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# Group

Chapter 2

## Binary operation in set

Let G be a set, a binary operation

is a mapping G G
G,

## which means that for any two elements x, y G we can find z G

such that z = x y according to this mapping.
Note: the operation result element z must be in G (closure property)
Example 1. Let Z be the set of all integers. We define the binary
operation to be regular addition +.
If we pick x = 2 and y =3, Then x y = x + y = 2 + 3 = 5
Example 2. Let Z be the set of all integers. We define the binary
operation to be regular multiplication *.
If we pick x = 2 and y =3, Then x y = x * y = 2*3 = 6

Examples
Example 3. Let M 2 be the set of all 2 2 matrices in real numbers.
Define the operation

1 2

3 4

1 2

1 2
3 4

1 2

4 9
2 6

## Example 4. Let M 2 be the set of all 2 2 matrices in real numbers.

Define the operation

## to be the matrix multiplication *. Then

1 2

3 4

1 2

=
=

1 2
3 4
3 2

1 2

7+4

9 4 21 + 8

1 11
5 29
3

Definition of Group
Let G be an non-empty set defined a binary operation . If
1) a, b, c G,

(a b) c = a (b c)

(associative)
2) There exists element e such that a G
such e is called the identity element of G

e a = a and a e = a.

## (existence of identity element)

3) a G , there exists element b such that b a = e and a b = e.
such b is called the inverse element of a denoted as a 1
(existence of inverse element)
Then we say that (G, ) is a group. If there is no confusion about
the operation, we simply say that G is a group. Also we can omit
notation to write a b as ab if without confusion
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## 1. In the above example, ( Z, + )is a group whose identity

element is zero and the inverse element of integer n is the
opposite integer n
2. ( Z, * ) is not a group. Although it has identity element,
which is 1. But some elements like 0, 3 have no inverse in Z
( You may think that 31 is the inverse of 3, however, 31 Z)
3. ( M 2 +) is a group. Identity element is
a b
c d

If

0 0
0 0

a b
c d

e=

1 0
. This
0 1

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## The determinant of matrix M =

is value det( M ) = ad bc

## If det( M ) 0 then M has inverse

M 1 =

a b
c d

Fro example, M =
So

M 1 =

Checking:

1 2
3 4

1 2
3 4
1

d b
1
det( M ) c a

then det( M ) = 1 4 2 3 = 2 0
2
1
1 4 2
=
2 3 1
1.5 0.5

1 2
2
1
2+3 11
1 0
*
=
=
3 4
1.5 0.5
66 32
0 1

## Note. If det( M ) = 0, then we say matrix M is singular. Otherwiswe

we say M is none-singular.
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Examples
Example 5: Let be the set of all 22 non-singular matrices in real
numbers. Define the operation to be the matrix multiplication *.
Then (G, * ) is a group.
Example 6: Let R+ be the set of all positive real numbers,
then (R+, * ) is a group, with identity =1.
Example7: Let R+ be the set of all positive real numbers, then
(R+, + ) is a not group because it has no identity element.
(for real number and addition operator, the identity element is zero,
but 0 R+ )
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Examples continued
Example 8: Let G = {1} then (G, *) is a group, here 1 is identity
element and its inverse is 1 too.
Note: In a group, it is always true that e1=e
Example 9: Let G = {1, 1} , then (G, *) is a group, here the
inverse of 1 is 1 too.
Example 10: Let G = {1, 1, i, i} , then (G, *) is a group, here
the inverse of i is i .

here

1
3
+
i and
2
2

1
3

i
2
2

1
3
+
i,
2
2

1
3

i
2
2

## Some properties of Group

Property 1: Let G be a group, then G has unique identity element
Proof: If G has two identity elements e1 and e2 then
e1 =e1e2 =e2
Property 2: Let G be a group, then every element of G has only
one inverse element
Proof: If a G has two inverse element b1 and b2 then
ab1 = b1a =e and ab2 = b2a =e
So
b1 = b1e= b1(a b2) = (b1a)b2 = eb2 = b2
Property 3: Let G be a group, then a, b, c G,
a1ab = a1ac
b=c
ab = ac
1
1
and
ba = ca
baa = caa
b=c
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## Group may not be commutative

Definition: Let G be a group, if a, bG,
ab = ba
We say that G is a commutative group.
However, not all groups are commutative. For example, matrix
multiplication operation is not commutative.
1 2

3 4

1 2

7 1 2

1 2 3 4

=
=

3 2

7+4

9 4 21 + 8
3 + 21 6 + 28
1 + 6 2 + 8

=
=

1 11
5 29
24 34
5

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