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ANALOG FILTERS, SECOND EDITION

ANALOG FILTERS, SECOND EDITION

Kendall Su

KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS


NEW YORK, BOSTON, DORDRECHT, LONDON, MOSCOW

eBook ISBN:
Print ISBN:

0-306-47953-2
1-4020-7033-0

'2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers


New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow
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Contents
Preface
1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Preliminary Remarks
1.2 The Analog Filter
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

1.7

xiii

Ideal and Approximate Filter Characteristics


MATLAB
Circuit Analysis
Normalization and Denormalization - Scaling
1.6.1 Frequency scaling
1.6.2 Impedance scaling
1.6.3 Normalization and denormalization
Steps Involved in the Design of Filters
Problems

THE APPROXIMATION
2.1 The Butterworth Lowpass Characteristic
2.1.1 The normalized Butterworth lowpass
characteristic
2.1.2 Using a normalized Butterworth lowpass
characteristic for a filtering requirement
2.2 The Chebyshev Lowpass Characteristic
2.2.1 The Chebyshev polynomial
2.2.2 The Chebyshev lowpass characteristic
2.3 Other Chebyshev-Related Characteristics
2.4
2.5
2.6

The Elliptic-Function Filter Characteristic


Comparison of Standard Lowpass Characteristics
Summary
Problems

1
1
3
4
7
9
13
13
14

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16
20

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26
27
29
30
31
34
37
39
41
43
43

vi
3

Contents

NETWORK FUNCTIONS
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

General Procedure
Network Functions for Butterworth filters
Network Functions for Chebyshev Filters
Network Functions for Elliptic-Function Filters
Bessel-Thomson Filter Functions
Delay Equalization
Summary
Problems

49

49
53
58
62
66
71
74
74

FREQUENCY TRANSFORMATION
4.1 Lowpass-to-Highpass Transformation
4.2 Lowpass-to-Bandpass Transformation
4.3 Lowpass-to-Bandreject transformation
4.4 Summary
Problems

77
78
80
86
88
88

PROPERTIES AND SYNTHESIS OF PASSIVE NETWORKS

93

5.1
5.2

5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6

The Driving-Point Function of a Passive Oneport


- the Positive Real Function
The Driving-Point Function of a Lossless Oneport
- the Lossless Function
5.2.1 Properties of a lossless function
5.2.2 Fosters expansion of a lossless function
5.2.3 Fosters realizations of a lossless function
5.2.4 Removal of poles at infinity

93
94
94

5.2.5 Removal of poles at the origin


5.2.6 Removal of finite nonzero poles
5.2.7 Mixed canonic realization
5.2.8 Noncanonic realization
Properties of Lossless Twoports
LC Ladder Twoport
Fosters Preamble
Summary

96
99
100
104
106
107
108
110
112
115
118

Problems

118

Contents

SINGLY-TERMINATED LC LADDERSs
6.1

6.2

123

LC Ladder with a Current Source

123

6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3

125
131

Transmission zeros at the origin and infinity


Zero shifting
LC ladder with finite nonzero transmission
zeros
LC Ladder with a Voltage Source

133
136
139

Other Singly-Terminated Orientations


Summary
Problems

140
141

DOUBLY-TERMINATED LC LADDERS

145

6.3
6.4

vii

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

Basic Formulation
LC Ladders with Equal Terminations
LC Ladder with Unequal Terminations
A Doubly-Terminated Filter Used in Reverse

7.5

Summary
Problems

SENSITIVITY
8.1 Definition of Sensitivity
8.2

Properties of First-Order Sensitivity

8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8

Sensitivities of Network Performance


Sensitivity Calculation
Unnormalized Sensitivity
Multiparameter and Statistical Sensitivities

145
149
158
163
167
167

171
173
174

A Case for Low Sensitivity of Passive Filters

175
177
180
181
182

Summary
Problems

184
184

BASICS OF OP AMP-RC CIRCUITS


9.1 Comparison of Passive and Active Filters
9.2 The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp)
9.3 Some Simple Op Amp Circuits
9.4 First-Order Sections

187
187
190
192
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viii

Contents
9.5

9.6

9.7
9.8
9.9

10

9.6.1
Gain reduction
9.6.2
Gain enhancement
RC-CR Transformation
Types of Biquads
Summary
Problems

OP AMP-RC BIQUAD CIRCUITS

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

11

RC Single-Op Amp Circuit Relationships


9.5.1
Finite-gain single-op amp configuration
9.5.2
Infinite-gain single-op amp configuration
Gain Adjustments

Sallen-Key Biquads
10.1.1 Lowpass biquad
10.1.2 Highpass biquad
10.1.3 Bandpass biquad
10.1.4 Bandreject biquad
Infinite-Gain Multiple-Feedback (MFB) Biquads
10.2.1 Lowpass biquad
10.2.2 Highpass biquad
10.2.3 Bandpass biquad
10.2.4 Bandreject and allpass biquad
Two-Integrator Biquads
10.3.1 The Kerwin-Huelsman-Newcomb (KHN)
biquad
10.3.2 The Tow-Thomas biquad
10.3.3 The Fleischer-Tow biquad
Summary
Problems

HIGH-ORDER OP AMP-RC FILTERS


11.1 Cascaded Biquads
11.1.1 Gain allocation
11.1.2 Pole-zero pairing
11.1.3 Biquad sequencing

197
197
200
200
201
201
204
206
207
207

217
217
218
223
225
228
230
230
233
233
237
238
239
243
245
247
247

253
253
258
263
264

Contents
11.2

11.3

11.4
11.5

12

The State-Variable Method of Realization


11.2.1 Realization of all-pole transfer functions
11.2.2 Realization of general transfer functions
11.2.3 Realization using lossy integrators
Lowpass-to-Bandpass Transformation
11.3.1 Coupled biquads with infinite Q
11.3.2 Bandpass filters using the primary
resonator blocks
Internal Gain Change
Summary
Problems

OP AMP-RC SIMULATION OF PASSIVE FILTERS


12.1 Some Active Twoports
12.2 The Generalized Impedance Converter (GIC)

12.3

Simulation of Inductances in an LC Ladder


12.3.1 Simulation of grounded inductors
12.3.2 Simulation of floating inductors
12.3.3 Simulation of groups of inductors

12.4

Simulation Using Frequency-Dependent Negative


Resistances (FDNRs)
Functional Simulation of Passive Filters
12.5.1 The leap-frog simulation
12.5.2 Leap-frog realization of lowpass
LC ladder
12.5.3 Leap-frog realization of bandpass
filters using biquads
12.5.4 Leap-frog realization of bandpass
filters using integrators
12.5.5 Simulation of a special bandpass filter
Summary
Problems

12.5

12.6

13

ix

SWITCHED-CAPACITOR FILTERS
13.1 An Introduction

13.2

Simulation of Resistors by Switched Capacitors

265
265
266
270
274
274
276
277
280
281

285
286
288
291
291
292
295
299
301
302
305
305
307
309
314
314

321
322
323

Contents

x
13.3

13.4
13.5
13.6

14

Simple
13.3.1
13.3.2
13.3.3
13.3.4

Basic Circuits
All-capacitor op amp circuits
The inverting integrator
The inverting lossy integrator

The inverting weighted summing


integrator
A noninverting integrator
13.3.5
Inverting summer-integrator
13.3.6
combination
The differential integrator
13.3.7
The differential lossy integrator
13.3.8
The differential amplifier
13.3.9
13.3.10 The first-order section
Switched-Capacitor Biquads
Functional Simulation of LC Ladders
Summary
Problems

OPERATIONAL TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER


(OTA) FILTERS
14.1 An Introduction

14.2

14.3
14.4

The Operational Transconductance Amplifier (The OTA)


and Simple Circuits
Grounded resistor
14.2.1
Floating resistor
14.2.2
Integrator
14.2.3
Lossy integrator
14.2.4
Amplifier
14.2.5
Weighted summer
14.2.6
Positive impedance inverter
14.2.7
First-Order Sections
The OTA-C Biquads
14.4.1 A simple biquad
A lowpass notch filter
14.4.2
A four-OTA biquad
14.4.3
A five-OTA general biquad
14.4.4

327
327
328
329
329
330

330
331
331
332
333
335
337
338
341

345
345
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348
348
349
350
350
351
352
353
354
354
356
357
359

Contents
14.5

14.6

14.7

xi
Element Simulation of Passive Filters
14.5.1 Realization of a highpass filter
14.5.2 Realization of a lowpass filters
Functional Simulation of Passive Filters
14.6.1 The leap-frog realization
14.6.2 Leap-frog realization of a lowpass filter
14.6.3 Simulation of a bandpass LC filter
Summary
Problems

Appendix A

TABLES OF FILTER
FUNCTIONS

360
360
362
362
363
366
368
371
374

377

Bibliography

395

Index

399

Preface
This book is intended as an intermediate-level introduction to the basic
theory of analog filters. It covers three major types of analog filters passive, active, and switched-capacitor. The only knowledge required to
follow the material in this book is some basic sophomore-to-junior circuit
theory, electronics, signal analysis, Laplace transforms, and mathematics
typically required by most engineering curriculums at the sophomore and
junior levels.
The emphasis of this book is on some fundamental principles behind the
various techniques of analog filter design. It is geared toward students
in communications, signal processing, electronics, controls, etc. It is not
meant to be an in-depth or comprehensive treatment of the entire area
of filter theory as network theorists and filter designers would like to
have the subject presented. Rather, it is meant to expose the student
to the elegant theory behind the development of analog filters. It also
introduces the student to the terminology used and techniques practiced
in analog filters. As such, it is also a readable reference for practicing
engineers who need to acquire some knowledge in this area.
The design of some standard filters is now a fairly routine matter. In
fact, for many types of filters, one can purchase software at a very modest cost and generate filters without ever knowing anything about the
underlying principles. The main purpose of this book is to engender
some understanding of the mathematical basis of those parts of network
theory and electronic circuits that are germane to filter design for electronic and high-tech applications. Although the computational steps for
generating filters are covered, they are not the major focus of this book.
This book stresses the mathematical bases and the scholastic ingenuity
of analog filter theory. In other words, the student will learn why analog
filters work as well as how their element values can be calculated.
The book should also help nonspecialist electrical engineers in gaining
a background perspective and some basic insight into the development
of real-time filters. In many modern advances in signal handling, their

xiv

Preface

concepts and procedures have close links to analog filters, either conceptually or mathematically. The material in this book will provide
engineers with a better perspective and more penetrating appreciation
of these modern techniques.
This book is designed to be a medium-level introductory textbook or
reference in the area of analog filters. The proper timing of a course
using this book can vary widely depending on the individual student as
well as the curriculum. At one extreme, the course can be taken as early
as immediately after the first circuits course. At the other, it can serve
as a complement to other courses in a graduate program. At Georgia
Tech, this course is normally offered as a senior elective. Usually some
juniors and graduate students also enroll in it. Students who have had
some cursory exposure to filters from courses such as signals and systems
or semiconductor electronics will find this book particularly helpful in
extending their knowledge of various types of analog continuous-time
filters.
The First Edition of this book was published in 1996. Since its first
publication, it has undergone several printings. In the meantime, several
factors have encouraged me to undertake this revision.
Recent advances in technology have necessitated the development of analog filters that are suitable for high-tech applications. The passive, op
amp-RC, and switched-capacitor filters are no longer suitable for some
of these applications. The newer filters must work at much higher frequencies, have small physical sizes, be suitable for integrating with other
systems, consume low power, and work in low-signal, high-noise environments. To meet these demands, operational transconductance amplifier
and capacitor filters have become a very important class of filters. One
of the most important features of this new edition is the addition of a
new chapter on OTA-C filters.
As in the previous edition, the software MATLAB (MATLAB is a registered trademark of The Math Works, Inc., 3 Apple Hill Drive, Natick,
MA 01760-2098, U.S.A. Telephone: 508-647-7000. Fax: 508-647-7101.
E-mail: info@mathworks.com. Web: www.mathworks.com) has been
chosen as the standard computational tool for this book. Since the First
Edition was published, the syntax of the Symbolic Tool Box of this software has been changed. The Second Edition reflects this update.
Many examples in this book are first presented in the usual mathematical form without using MATLAB. Then these examples are also worked
using MATLAB. By following these two versions of solutions, students
can actually learn MATLAB as they go through the text. Of course,
MATLAB is not mandatory to working problems in this book. If MAT-

Preface

xv

LAB is not available to the students, the MATLAB steps can be either
bypassed or substituted with other software available at their facility.
In this revision, some minor errors of the earlier edition are corrected
and some new examples and homework problems are added.
This book is designed to be used in a three-hour one-semester course.
With the proper choice of topics, parts of this book can be used in
a three-hour one-quarter course. The First Edition has been used at
Georgia Tech several times. When Tech was on the quarter system, the
course was offered every other quarter. Since Tech converted to semester
system in 1999, the course has been offered once a year. In teaching these
courses, I have found the book is easily adaptable to either system. I
have been gratified and encouraged by my students in these classes in
their interest in this topic and their zeal to broaden their knowledge in
this as well as many other areas of electrical engineering.

Kendall L. Su