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10/8/2015

ChE 130
Shell Momentum
Balance
Prepared by:
Engr. Sandra Enn Bahinting

Average Velocity in Overall Mass Balance


If the velocity is not constant but varies across the
surface area, an average or bulk velocity is
defined as

For the case of incompressible flow through a


cicular pipe of radius R, the velocity profile is
parabolic for laminar flow as follows:

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Derive an expression for the average or bulk


velocity to use in the overall mass-balance
equation.

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At steady state:
sum of forces acting on control volume =
rate of momentum out rate of momentum into volume

pressure forces becomes

The

drag force acting on the cylindrical surface at


the radius r is the shear stress times the are
2 . Hence,

net rate of momentum efflux = rate of momentum


out rate of momentum in

In fully developed flow, the pressure gradient (p/x) is constant and


becomes (p/L).

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Fron Newtons Law of viscosity,

Using the boundary condition at the wall, vx=0 at


r=R, the velocity distribution is

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Once the velocity profile has been established,


various derived quantities can be obtained:

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Example:
Glycerine (CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH) at
26.5C is flowing through a horizontal tube
1 ft long and with 0.1in inside diameter. For
a pressure drop of 40 psi, the volume flow
rate is 0.00398 ft3/min. The density of
glycerine at 26.5C is 1.261 g/cm3. From
the flow data, find the viscosity of
glycerine in cp and Pa-s.

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Shell Momentum Balance for Falling film

Momentum flux due to


molecular transport

Conservation

Rearranging

of momentum at steady state:

and letting x 0

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For

Newtonian fluid

Maximum

velocity is at x = 0. Therefore,

The average velocity is then,

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The relationship between the average and


maximum velocity is,
Vzave = (2/3)Vzmax
The volumetric flow rate is obtained by multiplying
the average velocity by the cross-sectional area

In falling films, the mass flow rate per unit width of


wall in kg/m-s is defined as =vzave and a
Reynolds number is defined as

Example:
An oil has a kinematic viscosity of 2 x 10-4 m2/s
and a density of 0.8 x 103 kg/m3. If we want to
have a falling film of thickness of 2.5 mm on a
vertical wall, what should the mass rate of flow
of the liquid be?

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Flow Through an Annulus


Steady-state axial flow of
an incompressible liquid
in an annular region
between two coaxial
cylinder of radii R and
R. The fluid is flowing
upward.

Using momentum balance on a thin cylindrical


shell,

There will be a maximum in velocity at r=R, where


the shear is zero.

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Using Newtons Law of viscosity,

The momentum and velocity profile in an annulus


are;

The following relations can be obtained:

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Velocity Profiles in Pipes


When fluid is flowing in a circular pipe and the
velocities are measured at different distances
from the pipe wall to the center of the pipe, it
has been shown that in both laminar and
turbulent flow, the fluid in the center of the pipe
is moving faster than the fluid near the walls.
For viscous or laminar flow the velocity profile is
a true parabola.

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