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HCM2010

HIGHWAY CAPACITY MANUAL

CHAPTER 35
ACTIVE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

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HCM2010
HIGHWAY CAPACITY MANUAL
The HCM 2010 signicantly enhances how engineers and
planners assess the trafc and environmental effects of
highway projects by
Providing an integrated multimodal approach to the
analysis and evaluation of urban streets from the points
of view of automobile drivers, transit passengers,
bicyclists, and pedestrians;
Addressing the proper application of microsimulation
analysis and the evaluation of the results;
Examining active trafc management in relation to
demand and capacity; and
Exploring specic tools and generalized service volume
tables to assist planners in quickly sizing future facilities.
The HCM 2010 consists of four volumes:

Volume 1: Concepts;
Volume 2: Uninterrupted Flow;
Volume 3: Interrupted Flow; and
Volume 4: Applications Guide (electronic only).
The four-volume format provides information at several levels of detail, to help
users more easily apply and understand the concepts, methodologies, and
potential applications.
Volumes 1, 2, and 3 are issued as a boxed set. Volume 4 is electronic only,
accessible to registered HCM users via the Internet, and includes four types of
content: supplemental chapters on methodological details and emerging issues;
interpretations, clarications, and corrections; comprehensive case studies; and
a technical reference library.

To order HCM 2010, go to http://books.trbbookstore.org/hcm10.aspx.


For more information about HCM 2010 and TRB publications, contact the
Transportation Research Board Business Ofce, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington,
DC 20001 (telephone 202-334-3213; fax 202-334-2519; e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu;
or through the Internet, www.trb.org).
Highway Capacity Manual 2010, copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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Highway Capacity Manual 2010

CHAPTER 35
ACTIVE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

CONTENTS
1.INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................351
Purpose ................................................................................................................ 351
Organization........................................................................................................ 352
ScopeandLimitations........................................................................................ 352
2.ACTIVETRAFFICMANAGEMENTSTRATEGIES ......................................353
Overview ............................................................................................................. 353
RoadwayMetering ............................................................................................. 353
CongestionPricing ............................................................................................. 354
TravelerInformationSystems........................................................................... 355
ManagedLanes ................................................................................................... 356
SpeedHarmonization ........................................................................................ 357
TrafficSignalControl......................................................................................... 357
SpecializedApplicationsofATMStrategies................................................... 358
3.METAMEASURESOFEFFECTIVENESS.......................................................3510
Introduction....................................................................................................... 3510
NeedforMetaMOEs ....................................................................................... 3510
CandidateMetaMOEs .................................................................................... 3510
IndicesofPerformance .................................................................................... 3511
4.GENERALEFFECTS ...........................................................................................3512
Introduction....................................................................................................... 3512
RoadwayMetering ........................................................................................... 3512
CongestionPricing ........................................................................................... 3513
TravelerInformationSystems......................................................................... 3514
ManagedLanes ................................................................................................. 3515
TrafficSignalControl....................................................................................... 3517
SpeedHarmonization ...................................................................................... 3518
5.REFERENCES .......................................................................................................3519

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LIST OF EXHIBITS
Exhibit351FreewayRampMetering,SR94,LemonGrove,California........... 353
Exhibit352MinnesotaDynamicPricingforHOTLanes .................................... 354
Exhibit353SanFranciscoBayAreaTrafficMap ................................................. 355
Exhibit354HOVLane ............................................................................................. 356
Exhibit355VariableSpeedLimitSigns,Rotterdam,Netherlands .................... 357

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1. INTRODUCTION
Activetrafficmanagement(ATM)isacomprehensiveapproachto
optimizingtheoperationalperformanceoftheroadwaysystemthrough
monitoringandcontrolofsystemsoperations.ATMincorporatesbothdemand
andsupplymanagementstrategies.Managementofbothdemandandsupply
greatlyenhancestheabilityofthetransportationagencytoachieveitssystem
performancegoals.

This first-generation chapter is


intended to lead to more specific
guidance in future HCM updates.

ATMcanrangefromthesimpletothecomplex.Itmayberelativelystatic,
withroutinemonitoringofsystemperformanceandperiodicchangestosystem
controlsinresponsetothosemeasurements,oritmaybehighlydynamic,using
sophisticatedtechnologytoupdatesystemcontrolscontinuouslyand
automaticallyinresponsetorealtimeinformationonsystemconditions.
ThischapterfocusesonthefollowingmajorATMstrategies:
Roadwaymetering,
Congestionpricing,
Travelerinformationsystems,
Managedlanes,
Trafficsignalcontrol,and
Speedharmonization.
ATMstrategies,however,areevolvingasquicklyasthetechnologiesthey
employ.Theabovelistisillustrative,notdefinitive,ofATM.NewATM
strategiesandvariationsarecreatedwitheveryadvanceindetection,
communications,andcontroltechnology.
ATMstrategiesmaybesignificantcomponentsofincidentmanagement
plans,workzonemanagementplans,andemployerbaseddemandmanagement
programs.
PURPOSE
Thischapterisultimatelyintendedtoproviderecommendedmethodologies
andmeasuresofeffectiveness(MOEs)forevaluatingtheimpactsofATM
strategiesonhighwayandstreetsystemdemand,capacity,andperformance.
However,atthistimeavailableinformationontheperformanceofATM
strategieshasnotmaturedsufficientlytoenablethedevelopmentand
presentationofspecificanalysismethodologies.Consequently,thischapterlimits
itselftodescribingATMstrategies;discussingthemechanismsbywhichthey
affectdemand,capacity,andperformance;andofferinggeneralguidanceon
possibleevaluationmethodsforATMtechniques.Latergenerationsofthis
chapterwillprovidemorespecificguidanceontheevaluationofATMstrategies.

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Introduction

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ORGANIZATION
Thischapterisorganizedasfollows:
IntroductionDescribesthechaptersscope,purpose,limitations,and
organization.
ATMStrategiesProvidesanoverviewofATMstrategies.
MetaMeasuresofEffectivenessPresentsrecommendedmetameasuresof
effectiveness(metaMOEs)thatbuildontraditionalHighwayCapacity
Manual(HCM)measuresforassessingtheeffectivenessofATM
strategies.
EffectivenessServesasastandinforfuturesectionsonmethodologyand
applications.Itgivesageneraldescriptionofthemechanismsbywhich
ATMstrategiescanaffectdemand,capacity,andperformance;
summarizesavailableevidenceontheeffects;andsuggestspossible
analysistools.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
ThischapterpresentsintroductoryinformationonATMstrategiesandtheir
effectondemand,capacity,andsystemperformance.
BecauseresearchonATMisstillinitsinfancy,nospecificmethodologiesare
presentedforevaluatingtheeffectsofATMstrategies.Asofthiswritingagood
dealofresearchonATMstrategies,methodologies,andMOEsisunderwayat
thefederalandstatelevels;theanalystisadvisedtoconsulttheoriginalresearch
tobetterunderstandthebasisandlimitationsofthetentativeresultscitedinthis
chapter.

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2. ACTIVE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES


OVERVIEW
ThissectionprovidesbriefoverviewsoftypicalATMstrategiesformanaging
demand,capacity,andperformanceforthehighwayandstreetsystem.The
strategiesdescribedhereareintendedtobeillustrativeratherthandefinitive.
ATMstrategiesareconstantlyevolvingwitheachadvanceintechnology.
ROADWAY METERING
Roadwaymeteringtreatmentsstoresurgesindemandatvariouspointsin
thetransportationnetwork.Typicalexamplesofroadwaymeteringinclude
freewayonrampmetering,freewaytofreewayrampmetering,freeway
mainlinemetering,peakperiodfreewayrampclosures,andarterialsignal
metering.Exhibit351illustratesafreewayrampmeteringapplication.
Exhibit 35-1
Freeway Ramp Metering, SR-94,
Lemon Grove, California

Source: Federal Highway Administration, Ramp Management and Control: A Primer (1).

Roadwaymeteringmaybehighlydynamicorcomparativelystatic.A
comparativelystaticroadwaymeteringsystemwouldestablishpresetmetering
ratesonthebasisofhistoricaldemanddata,periodicallymonitorsystem
performance,andadjusttheratestoobtainsatisfactoryfacilityperformance.A
highlydynamicsystemmaymonitorsystemperformanceandautomatically
adjustmeteringratesonarealtimebasisbyusingapredeterminedalgorithmin
responsetochangesinobservedfacilityconditions.
Preferentialtreatmentofhighoccupancyvehicles(HOVs)maybepartofa
roadwaymeteringstrategy.
Roadwaymeteringmaybeappliedonfreewaysorarterials.Anupstream
signalmaybeusedonarterialstocontrolthenumberofvehiclesreaching
downstreamsignals.Surgesindemandaretemporarilystoredattheupstream
signalandreleasedwhenthedownstreamsignalscanbetterservethevehicles.

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CONGESTION PRICING
The objective of congestion
pricing is to preserve reliable
operating speeds on the tolled
facility.

Congestionorvaluepricingisthepracticeofchargingtollsforuseofallor
partofafacilityoracentralareaaccordingtotheseverityofcongestion.The
objectiveofcongestionpricingistopreservereliableoperatingspeedsonthe
tolledfacilitywithatollingsystemthatencouragesdriverstoswitchtoother
timesoftheday,othermodes,orotherfacilitieswhendemandstartstoapproach
facilitycapacity.Exhibit352showsanexampleofcongestionpricingin
Minnesota.

Exhibit 35-2
Minnesota Dynamic Pricing
for HOT Lanes

Source: Federal Highway Administration, Technologies That Complement Congestion Pricing (2) (courtesy of
Minnesota Department of Transportation).

Thetollsmayvarybydistancetraveled,vehicleclass,andestimatedtime
savings.Tollsmaybecollectedbyeitherelectronicormanualmeans,orboth.
Congestionpricingmayemploydifferentdegreesofresponsivenessand
automation.Someimplementationsmayuseapresetscheduleinwhichthetoll
variesbythesameamountforpresettimesduringthedayandweek.The
implementationmaybemonitoredonaregularscheduleandthepricing
adjustedtoachieveormaintaindesiredfacilityperformance.Anadvanced
implementationofcongestionpricingmaymonitorfacilityperformancemore
frequentlyanduseautomaticorsemiautomaticdynamicpricing,varyingthetoll
byusingapredeterminedalgorithmaccordingtotheobservedperformanceof
thefacility.
Highoccupancytoll(HOT)lanes(sometimescalledexpresslanes)aretolled
lanesadjacenttogeneralpurposelanes.MotoristspaytollstoentertheHOT

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lanestoavoidcongestednontolllanes.HOVsmaybeallowedtoenterthelanes
forfreeoratareducedtollrate.
Centralareapricingisanareawideimplementationofcongestionpricing
thatimposestollsforvehiclesbothenteringandtravelingwithinacentralarea
streetnetworkduringcertainhoursofcertaindays.Thefeevariesbytimeofday,
bydayofweek,oraccordingtorealtimemeasurementsofcongestionwithinthe
centralarea.Thetollmaybereducedorwaivedforcertainvehicletypes,suchas
HOVs,orforresidentsofthezone.

Central area pricing is an areawide


implementation of congestion pricing.

TRAVELER INFORMATION SYSTEMS


Travelerinformationisanintegrationoftechnologiesthatallowthegeneral
publictoaccessrealtimeornearrealtimedataontrafficfactorssuchasincident
conditions,traveltime,andspeed.Travelerinformationsystemscanbedivided
intothreetypes(pretrip,invehicle,androadside)accordingtowhenthe
informationismadeavailableandhowitisdeliveredtothedriver.
Pretripinformationisobtainedfromvarioussourcesandistransmittedto
motoristsbeforethestartoftheirtripthroughvariousmeans.Exhibit353
illustratesinternettransmissionoftravelinformation.
Exhibit 35-3
San Francisco Bay Area Traffic Map

Source: Metropolitan Transportation Commission, copyright 2009. http://traffic.511.org.

Invehicleinformationmayinvolverouteguidanceortransmissionof
incidentandtraveltimeconditionstothevehiclewhileenroute.Routeguidance
involvesglobalpositioningsystembasedrealtimedataacquisitiontocalculate
themostefficientroutesfordrivers.Thistechnologyallowsindividualdriversto
receiveoptimalrouteguidanceandprovidesamethodforthetransportation
networkoperatortomakedirectandreliablecontroldecisionstostabilize
networkflow.
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Roadsidemessagesconsistofdynamicmessagesigns(alsocalledchangeable
orvariablemessagesigns)andhighwayadvisoryradio(alsocalledtraveler
advisoryradio)thatdisplayortransmitinformationonroadconditionsfor
travelerswhiletheyareenroute.
MANAGED LANES
The term managed lanes has
historically referred to a broad
range of ATM strategies
related to the control of
specific lane operations on a
facility. That definition is
retained here, but to avoid
overlap, only those managed
lane strategies not covered
elsewhere in this chapter are
described in the Managed
Lanes section.

Managedlanestrategiesincludereversiblelanes,HOVlanes,HOTlanes,
trucklanes,speedharmonization,temporaryclosuresforincidentsor
maintenance,andtemporaryuseofshouldersduringpeakperiods(seeExhibit
354).HOTlanesaredescribedaboveundercongestionpricing;speed
harmonizationisdescribedinalatersection.
HOVlanesassignlimitedvehiclecapacitytovehiclesthatcarrythemost
peopleonthefacilityorthatinsomeotherwaymeetsocietalobjectivesfor
reducingtheenvironmentalimpactsofvehiculartravel(e.g.,motorcyclesortwo
seater,electric,orhybridvehicles).HOVlanesmayoperate24hoursaday,7
daysaweek,ormaybelimitedtopeakperiodswhendemandisgreatest.The
minimumvehicleoccupancyrequirementforHOVlanesmaybeadjustedin
responsetooperatingconditionsintheHOVlanestopreserveuncongested
operation.

Exhibit 35-4
HOV Lane

Source: Federal Highway Administration, Managed Lanes: A Primer (3).

Reversiblelanesprovideadditionalcapacityfordirectionalpeakflows
dependingonthetimeoftheday.Reversiblelanesonfreewaysmaybelocated
inthecenterofafreewaywithgatecontrolonbothends.Oninterruptedflow
facilities,reversiblelanesmaybeimplementedwiththehelpoflaneusecontrol
signalsandsignsthatopenandcloselanesbydirection.
Thetemporaryuseofshouldersduringpeakperiodsbyallorasubsetof
vehicletypescanprovideadditionalcapacityinabottlenecksectionandimprove
overallfacilityperformance.Temporaryshoulderusebytransitvehiclesin
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queuinglocationscanreducedelaysforthosevehiclesbyenablingthemtoreach
theirexitwithouthavingtowaitinthemainlinequeue.
SPEED HARMONIZATION
Theobjectiveofspeedharmonizationistoimprovesafetyandfacility
operationsbyreducingtheshockwavesthattypicallyoccurwhentraffic
abruptlyslowsupstreamofabottleneckorforanincident.Thereductionof
shockwavesdecreasestheprobabilityofsecondaryincidentsandthelossof
capacityassociatedwithincidentrelatedandrecurringtrafficcongestion.
Changeablespeedlimitorspeedadvisorysignsaretypicallyusedto
implementspeedharmonization.Thespeedrestrictionsmayapplyuniformly
acrossalllanesormayvarybylane.Althoughnotstrictlyaspeedharmonization
technique,thesamelanesignsmaybeusedtocloseindividuallanesupstreamof
anincidentuntiltheincidentiscleared.
Thevariablespeedlimitmaybeadvisoryorregulatory.Advisoryspeeds
indicatearecommendedspeedthatdriversmayexceediftheybelieveitissafe
underprevailingconditions.Regulatoryspeedlimitsmaynotbeexceededunder
anyconditions.Exhibit355showsanexampleofvariablespeedlimitsignsused
forspeedharmonizationintheNetherlands.
Exhibit 35-5
Variable Speed Limit Signs,
Rotterdam, Netherlands

Source: Federal Highway Administration, ATM Scan, Jessie Yung.

TRAFFIC SIGNAL CONTROL


Signaltimingoptimizationisthesinglemostcosteffectiveactionthatcanbe
takentoimprovearoadwaycorridorscapacityandperformance(4).Signal
timingisequalinimportancetothenumberoflanesindeterminingthecapacity
andperformanceofanurbanstreet.
Trafficsignaltimingoptimizationandcoordinationminimizesthestops,
delays,andqueuesforvehiclesatindividualandmultiplesignalized
intersections.
Trafficsignalpreemptionorpriorityprovidesspecialtimingforcertain
classesofvehiclessuchasbuses,lightrailvehicles,emergencyresponsevehicles,
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andrailroadtrains.Preemptioninterruptstheregularsignaloperation.Priority
eitherextendsoradvancesthetimewhenapriorityvehicleobtainsthegreen
phase,butgenerallyoperateswithintheconstraintsoftheregularsignal
operatingscheme.
Trafficresponsiveoperationandadaptivecontrolprovidefordifferentlevels
ofautomationintheadjustmentofsignaltimingduetovariationsindemand.
Trafficresponsiveoperationselectsfromapreparedsetoftimingplansbasedon
theobservedleveloftrafficinthesystem.Adaptivetrafficsignalcontrolinvolves
advanceddetectionoftraffic,predictionofitsarrivalatthedownstreamsignal,
andadjustmentofthedownstreamsignaloperationbasedonthatprediction.
SPECIALIZED APPLICATIONS OF ATM STRATEGIES
ATMstrategiesareoftenappliedtothedaytodayoperationofafacility.
Incidentmanagementandworkzonemanagementareexamplesofapplications
ofoneormoreATMstrategiestoaddressspecificfacilityconditions.Employer
baseddemandmanagementisanexampleofprivatesectorapplicationsfor
whichtravelerinformationsystemsmaybeanimportantcomponent.
Incident Management
Trafficincidentmanagementisthecoordinated,preplanneduseof
technology,processes,andprocedurestoreducethedurationandimpactof
incidents,andtoimprovethesafetyofmotorists,crashvictims,andincident
responders(5).Anincidentisanynonrecurringevent...thatcausesa
reductioninroadwaycapacityoranabnormalincreaseintrafficdemandthat
disruptsthenormaloperationofthetransportationsystem(5).Suchevents
includetrafficcrashes,disabledvehicles,spilledcargo,severeweather,and
specialeventssuchassportingeventsandconcerts.ATMstrategiesmaybe
includedaspartofanoverallincidentmanagementplantoimprovefacility
operationsduringandafterincidents.
Work Zone Management
Workzonemanagementhastheobjectiveofsafelymovingtrafficthrough
theworkingareawithaslittledelayaspossibleconsistentwiththesafetyofthe
workers,thesafetyofthetravelingpublic,andtherequirementsofthework
beingperformed.Atransportationmanagementplan(TMP)isacollectionof
administrative,procedural,andoperationalstrategiesusedtomanageand
mitigatetheimpactsofaworkzoneproject.TheTMPmayhavethree
components:atemporarytrafficcontrolplan,atransportationoperationsplan,
andapublicinformationplan.Thetemporarytrafficcontrolplandescribes
controlstrategies,trafficcontroldevices,andprojectcoordination.The
transportationoperationsplanidentifiesthedemandmanagement,corridor
management,workzonesafetymanagement,andtrafficandincident
managementandenforcementstrategies.Thepublicinformationplandescribes
publicawarenessandmotoristinformationstrategies(5).ATMstrategiescanbe
importantcomponentsofaTMP.

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Employer-Based Demand Management
Employerbaseddemandmanagementconsistsofcooperativeactionstaken
byemployerstoreducetheimpactsofrecurringornonrecurringtraffic
congestiononemployeeproductivity.Forexample,alargeemployermay
implementworkathomeorstayathomedaysinresponsetoannouncedsnow
days;sparetheairdays;ortrafficalertsregardingmajorconstructionprojects,
majorincidents,andmajorhighwayfacilityclosures.Anothercompanymay
contractforordirectlyprovideregularshuttlevanservicetoandfromtransit
stations.Flexibleorstaggeredworkhoursmaybeimplementedtoenable
employeestoavoidpeakcommutehours.Ridesharingservicesandincentives
maybeimplementedbytheemployertofacilitateemployeeridesharing.
Employersmayalsousecomponentsofatravelerinformationsystemto
determineappropriateresponsestochangingtrafficconditions.Employeescan
usetravelerinformationsystemsintheirdailycommutingchoices.

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3. METAMEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS
INTRODUCTION
ThissectiondescribestheneedformetaMOEsforevaluatingATM
strategiesandprovidessomecandidatesforconsideration.MetaMOEsare
combinationsoftraditionalHCMMOEsthathavebeencomputedoverarange
ofdemandandcapacityconditionsexpectedtooccurintherealworld.
NEED FOR META-MOEs
TheanalysismethodologiesdescribedelsewhereintheHCMaredesignedto
produceasinglesetofperformanceresultsforagivensetofinputdemandsand
computedcapacitiesforafacility.Volume1providesdiscussionsofthe
performancemeasuresproducedbytheHCMforeachsystemelementin
Chapter4,TrafficFlowandCapacityConcepts;Chapter5,QualityandLevelof
ServiceConcepts;andChapter7,InterpretingHCMandAlternativeTool
Results.TheseHCMMOEsare,inessence,singlepointestimatesoffacility
performance.
Inaddition,theHCMmethodologiesdescribedelsewhereinthismanualare
oftenspecificallyorientedtoidealornearidealconditions,whenweather,
incidents,andotherfactorsdonotadverselyaffectcapacity.HCM
methodologiescanbeadaptedtoaccountforadverseeffectsoncapacity,but
theirdefaultconditionistoexcludetheseeffects.
ATM strategies are designed to
improve the performance of
the facility over a range of
real-world demand and
capacity conditions, not just
for a single forecast condition.

ATMstrategies,however,aredesignedtoimprovetheperformanceofa
facilityoverarangeofrealworlddemandandcapacityconditions,notjustfora
singleforecastcondition.Thus,thestandardHCMperformancemeasuresand
methodologiesexcludethemajorityofthebenefitsofthedynamicand
continuousmonitoringandcontrolofthetransportationsystem,whichisthe
objectiveofATM.

The evaluation of ATM


strategies requires
performance measures that
recognize the impact of lessthan-ideal conditions on facility
capacity.

AmethodologyisneededforcomputingtraditionalHCMMOEs(suchas
density,delay,speed,volumetocapacityratio,andqueues)overarangeof
likelydemandandcapacityconditionsandtocombinethemintooneormore
metaMOEsthatbettercharacterizesystemperformanceunderrealworld
conditions.
CANDIDATE META-MOEs
TheevaluationofATMperformancerequiresMOEsthatquantifythe
impactsofvaryingdemandsandcapacitiesonperformance.Onewaytoachieve
thisistodevelopmethodsforcomputingtraditionalHCMMOEsforvarying
combinationsofdemandandcapacityconditionsandtocombinetheresultsinto
variousmetaMOEsfordescribingsystemperformancewithvaryingATM
strategies.
VariousmetaMOEsmaybeconsideredbytheanalyst.Theseinclude
Measuresofcentraltendency,suchasthemean,mode,ormedianofthe
HCMresults;

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Measuresofvariation,suchasthestandarddeviationorthevarianceof
theHCMresults;
Measuresofextremeresults,suchastheworstHCMresultsatthe85th,
90th,95th,or99thpercentile;
Measuresofprobabilityoffailureanddurationoffailure,suchasthe
probabilityofexceedingatargetdemandtocapacityratioforagiven
lengthoftime,theprobabilityofexceedingatargetlevelofservice,orthe
probabilityofexceedingsomeotheragencydeterminedthresholdMOE;
and
Measuresofproduction,suchasthroughput,vehiclemilestraveled,
vehiclesserved,personmilestraveled,orpersonsserved.
Forexample,theanalystmaychoosetoreportforatrafficsignalthemean
delay,thestandarddeviationofdelay,the95thpercentiledelay,theprobability
ofexceedingLOSE,thetotalnumberofvehiclesserved(throughput),orsome
combinationofthesemeasures.Eachofthesemeasureswouldbecomputedby
usingHCMmethodsforvaryingcombinationsofdemandandcapacity;the
resultswouldthenbecombinedintometaMOEsforthesignal.
Atpresenttheinterpretationanddeterminationofwhatconstitutes
acceptableorunacceptablemetaperformanceisanopenquestionthatrequires
furtherresearch.
INDICES OF PERFORMANCE
WhileusingmanydifferentMOEscangiveamorecompletepictureof
systemperformance,sometimesthedatabecometoomassivetocomprehend,
thushinderingratherthanassistingthedecisionmakingprocess.Insuchacase
theanalystmayfinditdesirabletocombineoneormoreofthemetaMOEsof
ATMperformanceintoasingleindex.Performanceindicesarealsousefulwhen
theanalystdesirestooptimizemultipledimensionsofsystemperformance.For
example,signaltimingoptimizationusuallyinvolvesoptimizingaweighted
combinationofstopsanddelays.
TheformulainEquation351providesoneexampleofmanypotentially
usefulmethodsforcombiningmetaMOEsintoameaningfulindexof
performance.ItappliesananalystdefinedpercentageweightingWtothe
averagesystemperformanceandoneminusthatpercentagetothe95th
percentilesystemperformancetoyieldanassessmentoftherobustnessofthe
system.Othercombinationsthatmaybemoreusefultothespecificneedsofthe
analysisarealsopossible.
RobustnessIndex=W(AverageMOE)+(1W)(95%MOE)

Equation 35-1

where
RobustnessIndex = examplecompositeindexofsystemrobustness,

W = relativeweight(between0and1),and
MOE = HCMMOE.

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4. GENERAL EFFECTS
INTRODUCTION
Thissectionpresentsbasicinformationonwhatareconsideredtobethe
likelyeffectsofspecificATMstrategiesonthedemand,capacity,and
performanceofaroadwayfacility.Thereadershouldrecognizethatthereare
currentlymanygapsinthisbasicinformationandthatmuchofthisdiscussionis
basedonasparsesetofresearchresults.
ROADWAY METERING
Demand Effects
Roadwaymeteringshiftssomeofthedemandforthefacilitytootherroutes,
othermodes,andothertimesofday.Someofthedemandremains,simply
waitingforitsturntoenterthefacility.Thedemandeffectsarespecifictothe
situationandthealternativesavailable.
Capacity Effects
Freewayonrampmetershavebeenfoundtoincreasefreewaymainline
bottleneckcapacityby3%to5%(6,7).Thiseffectisachievedbysmoothingthe
microsurgesoftrafficfromtheonrampimpactingthefreewayandthereby
delayingbreakdownconditionsatthebottleneck(8).
Greaterincreaseshavebeenobservedinmainlinevehiclethroughput
measuredatvariouspointsupstreamofabottleneck.
Performance Effects
Theprimaryperformanceeffectofroadwaymeteringistodelayorprevent
theonsetofmainlinetrafficcongestionorbreakdown.Averagespeedsoftraffic
withinthemeteredfacilitycanbesignificantlyimproved.Thetradeoffis
increaseddelaysforvehiclesatthemeters.Asystemwideassessmentisrequired
todeterminenetsystembenefits.
Rampmeterevaluationstudies(9)foundthatwhenfreewayonrampmeters
wereturnedoff
Freewayvolumesdropped9%,
Peakperiodfreewaythroughputdeclined14%,
Freewaytraveltimesincreased22%,
Freewayspeedsdropped7%,and
Freewaycrashesincreased26%.
Installingrampmeterswouldbeexpectedtohavetheoppositeresultsof
thosecitedabove(i.e.,increasedvolumes,increasedthroughput,increased
speeds,andfewercrashes).Theperformancebenefitsofroadwaymeteringwill
varywiththespecificconditionsofeachinstallation.

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Estimation Methods
TheHCMmethodologiesdescribedelsewhereinthismanualcanestimate
theperformanceeffectsofroadwaymetering.Thesemethods,however,donot
currentlyrecognizethebottleneckcapacityincreasesthatareprovidedby
freewayonrampmetering.
Microsimulationmodelsthathavebeenproperlycalibratedtofield
conditionscanbeusedtomodelthesupplysideeffectsoframpmetering,
mainlinemetering,andpeakperiodrampclosuresonfreewaycapacityand
performance.
Demandmodelsemployingtrafficassignmentmethodssensitivetometering
(suchasdynamictrafficassignment)areoftenrequiredtoestimatedemandside
effects.
Capacity of Metered Freeway On-Ramps
Asinglelanemeteredonrampthatallowsonevehiclepergreencanserve
upto900veh/h.Iftwovehiclesareallowedpergreen,thenasinglelanemetered
onrampcanservefrom1,100to1,200veh/h(10).
Atwolanemeteredrampprovidesacapacityof1,600to1,700entryvehicles
perhouracrossthetwolanesoftheonramp(10).
Thesevaluesareapproximate.Actualcapacityisdeterminedbythe
maximumfeasiblemeteringrate,driveraggressiveness,andtheabilityofthe
freewaytoabsorbtherampvolume.Whilehighermeteringratesmaybe
theoreticallypossible,practicalconstraints(suchasdrivercomplianceand
reactiontimes)limitthemaximumandminimummeteringratesthatmaybe
employed.
CONGESTION PRICING
Demand Effects
Congestionpricingshiftssomeofthedemandtootherlanes,otherroutes,
othermodes,andothertimesofday.Someofthedemandremains,anddrivers
willsimplypaythetoll.Thedemandeffectsarespecifictothepricingpolicy,the
travelersvalueoftime,andthealternativesavailable.
Ifthepricingpolicyistomaintaindemandonthefacilitywithinatarget
range,thenthedemandforthefacilityistheknownvalue(withinthetarget
range),andtheunknownvalueistheprice.
Ifthepricingpolicyistomaintainaminimumspeedonthefacility,thenthe
equivalentmaximumoperatingvolumerangeisontheorderof1,600to1,700
veh/h/ln(11).Thesevaluesappeartobeappropriateforsustainedminimum
averageoperatingspeedsof40to45mi/hforasingleHOTlane.Lowerflow
valuesmaybenecessarytoachievehigheraveragesustainableminimum
operatingspeeds.HigherflowvaluesmaybeachievableformultilaneHOTlane
facilities.

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Capacity Effects
Congestionpricing,byspreadingoutthepeakingoffacilitydemand,can
enablethefacilitytomovemorevehiclesoverthecourseofapeakperiod.
Performance Effects
Congestionpricingcanresultinsignificantreductionsindelayforthepriced
facility.AstudyoftheCA91expresslanes(12)foundthefollowing:
OveralltrafficvolumesonCA91increasedby15%inthefirst18months
afterexpresslaneswereaddedtothefacility.
Peakdirectiontraveltimesforexpresslaneuserswerereducedfrom70
minbeforetheexpresslanesopenedto12minafterthelanesopened.
Nonexpresslaneusersalsoexperiencedasignificantreductioninpeak
directiontraveltimes,from70minto30min.However,increasing
demandoverthefollowing18monthsgraduallyerodedmuchofthat
savingsforthenonexpresslaneusers.
Theexpresslanesdidnotcauseasignificantchangeinvehicle
occupancies.
Estimation Methods
Thedemandsforapricedfacilitycanoftenbereasonablyestimatedfromthe
pricingpolicyifthepricingpolicysetsaminimumoperatingspeedthreshold.
Ademandmodelandthevalueoftimearerequiredforpredicting
systemwidedemandeffects,forevaluatingthedemandeffectsofspecificpricing
schedules,andforestimatingrevenues.
AtpresenttheHCMdoesnotprovidemethodologiesforevaluatingmanyof
thespecificgeometricconfigurationscurrentlybeingusedtoimplementHOT
lanes.Capacityandoperationanalysismethodsarelackingforsinglelane
facilitieswherefastervehiclesareunabletopassaslowervehicleinthelane.The
entryandexitpointsforbarrierseparatedfacilitiesarealsonotexplicitlycovered
byHCMmethodologies,althoughthemethodologiesmaybeadaptabletothose
conditions.
Microsimulationmodels,properlycalibratedtofieldconditions,maybe
usedtoevaluatetheoperationofcongestionpricedfacilities.
TRAVELER INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Demand Effects
Travelerinformationsystemsshiftsomeofthedemandtootherroutes,other
modes,andothertimesofday.Someofthedemandwillremain.Thedemand
effectsarespecifictothesituationandthealternativesavailable.
Capacity Effects
Travelerinformationsystems,byredirectingdemand,canpostponeoravoid
theonsetoftrafficcongestion,thusyieldingthethroughputbenefitstypicalof
suchconditions.

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Performance Effects
Reductionsindemandduetoredirectedtrafficandthepostponementof
trafficbreakdownscanresultinnetperformanceimprovements.Workzone
managementprogramsinTexasandWashington,D.C.,employingtraveler
informationsystemsaspartofanoverallATMstrategytoimprovetraffic
operationswithinworkzoneshaveachieveddemanddiversionsofbetween10%
and50%(13).
Estimation Methods
TheHCMdoesnotprovidemethodologiesfordirectlyassessingthe
performanceeffectsoftravelerinformationsystems.However,ifanestimateof
thechangeddemandlevelscanbeobtained,thentheHCMmethodologiescanbe
appliedtoestimatesystemperformance.
Somemicroscopicandmesoscopicsimulationmodelsprovideroutechoice
algorithmparametersthatcanbeadjustedtoaccountfordifferentlevelsof
travelerinformationpenetrationandcomplianceinthevehiclefleet.
Demandforecastingtoolshavenotbeentypicallyusedtopredictthe
demandeffectsoftravelerinformationsystems,buttheymaybeadaptablefor
thatpurpose.Theanalystshouldverifyhowthedemandmodelingsoftware
treatstravelerinformationwithinitsroutechoiceprocess.
MANAGED LANES
Demand Effects
Managedlaneschangethenatureandquantityofdemandforafacility.
Capacityincreasesduetotheadditionofmanagedlanestendtodrawmore
demandtothefacility.Managedlanescancausemodalandtemporalshiftsin
demandforthefacilitybymakingcertainmodesoftravelsubjecttolessdelay
thanothersforcertaintimesoftheday.
Capacity Effects
Theadditionofnewmanagedlanestoafacilitygenerallyincreasesthe
facilitysoverallcapacity.
Formanagedlanesthatarebarrierseparatedfromtherestofthefacility,
weavingandmergingattheentryandexitpointsmaybeasignificanttraffic
operationsissue.Theweavingcapacityoftheentryandexitpointsmaycontrol
theoverallfacilitycapacity(14).Thecapacitywouldbeaffectedbymainline
configuration,accessdesign,andtrafficpatterns.
Forreversiblelanes,significantcapacityandperformancebenefitsmaybe
lostwhenthelanesmustbeclosedintheirentiretysothattheflowdirectioncan
bereversed.
Performance Effects
Theadditionofnewmanagedlanestoafacilitygenerallyimprovesfacility
performanceforallusers.VehicleseligibletousetheHOVlaneswillexperience
significantreductionsindelay.Singleoccupantvehicleswillalsoexperience

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reduceddelaysbecauseoftheadditionalgapsintrafficopenedupwhenHOVs
movefromthemixedflowlanestotheHOVlanes.
AFederalHighwayAdministrationinventoryofHOVfacilitiesintheUnited
States(15)foundthatHOVlaneusersexperiencedtraveltimesavingsof
betweenafewsecondspermileto6min/miormore,dependingontheextent
andseverityofcongestionontheadjacentmixedflowlanes.
Estimation Methods
TheHCMmethodologiesdescribedelsewhereinthismanualarenot
validatedorcalibratedforthespecialconditionsposedbymanagedlanesor
shoulderlanes;however,itmaybepossibletoadapttheHCMmethodswiththe
properchoiceofparameters.
Microsimulationtoolsthatareproperlycalibratedandvalidatedforexisting
fieldconditionscanprovideperformanceinformationformostmanagedlane
configurations.Specialcalibrationofthesemodelsmayberequiredtomodel
shoulderlanesadequately.
Maximum Target Flow Rates for HOV and Bus Lanes
HOVlanesstarttoexperienceanoticeabledegradationofperformance
(speedsdroppingto45mi/horless)atflowsof1,200to1,500veh/h/ln(16).The
followinggeneralmaximumoperatingthresholdsfordifferenttypesofHOV
facilitiesarebasedonnationalexperience(17):
Separaterightofway,busonly:800to1,000veh/h/ln
Separaterightofway,HOV:1,500to1,800veh/h/ln
Freeway,exclusivetwodirectional:1,200to1,500veh/h/ln
Freeway,exclusivereversible:1,500to1,800veh/h/ln
Freeway,concurrentflow:1,200to1,500veh/h/ln
Freewaycontraflow,busonly:600to800veh/h/ln
Freewaycontraflow,HOV:1,200to1,500veh/h/ln
HOVbypasslanes:300to500veh/h/ln
Notethattheabovemaximumoperatingthresholdsarenotcapacities,but
rathervaluesabovewhichanundesirabledegradationinlanespeedsislikelyto
occur.Thesevaluesgenerallyapplytosinglelaneoperation.Multiplelanesmay
achievehigheroperatingthresholds.
TheTransitCapacityandQualityofServiceManual(18)pointsoutthatthe
capacityofexclusivebuslanesonfreewaysisdictatedeitherbythecapacityof
anyofflinebusstopsalongthebuslanesectionorbythebusstopslocatedafter
theendofthebuslane.Thusthecapacityofabuslaneonafreewayisgenerally
meaningless.

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TRAFFIC SIGNAL CONTROL
Demand Effects
Trafficsignalcontrol,bycontrollingcapacityanddelay,candrawmore
demandtothefacilityorcanshiftsomeofthedemandtootherroutes,other
modes,andothertimesofday.Thedemandeffectsarespecifictotheconditions
andthealternativesavailable.
Capacity Effects
Trafficsignalcontroldirectlyaffectscapacitythroughtheformulashownin
Equation352.

c = ( g / C) s

Equation 35-2

where

c = capacity(veh/h),
g/C = effectivegreentimepertrafficsignalcyclelength,and
s = saturationflowrate(veh/h).

ATMstrategiesthatmodifytheheavyvehiclemixcaninfluencethe
saturationflowrate,andthosestrategiesthataffectpeakingcaninfluencethe
peak15minvolumetocapacityratio.Otherwise,signalcontrolaffectscapacity
primarilythroughtheg/Cratio.
Performance Effects
Theeffectsofadvancedsignaltimingapplicationsvaryaccordingtothe
qualityofthesignaltimingplansinplacepriortoimplementation.The
percentagechangecanbesmalliftheoriginalplanwasofhighqualityand
frequentlymaintainedandupdated.
Onaverage,improvementstosignaltimingplanshavebeenfoundtoreduce
averagepeakperiodfacilitytraveltimesby8%to25%andtoreducedelayinthe
15%to40%range(19).
Estimation Methods
TheHCMmethodologiesdescribedinVolume3canbeusedtoevaluatethe
capacityandperformanceeffectsoftheoptimizationandcoordinationoffixed
timeandtrafficactuatedsignalsystems.Thesemethods,however,arenot
suitableforevaluatingsignalpreemption,signalpriority,ortrafficadaptiveand
trafficresponsivecontrolstrategies.
Mostcommonlyavailablemicrosimulationtoolsareappropriatefor
evaluatingsignalcontrolstrategies.Theirabilitytomodeladvancedcontrol
strategies(trafficresponsiveandadaptivecontrols)variesaccordingtothe
sophisticationofthesignalcontrolleremulatorbuiltintothemicrosimulation
tool.

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SPEED HARMONIZATION
Demand Effects
Theavailableliteratureonspeedharmonizationdoesnotprovide
informationonitsdemandeffects.Ifspeedharmonizationdoesnotsignificantly
changeaveragetravelspeedsforthefacility,thenitwouldnotbeexpectedto
affectdemandsignificantly.Improvedoperationsandreliabilityassociatedwith
speedharmonizationmightdrawdemandtothefacility.
Capacity Effects
Speedharmonizationisdesignedtoreducethefrequencyofincidentscaused
bysuddendecelerationsinthetrafficstreamandtopostponetheonsetof
congestion.Theseeffectswillinturninfluencethefacilitycapacity.
Someearlystudiesfoundthatspeedharmonizationcouldincreasethetotal
capacityofafreewayby10%,butotherstudieshavefoundnoeffects.More
recentstudiesinGermanysuggestthattheprimarycapacityimpactofspeed
harmonizationisonthevariationofcapacity.Capacityvariancemaybereduced
50%whileaveragecapacityisincreasedontheorderof3%(20).Speed
harmonizationontheNetherlandsMotorwayControlSystemwasfoundto
increasevehiclethroughputby3%to5%(21).
Performance Effects
Studiestodatesuggestclearbenefitsintermsofcollisionreductions,which
translateintobetterreliability.
Theliteratureislessclearontheperformanceeffectsofspeedharmonization.
Speedharmonizationoftenresultsinloweraveragespeeds,whichare
counterbalancedtosomeextentbyimprovedreliabilityintraveltimes.These
counterbalancingeffectscanresultinnetpositiveornegativetraveltime
benefits,dependingoncircumstances.Forexample,afreewaymanagementplan
thatincludedspeedharmonizationontheM25controlledmotorwayinthe
UnitedKingdomwasfoundtoresultina10%reductionininjurycollisions,no
netchangeintraveltimes,anda9%reductionintimethefacilitywasoperating
inflowbreakdownconditions(speedsunder25mi/h)(22).
Estimation Methods
TheHCMmethodologiesdescribedelsewhereinthismanualdonot
recognizethepotentialcapacityeffectsofpostponingbreakdownorthe
reliabilityeffectsofreducedincidentfrequency.
Mostcommonlyavailablemicrosimulationmodelswillshowthe
performancechangesofreducingspeedvarianceandshocksinthetrafficstream,
butusingthemtomodelthereliabilityanddelayeffectsofreducedincidentsis
moredifficult.Amethodologyisrequiredtoestimatethereducedprobabilityof
incidentsforagivenspeedharmonizationpolicy.

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5. REFERENCES
1. FederalHighwayAdministration.RampManagementandControl:APrimer.
FHWAHOP06080.Washington,D.C.,2006.

Many of these references are


available in the Technical Reference
Library in Volume 4.

2. FederalHighwayAdministration.TechnologiesThatComplementCongestion
Pricing:APrimer.FHWAHOP08043.Washington,D.C.,2008.
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4. FederalHighwayAdministrationandUniversityofFlorida.NationalSignal
TimingOptimizationProjectSummaryEvaluationReport.1982.
5. Balke,K.TrafficIncidentManagementinConstructionandMaintenanceWork
Zones.FHWAHOP08056.FederalHighwayAdministration,Washington
D.C.,2009.
6. Levinson,D.,andL.Zhang.RampMetersonTrial:EvidencefromtheTwin
CitiesMeteringHoliday.TransportationResearchPartA:PolicyandPractice,
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7. Zhang,L.,andD.Levinson.RampMeteringandtheCapacityofActive
FreewayBottlenecks.TransportationResearchPartA:PolicyandPractice,2004.
8. Cassidy,M.J.,andJ.Rudjanakanoknad.EmpiricalStudyofRampMeteringand
Capacity.UCBITSRR20025.InstituteofTransportationStudies,University
ofCalifornia,Berkeley,2002.
9. CambridgeSystematics.TwinCitiesRampMeterEvaluation.Oakland,Calif.,
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10. Jacobson,L.,J.Stribiak,L.Nelson,andD.Sallman.RampManagementand
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11. Perez,B.,andG.C.Sciara.AGuideforHOTLaneDevelopment.FHWAOP03
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12. Sullivan,E.C.,andJ.ElHarake.CaliforniaRoute91TollLanes:Impactsand
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D.C.,2008.
14. Wolshon,B.,andL.Lambert.NCHRPSynthesisofHighwayPractice340:
ConvertibleRoadwaysandLanes.TransportationResearchBoardofthe
NationalAcademies,Washington,D.C.,2004.
15. Chang,M.,J.Wiegmann,andC.Billotto.ACompendiumofExistingHOVLane
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16. Turnbull,K.F.PotentialImpactofExemptVehiclesonHOVLanes.FHWAHOP
05058.FederalHighwayAdministration,Washington,D.C.,2005.
17. TexasTransportationInstitute;ParsonsBrinckerhoffQuadeandDouglass,
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D.C.,1998.
18. Kittelson&Associates,Inc.;KFHGroup,Inc.;ParsonsBrinckerhoffQuade&
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