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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

НОВОСИБИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

81.2Англ

№ 3653

П 692

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС ПЕРВОГО ИЗУЧАЕМОГО ЯЗЫКА. ПРАВИЛА ЧТЕНИЯ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

RULES OF READING IN ENGLISH

Методическое пособие

НОВОСИБИРСК

2009

ББК 81.432.1-923 П 692

Составитель О.Г. Шевченко, ст. преп.

Рецензент В.Г. Шабаев, канд. филол. наук

Методическое пособие предназначено для развития умения чтения на английском языке, а также для развития навыков в английском правописании. Пособие адресовано студентам I курса направления «Теория и методика пре- подавания иностранных языков и культур», а также студентам других специ- альностей, совершенствующихся в овладении навыками чтения английских слов.

© Hовосибиpский государственный технический университет, 2009

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2

CONTENTS

UNIT

1

Syllable division

 

4

UNIT 2

General rules of reading vowels

6

UNIT 3

The

letter

E

in

different

syllables

8

UNIT 4

The letter A in different syllables

9

UNIT 5

The letters I, Y in different syllables

10

UNIT 6

The

letter

O

in different

syllables

 

11

UNIT 7

The

letter

U

in different

syllables

13

UNIT

8

Vowels in different syllables

14

UNIT 9

Reading vowels + a group of consonants

16

UNIT 10

Specific rules of reading vowels. Reading vowel digraphs

in the stressed syllable

19

UNIT

11

Reading

digraphs

of

the

first group

22

UNIT 12

Reading digraphs of the second group

22

UNIT 13

Reading digraphs of the third group

25

UNIT

14

Reading

digraphs

of

different

groups

27

UNIT 15

Reading digraphs before the letter R

29

UNIT

16

Consonants

B, C

 

30

UNIT

17

Consonants

D, F, G

31

UNIT 18

Consonants H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Z

33

UNIT 19

Reading combinations with consonants

36

UNIT 20

Reading letter combinations: wh, kn, wr, ph

40

UNIT 21

Reading two syllable words with the final le and re

41

UNIT 22

How to study English spelling

42

UNIT

23

Spelling rules

44

UNIT 24

The formation of ing-form and ed-form

47

3
3

PRONUNCIATION: PHONEMIC CHART

 

CONSONANTS

 

VOWELS

DIPHTHONGS

symbol

key

symbol

key

symbol

key

symbol

key

word

word

word

word

/

p /

pen

   

/ еɪ /

make

/

b /

/ s /

son

/

i: /

see

/ əʊ /

no

back

/ t /

/ d /

/ k /

key

tea

day

/ z /

/ ʃ /

/ ʒ /

/ h /

cheese

fish

television

hot

/

/ е /

/ æ /

/ ɑ: /

ɪ /

him

bed

bad

car

/ aɪ /

/ ɒɪ /

/ ɪə /

/ ʊə /

write

boy

here

poor

/ g /

get

/ m /

come

/ ɒ /

hot

/ еə /

there

/ ʧ /

chair

/ n /

sun

/

ɔ: /

saw

/ aʊ /

/ ʤ /

jam

/ ŋ

/

English

/ ʊ /

put

now

/ f /

fat

/ l

/

lamp

/ u: /

you

 

/ v /

very

/ r /

red

/ /

cut

/ θ /

thing

j /

/ yogurt

/ wet

w /

/ ɜ: /

/ Chi-

bird

ə /

/

ð /

na

 

then

   

UNIT 1 SYLLABLE DIVISION

A syllable is a speech unit consisting of a sound or a sound sequence one of which is heard to be more prominent than the others. The most prom- inent sound being the peak or the nucleus of a syllable is called s y l l a b i с. Syllabic sounds are generally vowels and sonorants. The latter become syl- labic when joined to a preceding consonant. A word consisting of only one vowel sound represents a separate sylla- ble, e.g. I [aɪ], are [ɑ:]. In the case of a diphthong the peak of the syllable is formed by its nucleus.

4

Among syllabic sonorants we find [l, n] and less commonly [m], e.g.:

apple [ˡæpl], trouble [ˡtrbl], puzzle [ˡpzl]. Many words in English such as parcel, level, special, person and the like could be pronounced with the neutral vowel before the sonorant thus making it non-syllabic:

[ˡpɑ:səl], [ˡlеvəl], [ˡspеʃəl], [ˡpɜ:sən]. Syllable division rules are important when it’s necessary to find a con- venient place to put a stress mark in phonetic transcription. One must know the rules to define the syllable boundaries to make correct syllable division at the junction of words, as wrong syllabic division may cause misunders- tanding. It is not difficult to count how many syllables a word contains by notic- ing the peaks or the most prominent sounds in it, but it is not generally easy to determine precisely the syllable boundary. Sometimes the beginning of a syllable is marked by a stress, e.g. create [krɪˡеɪt]. In other cases the transition from one vowel sound to another indicates the separation of syllables, e.g. seeing [ˡsi:ɪŋ]. In most general terms syllable division rules can be defined as follows:

1. If there is one consonant at the syllable boundary, it goes to the fi-

nal syllable. The vowel of the first syllable occurs in the open syllable:

cu|bic ty|pist This rule holds true for cases when a consonant is preceded by a long vowel or a diphthong, as they are always free at the end and there is no need

to close the syllable, e.g. music [ˡmju:zɪk].

But in a case of a short stressed vowel followed by a consonant there are three viewpoints concerning the syllable boundary:

a) the intervocalic consonant belongs to the short vowel preceding it (to

make the short vowel checked), e.g. pity [ˡpɪt-ɪ], better [ˡbеt-ə]. b) The intervocalic consonant belongs to the vowel following it,

e.g. [ˡpɪ-tɪ].

c)

The syllable boundary goes through the consonant, e.g. [pɪtɪ]

2.

If there are two consonants at the syllable boundary, the first conso-

nant goes to the first syllable:

splen|did

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fun|ny

This rule is not true for the words in which one of the two consonants separating the stressed syllable from unstressed one is a sonant, e. g. ta|ble [ˡtеɪ|bl].

3. If in many syllable words the letter r and one or more consonants

come together, the letter r belongs to the vowel preceding it, the other sounds belong to the following syllable:

ger|man sur|plus lar|ger thir|dly Mar|xist par|ry

4. The combinations of letters sh, ck, (t)ch, dg, ng which convey the

one sound, are considered as two consonants in syllable division:

mid|get tic|ket fis|hy sin|ging

[1, p.134136].

EXERCISES

1. Transcribe the following words and define the number of syllables.

Say what sound is syllabic. Read the words.

a)

narrate, drawer, stupid, dragon, Germany

b)

parcel, level, ruffle, trouble

c)

lesson, reason, person, kitchen, often, even, twenty, fashion

2.

Transcribe the following words. Split them up into syllables. Define

the syllable boundary and say how it is indicated.

d) repeat, engage, react, complete, machine, behave

e) freer, diary, coward, diamond

[1, p. 317].

UNIT 2 GENERAL RULES OF READING VOWELS

The English alphabet consists of 26 letters. There are 44 sounds (20 vowels and 24 consonants). Each vowel has at least four variants of reading. The reading of vowel in the stressed syllable depends on the type of the syllable. The type of syllable is defined by what letter follows the stressed vowel. All stressed syllables are divided into four types. I type of syllable an open syllable the syllable with final vowel. The stressed vowel in the word is read as in the alphabet. For example, me [mi:],

no [nəʊ],note [nəʊt], Pete [pi:t].

6

These are all vowels in the open syllable:

A [еɪ]

E [i:]

O [əʊ]

U [ju:]

I [aɪ]

Y [aɪ]

take

Pete, me

no, note

tube, tulip

like, mine

type

II type of syllable a closed syllable the stressed vowel is followed by one or several consonants (any consonant, except r). The vowel in a closed syllable is short.

A [æ]

E [е]

U []

O [ɒ]

I, Y [ɪ]

am, bag

pen, men

cup, bus

not, pot

myth, gypsy

III type of syllable a stressed vowel is followed by the consonant r [ɑ:]. Each vowel has its own pronunciation in type III.

a + r [ɑ:]

o + r [ɔ:]

e + r [ɜ:]

i + r [ɜ:]

y + r [ɜ:]

u + r [ɜ:]

park, dark

fork, sort

her

first

myrtle

fur

In the case with a double letter r as well as any other double consonant, the stressed vowel of a two syllable word is read according to the II type of syllable, e.g. marry [ˡmærɪ], sorry [ˡsɒrɪ]. IV type of syllable the stressed vowel is followed by the consonant r and a vowel. Each vowel has its own pronunciation in type IV.

 

a + re [еə]

 

a + re [ɪə]

 

u + re [jʊə]

 

o + re [ɔ:]

i + re [aɪə]

 

fare

 

here

pure

 

more

fire

 

Combined table of reading English vowels in I, II, III, IV types of syllable

 
     

The final letter in the word

 
 

vowel

 

consonant

 

vowel + r

 

vowel +r +e (+ consonant)

 

I

   

II

 

III

   

IV

А а [ еɪ ]

[

еɪ ] take

[

æ ] cat

[

ɑ: ] car

[

еə ] care

O

o [ əʊ ]

[

əʊ ] rose

[

ɒ ] dog

[

ɔ: ] for

[

ɔ: ] more

U

u [ ju: ]

[

ju: ] use

[

] cup

[

ɜ: ] fur

[

ʊə ] sure

E

e [ i: ]

[

i: ] Pete

[

е ] pet

[

ɜ: ] her

[

ɪə ] here

 

7

 

I

i

/

Y

y

[aɪ

/

[aɪ] Mike

[

ɪ ] pig

[ɜ:] girl

 

waɪ]

 

[aɪ] fly

[

ɪ ] system

myrtle

[aɪə] tyre

[2].

UNIT 3 THE LETTER E IN DIFFERENT SYLLABLES

I. Read the words with the letter E

a)

mete eve Pete theme

Pete these

Pete Steve

mete scene

Swede grebe breve

b)

fever ferny Swedish hermit Rebus nervy

Plenum jerky Negus merchant velar permit

veto service velum servant memo German

Cedar mercy Venus merger Cretan thermal

с) verb were serve were fern were fern ferny

term were therm were serve service germ German

serve servant therm thermal jerk jerky her hermit

nerve nervy merge merger term termer

d) them these met mete pet Pete

bed Bede wed Swede twelve theme

fence Eve edge breve ledge grebe

fledge Bede

e) here mere sere sphere queer deer beer veer steer fear

ear near dear rear tear shear smear spear hear clear

[3].

II. Transcribe the words and explain the rules of reading.

Pet, Peter, pert, mere, serf, fern, sect, recede, delta, delete, met, mete, jerky, depend, meddle, Ede, Ed, kern, elect, sincere, eke, severe, serpent, sentiment, sediment

[4].

III. Put the words into the appropriate column:

8

E e

[i:]

[е]

[ɜ:]

[ɪə]

E e

[i:]

[е]

[ɜ:]

[ɪə]

detail

detail term
detail term
detail term
detail term

term

detail term
detail term
detail term
detail term

German

German sheep
German sheep
German sheep
German sheep

sheep

German sheep
German sheep
German sheep
German sheep

mermaid

mermaid better
mermaid better
mermaid better
mermaid better

better

mermaid better
mermaid better
mermaid better
mermaid better

here

here teeth
here teeth
here teeth
here teeth

teeth

here teeth
here teeth
here teeth
here teeth

certainly

certainly test
certainly test
certainly test
certainly test

test

certainly test
certainly test
certainly test
certainly test

cheek

cheek letter
cheek letter
cheek letter
cheek letter

letter

cheek letter
cheek letter
cheek letter
cheek letter

clear

clear three
clear three
clear three
clear three

three

clear three
clear three
clear three
clear three

red

red her
red her
red her
red her

her

red her
red her
red her
red her

hear

hear          
hear          
hear          
hear          
         

UNIT 4 THE LETTER A IN DIFFERENT SYLLABLES

I. Read the words with the letter A

a) far car bar mar tar star

car cart barn card par carp

carve starve parch par

barge large large charge

march mar charm chart

sparse

starch

charge

b) cat cart mat smart cap cart

bat bart stab bard bad bard

badge barge match march dad yard

cad card have hard bad bard

c) part party part partner spar sparker

scar scarlet start starter hard hardy

hard hardship farm farmer Marx Marist

dark darken marsh marshy march marcher

d) parrot party barrack barber

carrot carbon garret garlic

parry partly marry Martin

carry carcass

e) funny farmer gunner garter

tunnel tarnish hunter harder

mutter Martin vulgar farming

cutter carter

f) Status starter Statement stardom

Taker tartan Tamer tarnish

paper party lazy larder

major Marxist hazy carter

 

9

 

Statesman starlet

Taper tardy

laky lardy

cater carver

g)

grace graze pace brace braze race tack take

craze race lace

mat mate

maze trace mace back bake

 

shack shake

h)

mare hare care

dare fare air

pair fair impair

[3].

II. Transcribe the words and explain the rules of reading

Pat, date, dart, data, park, compare, substance, fame, fare, stack, glare, fact, daze, flash, cage, matter, Ada.

III. Put the words into the appropriate column:

A a

[еɪ]

[æ]

[ɑ:]

[еə]

A a

[еɪ]

[æ]

[ɑ:]

[еə]

age

age   thank
age   thank
age   thank
 

thankage  

age   thank
age   thank
age   thank
age   thank

that

that   share
that   share
that   share
 

sharethat  

that   share
that   share
that   share
that   share

Charly

Charly   chair
Charly   chair
Charly   chair
 

chairCharly  

Charly   chair
Charly   chair
Charly   chair
Charly   chair

hair

hair dad  
hair dad  
hair dad  

dadhair  

 
hair dad  
hair dad  
hair dad  
hair dad  

baby

baby nt departme
baby nt departme
baby nt departme

ntbaby departme

departme

baby nt departme
baby nt departme
baby nt departme
baby nt departme

dark

dark   name
dark   name
dark   name
 

namedark  

dark   name
dark   name
dark   name
dark   name

fair

fair   Carol
fair   Carol
fair   Carol
 

Carolfair  

fair   Carol
fair   Carol
fair   Carol
fair   Carol

Americ

Americ   same
Americ   same
Americ   same
 

sameAmeric  

Americ   same
Americ   same
Americ   same
Americ   same

a

state

state air  
state air  
state air  

airstate  

 
state air  
state air  
state air  
state air  

large

large   smart
large   smart
large   smart
 

smartlarge  

large   smart
large   smart
large   smart
large   smart

UNIT 5 THE LETTERS I, Y IN DIFFERENT SYLLABLES

I. Read the words with the letter I, Y

a) style tyke

dyke type

syce Tyne

10

b) lime crime

mile pile

gripe stripe

c) liner dirty China chirpy primer skirmish

ivy thirsty nylon thirty miner thirdly

vital firman stylist circus

stylish virgin diner firstly

d) Fir skirmish Firm firman bird flirting

Thirst thirsty Third thirty chirp chirpy

Third thirdly First firstly birch birchen

dirt dirty sir circus kirk skirmish

e) rid ride ridge grid bride bridge scrib scribe midge

mince mine midge wince wine ridge wince wine ridge

f) mire hire tire fire tired spire sire quire byre wire tyre pyre lyre squire dire

viral spiral firing hiring wiry wiring virus tyrant miry siren spirant tiring

[3].

II. Transcribe the words and explain the rules of reading

File, fire, fill, bird, nymph, expire, fist, style, stick, shrive, Byrd, type, typical, try, cryptic, incidence, lymph, tryst, intrude, abyss, physical, ivy, Styx, tidy, stylus, system.

III. Put the words into the appropriate column:

I i, Y y

[aɪ]

[ ɪ ]

[ɜ:]

[aɪə]

I i, Y y

[aɪ]

[ ɪ ]

[ɜ:]

[aɪə]

five

five   sister  
five   sister  
 

sisterfive    

sister
 
five   sister  
five   sister  
five   sister  
five   sister  

third

third   fire  
third   fire  
 

firethird    

fire
 
third   fire  
third   fire  
third   fire  
third   fire  

white

white   thirteen
white   thirteen
 
white   thirteen

thirteenwhite  

white   thirteen
white   thirteen
white   thirteen
white   thirteen

history

history   Ireland
history   Ireland
 
history   Ireland

Irelandhistory  

history   Ireland
history   Ireland
history   Ireland
history   Ireland

UNIT 6

THE LETTER O IN DIFFERENT SYLLABLES

I. Read the words with letter O

11

a) for form sort short

fork cork nor norm

torch scorch ford cord

or storm torn thorn

born corn

b) thorn thorny lord lordly North Nordic Scorch scorcher

Orb orbit Sort sorter port porter

or order form former fort fortress

for forward storm stormy sport sportsman

c) cod corn odd lord cone corn

cock cord fog forge phone form

Bob born Non morn stone storm

code cord tone torn bone born

d) sharp short card cord start torch

are form farm form charm storm

parch porch far for

are or farce force

e) boss brose loss close not note rod rode

mop mope mock smoke cod code rod rode

nod node cross rose this those

hop hope cock coke stock stoke

f) fort fore four torn tore door

sport spore soar short shore floor

York yore your horse core hoarse

[3].

II. Transcribe the words and explain the rules of reading.

Stole, sore, omit, photo, coddle, rosy, soppy, gore, solo, sordid, cod, cord, connect, lock, provoke, ode, odd, cork, convene, yoke, Togo.

III. Put the words into the appropriate column:

12

O o

[əʊ]

[ ɒ ]

[ ɔ:]

[ ɜ:]

O o

[əʊ]

[ ɒ ]

[ ɔ:]

[ ɜ:]

rosy

rosy Moscow
rosy Moscow
rosy Moscow
rosy Moscow

Moscow

rosy Moscow
rosy Moscow
rosy Moscow
rosy Moscow

wore

wore go
wore go
wore go
wore go

go

wore go
wore go
wore go
wore go

soft

soft northern
soft northern
soft northern
soft northern

northern

soft northern
soft northern
soft northern
soft northern

only

only possible
only possible
only possible
only possible

possible

only possible
only possible
only possible
only possible

ordinar

ordinar story
ordinar story
ordinar story
ordinar story

story

ordinar story
ordinar story
ordinar story
ordinar story

y

more

more short
more short
more short
more short

short

more short
more short
more short
more short

word

word old
word old
word old
word old

old

word old
word old
word old
word old

hobby

hobby important
hobby important
hobby important
hobby important

important

hobby important
hobby important
hobby important
hobby important

oval

oval forecast
oval forecast
oval forecast
oval forecast

forecast

oval forecast
oval forecast
oval forecast
oval forecast

UNIT 7

THE LETTER U IN DIFFERENT SYLLABLES I. Read the words with the letter U

a) fur further fur furnish fur furnace

curl curly surd sturdy surd surplus

Turk Turkish turk turnip nurse murder

urge urgent

b) but bart duck dark gull Carl

cuff carve hum harm shut sharp

cut cart bun barn cud card

us starve spun spar gulf scarf

c) super surplus stupid sturdy student surly cubic curdy

Cuban curly Ruby scurvy Lunar turner Unit turnip

tuna turbo ruler urgent truly urban fumy furnace

music murmur human murder lucid churlish spumy churchy

d) ruse Bruce rune prune

rude crude prude brute

plume flute flute fluke

fluke plume jute June

[3].

II. Transcribe the words and explain the rules of reading.

13

Sturdy, stub, corrupt, tuna, mule, vulgar, ugly, unbend, unburden, surge, usher, urchin, pure, super, true, trumpet, tulip, stunk, stupid, abuse, acute, curse, brute, buckle, burner, drug, dune, dusk, due, judo, undercut, rum, rune.

III. Put the words into the appropriate column:

U u

[ ju:]

[ ]

[ ɜ:]

[ jʊə]

U u

[ ju:]

[ ]

[ ɜ:]

[ jʊə]

duty

duty music  
duty music  
duty music  

musicduty  

 
duty music  
duty music  
duty music  
duty music  

curly

curly supper
curly supper
curly supper

suppercurly

curly supper
curly supper
curly supper
curly supper

during

during study  
during study  
during study  

studyduring  

 
during study  
during study  
during study  
during study  

pure

pure purple  
pure purple  
pure purple  

purplepure  

 
pure purple  
pure purple  
pure purple  
pure purple  

future

future turn  
future turn  
future turn  

turnfuture  

 
future turn  
future turn  
future turn  
future turn  

turkey

turkey pupil
turkey pupil
turkey pupil
turkey pupil

pupil

turkey pupil
turkey pupil
turkey pupil
turkey pupil

Russian

Russian sun
Russian sun
Russian sun
Russian sun

sun

Russian sun
Russian sun
Russian sun
Russian sun

curious

curious student
curious student
curious student
curious student

student

curious student
curious student
curious student
curious student

summer

summer  
summer  
summer  
summer  
 
summer  
summer  
summer  
summer  

UNIT 8 VOWELS IN DIFFERENT SYLLABLES

I. Put the words into the appropriate column:

14

 

A a

 

A a

 

O o

 

O o

[еɪ]

 

[æ]

[еɪ]

 

[æ]

[əʊ]

 

[ɒ]

[əʊ]

 

[ɒ]

cat  map     rose     on  

 
cat   map     rose     on  

mapcat       rose     on  

   

rosecat   map         on  

rose
   

oncat   map     rose      

on
 
cat   map     rose     on  

Kate  date     stop     Rose  

 
Kate   date     stop     Rose  

dateKate       stop     Rose  

   

stopKate   date         Rose  

stop
   

RoseKate   date     stop      

Rose
 
Kate   date     stop     Rose  

skate  name     Tom     pot  

 
skate   name     Tom     pot  

nameskate       Tom     pot  

   

Tomskate   name         pot  

Tom
   

potskate   name     Tom      

pot
 
skate   name     Tom     pot  

hat  bag     no     cock  

 
hat   bag     no     cock  

baghat       no     cock  

   

nohat   bag         cock  

no
   

cockhat   bag     no      

cock
 
hat   bag     no     cock  

plate  page     not     nose  

 
plate   page     not     nose  

pageplate       not     nose  

   

notplate   page         nose  

not
   

noseplate   page     not      

nose
 
plate   page     not     nose  

has  cap     hello     shop  

 
has   cap     hello     shop  

caphas       hello     shop  

   

hellohas   cap         shop  

hello
   

shophas   cap     hello      

shop
 
has   cap     hello     shop  

Jane  plan     shone     clock  

 
Jane   plan     shone     clock  

planJane       shone     clock  

   

shoneJane   plan         clock  

shone
   

clockJane   plan     shone      

clock
 
Jane   plan     shone     clock  

II. Put the words into the appropriate column:

 

[еɪ]

[əʊ]

[ju:]

[i:]

[aɪ]

[еɪ]

[əʊ]

[ju:]

[i:]

[aɪ]

state

state ski
state ski
state ski
state ski

skistate

state ski
state ski
state ski
state ski
state ski

United

United life
United life
United life
United life

lifeUnited

United life
United life
United life
United life
United life

English

English go
English go
English go
English go

goEnglish

English go
English go
English go
English go
English go

student

student music
student music
student music
student music

musicstudent

student music
student music
student music
student music
student music

oval

oval only
oval only
oval only
oval only

onlyoval

oval only
oval only
oval only
oval only
oval only

sky

sky whine
sky whine
sky whine
sky whine

whinesky

sky whine
sky whine
sky whine
sky whine
sky whine

pupil

pupil green
pupil green
pupil green
pupil green

greenpupil

pupil green
pupil green
pupil green
pupil green
pupil green

face

face wavy
face wavy
face wavy
face wavy

wavyface

face wavy
face wavy
face wavy
face wavy
face wavy

white

white name
white name
white name
white name

namewhite

white name
white name
white name
white name
white name

describe

describe old
describe old
describe old
describe old

olddescribe

describe old
describe old
describe old
describe old
describe old

role

role cheek
role cheek
role cheek
role cheek

cheekrole

role cheek
role cheek
role cheek
role cheek
role cheek

mole

mole detail
mole detail
mole detail
mole detail

detailmole

mole detail
mole detail
mole detail
mole detail
mole detail

III. Put the words into the appropriate column

15

[⋀] [ɒ] [æ] [е] [ɪ] [⋀] [ɒ] [æ] [е] [ɪ] subject history hobby sister what
[⋀]
[ɒ]
[æ]
[е]
[ɪ]
[⋀]
[ɒ]
[æ]
[е]
[ɪ]
subject
history
hobby
sister
what
family
red
story
Africa
Ann
Russia
sun
soft
cottage
sandy
just
better
Spanish
lips
Swiss
mess
Britain
summer

IV. Transcribe the words and explain the rules of reading.

a) Tapper taper Tartar Chappy chafer charter Pantry paper partner

Ladder lazy larder Manner maker market

b) pepper plenum person sherry rebus perfect tennis these - thermal

vector Venus verdict Edwin Eden Bernard

c) Turret tuna turner Hurry Hubert hurdler Current cubic curly

Rubber ruby Turkish Under unit - further

d) timber timer thirty sister spider skirmish Finnish final firmer

differ diver dirty clipper climate girlish

[3].

e) Define the type of syllable; group the words according to the reading rule of a vowel. Read the words.

16

Rucksack, hymn [-m], Japan, stem, stark, plunder, best, code, nod, sent, these, cod, spoke, theme, then, enter, cell, dose, depth, less, sit, mile, home, miss, gave, tip, tide, tap, late, mad, made, fill, cake, pine, bat, hate, act, ice, plot, face, stamp, spot, pile, land, mist, mole, mark, cap, nose, harm, start, form, five, pipe, land, fry, ton, tone, cut, shade, shall, blame, prepare, mere, store, care, cure, germ, hurt, hare, a wise man, rare, spare time, pure

[4, p. 213]. Farm, firm, form, fern, start, stork, stern, spurn, skirt, word, sparse, scorch, churl, garb, garland, hurdle, orchard, surly, turbo, verger, virgin, darter, norther

[5].

Ann can take care of a car. He met her here. A fine girl sits by the fire. Tom has more horses at home. For sure he must buy pure fur in future. I type the myth about tyrants and sly myrmidons.

UNIT 9 READING VOWELS +A GROUP OF CONSONANTS

I. Practice reading the letter o + ld

o + ld = [əʊ] + ld

a) old cold fold hold bold gold

b) bird bold

curl old mold

hurl hold

firm fold

turn told

murk

c) oil old boil bold

coil cold soil sold

toil told foil fold

d) boat bold soap sold

goat gold coat cold

foam fold wove wold

 

II. Practice reading the letter i + ld, i + nd, i + gh

+ ld

i = [aɪ] + + nd

[ld]

[nd]

i + gh = [aɪ]

a) wild child mild

kind mind find bind blind rind

17

high sigh nigh thigh

b) fight night tight sight might plight

c) eight weight weigh neigh

III. Read the letter a + a group of consonants

slight light right bright

freight straight

 

ss

[s]

pass

a +

st

= [ɑ:] +

[st]

past

sk

[sk]

ask

sp

[sp]

grasp

1.

a)

class pass glass grass brass ask task flask bask mask

fast past cast vast mast

b)