r = Density of the water in kg/dm3 (depends on the temperature)
DP = Pressure drop through the valve in bar
Pressure drop
It is the difference in pressure between the inlet and the outlet of the valve. It is thus its pressure loss.
The value of Kv in the same way is used to calculate the pressure drop in a valve according to the
flow which crosses it.

With:
Q = Actual water Flow in m3/h at temperature x
r = Density of the water in kg/dm3 (depends on the temperature)
DP = Pressure drop through the valve in bar
Authority of the valve
The principal function of a control valve is to ensure the progressiveness of a flow. It is the authority
of the valve which will determine the stability of the control system.
This progressiveness will be quantified by the authority of the valve.

DPv = Pressure loss of the entirely open valve for the nominal capacity l

7/3/2012 6:43 PM

Sizing, valve, valve, temperature, control, Kv, Kvs, pressure, drop

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http://www.thermexcel.com/english/ressourc/valves.htm

DPL = Pressure loss of the variable flow circuit.

Changeable flow rates

Mix flow rate

Circuit de rpartition

E = Generator of heat
V = Emetteur de chaleur - Transmitting of heat
Characteristics of the valves
Valve at linear characteristic

The best progressiveness of the thermal power is obtained when the valve has an
authority, has = 1. It is unthinkable to choose this value; therefore progressiveness will be
poor with this type of valve.
To use this type of valve in cpntrol system, it would be necessary to regulate the
proportional tape to a very high value. This valve cannot be used in progressive control.
Valve with square-law characteristic - Vanne caractristique quadratique

Best progressiveness would be obtained for an authority, a = 1. But however for A = 0.5,
the authority of the valve not being linear can in spite of very given satisfaction. If the
total head of the pump allows it, there would be interest to give an authority for example
from 0.6 to 0.7
Valve with characteristic logarithmic curve

7/3/2012 6:43 PM

Sizing, valve, valve, temperature, control, Kv, Kvs, pressure, drop

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http://www.thermexcel.com/english/ressourc/valves.htm

In this type of valve, the displacement of the valve produces a variation of flow
proportional to the preceding total flow the change. The best progressiveness of power is
obtained for 0.6 to 0.7.
Valve at linear calorific power

In this type of valve the manufacturer designed the valve in order to obtain a calorific
power proportional to the lifting of the valve, for an authority has = 0.5. A too large
authority would have the same harmful effect as a too small authority.
Last update: 07/03/2012 18:42:58

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7/3/2012 6:43 PM