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Sika StressHead

Prestressed CarboDur CFRP Plate System


System Information

Zrich, April 2002

Table of Contents
1

The Sika-StressHead System ............................................................................... 1


1.1 System Components .................................................................................. 1
1.2 Sika-StressHead Structure .......................................................................... 2
1.3 Anchorage ................................................................................................ 2
1.4 Prestressed CarboDur CFRP plate............................................................... 4

Laboratory Tests................................................................................................. 6
2.1 Short time tensile test ................................................................................. 6
2.2 Long time tensile test.................................................................................. 8
2.3 Fatigue test ............................................................................................... 9

Application of the Sika-StressHead-System ............................................................ 9


3.1 Function of the applied System .................................................................... 9
3.2 Range of Application ................................................................................ 10

Implementation process ..................................................................................... 11


4.1 Design.................................................................................................... 11
4.2 Fabrication of the system .......................................................................... 12
4.3 Application of the System.......................................................................... 12

Sika-StressHead System

Technical System Information

Page 1

The Sika-StressHead System

The Sika-StressHead-System is a system for an efficient strengthening of structures with


prestressed CarboDur CFRP plate.
The system uses CFRP products, which have excellent properties due to tensile resistance,
corrosion, weight, and required additional space to place the system.

1.1

System Components

The Sika-StressHead-System is composed of 3 main elements:


1. Concrete Structure

Force introduction

StressHead
Anchorage
Prestressing jack

CarboDur plate

2. Anchorage, which transmits the prestress-force from the CarboDur plate into the
Structure

Force introduction

CarboDur plate
StressHead
Anchorage
Prestressing jack

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Technical System Information

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3. CarboDur CFRP plate, which is prestressed on site

Force introduction

CarboDur plate
StressHead
Anchorage
Prestressing jack

1.2

Sika-StressHead Structure

The Sika-StressHead-System allows minimal requirement on the structure, which has to be


improved in terms of serviceability and or reinforcement, since:
1. no adhesive is needed between the structure and the laminate to transmit the
prestress-force. The Sika-StressHead-System transmits forces over the endanchorage.
2. minimal interference with the existing structure due to the anchorage system
3. little additional space needed to place the anchorage at the existing structure

1.3

Anchorage

Transversal Beam
The anchorage transmits the force from the CFRP Head into the concrete structure. The
CFRP Head is supported by a slat transversal beam. This beam is shifted over the CarboDur
CFRP plate. The force is transmitted from the beam over two threaded bolts to the

Sika-StressHead System

Technical System Information

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anchorage shoe.
StressHead = CFRP Head

Transversal Beam

Anchorage shoe for transmission of prestressing


The anchorage shoe is made out of steel same as the transversal beam. The two load
bearing threaded bolts are fixed to the shoe. The force is introduced into the concrete
structure over a tube placed into a drilled whole.
The shoe is stabilized against the overturning moment due to the eccentricity and aligns
itself under load without any secondary effects.
The prestress machine can be placed on the shoe to pull back the two threaded bolts
connected to the Transversal Beam and the CFRP Head. The bolts can be fixed in the pulled
back position after tensioning over washers to the shoe.
Adaptations of the anchorage systems due to special situations are possible.

Anchorage shoe

Mounted anchorage system:

Sika-StressHead System

1.4

Technical System Information

Page 4

Prestressed CarboDur CFRP plate

The CarboDur CFRP plate is very light and flexible and consists out of two parts:
1. CarboDur CFRP plate
2. CFRP Head = StressHead
CarboDur CFRP plate
The Sika CarboDur CFRP plate is a S624 type.
CFRP plate properties:
2
Section
60 mm * 2,4 mm = 144 mm
Tensile strength
ftk = 2800 N/mm2
Ultimate strain
E-Modulus

eu = 1,7 %
2
E = 165 kN/mm

CFRP Head (StressHead)


The CFRP Head is placed at the end of the laminates, where the concentrated prestressing
force is transmitted to the anchorage shoe. The Head was developed to have an efficient
level in terms of exploiting the tensile resistance of the laminate.
The Tendon was tested and improved according to the internationally acknowledged
institution EOTA, European Organisation for technical Approvals (Guidelines for European
technical approval of Post-tensioning kits for prestressing of structures) at the Swiss Federal
Institute of Technology (ETHZ) in Zurich.

Sika-StressHead System

Technical System Information

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Information for Designers:


Prestressing force

P0 = 220 kN

Stress in CarboDur plate

2
sP0 = 1540 N/mm (0,55 ftk)

Corresponding strain
Minimal tensile strength in the CFRP Head

eP0 = 0,95 %
Pd = 350 kN

Corresponding

minimal

stress

CFRP Head = StressHead

tensile

Sika-StressHead System

Technical System Information

Laboratory Tests

2.1

Short time tensile test

Page 6

CarboDur 60x2.4mm
Strain gauge 1

Strain gauge 2

u2

u1
StressHead
u3

2000 mm

Test procedure
The test tendon consists of a CarboDur CFRP plate of 2m length with a CFRP Head (Stress
Head) at one side. The CFRP Head is supported by a transversal beam similar to the one of
the anchor system. This beam is connected to the test machine.
On the other side the laminate is directly connected to the test machine.

Sika-StressHead System

Technical System Information

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The test tendon is loaded with a centric tensile force. The load application is controlled over
the displacement.
1. sequence of the test:
tensile load is applied up to 0,65 ftk ( = 1820 kN/mm2) and held
stagnant for 2 hours.
2. sequence of the test:

after a relief down to 10 % of the tensile strength of the


laminate the test tendon is loaded to the breaking point

2500

2 hours

2000

Failure

1820 MPa = 0.65 f tk

-1

Stress / MPa

mi
-1

1500

0.6

mi

00

0/

00

0
/0
0

0/
0.6

1000

mi-1

500
280 MPa = 0.1 f tk
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Time in minutes

Parameters to be measured

Displacement of the piston of the test machine

Force applied by the test machine

Displacement inside the CFRP Head

Displacement between the CarboDur plate and the CFRP Head

Strain of the CarboDur plates

160

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Technical System Information

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Requirements on the performance


In a series of 3 test tendons none should break below the break load of 0,75 ftk
(2100 N/mm2). Test results show no problems in performing along the sat requirements.
Test Conclusion
The requirements were met in the executed tests. The system showed a constant behaviour.

2.2

Long time tensile test

Test procedure
The test tendon consists of a CarboDur CFRP plate with one CFRP Head on each side. The
plate has a length of 1,8 m.
Two transversal beams support the CFRP Heads. This beams are connected over threaded
bolts to a steel profile HEB 300. The tendons is stretched and then fixed over the bolts to the
steel profile. The test tendon stays under the constant displacement 3 to 6 months.
1800 mm

StressHead

HEB 300

Parameters to be measured

Force applied by the test machine

Displacement inside the CFRP Head

Displacement between the CarboDur plate and the CFRP Head (slip)

Strain of the CarboDur plates

Sika-StressHead System

Technical System Information

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Test Conclusion
Pre-tests and measurements on already applied systems show no relaxation of the system.

2.3

Fatigue test

Test procedure
A break down of the tendon due to fatigue must not be expected for real vibration
frequencies and amplitudes on concrete structures. The test will show possible displacement
(slip) between StressHead and CarboDur plate due to cyclic loads.
The test tendon is the same as it is described for the short time tensile load test.
The load applied for the test:
Low tension

2
su = 1540 N/mm (0,55 ftk = Prestress-force)

High tension

so = 1740 N/mm2

Tension Amplitude
Number of cycles
Frequency

Ds = 200 N/mm2
157000
appr. 1 Hz

Test Conclusion
First tests show no additional slip in the tendon due to cyclic loads.

Application of the Sika-StressHead-System

3.1

Function of the applied System

The Sika-StressHead-System can be used for both:


1. Strengthening of structures
2. Improvement of the serviceability of strengthened structures
The function of the system is based on the function of external none bonded prestresssystems. In this systems a positive acting external load (prestress force) is introduced into
the structure to relieve it.

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Technical System Information

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With this relieve loads can be carried with enough security and a better performance due to
serviceability.
The relieve of the supporting structure will reduce deformations and crack-widths in concrete
structures.
Since the system works totally different compared to the commonly used not prestressed
bonded CarboDur CFRP plates to reinforce concrete structures a detailed analysis must be
made.
Advantages in terms of static security and serviceability:

3.2

Little interference with the existing structure

High efficiency in exploiting the tensile resistance of the CarboDur / High level
of prestress-force

Definite and controlled permanent transmission of the prestress-force

Range of Application

The system can be applied basically in all structures in combination with different materials.
So far it was used mainly with concrete structures for bridges and building.
Advantages in terms of the implementation and the construction:

Little additional weight on the structure

No corrosion of the tendon possible

Little requirements on quality of the existing structure

Little space needed to place the anchorage

Flexible system to meet any specific conditions for construction (bending with
little radius are possible)

Easy, fast and slender application

Sika-StressHead System

Technical System Information

Page 11

Implementation process

The implementation of the system can be divided in 3 part-processes. Over these processes
a quality control system will guarantee the correct application.
1. Process: Design
2. Process: Fabrication of the System
3. Process: Application of the system

4.1

Design

Properties of the system


The system is designed according to the prestress system codes, where the weakest
element is the tendon and not the anchorage.
Applying the system the capacity for deformation of the structure is not impaired. The break
down of the system occurs when the reinforcement steel in the concrete structure yields.
The ductility of the structure is maintained.
This is due to the capacity of an additional displacement of 0,33% to the prestress level.
Static Verification
The verification of the reinforced structure follows the rules according to the international and
the national codes for external prestress- systems with no bond. The prestress-force is put
into calculation as an active force on the load side.
To define the permanent prestress-force P the following effects and impacts have to be
taken into account:

Relaxation of the CarboDur CFRP plate

Creeping of the structure (concrete)

Creeping of the anchorage

Slip in the CFRP Head

Impact of changing temperature

Impact of burning

Sika-StressHead System

4.2

Technical System Information

Page 12

Fabrication of the system


1. All CFRP elements, the laminates and the elements of the head are produced in
series.
2. The Tendon is produced by cutting the exact length of the laminate according to the
project and mounting the two heads in the factory.
3. Before sending the tendon to the site it is prestressed in the factory to a level 10%
higher than the admitted prestress level.
4. The anchorage after the shown standard solution can be delivered with the tendon.
Adaptations are possible.

4.3

Application of the System

The application of the system is composed by following steps:


See next page

Sika-StressHead System

Po + 10 %

Technical System Information

Quality control in factory

Search existing reinforcement

Drill anchoring hole for anchorage

Applicate the stressing anchorage

Applicate the fix anchorage

Page 13

Sika-StressHead System

Technical System Information

Prepare the CarboDur CFRP plate

Applicate the SIKA-StressHead-System


into the fix anchorage

Applicate the SIKA-StressHead-System


into the stressing anchorage

Prestress the SIKA-StressHead-System

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