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Proceedings Indonesia International Geothermal Convention & Exhibition 2015

Jakarta Convention Center, Indonesia August 19th 21st, 2015

Geochemical Data of Hotsprings in Cikahuripan River: The Origin of the Fluid and the
Reservoirs Characteristics
Syaiful Hilal*, R.A. Julia Satriani*, Agil Gemilang*, Ir. Mega F. Rosana, M.Sc., Ph.D*, Adi Hardiyono S.T., M.T.*
*Faculty of Geological Engineering, Padjadjaran University
syaiful.hilal@gmx.com

Keywords: Cikahuripan River, Geochemistry, Hotspring,


Origin and reservoirs characteristics.

To know which geothermal system is the nearest to the field,


the calculation to estimate the distance between the upflow
of nearest geothermal system and study area was done using
the remote sensing method.

ABSTRACT
One of the objects we observe in geothermal exploration is
manifestation. Specifically, this study will focus on the
observation of hotspring, as one of many types of
geothermal manifestations. We could use the geochemical
data of hotspring to determine the fluids origin and the
characteristics of the associated reservoir. Cikahuripan River
is located in Talegong, Garut, West Java and astronomically
lies in X 770850-771852 TM and Y -91914920 - -9192998
UM (UTM zone 48). In this area, several hotsprings were
found and analyzed.

Regional Geology
Based upon the divisions of physiography in West Java by
Van Bemmelen (1949) the study area was lies in
Pegunungan Selatan Jawa Barat. This zone was structural
mountains which lied from west to east according to
geometry of Java Island (figure 2).

Methods used in this study are Giggenbach and Fournier to


investigate the fluids characteristics, also deuterium and O18 isotope to determine its origin. Based upon the analyzed
data, it was found that the hotspring was derived from the
local meteoric waters and the reservoirs characteristics are
similar with the Patuha geothermal system.
Introduction
Cikahuripan River is located in southern West Java, flowing
from valley between Sanggar Mountain and Tipung
Mountain, Talegong Region to Pogor Hill, Cisewu Region.
This study was conducted in the meandering part, Talegong,
Garut (figure 1). Astronomically, the area lies in X 770850771852 TM and Y -91914920 - -9192998 UM (UTM zone
48).

Figure 2. Study area (red box) in the physiography of West


Java (Van Bemmelen, 1949)
Therefore, according to geological map part Sindangbarang
and Bandarwaru (Koesmono, 1996) regional lithologies that
lies underneath are (figure 3),
Koleberes Formation, consists of well bedded tuff
sandstones, less consolidated and crystal tuff; with
interlayered tuff, pumice-tuff breccia. Black sandstones
occurred near Gebeg Mountain and east sides of Citalahab.
Mollusk, Gastropods, coral Echinoids and foraminifera were
found in upper layers from this unit. Deposition environment
were open sea. Thickness of this formation is about 350
meters. This formation were lying conformity to Bentang
formation and unconformity lied by Pyroclastic, lahar and
lava of Kendeng Mountain.

Figure 1. Study area (red box) in scale 1:100 km of Java


Island.

Unstacked pyroclastic deposits, consists of andesite breccia,


tuff breccia and lapilli tuff. In the east sides occurred
sheeting pyroclastic and ignimbrite.

There were several geothermal manifestations such as


altered grounds and hotsprings which occurred in the area.
These manifestations indicate that some active geothermal
system are working beneath the ground. Due to the absence
of the active volcanoes in the nearest mountain (Sanggar
Mount. And Tipung Mount.) cross-checked with the nearest
geothermal system was done.

Proceedings Indonesia International Geothermal Convention & Exhibition 2015


Jakarta Convention Center, Indonesia August 19th 21st, 2015

T C=

1000
273
4.78logSi O2

.........

(Equation 3)
Cristobalite

T C=

781
273
4.51logSi O2

.........

(Equation 4)
Amorphous silica

Figure 3. Regional geology of study area (Koesmono, 1996)

T C=
Method

731
273
4.52logSi O2

.........

(Equation 5)

Ternary Diagram Plotting

(Fournier and Potter, 1982)

Elements, ions, and compounds within geothermal fluids


could be used in order to comprehend the fluids
characteristics. Anions such as Chloride (Cl), Sulphate
(SO4), and Hidrogen Bicarbonate (HCO 3) could infer fluids
source whether the fluid originated from outflow zone or
upflow zone (Giggenbach, 1982). The fluid is said to be
mature waters if it is rich with Cl, or peripheral waters
(mostly comprised by meteoric water, or has undergone
mixing with bicarbonates) if dominated by HCO 3, and could
be volcanic water (juvenile SO2 rich water mixed with H 2S)
or steam heated water if contains plentiful amount of SO4.

K/Mg Geothemometer (Giggenbach, 1986)


K/Mg could only be used if the reservoir is low enthalpy and
the fluid has not reached equilibrium yet. Based on the
conditions mentioned above, the geothermometry which
represents accurate result is only the K/Mg geothermometer.
By calculating the K/Mg in the fluids with Equation 6,
subsurface temperature could be obtained.

K /( Mg )1/2

+ 14.00

log

4410
T C=

Furthermore, anions and cations could be plotted to Piper


Diagram (1944) to determine the hydrological facies and to
support the result of Cl-SO4-HCO3 Ternary Diagram. Anions
used in Piper Diagram are Cl, HCO3, SO4, and the cations
used are Ca, Na+K, and Mg.
Ternary diagrams could also be used to investigate
reservoirs temperature, such as the Giggenbachs Na-K-Mg
Ternary Diagram.

......... (Equation 6)

Silica Geothermometry
Silica geotermometry depends on certain types of silica
dissolved within the hotsprings fluid (Fournier, 1983).
Quartz

T C=

1309
273
5.19logSiO2

O-18 and Deuterium Isotope Plotting


Deuterium (2H or D) and Oxygen 18 ( O 18) isotope analyses
are used to determine fluids origin, whether the fluids
origin is from meteoric water andesitic water, or a mixture of
both. Samples from Ckh-1 and Ckh-2 are used in this study.

.........

Satellite Imagery

(Equation 1)

Landsat images of research area is used to estimate the


nearest geothermal system which are connected with the
geothermal manifestations found within the research area.

Chalcedony

T C=

1032
273
4.69logSi O2

.........

Results

(Equation 2)

Field Tests

Cristobalite

This study was held during rainy seasons in August 2014,


due to the increasing of water level only several spots of
hotsprings that could be analyzed (figure 4).

Proceedings Indonesia International Geothermal Convention & Exhibition 2015


Jakarta Convention Center, Indonesia August 19th 21st, 2015

manifested stones (figure 6). The fluids also altered the


surrounding and the alteration was identified as sericite prior
to the key minerals such as sericite and paragonite were
found. As for clay minerals the results of PIMA analyzed
shown kaolinite.
Geochemical compositions of the fluids in this spot were,
Temp. air= 240 C; temp. water= 60.40 C; TDS = 2450 ppm;
EC = 5.48 mS; and pH = 6.29.
Due to the undeposited silica, there were not sinter silica
found in this place.

Figure 4. Location of hotsprings in the study area.

Figure 6. Hotspring manifestation in Ckh-5

Ckh-3

At this spot, the manifestation was flowing through


volcanoclastic and altered the surrounding lithology. The
alteration near the manifestation was identified as argilic
with clay minerals such as kaolinite and illite. Theres also a
neutral pH mineral indicator like Opal found in this place
using PIMA analyzed.

At this spot, the manifestation was flowing through the


lithology that were suspected as andecite (figure 7). The
alteration that occurred in this lithology were argilic with
clay minerals such as kaolinite and dickite.

Geochemical composition of the fluid in this place were,


Temp. air= 220 C; temp. water = 92.20 C; TDS = 1533 ppm;
EC = 1.092 mS; and pH = 8.04.

Geochemical composition of the fluid in this place were,


Temp. air = 230 C; Temp. water = 77.80 C; TDS = 2490
ppm; EC = 3.21 3.23 mS; and pH = 5.79.

Ckh-7

Theres also sinter silica found in the nearby fractured, the


thickness was about 1 cm (figure 5).

Figure 5. Hotspring manifestation in Ckh-3.


-

Figure 7. Hotspring manifestation in Ckh-7.

Ckh-5

Laboratory Tests

The lithology that were flown by fluids in this spot is


volcanoclastic. In this spot the fluids were not flowing
through the fracture, but using the primary porosity from the

Proceedings Indonesia International Geothermal Convention & Exhibition 2015


Jakarta Convention Center, Indonesia August 19th 21st, 2015

Samples that were taken at the field, laboratory test were


held to know further about the anions and cations in the
fluids. The results were shown in table 1.

As for the Na-K-Mg diagram (Giggenbach, 1988) the results


from plotting in this diagram was shown that fluids in the
study area were derived from secondary reservoir due to the
phase from diagram that said partial equilibration (figure
10).

Table 1. Anions and Cations of Ckh-3, Ckh-5, and Ckh-7

From the data above further investigation about the fluids


and reservoirs characteristics can be done.
-

Anion analysis

Using ternary diagram the type of the fluids could be


obtained (figure 8). The ternary diagram plotting were
resulted that fluids in the study area were mixing of SO 4 and
Cl in almost balance proportion. Therefore, the hotsprings
were categorized as sulphate-chloride.
Figure 10. Na-K-Mg diagram (Giggenbach, 1988) in study
area

The result from the ternary diagram also supported by the


piper diagram (1944) which also determined that the fluids
in the study area were mixing between Chloride-Sulphate
and the main cations were Na/K (figure 9).

Due to the results were partial equilibration, the Na-K-Mg


geothermometer couldnt be done.
-

Geothermometer

SiO2 Geothermometer
SiO2 Geothermometer is based upon the absolute
concentration of SiO2 in fluids. The results were derived
from the equations above (equations 1 equations 5). The
results from the calculation were shown in table 2.
Table 2. SiO2 Geothermometer in study area

Figure 8. Ternary diagram of Cl-SO4-HCO3 in study area.

From the table above, the results were inconsistence


between one equations with another. Therefore, plotting
using graphic K2/Mg to SiO2 were done. The result of this
plotting were,

Figure 9. Piper diagram of hotsprings in study area.

Proceedings Indonesia International Geothermal Convention & Exhibition 2015


Jakarta Convention Center, Indonesia August 19th 21st, 2015

Figure 11. Graphic of K2/Mg to SiO2 in study area

The reactions also affected the calculation of the SiO 2,


therefore the first results were inconsistent. Besides all that,
the K/Mg geothermometer were still sufficient to use.

From the graphic above, the main SiO 2 in each spots were
found. So the final results of SiO2 Geothermometer were
shown in table 3.

To know exactly whether the study area was a part of Patuha


geothermal system or not, further study is required.

Table 3. Final results of SiO2 Geothermometer


Samples

Cristobalite

Chalcedony

Ckh-3
Ckh-5
CKh-7

108
-

Conductive
97
103

Conclusions
Based on geochemical analysis, the geothermal system
which developed in the research area is a low enthalpy
geothermal system with enthalpy ranging from 95 123 oC
(<125oC).
According to the nearest geothermal system, the research
area is included in Mt. Patuha geothermal system and is the
outflow of said geothermal system. This is confirmed with
petrographical and geochemical analyses which infer that
the research area is classified into an outflow zone of a
geothermal system.

K/Mg Geothermometer
Based upon the calculation from the equation 6, the results
of K/Mg geothermometer wer shown in table 4.
Table 4. K/Mg Geothermometer
Sample
K/Mg
Giggenbach
(1986)
Ckh-3
100
Ckh-5
95
Ckh-7
101
-

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Proceedings Indonesia International Geothermal Convention & Exhibition 2015


Jakarta Convention Center, Indonesia August 19th 21st, 2015

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