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PROBLEM DEFINITION

Those days are gone away when you could easily get seats to park to your vehicle, nowadays
with the increase in the population there is an equal increase in the production of the vehicle.
Vehicle Parking becomes a chance for the people day by day. People face parking problems
everywhere, whether it is a theater, local markets, supermarkets, banks, offices, hospitals,
marriage halls, railway stations etc. The crowd of the cars, taxies, bikes and other commercial as
good as private vehicles made the things worse as never before.
There are several issues which are responsible for lack of car park management system these are
as follows:

Their current system just allowed to reserve parking through walk-in customers only.
Whereas, the operating is during normal business hours. If customers want to place
reserve, they can entirely do so during the operating hours of the business. This

implies that the total of parking lot that they can pick up is limited.
The next problem is the inability for customer to cover the availability parking. As the
client is in a hurry and they bear to spend time to look for parking and client
experience to go straightly to cover the available parking. Besides, human error might
come. For instance, the staff might be mistaken, which given wrong information about

parking.
Thirdly, the problem faced by the fund is getting reports of the daily and weekly gross
revenue. With the current arrangement, the staffs must go through many accounts and
gross revenue receipts in order to find a summary of the sales and then produce a story.
This procedure is definitely time consuming and once more, there is a possibility of

human errors to happen.


Eventually, the business is not able to recognize just which day is the most customer
visit. With this problem, they are not able to determine which day is the most visit and
whether they should govern more from the s supplier for the coming months.

To overcome the issues related to the car park management system problems, effective parking
management is required. Effective parking management can overcome the troubles related to
parking and provide a mixture of strategies and methods to properly employ the state space of
parking areas, handling the system, advanced parking facility and improved parking design.

Benefits of effective parking management:

There are many benefits of effective parking management. Some of them are discussed as
follows:
Minimizing risk of human error: Generally people in a hurry forget to pen down the proper
details and the human error may come about. With the accessibility of the new developed
system, there will be a minimum risk of the human error whereby the detail that needed have to
complete given into the system for the system proceed further.
Time consuming: Parking management is an effective technique helps to reduce customer to
spend time looking for parking, whereas it provide a system whereby clients can book their
parking from the place they are to avoid stuck in crowded areas for looking parking and time
delay.
Review of gross revenue: In the new scheme, it provides daily, weekly and monthly report to
permit the management to cover their profit and to enshroud the most clients visiting days.
Effective Parking facilities: The car park management companies providing parking facilities
and helping to overcome parking related issues at affordable cost. These also help companies
staff or frequent visitor to the place to reserve a parking management system for monthly,
weekly, daily and hourly to enjoy the price reduction.
Maximum Security: The parking management systems fitted with advanced monitoring systems
that are applied to secure the maximum security of vehicles in the parking lot.

METHODOLOGY (Shamly A/P Sithiaselan) TP028192


Waterfall model

The waterfall model is a sequential design process, used in software development processes, in
which progress is viewed as flowing steadily down (like a waterfall) through the stages of
conception, initiation, analysis, design, building, testing, production/implementation and upkeep.
The waterfall development model originates in the fabrication and construction industries:
highly structured physical environments in which after-the-fact changes are prohibitively costly,
if not inconceivable. Since no formal software development methodologies existed at the time,
this hardware-oriented model was only adapted for software development.

Spiral development

The spiral model combines the idea of iterative development with the system, controlled aspects
of the waterfall model.
Spiral model is a combination of iterative development process model and sequential linear
development model i.e. Waterfall model with very high stress on risk analysis.
It allows for incremental releases of the product, or incremental refinement through each
iteration around the spiral (Anon., 2015).

Rapid application development

Rapid application development (RAD) is a software development methodology that uses


minimal planning in favor of rapid prototyping. A paradigm is a working model that is
functionally equivalent to a portion of the product.
In the RAD model the functional modules are prepared in parallel as prototypes and are
integrated to realize the perfect product for quicker product delivery.
Since there is no detailed preplanning, it builds it easier to integrate the modifications within the
maturation procedure. RAD projects follow iterative and incremental model and own small
teams comprising of developers, land experts, client representatives and other IT resources
working progressively on their part or prototype (Anon., 2015).

Agile development

Agile programming is an advance to project management, typically employed in software


evolution. It helps teams react to the instability of building software through incremental,
iterative work cycles, known as sprints. But before turning our discussion to the details of agile
programming, its best to begin at the beginning with the project management paradigm that
preceded it: waterfall, or traditional sequential development (Anon., 2015).

Agile vs Waterfall

Agile provides an incredibly flexible design model, promoting adaptive planning and
evolutionary growth. Agile might be identified as a Freeform software design. Software
developers turn on small modules at a time. Customer feedback occurs simultaneously with
growth, as does software testing (for more information about software testing, take a expression
at this software testing course). This takes in a number of advantages, especially in project
environments where development needs to be capable to react to changes in requirements
rapidly and effectively.
Agile can be particularly good in situations where the end-goals of the projects are not distinctly
delineated. The clients requirements will likely gradually clarify as the project progresses, and
development can easily be adjusted to meet these new, evolving requirements. Agile is also an
excellent option for experimental software design.
Lastly, this method also facilitates interaction and communication collaboration is more
significant here than design. Because interaction among different designers and stakeholders is
key, it is especially conducive to teamwork oriented environments.
Likewise, the emphasis of Waterfall is the project plan and therefore before beginning any kind
of development in that location needs to be a clear plan and a clear vision in order. Because the
Waterfall method requires upfront, extensive planning, you can launch software fairly quickly.
You can also estimate timetables and budgets more accurately, which definitely tends to delight
customers.

Furthermore, Waterfall development processes tend to be more secure because they are so plan
oriented. For instance, if a designer drops out of the project, it isnt a huge problem, as the
Waterfall method requires extensive preparation and support. A new designer can easily take the
old designers place, following the development plan without a problem (Mikoluk, 2013).

Agile methodology
The methodology that I would wish to choose is agile methodology. The aim of this
methodology is for prevention of known problems from occurring. Whereby we can be mindful
of the problem earlier rather than get involved in problem once project completion. Likewise,
agile allow us to know about future problems, and be capable to respond in time. This gets the
project developer easy whereby the plan can be change according to the current state of affairs at
the time without any trouble. These are agile principle:

Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of

valuable software.
Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness

change for the customer's competitive advantage.


Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with

a preference to the shorter timescale.


Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.
Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support

they need, and trust them to get the job done.


The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a

development team is face-to-face conversation.


Working software is the primary measure of progress.

Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users

should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.


Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.
Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential.
The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and
adjusts its behavior accordingly.

The reason I choose agile methodology is because of lower risk of project failure. Small
incremental releases made visible to the product owner and the product team through its
development help to key out any issues ahead of time and make it easier to react to change. Also,
by using agile methodology in the project, it time consuming whereby we can alter the plan
according to the situation without any problem. Besides, the quality of agile methodology. A
central rule of agile development is that testing is mixed throughout the lifecycle, enabling
regular inspection of the working product as it evolves. This leaves the product owner to make
adjustments if necessary and contributes the product team early sight of any quality issues. Agile
methodology allows developer to cost control. The above approach of fixed timescales and
evolving requirements enables a set budget. The scope of the product and its characteristics are
variable, rather than the price. In the end, it registers the business engagement and client
satisfaction. The active involvement of a user representative and/or product owner, the high
visibility of the product and progress, and the flexibility to change when change is required,
create much better business engagement and client satisfaction.
Tools and techniques
Agile project management is an iterative method of defining requirements for engineering and
information technology development tasks in a highly flexible and interactive mode, for example
agile software development. It requires empowered individuals from the relevant business, with
supplier and customer input. Agile techniques are best employed in minor projects or on
elements of a broader program of work, or on projects that are too complex for the customer to
see and set before testing prototypes.

Agile Project Management


In other words, what we call Agile, is a great way of managing the software development in a
process that is highly flexible and that requires empowered individuals that would drive this
process successfully. In my experience I could understand that Agile wont work properly if one
of the following have-not been satisfied:

A true collaboration between all the stakeholders (users, developers, testers, handlers,

etc..)
Common agreement on the process and common destinations
Dedication
Willingness to share knowledge and expertise with others
Openness

Project Management Methodologies/Frameworks


In that respect are different methodologies when it gets to the agile process definition itself.
Apiece of the methodologies, or frameworks is pretty much similar as it calls for the iterative
procedure, but on the other side each methodology has its own particularities.
Examples of agile software project management frameworks (or methodologies):

Scrum is an iterative and incremental agile software development method for handling

software projects and product or application development


Extreme Programming (XP) is a software development methodology which is destined to
better software quality and responsiveness to varying client demands. As a type of agile
software development, it advocates frequent releases in short development cycles

(timeboxing), which is meant to better productivity and introduce checkpoints where new

customer demands can be taken up.


Kanban is a method for growing software products and processes with an emphasis on
just-in-time delivery while not overloading the software developers. It emphasizes that
developers pull work from a queue, and the process, from the definition of a task to its
delivery to the customer, is displayed for participants to attend.

References
Anon., 2015. Agile Programming. [Online]
Available at: http://agileprogramming.org/
[Accessed 29 JULY 2015].
Anon., 2015. SDLC - RAD Model. [Online]
Available at: http://www.tutorialspoint.com/sdlc/sdlc_rad_model.htm
[Accessed 29 JULY 2015].
Anon., 2015. SDLC - Spiral Model. [Online]
Available at: http://www.tutorialspoint.com/sdlc/sdlc_spiral_model.htm
[Accessed 28 JULY 2015].

Anon., 2015. Wikipedia. [Online]


Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiral_model
[Accessed 28 JULY 2015].
Mikoluk, K., 2013. Udemy blog. [Online]
Available at: https://blog.udemy.com/agile-vs-waterfall/
[Accessed 29 July 2015].