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Burlington Practice Tests

for Michigan Proficiency, Book 2


Practice Test 1 Model Compositions
1. Many people resort to plastic surgery in an attempt to remain young looking. Why do they go to such lengths?
Do you think anything can be gained from having this kind of surgery? Discuss, giving specific examples to
support your point of view.
Plastic surgery is a multibillion-dollar industry. Nowadays it is not just celebrities who turn to plastic surgeons when the
first signs of age start to show, but people from all walks of life. The main reason for this is that society is very youthoriented. But while plastic surgery can improve looks, it carries certain risks as well.
Societys increasing interest in plastic surgery, and its obsession with youth, can be attributed in part to advertising.
Advertisements tend to feature young people with perfect faces and bodies. These often make the average man or woman
feel overweight and inadequate. Furthermore, our society favors individuals who look young. Some people even feel
they wont be able to succeed professionally unless they look youthful and they resort to plastic surgery for this reason.
Personal insecurities may also underlie an individuals decision to have surgery. If someone feels, for example, that other
people are making fun of a physical feature, for example a crooked nose, they may be more than willing to undergo
surgery to have it changed.
Is plastic surgery worth the expense and the risk? It is often claimed that when a person has plastic surgery, they will
feel more attractive and self-confident. However, satisfaction with the results is often short-lived, especially where
psychological, rather than physical, problems underlie an individuals unhappiness with his / her looks. In addition,
we cannot ignore the fact that any form of surgery is potentially dangerous. Aside from risks to health, there is also
the possibility that a procedure may not be successful and may cause permanent physical damage. Surely outward
appearance is not worth sacrificing ones health.
To sum up, the growing popularity of plastic surgery reflects societys obsession with youth. While certain procedures
might boost an individuals self-confidence, surgery cannot offer a solution to all our problems. However, if society
continues to put so much emphasis on appearance, a visit to the plastic surgeon may one day be as commonplace as a
hair appointment.

2. What is the most significant difference between people of your generation and your parents generation?
Discuss with specific reference to people in your country.
Each generation differs in certain respects from the preceding one. While there are many differences between my
generation and that of my parents, I believe the most significant is the stress that people my age feel. This is mostly a
result of our heavy workload at school, as well as the pressure we are under to get a place at university.
Young people in my country lead incredibly busy lives. In addition to attending school, they may also be encouraged
by their parents to learn at least two foreign languages, obtain a computer certificate, and have music lessons. These
activities are considered necessary preparation for the future. University entrance examinations are another significant
cause of stress for those in their final year of high school, and there have even been suicide attempts by young people
unable to cope with the pressure. Our generation also knows that even a university degree is no guarantee of future
employment. It can be very difficult to find a job, and young people in their twenties are often forced to work for very
low salaries.
Our parents, in comparison, had a relatively relaxed upbringing. They werent forced to attend so many extra lessons, and
they had adequate leisure time. Most importantly, in my opinion, they didnt believe that university was the only route to
a bright future. Those who werent outstanding students found jobs instead of going on to higher education. Being under
much less pressure to perform well academically, young people of the previous generation could make the most of their
teenage years. They spent more time simply having fun with friends and less time worrying about schoolwork, exams,
and future careers.
In conclusion, the major difference between being an adolescent today and being an adolescent during my parents
time is the busy schedule young people have now. Not only does it deprive us of any real free time, but it also causes
considerable anxiety. Perhaps when we grow up and have children of our own, we will help them find more balance in
their lives.

Burlington Practice Tests


for Michigan Proficiency, Book 2
Practice Test 2 Model Compositions
1. Organically grown food is becoming more popular in many countries. What are some of the reasons that consumers
prefer organic food? How popular is such food in your country? Give specific examples to support your opinion.
Food grown in a natural way without the use of harmful artificial substances is gaining in popularity in many parts of the
world, including my country. There are several reasons for this trend, with environmental and health concerns topping the
list.
One of the main reasons consumers are turning to organic produce is concern about chemicals, such as pesticides, that
conventional farmers spray on crops. Many of these chemicals are known to be carcinogenic, so not surprisingly people
are looking for a healthier alternative. If they buy certified organic produce, they can be sure that no chemical pesticides
have been used on the crops and also that artificial fertilizers were not used on the soil to ensure a higher yield. Another
reason why many consumers favor organic produce is that chemical substances used by farmers take a toll on the
environment, polluting both the soil and water.
Many consumers also prefer organic produce because of the flavor. A common complaint heard in this country is that
fruit and vegetables grown conventionally have little taste. A growing number of consumers in Greece buy organic
tomatoes for their salads, for example, as they know they will taste like a tomato should. Many consumers are reacting
against the perfect-looking produce that is now available and want to buy produce with a natural shape, color and taste.
As a consequence, more and more shops and street markets selling organic produce are springing up in neighborhoods all
around Greece. It is also available in most supermarkets. However, many people dont buy organic food because of the
high cost. For them, organic produce is a luxury they cannot afford.
In conclusion, it is clear that organic produce is growing in popularity as it is healthier, tastier, and more environmentally
friendly. This changing attitude to food is evident in my country just as it is in many other parts of the world. Hopefully,
as demand grows, prices will fall, making organic produce affordable for all sections of society.

2. It is common practice nowadays for preschool-age children to be introduced to computers. In what ways could this
be beneficial and in what ways harmful? Discuss, giving specific examples to support your point of view.
It has become fashionable in many parts of the world for parents to begin teaching their children to use a computer even
before they go to school. While there are several advantages to an early introduction to technology, it could also pose a
variety of dangers to childrens health and development.
Our society today relies on computer technology more than ever, so there are obvious benefits to teaching young children
to operate a computer. Firstly, children who are introduced to computers at preschool age will become accustomed to
using a mouse and will be familiar with basic programs by the time they go to school. Also, many experts claim that
a young childs cognitive development and coordination can be improved by using a computer. A variety of software
packages teaching literacy and numeracy in game form are available for young children. Therefore, preschool children
who spend time playing computer games may, in some respects, be at an advantage when they actually start school. They
may also find it easier to cope with more advanced technology as they become older.
However, there may be some disadvantages to young children using computers. For example, if a toddler spends too
much time playing computer games, he may lose out on opportunities for the social interaction required to develop a
well-rounded personality. There are health issues to take into consideration as well. For instance, looking at a screen
for a prolonged period of time could damage a young childs eyesight. In addition, long hours spent sitting in front of
a computer may mean a child has less physical activity. This could lead to obesity and related health problems.
In conclusion, the acquisition of computer skills at a young age can be seen as useful in many respects. However,
introducing preschool-age children to computers could carry some risks. What is important, as with so many aspects of
life, is that a balance be found.

Burlington Practice Tests


for Michigan Proficiency, Book 2
Practice Test 3 Model Compositions
1. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is commonly used to keep shopping malls and other public places under constant
surveillance. Does this infringe on our privacy? Or is the practice necessary in order to prevent crime? Discuss,
giving specific examples to support your point of view.
In an ongoing attempt to fight crime, governments in many parts of the world have installed closed-circuit television
cameras to monitor downtown areas and places such as train stations. Critics contend that such constant surveillance is a
violation of our privacy, while proponents believe the cameras make our world a safer place.
One of the main objections to CCTV is that it constitutes an invasion of privacy. But while there seem to be surveillance
cameras everywhere, especially in large cities, they are only located in public places and there are usually signs posted
informing people of their presence. These cameras do not infringe on peoples private lives, nor are they hidden. Critics
argue that the cameras do not deter crime, but only record it on film. They claim that crime rates have not been reduced in
areas where cameras have been installed.
Supporters of CCTV argue that it is a useful tool, as it helps the police catch criminals. When a crime is recorded on film,
police are able to analyze it and identify the perpetrators more quickly. When the film is submitted in court as evidence,
the criminals can be prosecuted more easily. Furthermore, CCTV is often used effectively for the enforcement of traffic
violations because cameras are able to read license plate numbers of cars that are speeding or involved in other traffic
offenses. In this way, the offenders can be identified and fined quickly and easily.
In conclusion, in my opinion, CCTV offers more benefits than drawbacks. If this system helps the police prosecute
offenders, then we should all be in favor of it. In the long term, I believe crime will be reduced as it becomes clear that
these cameras mean certain prosecution for law-breakers. For me, this consideration is more important than the right to
privacy in public places.

2. A large new sports stadium complex is being planned near where you live. Would you be in favor of such a
development? What benefits and drawbacks might such a development have? Explain your point of view,
giving specific examples.
Most regions in my country, including the area where I live, are in need of development. A new sports stadium complex
near my town would definitely offer significant benefits, such as employment opportunities, and for this reason would
gain my support. However, such a development would also bring with it disadvantages, for example, increased traffic.
On the positive side, a large sports complex would create jobs that would reduce local unemployment. Numerous people
would be involved in every aspect of planning and building the complex. Once the facility was in use, it would need
administrative staff, maintenance workers, and a variety of other employees. Furthermore, the area surrounding such
a complex would undergo development. For instance, people visiting the stadium for sporting events would use local
facilities and visit local businesses such as cafeterias or restaurants. The local public transport system would also be
improved to cope with the increase in visitors. It is clear, therefore, that there would be several important advantages to
the building of such a stadium.
On the other hand, such a development could have less welcome consequences as well. For example, to make room for
the stadium, green areas would probably be replaced with concrete and cement. Access roads would have to be built,
causing further environmental damage. In addition, there would be increased traffic in the area, which would cause
pollution. Also, as we have seen time and time again, football hooligans often wreak havoc in neighborhoods around
stadiums. Sometimes if their team loses a match, they have been known to take out their frustration on private property
such as parked cars. This possibility is a serious worry for local residents.
In conclusion, the development of a large sports stadium complex would definitely bring benefits, but a number of serious
problems could also be caused. However, if the project were carefully planned, the building of such a stadium would be a
welcome addition.

Burlington Practice Tests


for Michigan Proficiency, Book 2
Practice Test 4 Model Compositions
1. In some countries residents are required to participate in recycling programs and may be fined if they do not
comply. In others, recycling is up to the individual. Do you think recycling household waste should be compulsory?
Do there need to be laws to make people adopt environmentally friendly behavior? Give your opinion, using specific
reasons and examples.
Recycling is common in many European countries. While in some places recycling is enforced by law, in others
individuals are free to dispose of their recyclable waste along with the rest of their household rubbish. As recycling
alleviates a host of environmental problems, it should definitely be mandatory.
The overriding reason why recycling must be made compulsory everywhere is that our lifestyle is taking its toll on the
planet. By recycling paper, glass and other materials, we are preventing natural resources from being used up, and we
also make a significant contribution to keeping the planet clean. But recycling can be time-consuming and inconvenient.
It would be easier to dispose of plastic containers, bottles and batteries by throwing them in the garbage along with
leftover food and other non-recyclable items; however, recycling requires us to separate our trash. Because it is
inconvenient, people often dont go to the trouble, so appropriate laws need to be passed to force people to do so.
If people get used to recycling, even if it is because of the threat of a punishment, they might be encouraged to adopt
other environmentally friendly practices. If people are fined for wasting water or electricity, they will be more careful.
Laws are societys way of making sure we all behave responsibly, so our laws should force us to act responsibly towards
the environment.
I believe many countries, including my own, would benefit if citizens were required to recycle and to adopt other
environmentally friendly behaviors. If people cannot take care of our planet because it is the right thing to do, they should
be forced to do so. We owe it to future generations.

2. The number of overweight children is a cause of concern to many health experts. What are some of the reasons for
this phenomenon? How can the problem of child obesity be tackled? Discuss, giving specific examples to explain
your point of view.
More and more children in developed countries are becoming overweight. Health experts take childhood obesity
seriously because it can lead to diabetes and high blood pressure, and may even result in premature death. There are a
number of reasons why childrens weight is ballooning, but there are numerous ways to remedy the situation.
Health officials agree that lifestyle is the main factor in childrens weight problems. The fast pace of modern life usually
means that both parents work, so instead of a home-cooked meal made with wholesome ingredients, many children eat
a lot of fast food. These meals have limited nutritional value, lots of salt and too much sugar. Furthermore, portion sizes
in fast-food restaurants have grown and the average child consumes more calories than he or she actually needs. Another
factor leading to obesity is lack of physical activity. Todays children play indoors more than in previous generations so
they do not burn off extra calories. As a result, they are gaining weight.
One way to combat this situation is through education. Parents need advice to help their families adopt healthy eating
habits. Daily physical exercise is important too. Schools should encourage young people to exercise and should provide
facilities that are accessible after school as well. Healthy eating and a healthy lifestyle should also be promoted in special
programs in schools.
In conclusion, experts are right to be concerned because overweight children are likely to grow up to be overweight
adults with serious health problems. A campaign to improve eating habits and make exercise a part of young peoples
lives may reverse this worrying trend.

Burlington Practice Tests


for Michigan Proficiency, Book 2
Practice Test 5 Model Compositions
1. Many people believe it is the duty of richer countries to solve the problem of hunger in poorer countries. Do you
agree? What should be done to tackle the problem of famine? Give examples to support your point of view.
Hunger affects millions of people all over the world. While some people believe hunger is a problem that each country
must solve for itself, others maintain that richer countries have a duty to help poorer countries. In my opinion, the
problem of hunger concerns us all; therefore, the worlds governments must cooperate to find solutions.
Without a doubt, richer countries have an obligation to assist developing countries, where a large portion of the
population has insufficient food. It is wrong to stand by and watch as other human beings suffer, especially when the
means exist to relieve this suffering. Victims of famine invariably include helpless children, so surely we should help in
any way possible. We should not forget that people are not responsible for what is happening to them. Famine is often
caused by natural disasters or drought, but war and political upheaval can also lead to poverty and hunger. Those of us
who are fortunate enough to live in peace and prosperity must help those who are not.
There are various ways in which hunger can be alleviated. For instance, relief can be sent in the form of food supplies.
But while this solution may be feasible as a short-term measure, it addresses the symptoms rather than the causes of the
problem. Instead, we need to develop long-term solutions. Many experts believe that farmers must be taught modern
cultivation and irrigation methods, as well as be provided with the necessary farming equipment. This would help people
become self-sufficient. Perhaps the most important part of any attempt to make changes is to educate young people in
developing countries. In this way, improvements implemented would have a better chance of taking hold.
In conclusion, famine is a problem that those in power around the world must work together to solve. Education and
training in modern farming methods, I believe, would go a long way in fighting hunger and would be more effective in
the long term than simply sending food.

2. Technology has greatly changed our idea of recreation. Give examples from your own experience of the way in
which technological advancements have had an impact on peoples free time activities.
Technology has had an impact on nearly every area of our lives, from work to education and even to recreation. Leisure
activities have been changed dramatically by technological developments. There is a wider range of activities to choose
from and there has been a shift in venue, with home-based activities becoming more popular.
The Internet has probably brought about the greatest change in the way we spend our free time. By going online we can
download music, chat with people around the globe, and, of course, play countless games. Before access to the Internet
became so widespread, teenagers would spend their free time socializing with their peers. Nowadays, even when they go
out, it is often to a local Internet caf or to each others homes to work together on the computer.
Technology has also changed peoples television viewing habits. Thanks to satellite TV, we now have a much
wider choice of programs. It is possible, for example, to watch sporting events from all around the globe as well as
documentaries and recently released movies. Some people, faced with this increase in choice, spend more time every day
watching TV at the expense of their other interests. Adults may be less likely to meet friends for coffee or join a club,
and choose instead to stay at home. This means people are becoming less social and more isolated from their friends and
neighbors.
In general, because of technological advances, people are opting to spend more of their free time indoors. They are less
likely to go for a walk, participate in sports or see friends. As technology continues to develop, it is likely that other
changes will be observed in the kind of recreational activities we choose.

Burlington Practice Tests


for Michigan Proficiency, Book 2
Practice Test 6 Model Compositions
1. Computer technology has made it possible for people to purchase a whole range of products online, from essential
commodities such as food and clothing to luxury goods such as jewelry and airline tickets. How do these services
compare with conventional retailing in stores? Do you consider this a positive development? Discuss, giving specific
examples to support your opinion.
Computer technology has changed our lives in numerous ways. One such change is that we can now purchase a variety of
consumer goods and services via the Internet. Internet shopping is a completely different experience from shopping at a
conventional store and has both advantages and disadvantages for the consumer.
A fundamental difference between the two forms of shopping is that when we buy online, it is from the comfort of our
home. There is no fighting the crowds or driving from shop to shop to find merchandise. Instead, the online shopper can
browse pages of goods from retail outlets all around the globe in order to select the item wanted, which means that they
have a great deal more choice than other shoppers. An added advantage is that online shops are open 24 hours a day.
Furthermore, prices are often better online, as companies have lower overheads and can offer products at a cheaper price.
Internet shopping is not the perfect way to shop, however. When shopping online, there is not always the opportunity for
interaction with a salesperson, which means there is no one to answer questions. In addition, the shopper is not able to
see items close up. Looking at an item in a shop and viewing it on a webpage are quite different experiences, and it is not
always possible to get a realistic idea of how a product looks or feels from a photograph on a screen. In addition, some
people are reluctant to shop online because payment has to be made by credit card and there is a risk that your credit card
details can be stolen. Most online stores advertise secure sites, but many people still prefer to pay in person.
In conclusion, I believe the Internet marketplace is a positive development. Not only can consumers shop from the
comfort of their own home, but they can do so quickly and conveniently. As technology advances, the disadvantages and
risks will probably disappear and it seems likely that more and more of our purchases will be made online.

2. Reality TV shows are quite popular nowadays. Explain the appeal such shows hold for their audience. Why are
some people attracted to the idea of participating in this type of show? Make specific reference to programs you
are familiar with.
Reality TV shows have been broadcast in one form or another for a long time. There is no sign their popularity is
declining, and television producers are constantly coming up with new formats. There are several reasons for the wide
appeal of these shows and the huge number of applicants for each one.
There are different types of reality shows and each attracts large audiences. In general, viewers feel they can identify
with the participants everyday people dealing with unusual situations. In Big Brother, for instance, a group of strangers
are thrown together as housemates. Part of the appeal of this show is watching the relationships develop between the
participants as well as the inevitable arguments. Shows like Survivor, in which contestants are abandoned on a desert
island, take place in a challenging setting. Audiences enjoy the suspense of waiting to see which participant will be voted
off the show each week and who, eventually, will be the winner.
People are interested in participating in reality shows for several reasons. Many are motivated by the prize usually a
large amount of money. Others are attracted by the idea of being in the limelight for a brief period of time. Some see the
show as a stepping stone to a career in TV or as a singer, and its true that several well-known entertainers got their first
big break on a reality show. Some talent shows offer participants more than just the chance to win a large sum of money;
there may be a record contract or a scholarship for the lucky winner.
To sum up, reality shows might have different formats, but they all draw viewers by showing real people in extraordinary
situations. With societys ever-increasing fascination with the lives of celebrities, it is hardly surprising that the
applications flood in for these shows. The chance to be in the public eye is too much for some people to resist.

Burlington Practice Tests


for Michigan Proficiency, Book 2
Practice Test 7 Model Compositions
1. Would you rather work long hours in order to succeed in a well-paid career or would you prefer a less demanding
job that offered a lower salary but would give you more free time?
There are many ways of making a living. When it comes to their professional lives, some people aim for a challenging,
highly paid position, while others are satisfied with a less demanding and less well-paid job. In my opinion, there are
many things in life that are more enjoyable than work, so a job that did not make too many demands on my time would
be preferable.
For some people, professional success is a priority. Those who hold top positions in companies often have to put in a
10- or 12-hour day. They are rewarded for their hard work with a high salary and other perks. This means a higher
standard of living for themselves and their families. However, high-level positions bring a lot of responsibilities. There
are important decisions to be made daily and various crises to deal with. All of this can be very stressful and ultimately
could cause health problems. I personally feel that this might be too high a price to pay for a top job.
On the other hand, individuals who have a less demanding means of earning a living experience far less stress and
anxiety. At the end of the day, they can go home and enjoy an evening with friends or family, or simply relax on their
own. A lower salary may mean a smaller house and fewer holidays abroad, but for me simply having more time to myself
would be adequate compensation. However, job satisfaction is important, so I would not want a job that was too easy.
The working day must seem very long when tasks are repetitive and completely unchallenging.
In conclusion, I would prefer a fulfilling job which did not make too many demands on my time or health. While a high
salary makes life easier in many respects, there is nothing more valuable than time spent with family and friends.

2. To what extent are young people influenced by the behavior of celebrities like famous actors and athletes? Discuss,
using specific examples.
Celebrities like film stars, singers and football players exert considerable influence over teenagers, affecting their
behavior, fashion decisions and lifestyle choices. While many celebrities do not make good role models, there are others
who have a positive impact on the lives of their admirers.
Young people who look up to celebrities often want to imitate their clothes, hairstyles and general look. This, of course,
is harmless enough; adolescents often feel insecure about their own fashion sense and it can be helpful for them to have
someone to copy. However, many actresses and models are unhealthily thin. If their young fans really want to resemble
them, they might cut down on their calorie intake to a dangerous extent. Anorexia is a serious problem among many
teenage girls today. In addition to copying the unhealthy eating habits of their favorite stars, young people sometimes
copy their behavior. Celebrities are often shown in the media smoking and drinking. As a result, teenagers may be
tempted to try alcohol and cigarettes, or be less likely to believe adults warnings about them.
There are many celebrities who promote a healthy lifestyle and send constructive messages to young people, however.
For example, teenagers who look up to particular athletes are more likely to exercise and eat healthily. The success of
Olympic athletes in recent years has encouraged more young people to take part in sports. Film stars and singers can
exert a positive influence over young minds as well. They can encourage young people to develop their creative talents
and work hard to achieve their dreams. Some work for charity or speak out in public about important issues such as peace
or the fight against racism. Young people are more likely to pay attention to these issues when a famous actor like George
Clooney or Angelina Jolie is speaking.
In conclusion, the behavior of famous people can have a strong influence on teenagers. While parents and teachers should
try to teach young people to think independently, we should remember that admiring a famous person is not necessarily a
bad thing.

Burlington Practice Tests


for Michigan Proficiency, Book 2
Practice Test 8 Model Compositions
1. In some countries it is common practice for students to take a year off between graduating from high school
and starting college. This gap year is often spent traveling. Is taking a gap year a good way to use the time
before college? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of putting off college, giving specific examples.
Many students choose to take time off to travel or work before starting university. Some people believe that a gap year
gives young people an opportunity to mature and experience life before heading off to college. However, it is also true
that a year off could cause certain problems.
A gap year offers several advantages to young people. Firstly, 18-year-olds are often immature, and a year spent traveling
gives them a chance to grow up before going on to college. When they do begin their studies, they have the maturity
needed to cope with the new challenge college presents. Secondly, during a year off, young people have the opportunity
to get some practical experience in the world. Some gap year students participate in overseas volunteer programs. These
may involve working with underprivileged children or helping with environmental projects. They offer an opportunity for
young people to gain a new perspective on life as well as come into contact with different cultures.
On the other hand, there are disadvantages to taking a gap year. First of all, during their year off students might get out
of the habit of studying and could find it difficult when they start university. Some may even find on their return that they
are no longer interested in getting a degree. Some careers, such as medicine or architecture, require many years of study,
and it may not be a good idea to delay going to school. In addition, traveling or working in a foreign country can present
certain practical difficulties. If a gap year is not carefully planned, it is possible that some 18-year-olds might not be able
to cope with finding accommodations, managing their money or getting medical attention if needed.
To sum up, a gap year can broaden a young persons experience, and it is only before you start college that you have the
freedom to do something like this. However, it may not suit everyone, and the potential problems should be kept in mind
when considering a gap year.

2. Some people say that being a parent is the most important job anyone can have. What skills do you think parents
need? Should these skills be taught in parenting classes? Discuss. Use examples to support your point of view.
Being a parent is without doubt the most important job anyone can have. Parents need a variety of skills to do the job
well, including the ability to communicate with their children and to discipline them when necessary. While these skills
can be developed through experience, parenting classes may also prove helpful.
One of the most important skills any mother or father needs is the ability to listen. By really listening, parents show that
they are interested in their childrens needs and respect their opinions. This can prevent some behavioral problems and
make it easier for parents to communicate with their children as they grow up. Communication is vital when parents
need to discipline their children. Children need to learn limits, and the ability to explain clearly and in simple terms why
certain behaviors are unacceptable will make raising a child much easier.
Being a parent is a difficult job so it is hardly surprising that parenting classes are popular. They help parents understand
how to deal with their children and can provide much-needed support to new parents. However, parents can also learn a
great deal from discussions with their own parents or with friends. Parents need to develop their own particular ways of
relating to their children. Parenting classes can point people in the right direction but cannot provide easy answers for
every problem because each family is unique.
In conclusion, parents need to learn skills, including the ability to listen, communicate and discipline. While parenting
classes can help parents develop these skills, not everything can be learned in a classroom. Many mothers and fathers
manage to raise well-adjusted, happy children without the help of parenting classes.