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Letter of representation: Audit of financial statements

[To be prepared on the entitys letterhead]


[Date]

UFM Auditores
[Address]

This representation letter is provided in connection with your audit of the


(consolidated) financial statements of [name of entity] (the Company) for the year
ended [balance sheet date]. We recognize that obtaining representations from us
concerning the information contained in this letter is a significant procedure in
enabling you to form an opinion as to whether the (consolidated) financial statements
give a true and fair view of (or present fairly, in all material respects,) the financial
position of [name of entity] as of [balance sheet date] and of its financial performance
(or operations) and its cash flows for the year then ended in accordance with
[applicable financial reporting framework]. See Note A
We understand that the purpose of your audit of our (consolidated) financial
statements is to express an opinion thereon and that your audit was conducted in
accordance with International Standards on Auditing, which involves an examination
of the accounting system, internal control and related data to the extent you
considered necessary in the circumstances, and is not designed to identify - nor
necessarily be expected to disclose - all fraud, shortages, errors and other
irregularities, should any exist.
Accordingly, we make the following representations, which are true to the best of our
knowledge and belief, having made such inquiries as we considered necessary for
the purpose of appropriately informing ourselves:
A. Financial Statements and Financial Records1
1. We have fulfilled our responsibilities, as set out in the terms of the audit
engagement letter dated [date], for the preparation of the financial statements in
accordance with [applicable financial reporting framework].2
2. We acknowledge, as members of management of the Company, our
responsibility for the fair presentation of the (consolidated) financial statements.
We believe the (consolidated) financial statements referred to above give a true
and fair view of (or present fairly, in all material respects) the financial position,
financial performance (or results of operations) and cash flows of the Company
in accordance with [applicable financial reporting framework], and are free of
material misstatements, including omissions. We have approved the
(consolidated) financial statements.3

1 We describe managements responsibilities in the manner in which these


responsibilities are described in the terms in the engagement letter.
2 ISA 580.10
3 ISA 580.10, ISA 210,6(b)(i)

Letter of representation: Audit of financial statements


3. The significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the
(consolidated) financial statements are appropriately described in the
(consolidated) financial statements.
4. As members of management of the Company, we believe that the Company has
a system of internal controls adequate to enable the preparation of accurate
financial statements in accordance with [applicable financial reporting
framework] that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or
error.4
5. [When there are unadjusted audit differences in the current year or we determine
that the current year effects of correcting prior year differences are significant. See
Note B
]. We believe that the effects of any unadjusted audit differences,
summarized in the accompanying schedule, accumulated by you during the
current audit and pertaining to the latest period presented are immaterial, both
individually and in the aggregate, to the (consolidated) financial statements taken
as a whole.5
[When there are no unadjusted audit differences in either the current year or in
the prior year or there are no unadjusted audit differences in the current year
and we determine that the current year effects of correcting prior year
differences are not significant to the current year. See Note C]. There are no
unadjusted audit differences identified during the current audit and pertaining to
the latest period presented.
[The following representation is included when management believes that
certain of the identified items, even though immaterial, are not differences.] We
do not agree that items [specify items in question] constitute differences because
[specify reasons for disagreement].
B. Fraud
1. We acknowledge that we are responsible for the design, implementation and
maintenance of internal controls to prevent and detect fraud6
2. We have disclosed to you the results of our assessment of the risk that the
(consolidated) financial statements may be materially misstated as a result of
fraud.7
3.[When management is aware of the occurrence of fraud or suspected fraud, or has
received allegations of fraud.] We have disclosed to you all significant facts
relating to any frauds, suspected frauds or allegations of fraud known to us that
may have affected the Company (regardless of the source or form and including,
without limitation, allegations by whistle-blowers), whether involving
management or employees who have significant roles in internal control.
Similarly, we have disclosed to you our knowledge of frauds or suspected frauds
affecting the entity involving others where the fraud could have a material effect
on the (consolidated) financial statements. We have also disclosed to you all
information in relation to any allegations of fraud or suspected fraud

4 ISA 580.22, ISA 210.6(b)(ii)


5 ISA 450.14
6 ISA 240.39(a)
7 ISA 240.39(b)

Letter of representation: Audit of financial statements


communicated by employees, former employees, analysts, regulators or others,
that could affect the (consolidated) financial statements.8
[When management is not aware of the occurrence of a fraud or suspected
fraud and has not received any allegations of fraud.] We have no knowledge of
any fraud or suspected fraud involving management or other employees who
have a significant role in the Companys internal controls over financial reporting.
In addition, we have no knowledge of any fraud or suspected fraud involving
other employees in which the fraud could have a material effect on the
(consolidated) financial statements. We have no knowledge of any allegations of
financial improprieties, including fraud or suspected fraud, (regardless of the
source or form and including without limitation, any allegations by
whistleblowers) which could result in a misstatement of the (consolidated)
financial statements or otherwise affect the financial reporting of the Company.9
C. Compliance with Laws and Regulations
1.We have disclosed to you all known actual or suspected noncompliance with laws
and regulations whose effects should be considered when preparing the
(consolidated) financial statements.10
D. Information Provided and Completeness of Information and Transactions
1. We have provided you with:

Access to all information of which we are aware that is relevant to the


preparation of the financial statements such as records, documentation and
other matters

Additional information that you have requested from us for the purpose of
the audit and

Unrestricted access to persons within the entity from whom you determined
it necessary to obtain audit evidence.11

2. All material transactions have been recorded in the accounting records and are
reflected in the financial statements.12
3. We have made available to you all minutes of the meetings of shareholders,
directors and committees of directors (or summaries of actions of recent
meetings for which minutes have not yet been prepared) held through the
[period] to the most recent meeting on the following date: [list date].
4. We confirm the completeness of information provided regarding the identification
of related parties. We have disclosed to you the identity of the Companys
related parties and all related party relationships and transactions of which we
are aware, including sales, purchases, loans, transfers of assets, liabilities and

8 ISA 240.39(c) and (d)


9 ISA 240.39(c) and (d)
10 ISA 250.16
11 ISA 580.11(a), ISA 210.6(b)(iii)
12 ISA 580.11(b)

Letter of representation: Audit of financial statements


services, leasing arrangements, guarantees, non-monetary transactions and
transactions for no consideration for the period ended, as well as related
balances due to or from such parties at the [period] end. These transactions
have been appropriately accounted for and disclosed in the (consolidated)
financial statements.13
5. We believe that the significant assumptions we used in making accounting
estimates, including those measured at fair value, are reasonable.14
6. We have disclosed to you, and the Company has complied with, all aspects of
contractual agreements that could have a material effect on the (consolidated)
financial statements in the event of non-compliance, including all covenants,
conditions or other requirements of all outstanding debt.
E. Liabilities and Contingencies
1. All liabilities and contingencies, including those associated with guarantees,
whether written or oral, have been disclosed to you and are appropriately
reflected in the (consolidated) financial statements.
2. We have informed you of all outstanding and possible litigation and claims,
whether or not they have been discussed with legal counsel.15
3. We have recorded and/or disclosed, as appropriate, all liabilities related litigation
and claims, both actual and contingent, and have disclosed in Note [X] to the
(consolidated) financial statements all guarantees that we have given to third
parties.16
4. The claim by [name of claimant] have been settled for the total sum of
XXX which has been properly accrued in the (consolidated) financial statements.
No other claims in connection with litigation have been or are expected to be
received. 17
F. Subsequent Events
1.Other than. described in Note [X] to the (consolidated) financial statements,
there have been no events subsequent to period end which require adjustment
of or disclosure in the (consolidated) financial statements or notes thereto.18
[In certain circumstances, other written representations are required. These
representations and the circumstances in which they are required, are
described in Representations required in specific circumstances, following
this letter.
In addition, we may determine that other representations are appropriate in the
circumstances. Some examples of these representations related to assets,
liabilities and equity are described in Other illustrative representations,

13 ISA 550.26
14 ISA 540.22
15 ISA 501.12
16 ISA 501.12
17 ISA 501.12
18 ISA 560.9

Letter of representation: Audit of financial statements


following this letter.19]
[Salutation],

________________________
(Chief Executive Officer)
_______________________
(Chief Financial Officer)
_______________________
(Chief Accounting Officer)

19 ISA 580.13

Letter of representation: Audit of financial statements


Representations required in specific circumstances
The following illustrative wording is provided for use when the circumstances
require additional representations, and may be added to the letter as
appropriate.
Comparative information comparative financial statements20
In connection with your audit of the comparative (consolidated) financial statements
for the year ended [year ending date of last years financial statements], we
represent, to the best of our knowledge and belief, the following:
1.There have been no significant errors or misstatements, or changes in accounting
policies that would require a restatement of the amounts from the (consolidated)
financial statements for the year ended [year ending date of last years financial
statements] which are shown as comparative amounts in the (consolidated)
financial statements for the year ended [year ending date of current year's
financial statements]. Any differences in the comparative amounts from the
amounts in the (consolidated) financial statements for the year ended [year
ending date of last years financial statements] are solely the result of
reclassifications for comparative purposes.
Note: When the comparative figures have been restated for reasons other
than reclassifications, the paragraph above should be replaced with the
following paragraphs:
[Add a paragraph providing a brief description of each matter giving rise to a
restatement and the amount(s) concerned.]
The comparative amounts have been correctly restated to reflect the above
matter(s) and appropriate note disclosure of this (these) restatement(s) has
(have) also been included in the current year's (consolidated) financial
statements.
There have been no significant errors or misstatements, or changes in
accounting policies other than the matters described above that would require a
restatement of the comparative amounts in the current years (consolidated)
financial statements. Other differences in the amounts shown as comparative
amounts from the amounts in the (consolidated) financial statements for the year
ended [date] are solely the result of reclassifications for comparative purposes.
Comparative information corresponding financial information21
When the comparative information has been restated:
[Add a paragraph providing a brief description of each matter giving rise to a
restatement and the amount(s) concerned.]
The comparative amounts have been correctly restated to reflect the above matter(s)
and appropriate note disclosure of this (these) restatement(s) has (have) also been
included in the current year's (consolidated) financial statements.

20 ISA 710.9
21 ISA 710.9

Letter of representation: Audit of financial statements


Going Concern22
[When events or conditions have been identified that may cast significant
doubt on the entitys ability to continue as a going concern and the financial
statements disclose managements intentions, we include the following
representation.]
1.Note [X] to the (consolidated) financial statements discloses all of the matters of
which we are aware that are relevant to the Companys ability to continue as a
going concern, including significant conditions and events, our plans for future
action, and the feasibility of those plans.
Environmental Liabilities
[We include the following representation included when we have assessed the
likelihood of errors of audit importance pertaining to environmental liabilities
as high.]
We have disclosed to you all liabilities or contingencies arising from
environmental matters. These liabilities or contingencies have been recognized,
measured and disclosed, as appropriate, in the (consolidated) financial
statements. The environmental liability(ies) included in the balance sheet(s)
represents our best estimate of the potential loss(es) using assumptions that we
believe represent the expected outcomes of the uncertainties. With respect to
the valuation of related assets, we have considered the effect of environmental
matters, and the carrying value of the relevant assets is recognized, measured
and disclosed, as appropriate, in the (consolidated) financial statements. Any
commitments related to environmental matters have been measured and
disclosed, as appropriate, in the (consolidated) financial statements.

22 ISA 570.16

Letter of representation: Audit of financial statements


Other illustrative representations
Ownership of Assets
1. Except for assets capitalized under finance leases, the Company has
satisfactory title to all assets appearing in the balance sheet(s), and there are no
liens or encumbrances on the Companys assets, nor has any asset been
pledged as collateral, other than those that are disclosed in Note [X] to the
financial statements. All assets to which the Company has satisfactory title
appear in the balance sheet(s).
2. All agreements and options to buy back assets previously sold have been
properly recorded and adequately disclosed in the (consolidated) financial
statements.
3.

We have no plans to abandon lines of product or other plans or intentions that


will result in any excess or obsolete inventory, and no inventory is stated at an
amount in excess of net realizable value.

4.

There are no formal or informal compensating balance arrangements with any of


our cash and investment accounts. Except as disclosed in Note [X] to the
(consolidated) financial statements, we have no other line of credit
arrangements.

Equity
1.

We have properly recorded or disclosed in the (consolidated) financial


statements the share/capital stock repurchase options and agreements, and
shares/capital stock reserved for options, warrants, conversions and other
requirements.

Contingent Liabilities
In focusing on representations regarding communications from regulatory or
governmental agencies, we are aware that many of our clients, particularly multilocation or multinational companies, are subject to routine, normal, recurring
examinations by many governmental agencies, all of which might meet the definition
of investigations or allegations of noncompliance. A wealth of correspondence
concerning such matters may exist in the clients files that would not normally be of
interest to us.
In an attempt to avoid situations in which clients would expend unreasonable efforts
to detail all such matters, many of which would not be intended to be construed as
investigations, we believe it is appropriate for the client to describe in a general
fashion those matters of a routine, normal, recurring nature.
This may be accomplished by indicating such matters as an exception as is shown
by item (1) in the example illustrated below. The example indicates that matters
applicable to certain types of investigations need not be detailed.
This example is solely for illustrative purposes. It is the responsibility of the
engagement partner to determine the acceptability of the representation letter based
on the attendant facts and circumstances. When this format is used, the matters
regarded as general exceptions should be carefully delineated.

Letter of representation: Audit of financial statements


Example
We are unaware of any violations or possible violations of laws or regulations
the effects of which should be considered for disclosure in the (consolidated)
financial statements or as the basis of recording a contingent loss (other than
those disclosed or accrued in the (consolidated) financial statements).
We are unaware of any known or probable instances of non-compliance with
the requirements of regulatory or governmental authorities, including their
financial reporting requirements, and there have been no communications from
regulatory agencies or government representatives concerning investigations
or allegations of non-compliance, except as follows:
(1) Matters of routine, normal, recurring nature (e.g., examinations by bank
and insurance examiners, examinations by taxing authorities, [continue
listing as appropriate]) none of which involves any allegations of
noncompliance with laws or regulations that should be considered for
disclosure in the financial statements or as a basis for recording a loss
contingency.
(2) Matters referred to in the letters dated [date] issued to you by the
Companys General Counsel and the Companys Tax Counsel.
(3) Matters referred to in the letter of comments received from the [name of
regulator] regarding .
(4) ..........
Purchase and Sales Commitments and Sales Terms
[Tailor the following representation, as applicable.]
1.

Losses arising from purchase and sales commitments have been properly
recorded and adequately disclosed in the (consolidated) financial statements.

2.

At the [period] end, the Company had no unusual commitments or contractual


obligations of any sort which were not in the ordinary course of business and
which might have an adverse effect upon the company (e.g., contracts or
purchase agreements above market price; repurchase or other agreements not
in the ordinary course of business; material commitments for the purchase of
property, plant and equipment; significant foreign exchange commitments; open
balances on letters of credit; purchase commitments for inventory quantities in
excess of normal requirements or at prices in excess of the prevailing market
prices; losses from fulfillment of, or inability to fulfill, sales commitments, etc.).
[When any indicators or warning signals are present for significant transactions
involving revenue recognition, we consider including the following
representation. (In certain situations, this representation may need to be
obtained from sales personnel.)]
We have provided you with all agreements regarding sales to distributors and
resellers. These agreements represent the entire arrangements and are not
supplemented by other agreements either written or oral.

Letter of representation: Audit of financial statements


Income and Indirect Taxes
1. We acknowledge our responsibility for the tax accounting methods adopted by
the Company, which have been consistently applied in the current period, and for
the current year income tax provision calculation (and [specify indirect taxes, if
significant])
2. We also acknowledge our responsibility for the plans with respect to future
taxable income, which represent our estimates as to the outcome of those plans,
based on available evidence, and for the significant assumptions used in our
analysis. We would implement such strategies as necessary to prevent a tax
operating loss or credit carryforward from expiring.
3. We have disclosed to you all tax opinions, correspondence with tax authorities,
or other appropriate information that served as support for the accounting for
potentially material matters.
4.

[When a client has aggressive tax positions that are significant] We have also
provided you with all tax opinions with respect to potentially material items that
served as support for our tax accruals (including contingency accruals or their
absence and determinations of interest and penalty applicability), as well as any
tax opinions that contradicted, or provided lower levels of assurance than, the
options ultimately used to support our tax positions.

Use of the Work of an Expert


When the Company has used the work of an expert, we may include the following
representation:
1. We agree with the findings of the experts engaged to evaluate the [describe
assertion] and have adequately considered the qualifications of the experts in
determining the amounts and disclosures included in the (consolidated) financial
statements and the underlying accounting records. We did not give or cause any
instructions to be given to the experts with respect to the values or amounts
derived in an attempt to bias their work, and we are not otherwise aware of any
matters that have had an effect on the independence or objectivity of the experts.