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Regimes of Chemical Reaction

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You are on page 1of 89

Dr. Anand V. Patwardhan

Professor of Chemical Engineering

Institute of Chemical Technology

Nathalal M. Parikh Road

Matunga (East), Mumbai-400019

av.patwardhan@ictmumbai.edu.in; avpuict@gmail.com; avpiitkgp@gmail.com

1

specific rate (flux) of mass transfer

Consider G-L, L-L, S-L reactions (absorption+reaction,

extraction+reaction, leaching+reaction, respectively)

Assumptions:

Reaction occurs exclusively in liquid phase (B

phase)

Solute A (gas or liquid) slightly soluble in B phase

Mass transfer resistance confined to B phase

Reactive species B considered nonvolatile

2

IRREVERSIBLE REACTIONS:

A + ZB products ... (1)

mth order w.r.t. A, nth order w.r.t. B

Depending on the relative rates of diffusion and

chemical reaction, four regimes:

Regime 1: very slow reactions

Regime 2: slow reactions

Regime 3: fast reactions

Regime 4, instantaneous reactions

3

Reaction rate << rate of transfer of A into B phase

B phase saturated with A at any given moment

Rate of formation of products determined by true

kinetics of homogeneous chemical reaction

Diffusional factors are unimportant in this regime

The transfer rate of A, is given by

R a = k Cm Cn ... ( 2 )

A

L mn Ai Bb

4

C

Bb

C

Bb

C

Ai

Ai CAi

G/L/S

phase

Liquid phase

Bulk

B

Diffusion

film

k aC >> k Cm Cn ... ( 3 )

L Ai

L mn Ai Bb

mass transfer

s m3

of homogeneous

chemical reaction s m 3

Reaction rate faster than rate of transfer of A into B

phase

Reaction occurs uniformly throughout B phase, but,

Rate determined by rate of transfer of A into B phase.

The concentration of dissolved A in the bulk of phase B

is zero.

R a = k aC ... ( 4 )

A

L Ai

C

B0

G/L/S

Liquid phase

phase C

Ai Diffusion

film

C

B0

Bulk

B

C

=0

Ab

k aC << k Cm Cn ... ( 5 )

L Ai

L mn Ai Bb

mass transfer

s m3

of homogeneous

chemical reaction s m 3

reacts in the diffusion film compared to that which

reaches the bulk of B phase should be negligible.

The condition for this to happen is,

12

2

m 1Cn

D

k

C

m + 1 A mn Ai

Bb

<< 1 ... ( 6 )

k

9

L

For some systems condition (6) satisfied but condition

(5) is not satisfied

Dissolved A concentration in bulk phase, CA0 is finite,

and CA < CAi

In such a case,

R a = k Cm Cn ... ( 7 )

A

L mn A0 Bb

R a = k a C C

... ( 8 )

A

L

Ai

A0

10

C

and R a

Ab

A

k Cm Cn = k a C C

L mn Ab Bb

L

Ai

A0

k aC

C

L Ai

Ai

C

=

=

A0 k Cn + k a k Cn

L mn Bb

L

L mn Bb + 1

k a

L

11

SPECIAL CASES:

For m = 1, Equations (7) and (8) are linear in [A].

Eliminating [A0] gives,

C

1

Ai = 1 +

... ( 9 )

R a k a k Cn

A

L

L 1n Bb

If R a = k aC ... ( 10 )

A

LR Ai

then,

1

k

LR

1

k a

L

1

k Cn

L 1n Bb

... ( 11)

12

Plot of

1

k

LR

versus

with slope =

1

k

1

Cn

L Bb

and Y-intercept =

1n

1

k a

L

For m = n = 1:

1

... ( 12 )

k a k C

LR

L

L 1n Bb

1

1

Plot of

versus

will be a straight line

C

k a

LR

L Bb

1

1

and Y-intercept =

with slope =

k

k a

13

2

L

k

Volumetric rate of reaction (Equation (7)):

R a = k Cn ... ( 13 )

A

L 0n Bb

Provided there is sufficient amount of dissolved A in

the bulk of liquid !

Equation (8) gives,

k Cn

R a

C

= C A = C L 0n Bb ... ( 14 )

k a

Ab

Ai k a

Ai

L

L

14

Equation (8) gives,

k C2 Cn

R a

= C A = C L 2n Ab Bb ... ( 15 )

C

k a

Ab

Ai k a

Ai

L

L

2

n

k C C C

L 2n Ai Bb Ab + Ab 1 = 0 ... ( 16 )

k a

C

C

Ai

Ai

L

15

concentration of A in the bulk (A0) is found by trial or

error method or any suitable numerical method, from

the following equations:

k Cm Cn = k a C C

L mn Ab Bb

L

Ai

Ab

of

=

of homogeneous

3

chemical reaction s m

mass transfer s m 3

k Cm Cn + k aC

= k aC

L mn Ab Bb

L Ab

L Ai

16

The enhancement factor for mass transfer (or

simply, enhancement factor), , is defined as:

=

Rate conforming to Regime 2 ( slow reaction regime )

R a

A

=

... ( 17 )

k aC

L Ai

17

FAST REACTIONS

(Regime 3 and Regime between 2 and 3)

Under certain condition, diffusion and reaction are

parallel steps. This condition is given by:

12

2

m 1Cn

D

k

C

m + 1 A mn Ai

Bb

>> 1 ... ( 18 )

k

L

18

Liquid phase C

C

Bb

G/L/S Bb

phase

Diffusion

film

C

Bulk

Increase

in

Ai

B

reaction rate

dC

Ab

=0

A =0

dx

19

reactive species B in the film; the condition is given by,

12

2

D k Cm 1Cn

C

D

m + 1 A mn Ai

Bb

<< Bb B ... ( 19 )

k

ZC D

L

Ai A

(DB/DA), rather than (DB/DA).

20

d 2C

A = k CmCn = k Cm ... ( 20 ) ,

A dx 2

mn A Bb

m A

where k

=k

Cn

mn Bb

Boundary conditions:

dC

B = 0 ... ( 21)

at x = 0, C = C ,

A

Ai dx

at x = , C

= 0 ... ( 22 )

21

Solution:

dC

R = D A

A

A dx

x = 0

12

2

m 1

= C

k

D

C

+

m

1

Ai

A m Ai

12

2

n Cm 1

= C

... ( 23 )

D

k

C

Ai m + 1 A mn Bb Ai

22

For example:

Kinetics of absorption of carbon monoxide in aqueous

solutions of sodium hydroxide and aqueous calcium

hydroxide slurries. Anand V. Patwardhan; Man

Mohan Sharma, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry

Research 1989, 28, 5-9.

Kinetics of reactive absorption of carbon dioxide with

solutions of aniline in non-aqueous aprotic solvents.

Srikanta Dinda; Anand V. Patwardhan; Narayan C.

Pradhan, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research

2006, 45, 6632-6639.

23

Reaction occurs partly in Film, partly in Bulk, and yet

there may be a finite concentration of A in the bulk of

the liquid phase (B-phase).

2

d C

A = k C ... ( 32 )

D

A dx 2

1 A

Boundary conditions:

B.C. ( 1) : at x = 0, C

=C

A

Ai

B.C. ( 2 ) : at x = , C = C

A

Ab

24

d 2C

d 2C

A =k C

A= 1 C

D

A dx 2

1 A

A

dx 2

A

d 2C

A = c2C ; c =

1

D

A

dx 2

A

cx

cx

C =h e +h e

A

1

2

B.C. ( 1) : at x = 0, C

C

=C

Ai

gives :

= h +h h = C h

Ai

1

2

2

Ai

1

25

B.C. ( 2 ) : at x = , C

C

=C

Ab

gives:

= h ec + h e c

Ab

1

2

C

h =

1

= h ec + C h e c

Ab

1

Ai

1

e c

Ab

Ai

ec e c

h =

2

ec C

Ai

Ab

ec e c

Now, [ A ] = h ecx + h e cx

1

2

26

dC

dC

A = c h ecx h e cx

A

1

dx

dx

2

dC

A

A dx

=D

x=0

x=0

= c h h

1

2

1 h h

A D 2 1

A

= D k h h

A

A 1 2 1

C ec C

C e c

C

Ai

Ab

Ab

Ai

R = D k

c

c

A

A 1 ec e c

e e

27

C ec C

C

+C e

Ab

Ab

Ai

R = D k Ai

c

c

A

A 1

e e

C ec + e c 2C

Ab

R = D k Ai

A

A 1

ec e c

C

ec + e c

Ab

R = D k C

A

A 1 Ai ec e c ec e c

28

C

C

Ab

Ai

R = D k

A

A 1 tanh ( c ) sinh ( c )

Substituting c =

k

D

1 , and =

D

k

A gives:

C

C

Ab

Ai

R = D k

D k

D k

A

A 1

A 1 sinh

A 1

tanh

k

L

L

29

Ai

tanh

D k

C

D k

A 1 Ab

A 1 ... ( 33 )

D k

D k

A 1 sinh

A 1

L

L

reduces to Regime 1, 2, or 3.

30

C

C

M

M

R = k Ai

Ab

A

L tanh [ M ] sinh [ M ]

D k

A reacted in film

A

1

where, M =

= Hatta number =

k

A diffused

L

As M

( M 1) , limit ( tanh [ M ] ) 1

As M

M

M 1) , limit

0

sinh [ M ]

which gives :

31

C

M

C ( 0)

R = k Ai

1

A

L

Ab

R

=k C

M

A

L Ai

D k

A 1

R =k C

A

L Ai k

L

R

=C

D k ... ( 23 )

Ai

A 1

32

C

C

M

M

R = k Ai

Ab

A

L tanh [ M ] sinh [ M ]

As M 0

As M 0

which gives: R

M

M 1) , limit

1

tanh [ M ]

M

M 1) , limit

1

sinh [ M ]

=k

(

L Ai

Ab

0 < C

C

Ab

Ai

33

R = k C

A

L Ai k

L 1 + 1

k a

L

1

R = k C 1

;

k

A

L Ai

L 1 + 1

k a

Ab

Ai

k

L 1 +1

k a

L

k a

L

L

1

R = k C 1

=k C

A

L Ai k + k a

L Ai k + k a

L 1

L 1

L

L

34

k k

L 1

L 1C

=

If k k a, then R = k C

a

L 1

L

A

L Ai k a

Ai

L

R a = k C ... Regime 1

A

L 1 Ai

Regime controlled by pure kinetics; C

=C

Ab

Ai

35

If k k a, then R = k C L 1

L 1

L

A

L Ai k

L 1

R

=k C

A

L Ai

R a = k aC ... Regime 2

A

L Ai

Regime controlled by pure mass transfer;

C

=0

Ab

36

If C

Ab

0, then

M

R = k Ai

0

A

L tanh [ M ]

k C

M

... Regime 2-3

R = L Ai

A tanh [ M ]

Most A reacts within the diffusion film,

and the rest reacts in the bulk of liquid;

A

0

=

0

37

Reaction potentially so fast that A and B cannot

coexist !

At a certain distance from the interface, reaction

plane formed

The mass transfer rate (& hence reaction rate)

governed by rate at which dissolved A and reactant

B supplied to reaction plane.

38

Reaction

C

plane

Bb

G/L/S

Liquid phase

phase

C

Bulk

Ai No B

B

No A

0

39

12

2

m 1Cn

D

k

C

C

D

m + 1 A mn Ai

Bb

>> Bb B ... ( 38 )

k

ZC D

L

Ai A

At steady state:

= diffusion rate of B through region > x >

40

D C

D C

R = A Ai = B Bb ... ( 39 )

Z( )

A

Z D C +D C

A Ai

B Bb ... ( 40 )

ZD C

A Ai

Z D C + D C

1 1

A

Ai

B

Bb

=

ZD C

A Ai

Z D C + D C

1

A

Ai

B

Bb

L

=

ZD C

D

A

A Ai

k

41

D C

R = A Ai

A

Z D C + D C

A

Ai

B

Bb

L

R =

D C

ZD C

A D

A Ai

A

A Ai

k

D C

R = k C 1 + B Bb ... ( 41)

A

L Ai D ZC

A

Ai

C

D

Asymptotic enhancement factor = = 1 + Bb B ... ( 42 )

ZC D

a

Ai A

42

For example:

Kinetics of absorption of oxygen in aqueous alkaline

solutions of polyhydroxybenzenes. Anand V.

Patwardhan; Man Mohan Sharma, Industrial and

Engineering Chemistry Research 1988, 27, 36-41.

43

(regime overlapping R3 and R4):

12

2

m 1Cn

D

k

C

C

D

Bb

If m + 1 A mn Ai

Bb B ... ( 43 )

k

ZC D

L

Ai A

R3 4

44

2

d C

A = k CmCn ... ( 44 )

A dx 2

mn A B

d 2C

B = Z k CmCn ... ( 45 )

D

B dx 2

mn A B

The boundary conditions are,

dC

B = 0 ... ( 45a )

at x = 0, C = C , C = C ,

A

Ai B

Bi dx

at x = , C = 0, C = C

... ( 45b )

A

B

B0

45

Eliminating k

mn

d 2C

d 2C

A =D

B ... ( 46 )

ZD

A dx 2

B dx 2

Integration of (46) gives,

dC

dC

A =D

B Z R ... ( 47 )

ZD

A dx

B dx

A

Second integration gives,

D

ZR

A

A ... ( 48 )

C = C + ZC

D

Bi

B0

Ai D

B

B

46

of B in terms of R

A

Bi

hence we must have another equation.

R

d 2C

A = k CmCn ... ( 44 )

A dx 2

mn A B

47

Simplifying assumption:

B.C. (45a) : C = constant = C in the IMMEDIATE

B

Bi

neighbourhood of interface.

So, restricting the solution of (44) in the IMMEDIATE

neighbourhood of interface, C can be replaced by C .

B

Bi

Equation (44) then becomes,

d 2C

A = k CmCn ... ( 49 )

D

A dx 2

mn A Bi

48

n2

k C M C

C

Bi B0

... ( 50 )

R = L Ai

n 2

A

tanh M C

C

Bi B0

C

When M Bi

C

B0

n2

> 3, DENOMINATOR 1

1

2

2

m

1

n

R = C

C

... ( 51)

D k C

A

Ai m + 1 A mn Ai

Bi

49

C

R

A ,

Let Bi = 2 , and = enhancement factor =

k C

C

B0

L Ai

which gives,

M. ( )n

=

... ( 52 ) ; 0 < < 1

tanh M. ( )n

M

1

2

+

1 + = 0 ... ( 53 )

q

q

C

D

B0 . B ... ( 54 ) ;

where, q =

ZC

D

Ai A

50

Solution of (53):

M

+

q

M

1

+ 4 1 +

q

q2

2

... ( 55 )

When M q, 1 Regime 3

(NO depletion of B in liquid film)

51

M q, 0 Regime 4

(COMPLETE depletion of B in liquid film)

C

D

Since = 1 + B0 B = 1 + q

ZC D

a

Ai A

When

Equation (53) can be solved to give,

12

= a

for m = 1, n = 1 ... ( 56 )

1

a

52

1964, vol. 2, p.77)

have shown that the following equation holds

for a GENERAL order reaction

E = n M = M a

1

a

n2

... ( 57 )

53

(internal diffusion)

Reaction within a solid catalyst: reactant must first

diffuse into it lowering of reactant concentration in

the inner regions of catalyst.

As A diffuses inward, it is also reacting to form the

product, but at a progressively diminishing rate.

Observed rate = true or intrinsic rate multiplied by an

effectiveness factor, which is a function of the true rate

constant, diffusivity, and pellet shape and size.

54

reaction rate, it is very important in the analysis and

design of catalytic reactors.

Effectiveness factor () is defined as,

=

rate based on surface (bulk) concentration

55

Consider a first-order reaction in a cylindrical catalyst

pore, which is closed at one end (for example).

L

dx

C

r

AS

dC

P

A =0

dx

Reaction occurring on the inside surface of catalyst

pore is first order w.r.t. A, irreversible, isothermal:

k

1

A

product

catalyst

56

differential mass (mole) balance can be written:

dC

dC

A D

A

= 2r dx k C

r 2 D

P eA dx eA dx

P

1 A

x

x + dx

dC

dC

A

A

D

D

eA

eA

dx

dx 2k

x + dx

x = 1 C

A

dx

r

P

d 2C

2k

A =

1 C

A

D r

dx 2

eA P

d 2C

A = c 2C ; c =

A

dx 2

2k

1

D r

eA P

57

following two boundary conditions:

B.C. 1: At x = 0 ( pore inlet ) , C

=C

= h ecx + h e cx

A

1

2

B.C. 1: At x = 0 ( pore inlet ) , C

AS

dC

A =0

dx

General solution: C

=C

AS

gives :

= h + h h = A h

AS

1

2

2 s 1

58

= h ecx + h e cx

A

1

2

dC

cx

cx

A

= c h e h e

1

2

dx

dC

A = 0 gives,

dx

0 = c h ecL h ecL

1

2

h = h e2cL

2

1

C

h = h e2cL

AS

1

1

59

e2cL

AS h = AS

h =

1 e2cL + 1

2

e 2cL + 1

Now,

dC

A = c h ecx h e cx

1

2

dx

dC

A

= c h h

2

1

dx

x=0

dC

A

D

eA dx

R

2k

1 h h

= D

eA D r 1

2

eA P

x=0

2D k

eA 1 h h

2 1

r

P

60

2D k

eA 1

r

P

C e2cL

C

AS

AS

e2cL + 1 e 2cL + 1

2D k

eA 1

r

P

C e2cL C

AS

AS

2cL

+

e

1

2D k

eA 1

R =C

A

AS

r

P

e2cL 1

e2cL + 1

2D k

eA 1

R =C

A

AS

r

P

ecL e cL

ecL + e cL

61

2D k

eA 1

R =C

A

AS

r

P

L

2k

1

tanh L

D r

eA P

2k

1 = Thiele modulus =

1

D r

eA P

=

rate based on surface concentration throughout pore

62

2D k

2k

2

eA 1 tanh L

1

r C

P AS

r

D r

P

eA P

=

2r L k C

P

1 AS

( )

2k

1

tanh L

r

P

D r

eA P

=

( 2L ) k

1

2k

1

tanh L

D r tanh

eA P

1

=

=

2k

1

1

L

D r

eA P

( )

2D k

eA 1

r

P

( )

63

( ) 1

tanh

1

As 0, limit

1

=1

( )) 1

As , limit tanh

1

1

1

=

64

an irreversible reaction, which nth order w.r.t. A is

given by:

1

2k C

n

AS

=L

1

D r

eA P

2r L k Cn 1C

2k Cn 1

P

n AS AS

2 = L2 n AS =

1

r D r C

D r

L

eA P

P eA P AS

65

2r L k Cn

n AS

P

2 =

1

C

2

AS

r D

P eA L

maximum possible surface reaction rate

( in absence of any Diffusion resistance )

2 =

1

maximum possible diffusion rate

( in absence of any Reaction )

2

=

1 maximum possible diffusion rate

66

The results for a single pore can approximate the

behavior or particles of various shapes spheres,

cylinders, etc. For these systems:

diffusivity for single pore by the effective

diffusivity of fluid in the porous structure.

2. Use of proper measure of particle size: To find the

effective distance penetrated by reacting fluid to

get to all the interior surfaces, a characteristic size

of particle is defined as:

67

pore volume (volumetric rate) instead of inner pore

surface area, then we get following expressions:

k

1

R =C

D k tanh L

A

AS

eA 1

D

eA

1 = Thiele modulus =

1

D

eA

68

k

1

r 2 C

D k tanh L

P AS

eA 1

D

eA

=

r 2 k C

P 1 AS

( )

( )

k

1

tanh L

D

eA

k

1

L

D

eA

tanh

1

=

( )

69

Cylinder

volume of pellet

for reactant penetration

Flat slab

=

... open ONLY on

two sides

2

thickness

L=

R

cylindrical

pellet

R

= ... open ONLY on

two sides

2

R

R

= ...spherical pellet

3

Sphere

70

A

area through which

reactant penetrates

thickness

reactant penetrates

volume of pellet

for reactant penetration

L = =

... open ONLY on

two sides

2 area

thickness

=

2

71

A

A

A

Area

through

which

reactants

penetrate

A

A

A

volume of pellet

for reactant penetration

2

R Length cylindrical pellet

L = =

... open ONLY

2 R Length on curved side

R

=

72

2

volume of pellet

for reactant penetration

4

3

R

spherical pellet

3

L = =

... with all surface

porous

4 R2

R

=

3

73

rate of reaction can be expressed in many

equivalent ways. For example, for FIRST-ORDER

KINETICS,

1 dN A

mol A reacted

Based on Void

= kC ,

Volume in reactor rA = V

A

3

dt

s ( m void )

V

dN

Based on Weight r ' = 1

A = k 'C , mol A reacted

of catalyst pellets

A W dt

A s ( kg cat )

dN

Based on catalyst r '' = 1

A = k ''C , mol A reacted

Surface area

A S dt

A ( 2

)

s m cat surf

74

1 dN A

Based on Volume r

=k C ,

of catalyst Pellets vA = V

v A

dt

P

mol A reacted

3

s ( m cat )

dN

Based on total r '''' = 1

A = k ''''C ,

Reactor Volume

A V

A

dt

R

mol A reacted

3

s ( m reactor )

and on unit volume of particles, (r and r) are the

useful measures.

and Aris (1957) related (pellet effectiveness

factor) with (pellet Thiele modulus) for various

pellet shapes as:

75

( )

tanh

1 ... flat slab pellet

=

1 I 2

1

1 ... cylindrical pellet

=

= 1 I 0 21

1

1

1

= tanh 3 3 ... spherical pellet

1

1

1

where,

(

(

)

)

=L

1

D

eA

76

by A R, then actual rate is then given by:

Based on volume r

=k C ,

of catalyst pellets vA

v A

mol A reacted

3

s ( m cat )

77

1

=1

1

Flat plate

No

resistance

to

0.5 pore diffusion

Cylinder

0.4

Sphere

0.3

Strong pore

diffusion effects

0.2

0.1

0.05

0.1

1

2

3 4 5

Thiele modulus = L k D

1

v eA

10

20

78

another modulus is defined which includes only

observable and measurable quantities. This is

known as the Weisz modulus 2.

actual rate

intrinsic rate

2

2

=L

=L

2

D C

D C

eA AS

eA AS

the pellet and covers all its surfaces, then pellet is in

the diffusion-free (kinetic) regime (1<0.4 or 2<0.15).

When the pellet is starved for reactant and is unused

then the particle is in the strong pore resistance regime

(diffusion regime) (1>4 or 2>4).

79

Effectiveness factor

(isothermal reaction)

Thiele

Weisz

1<0.4

2<0.15

Kinetic control

1,2>4.0

Diffusion control

Doraiswamy (2001)

80

behavior of particles of size R1 and R2, the

diffusion-free regime is found out.

Based on weight r' = k 'C , mol A reacted

of catalyst pellets

A

A s ( kg cat )

( r'A )1 1k 'CA 1

=

=

=1

( r'A ) 2 2k 'CA 2

In the regime of strong diffusion resistance:

( r'A )1 1 ( 1 ) 2 L2

=

=

=

( r'A ) 2 2 ( 1 )1 L1

81

For a catalyst bed consisting of a mixture of

particles of various shapes and sizes, Aris (1957)

proved the correct mean effectiveness factor as:

= f + f + f + ...

mean 1 1 2 2 3 3

82

is generalised as follows [Froment and Bischoff

(1962)],

=

1

( rvAS ) L

C

AS

2D

r

dC

eA

vA

A

C

Ae

12

= equilibrium concentration

Ae

then the versus 1 curves for all forms of rate

equation closely follow the curve for the 1st order

reaction. This generalised modulus becomes:

83

k

v

=L

1

D X

eA Aeq

for nth order irreversible reactions:

n1

k

C

n + 1 v AS

=L

1

2

D

eA

84

Thiele modulus gives:

1

n

k Cn

r

= k C

=

vA

v AS v AS

1

D

1

2

eA

k Cn

r

=

vA L n + 1 k Cn 1

v AS

v AS

12

2 k D

( n + 1) 2

v

eA

C

r

=

vA n + 1 L2

AS

C

r

=k

v,observed AS

vA

( n + 1) 2

85

reaction behaves like a [(n+1)/2]th order reaction.

86

affected by strong pore resistance (diffusion resistance).

12

k

D

2

v

eA

k

=

v,observed n + 1 L2

temperature and (reaction rate and to a lesser extent

the diffusional process are T-dependent):

d ln k

( )

d ln D

1 d ln k v

v, observed

eA

=

+

dT

2 dT

dT

87

and diffusion are expressed as:

E

true and D = D

Diffu

k =k

exp

exp

v

v, 0

eA

eA,0

RT

RT

E

+E

Diffu

E

= true

observed

2

and Ediff is small (~ 5 kJ/mol at room temperature or 15

kJ/mol at 1000 0C). Therefore,

E

true

observed

2

88

examinations,

and

timely DECLARATION OF

RESULTS !

89

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