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In discussing fasteners or connectors we will make a dinstinction between
permanent fasteners, such as rivets and weldments, and detachable fasteners,
such as screws, bolts, cotter pins, and so on.
PERMANENT FASTENERS. A RIVET. A rivet may be described as a
cylindrical body, known as the shank, with a rounded end called the head. When
used to join two plates together, the rivet is heated to a red glow, and the shank
is placed in the hole that has been made in the plates. If the rivet is heated
before being placed in the hole, it is known as a hot-driven rivet, whereas if it is
not heated, it is known as a cold-driven rivet. The preformed head is then
supported, while a hammer or some other means of applying pressure is used to
form the shank into another head. Upon completion of this operation, the rivet
will have two heads and look something like the one shown in Fig 13-1. Thus,
the purpose of the rivet is to join two plates together while ensuring proper
strenght and tightness. The holes in the plates are either punched or drilled.
Rivets are used in many applications, such as for boilers, buildings, bridges,
ships, and so on. Because of the danger to human life that could result from a
failure of such applocations, the designs of riveted connections are rigourosly
governed by construction codes.
Lap and Butt Joints. Axially loaded riveted joints are of two types, lap joints
(Fig 13-1) and butt joints (Fig 13-2). A comparison of these two figures makes
clear why the joints are called lap and butt joints. In a lap joint, the two plates to
be joined overlap each other, whereas in a butt joint, the two plates to be joined
(the main plate) butt against each other,
The most efficient joint possible would be one which will be as strong in
tension, shear, and bearing as the original plate to be joined is in tension. This
can never be achieved, because there must be at least one rivet hole in the plate,
and the joints' allowable load in tension will thus always be less than the
strenght of the plate with no holes.
parts that require connection must usually be made in such a way that they can
easily be disassembled as well as assembled, nonpermanent fasteners or socalled detachable fasteners are required. Screws and bolts are examples of these.

The only difference between a screw and a bolt is that the bolt needs a nut in
order to be used as a fastener, whereas a screw fits into a threaded hole.
BOLTS. Through bolts are the most satisfactory form of screw fastening, since
they can be easily renewed when broken or when the threads strip. A stud bolt
(or a stud) has threads on both ends and is particularly useful in applications
where a plate is to be bolted to a larger part and a through bolt cannot be used.
SCREWS. Sems are preassembled fasteners that eliminate the need for hand
assembling of screws and washers. Set screws are a type of semipermanent
fasteners used to prevent relative motion between sliding surfaces. In general,
they are useful in low torque applications involving rotary motion. Set screws
are made in a variety of heads and points.
To prevent nuts from woorking loose, many types of special washers, pins and
nuts are used as loocking devices. Some of the most common locking devices
are lock nuts, split pins, spring washers, etc.
The Pitch and the Lead. The pitch is the axial distance between corresponding
points on adjacent threads and is equal to the reciprocal of the number of threads
per inch. The lead is the distance a screw moves axially during 1 revolution of
the screw. The lead of a single threaded screw is equal to its pitch, a double
threaded screw has a lead equal to twice its pitch, a triple threaded screw has a
lead 3 times its pitch, and so on. (See Fig 13-3)