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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this experiment was carried out to demonstrate the relationship between the
pressure and temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium. Besides that, to demonstrate the
vapor pressure curve. In this experiment, steam temperature was observed as the water boils
rised. The steam temperature and pressure was recorded when the boiler was heated until the
steam pressure reaches 10.0 bar (abs). The steam temperature was recorded when the boiler
was cooled until the steam reached atmospheric pressure. From the graph shown, the
relationship between temperature and pressure is directly proportional as the temperature
increased, the pressure increased. From the table showed, the measured slope and calculated
slope were decreased as the temperature increased. As a conclusion,the experiment was
successful based on the theory even there were some error.

Table of contents
Abstract..................................................................................................................1
Table of Contents...................................................................................................2
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

Introduction.....................................................................................................3
Objectives3
Theory..4-5
Diagram and Description of Apparatus6-8
General Operating Procedure8-9
Experimental Procedures.9-10

1.7 Results and Discussion11-13


1.8 Sample calculations.14-15
1.9 Conclusion and Recommendation...16-17
1.10
References..18
1.11 Appendices.18

1.1 INTRODUCTION
The Marcet Boiler is designed to demonstrate the principal in
thermodynamic studies which is the boiling phenomenon. At the
temperature of 100C, the temperature of the water constant due to the
amount of latent heat needed to break the bond between water particles.
At this stage vapor and liquid are in the same ratio. The volume begins to
change rapidly as the liquid is being transformed into vapor [3]. The
process continued until the last drop of liquid vaporized this is called as
saturated vapor [1]. The units help to study the relationship between the
pressure and the temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium with
water.
The pressure increases with the increase of the boiler temperature
this is due to the gas ideal law in equation (1).The boiling point of the
water in this experiment is 100 C, this is due to the experiment that had
been done in the atmospheric pressure. If the pressure is increase 2 atm,
the water will start boiling at 200 C [1]. The steam was allowed to come
out at valve V3 for at least 30 seconds before temperature was recorded.
This step is important to remove air from the boiler as the accuracy of the
experimental results will be significantly affected when air is present [2].
The increase of temperature was recorded from 1 to 10 bar of absolute
pressure.

1.2 OBJECTIVES

The objective for this experiment is to demonstrate the relationship


between the pressure and temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium
and to demonstrate of vapor pressure curve. The temperature was
recorded and determine at the pressure within 10 bar. The increases
energy within water, increasing of activities among molecules which
increase the number of molecules escaped from the surface.

1.3 THEORY
The Marcet Boiler was used to investigate the relationship between the
pressure and temperature of the saturated steam in equilibrium with
water at 1 bar to 10 bar of absolute pressure. An ideal gas can be divided
to three states variables, they are absolute pressure (p), absolute
temperature (T) and volume (V). The relationship between them had been
deduced from the kinetic theory and becoming ideal gas law. The ideal
gas law equation managed to predicts the P-v-T behavior of a gas
accurately within some properly selected region. The simplest and bestknown equation that involve gas phase is the ideal gas law.
PV = nRT (1)
Where,
P = Absolute pressure
V= volume
n = amount of substances (moles)

R = ideal gas constant


T = absolute temperature (K)
When a gas law behave exactly like a ideal gas law. It were predicted to
behave in terms of volume, pressure and temperature, then the gas is
said to be an ideal gas. If the gas are opposite from the ideal gas law, then
the gas is said to behave like a real gas.
The energy continuously supply to the boiler until it reach boiling point.
The temperature increases as the activities among molecules also
increases. The increase in temperature causes the bond between particles
of water to break and the number of molecule escape from the surface
also increase. The activities continue until an equilibrium states is
reached. At lower pressure, less of energy is needed to achieve
equilibrium states, which is less energy is required to achieve equilibrium
states. The temperature where the equilibrium state achieved is known as
saturated temperature.
Clapeyron equation is to determine the enthalpy of vaporization h fg at a
given temperature by simply measuring the slope of the saturation curve
on a P-T diagram and the specific volume of saturated liquid and saturated
vapor at the given temperature [2]. The measured value that is obtained
from the gradient of the graph (dT/dP)

SAT

could be compared with the

values calculated in data in steam tables. Clausius-Clapeyron equation


:

dT
( dP

dT
)
dP

TVfg
hfg

T (Vf Vg)
hf hg

SAT

SAT

And hf + hfg = hg
Hence, hfg = hg - hf
(

dT
)
dP

SAT =

T (Vf Vg)
hfg

TVg
hfg

As Vg >> Vf
In which :
Vf

= Specific volume of saturated liquid

Vg

= Specific volume of saturated vapor

hf

= Enthalpy of saturated liquid

hg

= Enthalpy of saturated vapor

hfg

= Latent heat of vaporization

1.4 DIAGRAM AND DISCRIPTION OF APPARATUS


The unit used in the experiment consists of a stainless steel pressure vessel which equipped
with high pressure immersion electrical heater. This unit also connected to a safety relief
valve, temperature and pressure measuring devices and to allow the water, the feed port of
water is installed. The unit consists of temperature and pressure transducers to get the reading
of value easily on the digital indicators. The temperature is setting using a temperature
controller to the maximum operating temperature.
6

6
1

7
8

3
4

9
10
5

Figure 1: Unit Construction for Marcet Boiler (Model: HE169)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Pressure Transducer
Pressure Indicator
Temperature Controller/Indicator
Control Panel
Bench

6. Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge


7. Temperature Sensor
8. Pressure Relief Valve
9. Heater
10. Water Inlet Port & Valve

The Marcet Boiler (Model: HE 169) consists of mainly the following items:
a) Pressure Vessel
Capacity
: 3 Liters
Material
: Stainless Steel 304
Design Pressure : 30 bar
Operating Pressure : 10 bar
Certification
: DOSH certified
7

b) Pressure Gauge
Type : Bourdon Tube
Range : 0-20 bar (g)
c) Pressure Transducer
Wetted Material : Stainless Steel
Case Material
: Stainless Steel
Range
: 0-16 bar (abs)
d) Electrical Heater
Power : 2000W
Type : Immersion Type
Safety : High temperature cut-off by means of a temperature controller
e) Temperature Sensor
Type : RTD (Class A)
Range : 0-200 oC
f) Safety Features
Pressure Relief Valve (Set at 15 bar), Temperature Controller (Set at 185.0 oC)
Experimental Capabilities
a) Demonstration of relationship between the pressure and temperature of saturated
steam in equilibrium with water
b) Demonstration of the vapor pressure curve
Overall Dimensions
Height : 1.15 m
Width : 1.00 m
Depth : 0.60 m
General Requirements
Electrical

: 240 VAC/1-phs/50Hz

Water Supply : Distilled water

1.5 GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES


1.0 General Start-up Procedures
8

1. Make sure the unit was operated in conditioned properly and the unit was connected
to the power supply.
2. The valves at feed port and level sight tube were opened which are V1,V2 and V3.
3. The boiler was filled with distilled water through the feed port and the water level has
been determined at about the half of height of the boiler.
4. At the level sight tube, the valves, V1 & V2 were closed back and turned on the
power supply switch.
5. The experiment was ready to be performed.

2.0 General Shut-down Procedures


1. The heater was switched off and the temperature was allowed to drop until same as
room temperature.
2. The main switch and the main power supply were switched off.
3. Water was retained for the subsequent use.
4. The water was drained off by opened V3 at the upper part of the level sight tube and
V1 and V2 were opened then.
Note: The water inlet port was highly pressurized at high temperature. Do not open
the valve at the water inlet port.

1.6 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE


1. The general start-up procedures as mentioned in section 1.0 were implemented.
2. When the water had been filled into the boiler, the valves at the level sight tube, V2
and V3 were then opened to check the water level. Distilled water can be added if
needed then the valves ware closed back.
3. The temperature controller was set up to 185.0 oC where was slightly above the
expected boiling point of the water at absolute pressure, 10.0 bar.
4. The vent valve, V3 was opened and the heater was turned on.
5. The increased of steam temperature was observed as the water was boiled.

6. Steam was allowed to come out for about 30 seconds from the valve, V3 and the
valve was closed back. This is because the presence of air could be significantly
affected to the accuracy of the experimental results.
7. The steam temperature and pressure were observed and recorded while the boiler is
heated until the pressure was reached at 10.0 bar (abs).
8. The heater was turned off and then the temperature and pressure were started to
descend. The steam temperature was recorded until the steam pressure reached at
atmospheric pressure while the boiler was allowed to cool down at room temperature.
9. The reading of steam temperatures at different pressure when the boiler is heated and
cooled.
Precautions:
1. The valve at the water inlet port should not be opened as it is highly pressurized as the
temperature increased when switched off the heater.
2. Before the heater was turned on, the valves at the level sight tube must have been
ensured to be closed due to the sight tube unable to withstand high pressure and
temperature.
3. While the boiler was heated, never open the valve as pressurized steam and it may
cause serious injury.
4. Do not touch any part of the boiler during it was heated at high temperature.
5. Never closed near to the valve, V3 the place where the steam was allowed to release
out because it may cause injury.
1.7 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
RESULT
Table 1: Saturated temperature of water at different pressure
Pressure , P
(bar)

Temperature, T
( C)

Gauge

Absolute

Increase
( C)

0.00
0.10

1.00
1.10

102.0
105.3

Decrease
( C)
103.5
106.7

Average
Tavg
( C)
102.75
106.00
10

Measured
Slope,
dT/dP

Calculated
Slope, Tvg/hfg

0.320

0.0700
0.0651

Average
Tavg (K)
375.75
379.00

0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00

1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00

107.5
109.8
112.1
114.3
116.3
118.2
120.1
121.9
123.6
125.2
126.8
128.3
129.8
130.9
132.5
133.7
135.1
136.3
137.5
142.5
147.9
152.2
156.2
160.0
163.3
166.5
169.5
172.3
175.1
177.6
180.1
182.4
184.6

109.4
111.9
113.9
116.2
118.2
120.1
122.1
123.8
125.2
126.9
128.6
130.0
131.5
132.8
133.9
135.3
136.4
137.7
138.8
144.2
149.0
153.3
157.2
160.9
164.3
167.4
170.4
173.2
175.9
178.5
180.8
183.2
184.6

108.45
110.85
113.00
115.25
117.25
119.50
121.10
122.85
124.40
126.05
127.70
129.15
130.65
131.85
133.20
134.50
135.75
137.00
138.15
143.55
148.45
152.75
156.70
160.45
163.80
166.95
169.95
172.75
175.50
178.05
180.45
182.8
184.6

11

381.45
383.85
386.00
388.25
390.25
392.50
394.10
395.85
397.40
399.05
400.70
402.15
403.65
404.85
406.20
407.50
408.75
410.00
411.15
416.55
421.45
425.75
429.70
433.45
436.80
439.95
442.95
445.75
448.50
451.05
453.45
455.80
457.60

0.242
0.240
0.212
0.222
0.197
0.222
0.158
0.173
0.153
0.163
0.163
0.143
0.148
0.118
0.133
0.128
0.123
0.123
0.114
0.107
0.097
0.085
0.078
0.074
0.066
0.062
0.059
0.055
0.054
0.050
0.047
0.046
0.036

0.0600
0.0587
0.0562
0.0535
0.0515
0.0491
0.0476
0.0460
0.0445
0.0431
0.0418
0.0406
0.0395
0.0386
0.0377
0.0367
0.0360
0.0351
0.0344
0.0311
0.0286
0.0266
0.0249
0.0233
0.0223
0.0211
0.0201
0.0192
0.0184
0.0178
0.0171
0.0166
0.0161

Graph of Temperature versus Pressure


500
400
300
Temperature (K)

200
100
0
0

10

12

Pressure (abs bar)

Figure 1.1: Graph of Temperature versus Pressure

Graph of dt/dp versus P and Tvfg/hfg versus P


0.08
0.06
Slope

dt/dp

0.04

Tvfg/hfg

0.02
0
0

Pressure (abs bar)

Figure 1.2: Graph of dT/dP versus P and Tvfg/hfg

12

10

12

DISCUSSION
In Marcet Boiler experiment, before the experiment begin, the air in the boiler must
removed to get the accurate value. The result will affected if the air was presence in the
boiler. The result was taking after the water in the boiler was boiled and the steam was out.
Graph plotted from figure 1.1 shows that the relationship between temperature and pressure
in absolute was increased. The temperature was increased when the pressure increase. Graph
plotted from figure 1.2 shows that the relationship between measured slope and calculated
slope versus pressure in absolute is inversely proportional. The slope was decreased when the
pressure is increase. There are some sources of error of the experiment which is
measurement, room temperature, pressure and calculation. During a vaporization process, a
substances exits as a part of liquid and a part of vapor. The properties of the saturated liquid
were same whether it exists alone or in a mixture with saturated vapor. The amount of
saturated liquid was changed when process of vaporization happened but not its properties
and also same with saturated vapor. When the liquid absorbed enough heat energy, it will
change to vapour form where vapor carried out activities among the molecule that enable
molecule to escape from the surface until vapor reached equilibrium. As the steam is not
allowed to exit, it will cause an increase in pressure and thus causing the temperature to
increase. Applications of Marcet Boiler in industry that include water boiler, gasifier, power
plant and cooking utilities.

13

1.8 SAMPLE CALCULATION


From the data :
107.5+109.4
2

Tavg (C) :

: 108.45 C
T avg (K) : 108.45 + 273
: 381.45 K

Measured Slope,

dT
dP

at T1 = 381.45 K and T2 = 383.85 K

dT = 383.85 K 381.45 K
= 2.4 K
At P1 = 1.2 bar and P2 = 1.3 bar
dP = 1.3 bar 1.2 bar
1.01325
1 atm

= 0.1 bar x

dT
dP

2.4 K
10 kP a

vf

101.325 kPa
1 atm

= 10 kPa

= 0.24

Calculate measured slope ,

Calculate

T vg
hfg

T (v gV )
hfg
f

,
14

109.8105
x0.001047
=
110105 0.0010520.001047

f =
v

1.0518 10

Calculate

vg

m
kg

109.8105
x 1.4186
=
110105 1.20941.4186

vg

= 1.217768

Calculate

h fg

m3
kg

109.8105
x224.31
=
110108 2229.72243.1

h fg

= 2210.94

kJ
kg

Calculated slope,

T ( v gv )
f

hfg

3
1.2177681.0518 10

( 109.8 )

= 0.06

15

1.9 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


Conclusion
The relationship between pressure and temperature of saturated steam is observed.
The pressure and temperature were showed on the pressure indicator and temperature
controller. To make the experiment`s result as efficient as possible, the Ideal Gas Equations
and thermodynamics theory were used. Evaluate the slope from derivation of formula and
used the data given from the steam table. Compared the calculated slope (Tv g/hfg) and
measured slope (dT/dP) from the table and graphs. After analyzing the experimental and
theoretical results, the experimental slope is similar to the theoretical slope which shows the
accuracy of the test. The plotted graphs showed that the pressure is directly proportional to
the temperature which is the relationship between temperature and pressure in absolute was
increased. The temperature of saturated steam was increased when the pressure of saturated
steam increase. It can be proved that the fluid used for the experiment was pure water
because the fluid boils at 373K. As conclusion the experiment was successful even there were
small possible errors in this experiment. To improve the accuracy of the result the experiment
should be performed carefully and the instruction should be followed.

Recommendation

16

1. Take pressure readings with lighty tapped.


2. Remove the air from the Marcet boiler.
3. Set the boiler at room temperature at the initial state.

1.10 REFERENCES
[1] Yunus A. C. and Michael A. B., Thermodynamic, 6th ed., New York, NY: McGraw-Hill,
pp. 114-115, 677 ,(2007).
[2]. Laboratory Manual of Chemical Engineering. Marcet Boiler. University Teknologi Mara
Pulau Pinang.
[3] Edward E. A., Thermodynamic, 7th ed., United States of America, Henry N. Sawyer
Company Inc. pp 99, 20 (1994)

1.11 APPENDICES

deg-C
Temp.
T 0C
0.01
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

kPa
Sat.
press.
p_sat@T
0.6113
0.8721
1.2276
1.7051
2.339
3.169
4.246
5.628
7.384

Saturated Water (H2O)--Temperature Table


Spec. Volume
Internal Energy
Enthalpy
m^3/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
Sat.
Sat.
Sat.
Sat.
Sat. Sat.
liquid vapor
liquid vapor liquid vapor
vf
vg
uf
ug
hf
hg
0.001000 206.14
0.00 2375.3
0.00 2501.4
0.001000 147.12
20.97 2382.3 20.98 2510.6
0.001000 106.38
42.00 2389.2 42.01 2519.8
0.001001 77.93
62.99 2396.1 62.99 2528.9
0.001002 57.79
83.95 2402.9 83.96 2538.1
0.001003 43.36 104.88 2409.8 104.89 2547.2
0.001004 32.89 125.78 2416.6 125.79 2556.3
0.001006 25.22 146.67 2423.4 146.68 2565.3
0.001008 19.52 167.56 2430.1 167.57 2574.3
17

Entropy
kJ/kg*K
Sat. Sat.
liquid vapor
sf
sg
0.0000 9.1562
0.0761 9.0257
0.1510 8.9008
0.2245 8.7814
0.2966 8.6672
0.3674 8.5580
0.4369 8.4533
0.5053 8.3531
0.5725 8.2570

45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200

9.593
12.349
15.758
19.940
25.03
31.19
38.58
47.39
57.83
70.14
84.55
0.10135
0.12082
0.14327
0.16906
0.19853
0.2321
0.2701
0.3130
0.3613
0.4154
0.4758
0.5431
0.6178
0.7005
0.7917
0.8920
1.0021
1.1227
1.2544
1.3978

0.001010
0.001012
0.001015
0.001017
0.001020
0.001023
0.001026
0.001029
0.001033
0.001036
0.001040
0.001044
0.001048
0.001052
0.001056
0.001060
0.001065
0.001070
0.001075
0.001080
0.001085
0.001091
0.001096
0.001102
0.001108
0.001114
0.001121
0.001127
0.001134
0.001141
0.001149

15.26
12.03
9.568
7.671
6.197
5.042
4.131
3.407
2.828
2.361
1.982
1.6729
1.4194
1.2102
1.0366
0.8919
0.7706
0.6685
0.5822
0.5089
0.4463
0.3928
0.3468
0.3071
0.2727
0.2428
0.2168
0.19405
0.17409
0.15654
0.14105

1.5538 0.001157 0.12736

188.44
209.32
230.21
251.11
272.02
292.95
313.90
334.86
355.84
376.85
397.88
418.94
440.02
461.14
482.30
503.50
524.74
546.02
567.35
588.74
610.18
631.68
653.24
674.87
696.56
718.33
740.17
762.09
784.10
806.19
828.37

2436.8
2443.5
2450.1
2456.6
2463.1
2469.6
2475.9
2482.2
2488.4
2494.5
2500.6
2506.5
2512.4
2518.1
2523.7
2529.3
2534.6
2539.9
2545.0
2550.0
2554.9
2559.5
2564.1
2568.4
2572.5
2576.5
2580.2
2583.7
2587.0
2590.0
2592.8

188.45
209.33
230.23
251.13
272.06
292.98
313.93
334.91
355.90
376.92
397.96
419.04
440.15
461.30
482.48
503.71
524.99
546.31
567.69
589.13
610.63
632.20
653.84
675.55
697.34
719.21
741.17
763.22
785.37
807.62
829.98

2583.2
2592.1
2600.9
2609.6
2618.3
2626.8
2643.7
2635.3
2651.9
2660.1
2668.1
2676.1
2683.8
2691.5
2699.0
2706.3
2713.5
2720.5
2727.3
2733.9
2740.3
2746.5
2752.4
2758.1
2763.5
2768.7
2773.6
2778.2
2782.4
2786.4
2790.0

0.6387
0.7038
0.7679
0.8312
0.8935
0.9549
1.0155
1.0753
1.1343
1.1925
1.2500
1.3069
1.3630
1.4185
1.4734
1.5276
1.5813
1.6344
1.6870
1.7391
1.7907
1.8418
1.8925
1.9427
1.9925
2.0419
2.0909
2.1396
2.1879
2.2359
2.2835

850.65 2595.3 852.45 2793.2 2.3309

Figure 1 : Temperature table for saturated water

18

8.1648
8.0763
7.9913
7.9096
7.8310
7.7553
7.6824
7.6122
7.5445
7.4791
7.4159
7.3549
7.2958
7.2387
7.1833
7.1296
7.0775
7.0269
6.9777
6.9299
6.8833
6.8379
6.7935
6.7502
6.7078
6.6663
6.6256
6.5857
6.5465
6.5079
6.4698
6.4323

19

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