Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

ABSTRACT

This experiment involving a perfect gas or ideal gas has seven experiment. An
equipment has been used which called Perfect gas expansion apparatus in order to
determine the properties of measurement and study the relationship between ideal gas and
various factor that can propose an understanding of First and second law of
thermodynamics. The objectives of this experiment successfully achieved. Boyles and
Gay-Lussacs law was proven in this experiment when the ideal gas obey the law. The
volume ratio and heat capacity were also determined. . In first experiment, we are
investigating about boyles law.

We will compare the results with boyles law. The

experiment is run from pressurize chamber to atmospheric atmospheric to vacuum,


pressurized to vacuum chamber. Then take the pressure reading. For second experiment,
we are investigating about the relationship between pressure and ideal gas. For every
increment of 10 kPa from atmospheric pressure, and every decrement of 10kPa, the
temperature reading is taken and the graph is plotted. For experiment 3, we set the
temperature to 160kPa then slightly open the valve for 3 seconds, then take the pressure
and temperature reading. This is to determine the ratio of heat capacity. For last
experiment, we are investigating about isentropic expansion process, by releasing the gas
inside chamber bit by bit for 3 seconds. The pressure and temperature reading is taken.
The experiment was successful.

INTRODUCTION

The Perfect Gas Expansion Apparatus from model TH11 is a sufficient bench top unit
designed in order to expose the student and familiar with the fundamental thermodynamic
processes.
This experiment likely safe and more convenient to demonstrate thermodynamic
properties. The apparatus have two vessel, one is for pressurized chamber and the other
one is for vacuum chamber. This apparatus also equip with pressurized pump and vacuum
pump and several valve which can connect between chambers and also to the surrounding.
The chamber is made from glass that can withstand maximum pressure of apparatus can
operate.
The apparatus also equipped with temperature and pressure sensors for both tanks
which can be read on the board. These sensors used to monitor and manipulate the
pressure and temperature. The board displays the temperature and pressure in a digital
indicator that dealt with the PVT laws.
Gas particles in the chamber collide with each other and the walls which transfer
momentum in each collision. The gas pressure is equal to the momentum delivered to the
wall per unit time. A single particles moves arbitrarily along some direction until it strikes
back and forth with wall and change direction and speeds. Equations are derived directly
from the law of conservation of linear motion of conservation of energy.
An ideal gas exhibits certain theoretical properties. Specifically, an ideal gas
Obeys all of the gas laws under all conditions.
Does not condense into a liquid when cooled.
Shows perfectly straight lines when its V and T & P and T relationships are plotted on a
graph.

The ideal gas law :


PV = nRT
P = Pressure (in kPa)
V = Volume (in L)
T = Temperature (in K)
n = moles
Isentropic (reversible adiabatic) processes are often desired and are often the
processes on which device efficiencies are based. An isentropic process is an idealization
of an actual process, and serves as a limiting case for an actual process.
In this experiment, we are going to demonstrate boyles law , isentropic process, and
determination of heat capacity.

OBJECTIVES

i.

EXPERIMENT 1
The objectives of this experiment is to determine the relationship between pressure and
volume of an ideal gas and to compare the experimental results with theoretical results.

ii.

EXPERIMENT 2
The objectives of this experiment is to determine the relationship between pressure and
the temperature of an ideal gas.

iii.

EXPERIMENT 3
The experiment is to demonstrate the isentropic expansion process.

iv.

EXPERIMENT 4
The experiment is to study the response of the pressurized vessel following stepwise
depressurization.

v.

EXPERIMENT 5
The objectives of this experiment is to study the response of the pressurized vessel
following a brief depressurization.

vi.

EXPERIMENT 6
The experiment is to determine the ratio of volume and compares it to the theoretical
value.

vii.

EXPERIMENT 7
This experiment is to determine the ratio heat capacity.

THEORY
Perfect Gas
Theories of perfect gas can be divided into three which is Charless law, Boyles law
and Gay-Lussacs law. Perfect gas is same with ideal gas where there is none attractive
forces exist in the ideal gas. Since perfect gas is an ideal gas, they collide between atoms
or molecules elastically with no intermolecular attractive forces. Some assumption has
been respect to kinetic theory of ideal gas which is the gasses are made up of molecules
that always move in a constant straight line. An equation had been introduced in 1662
where it has been named as ideal gas equation of state:
T
V
)
P=R
The subscript R refer to gas constant where different gas would have different value of R.
Any gas that obeys this law is called an ideal gas. The equation also can be written as:
PV =mRT
The properties of ideal gas at two different state is related to each other as long as they
has one constant property throughout the experiment where:

Boyles Law
The behavior real gas using parameter of pressure, temperature and volume is
considered at low density. Ideal gas also obeys the law of Boyles, Charless and GayLussacs. Boyles lawdescribe the relationship between the pressure and the volume of a
gas. This law works when the pressure increase inversely with the volume of gas where
the temperature held constant along the process. The gas inside a system loosely packed
and move randomly. If the volume is reduce, then the pressure become high as the
molecules having less space to move, to hit the wall of container more frequently.

Figure 1: Graph of Boyle's Law

Charless Law
Second law is Charless Law which involves with the effect of heat on the expansion of
gases. The pressure will remain constant throughout the process and the volume of gas
will go directly proportional to the absolute temperature. The moving molecules increase
their speed and hit the wall more frequently as the temperature getting higher because
the temperature transfer the heat of energy into the molecule. Thus, as the speed
increase and the frequency of collision increase, the volume of the container also
increase. Therefore the equation of Charless law simply show below where the k is a
constant. The temperature must be calculated in Kelvin unit. If the constant value of k is
not known then, the equation is derived as follow:

The relationship of volume and temperature of Charless law describe in a graph as follow

:
Figure 2: The graph of Charles's Law

Gay-Lussacs Law
The third law involving ideal gas is Gay-Lussacs law where the volume of the system
become constant throughout the process. This law stated that the pressure and
temperature are in direct relation. That means as the pressure increase, the
temperature also increase. Temperature is a parameter for kinetic energy, as the
temperature increase, the kinetic energy also increase, therefore the frequency of
collision also increase which causing the pressure to be increase with the constant
volume. The equation below can prove the relationship between pressure and
temperature
in
a
particular
system
with
constant
volume.

Graph below show the relationship of temperature and pressure in the Gay-Lussacs
law with constant volume. The conclusion is that the pressure directly proportional to the
temperature.

Figure 3: Graph of Gay-Lussac's Law

First law of thermodynamics


Based on first law of thermodynamics statement, energy can be neither created nor
destroyed but it can only change in the form of energy. For example the change of
energy of lamp, from electric energy convert to light and heat energy. Therefore, the
conservation of energy principle introduced as the net change in the total energy of the
system equivalent to the difference in the total energy enter the system and total energy
leaving the system.

That equation also referred as energy balance equation that applicable to any kind
system any kind of process. Since the energy has numerous form such as internal,
kinetic, potential, electrical and magnetic and their sum constitutes the total energy of
the system. Simple compressible system has the following equation which the change
in the total energy of a system is the sum of the changes in its internal, kinetic, potential
energy can be expressed as:

Where internal energy, U

Where kinetic energy, KE

Where the potential energy, PE

Energy can be transfer in or out of a system in three forms such as heat, work and mass
flow. As there is one of any three form cross the boundary of an open system, it can be
concluded as energy gained or lost during a process. In a closed system, there is only
two form can pass through the boundary which can change the energy which are heat
and work. Temperature difference in a system with its surrounding is not an energy
interaction. Work interactions refer as rising piston and rotating shaft. Commonly sense
when the work transfer into the system, the energy of the system increase and vice
versa. As mass transfer in the system, energy also increase as the mass carries energy
with it and vice versa. Equation below represent the concluded energy balance.

Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by


one degree is a definition of specific heat. There are two specific heat use widely which
is specific heat at constant volume and specific heat at constant pressure. Cp value
larger than Cv as at constant pressure system is allowed to expand and the energy
must supplied to system. Specific heat capacity at constant pressure is the energy
required to raisethe temperature of the unit mass of a substance by one degree as the
pressure remain constant. It can be concluded that Cv is related to internal energy and
Cp involved enthalpy value.

Internal energy is a function of temperature only. As the temperature high, then


enthalpy value also big. Then the enthalpy value is represent with subscript h:

Where it can combine to become:

Cp and Cv has special relationships for ideal gas by differentiating the h = u + RT to


produce dh = du + RT and by replacing dh by CpdT and du by CvdT, the equation come
out with:

Specific heat capacity also has the constant k by the relation of:

Ratio of volumes using isothermal process can be determine using isothermal process.
One pressurized vessel is allowed to leak slowly into another vessel of different size.
Finally, the pressure will be same for both vessel. Final pressure in vessel can be
calculated by:

Both vessel was placed in room temperature before valve is opened lead the isothermal
process and the initial temperature will be equal to the final temperature. Deriving :

Using these equation, substitute m1 and m2 into equation of Pabsf and become:

Rearrange the equation and cancel the RT to give the ratio of the two volume:

Stepwise Depressurization
Stepwise depressurization is conducted by depressurizing the chamber or tank step by
step slowly or gradually by flowing out the gas which they would expand at every instant
opened and closed in order to identify gradual changes in pressure and temperature
within the contrary decreases with the expansion.
Brief Depressurization
This is similar to stepwise depressurization but reduced in terms of time. The time
interval increased to a few seconds. This is to make sure that, the effect on the pressure

and temperature can be observe which can be compared later. The graph should be
more higher gradient.

PROCEDURES
GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES
A. GENERAL START-UP PROCEDURES
1. Equipment was connected to single phase power supply and the unit was switched on.
2. All valve was fully opened and the pressure reading on the panel was checked just to
make sure the pressure was at atmospheric pressure.
3. All valve was closed.
4. Pipe from compressive pump connected to pressurized chamber or the pipe from
vacuum pump connected to vacuum chamber.
5. The unit was ready to use.
B.
1.
2.
3.

GENERAL SHUT-DOWN PROCEDURES


Pump was switched and the pump was removed from the chamber.
The valve was fully open in order to release out the air inside the chamber.
The switch and power supply was switched off.

EXPERIMENT 1 : Boyles law


A.
1.
2.
3.
4.

EXPERIMENT 1.1 : condition 1


All valve was fully closed.
Compressive pump, Tank 1 was filled with air until 150kPa.
The gas was transferred from tank 1 to tank 2 by opening the valve between tanks.
The temperature and pressure was recorded.

B.
1.
2.
3.
4.

EXPERIMENY 1.2 : condition 2


All valve was fully closed.
Tank 2 was filled with air until 50kPa.
The gas was then transferred from tank 2 to tank 1 by opening the valve between tanks.
The temperature and pressure was recorded.

C.
1.
2.
3.
4.

EXPERIMENT 1.3 : condition 3


All valve was fully closed.
Both tank 1 and tank 2 filled with air until 150kPa and 50kPa.
The valve between tanks was opened.
The pressure and temperature was recorded.

EXPERIMENT 2 : Gay-Lussac Law Experiment


1. All valve was fully closed.
2. The hose from compressive pump was connected to pressurize chamber.
3. Compressive pump was turned on and the temperature was recorded for every
increment of 10kPa in the chamber and the pump stopped when the pressure in tank 1
has achieved 160kPa.
4. The valve was slightly opened and the pressurized air are allowed to flow out. The
temperature was recorded for every decrement in 10kPa.
5. The experiment stopped when the pressure in tank 1 has reached atmospheric
pressure that is 101.3kPa.
6. The experiment repeated for three times in order to get the average value.
7. A graph of pressure versus temperature was plotted.

EXPERIMENT 3 : Isentropic Expansion Process


1. All valve was fully closed.
2. Hose was connected from compressive pump to pressurized chamber.
3. Compressive pump was switched on and the chamber was pressurized until 160kP.
Pump was switched off and the hose was removed from the chamber.
4. The pressure was monitored until the reading was stabilized. The pressure and
temperature was recorded.
5. The valve was slightly opened and the air was flow out slowly until reached the
atmospheric pressure.
6. The pressure and temperature reading was recorded after the expansion process.
7. The isentropic process was discussed.

EXPERIMENT 4 : Stepwise depressurization


1.
2.
3.
4.

All valve was fully closed.


Tank 1 was filled with air until 160kPa and record the data.
The valve 1 was opened and closed quickly for 5 times.
The data was recorded.

EXPERIMENT 5 : Brief depressurization


1. All valve was fully closed.

2. Tank 1 was filled with air until 150kPa and the data was recorded.
3. Valve 1 was open for 3 seconds.
4. The data was recorded.

EXPERIMENT 6 : Determination of ratio volume


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

All valve was fully closed.


Tank 1 or pressurized tank was filled with air at about 150kPa.
The data was recorded.
Valve 2 was slightly opened and the data was recorded.
The experiment was repeated by passing air from tank 2 to tank 1 and tank 1 to tank 2
by using the pressure of 150kPa for tank 1 and 50kPa for tank2.

EXPERIMENT 7 : Determination of Ration of Heat Capacity


1. General start up was done and the valve was fully closed.
2. The hose from the compressive pump was connected to the pressurized chamber.
3. Compressive pump was switched on and the chamber was pressurized until 160kPa.
Then, the pump was switched off and the hose was removed from the chamber.
4. C. The pressure and temperature was recorded.
8. The valve one was fully open and closed after few seconds. The pressure and
temperature was monitored and recorded right after the reading was stabilized.
5. The ratio of heat capacity and the theoretical value was compared.

APPARATUS

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Pressure transmitter
Pressure relief valve
Temperature sensor
Big glass
Small glass
Vacuum pump
Electrode

RESULTS
EXPERIMENT 1
A. EXPERIMENT 1.1
PT 1 (kPa abs)
PT 2 (kPa abs)

Before expansion
153.4
103.2

After expansion
135.8
135.2

Before expansion
105.0
57.9

After expansion
88.8
88.7

Before expansion
150.8
59.1

After expansion
119.4
118.9

B. EXPERIMENT 1.2
PT 1 (kPa abs)
PT 2 (kPa abs)
C. EXPERIMENT 1.3
PT 1 (kPa abs)
PT 2 (kPa abs)
EXPERIMENT 2
PRESS
URE
(kPa
abs)

103.3
110
120
130
140
150
160

TRIAL 1
TEMPERATURE ( C)

TRIAL 2
TEMPERATURE ( C)

TRIAL 3
TEMPERATURE ( C)

PRESSU
RIZED
VESSEL
26.3
264
26.7
27.4
28.1
28.9
29.7

PRESSU
RIZED
VESSEL
25.0
25.1
25.5
26.2
27.2
28.0
29.0

PRESSU
RIZED
VESSEL
25.3
25.3
25.7
26.3
27.2
28.1
28.8

DEPRESS
URIZED
VESSEL
25.0
25.6
26.6
27.7
28.7
29.2
29.3

DEPRESS
URIZED
VESSEL
25.4
26.6
27.7
28.7
29.2
29.7
29.8

DEPRESS
URIZED
VESSEL
25.6
27.4
28.4
29.0
29.4
29.8
29.7

EXPERIMENT 3
BEFORE EXPANSION

AFTER EXPANSION

PT 1 (kPa abs)
TT 1 ( C)

160.6
27.3

103.5
25.0

EXPERIMENT 4
INITIAL

PT 1 (kPa abs)
AFTER FIRST EXPANSION

160.0

104.5

AFTER SECOND
EXPANSION
104.3

EXPERIMENT 5
INITIAL
150.0

PT 1 (kPa abs)
AFTER BRIED EXPANSION
121.3

EXPERIMENT 6
A. PRESSURIZED AIR FLOW FROM TANK 1 TO TANK 2
BEFORE EXPANSION
AFTER EXPANSION

PT 1 (kPa abs)
149.3
132.4

PT 2 (kPa abs)
103.3
131.6

B. PRESSURIZED AIR FLOW FROM TANK 2 TO TANK 1


BEFORE EXPANSION
AFTER EXPANSION

PT 1 (kPa abs)
104.0
88.6

PT 2 (kPa abs)
53.2
87.6

C. BOTH TANK 1 AND 2 WAS PRESSURIZED


BEFORE EXPANSION
AFTER EXPANSION
EXPERIEMENT 7

PT 1 (kPa abs)
152.7
119.0

PT 2 (kPa abs)
56.2
118.4

PT 1 (kPa abs)
TT 1 ( C)

INITIAL
160.5
27.4

INTERMEDIATE
141.0
27.3

FINAL
121.5
27.2

RECOMMENDATION

Before starts the experiment, each of the experiment must do the start-up and shut-down
step in order to make sure there is no gas left in the chamber. Most important during
recording data, keep eye on the sensor while monitoring the board because the parameter
can increase and decrease really fast and read the procedure carefully. Get an average
reading by repeating the experiment normally three times in order to reduce amount of
deviation. Handle the valve carefully and do not make mistake by choosing the valve
because it will affect the data. The place where the experiment is conducted also must be
at stable and no vibration. All the equipment must be handle carefully in order to avoid
explosion because over-pressure in the tank would cause an explosion. The pump
pressure must not be above 2bar as excessive pressure may results in glass breaking. The
valves must be opened slowly and not abruptly opened or else may results in explosion.
Before experiment is proceed, the initial reading must at atmospheric pressure for both
chamber. Tighten the hose before pumping.

REFERENCES

1. Charles's Law. (n.d.). Retrieved from how stuff works:


http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/physics-terms/charles-law-info.htm
2. Charles's Law. (2010). Retrieved from Sparknotes:
http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/chemistry/chapter5section8.rhtml
3. Irfan, M. H. (2013). The Perfect Gas Expansion Experiment (TH11). Muhammad
Haidharul Irfan .
4. Ngagiman, S. F. (2013). Perfect Gas Expansion. Siti Fatimah Ngagiman.
5. (n.d.). PERFECT GAS EXPANSION APPARATUS. PUNCHONG, SELANGOR,
MALAYSIA: SOLUTION ENGINEERING SDN. BHD.

APPENDIX

DISCUSSION
Boyles law stated that the pressure of gas inversely proportional to the volume of a
container. From the results recorded, some calculation have been made in order to
know the difference value between before and after of the experiment one. For
conditions 1, 2 and 3 the value are 0.030862, 0.0720 and 0.003. These values are very
small and close with the theoretical value, therefore the Boyless Law is verified.
According to the data tabulated, it can been said that the pressure and volume inversely
proportional. When the pressure increase, the volume start to decrease. This is happen
because if the gas of the same pressure with constant temperature injected into small
and big container which means have different volume. The gas molecule in small
container have less spacious room and will collide to the wall and with each other more
often which exert more pressure.
Gay-Lussacs Law stated that pressure is directly proportional to the temperature
which means if the pressure increase, the temperature also increase with constant
volume. Experiment two has been conducted in order to know the relationship between
pressure and temperature. Therefore, from the data tabulated and graph plotted, it can
be said that the Gay-Lussacs Law is verified. The same concept applied here, if the
temperature of a gas in a container increase, the heat energy of the system transfer its
energy into the molecule of gas which actually increase the frequency of collision in that
container which exert more pressure.
Isentropic expansion process occur when the system are reversible and adiabatic
where no heat will be transferred in or out and no energy transformation occurs. From
the data recorded, a constant k are now known which is equal to 1.814. It was obtained
that both temperature and pressure of the gas before expansion were higher compared
to after the expansion. The process is said to be isentropic since there was no change
in the entropy throughout the process.
S=0

or

S1=S2 (KJol/kg.K)

An isentropic process is an idealization of an actual process, and serves as a limiting


case for an actual process.
The relations of entropy change for ideal gases are:

(1)
and

(2)

An Isentropic Process of Ideal Gases on a T-s Diagram.

Stepwise depressurization is a strategy to adopt an equal time-stepwise


depressurization approach in this study yield a more reliable result for an example in the
production sector in industries. The molecule in the container affected when the number
of them decreasing slowly as they do not have to collide between them more often. The
depressurization shown that pressure decrease with time and also affecting the
temperature. As the pressure decrease, the temperature also decrease in the system.
Brief depressurization shown in the graph plotted in result section which is decrease
more linear compared to stepwise. The expansion occur when the pressure of gas
increase. Expansion of gas decrease as the gas is free to flow out time by time.
Ratio volume can be determine by manipulating the equation of Boyles law. Boyles
law proposed an equation P1V1=P2V2 and after manipulate the equation ratio volume
can be determine by V2/V1=P1P2. This experiment test in three different condition
where first condition the gas is flow from tank 1 to tank 2, while gas flow from tank 2 to
tank 1 in second condition and both were filled with gas in third condition. The
theoretical value is 2.021 in this experiment where the error or percentage difference
are between 10 and -10. There must be environmental factors that affect the stability of
pressure and temperature or random mistake during experiment. Since the percentage
error is less than 10%, it can be said that the experiment is successful.
Determination of ratio of heat capacity using the expression of the heat capacity ratio
and it gives the 1.102. The theoretical value of this experiment is 1.4. The deviation
which now is equal to 21.28%. The deviation is due to measurement error. The actual
intermediate pressure supposed to be lowered that the measured one. Unfortunately
the error occur due to heat loss and sensitivity of pressure sensors. Supposed, the
intermediate pressure taken as the lowest pressure at the moment the valve is closed.
Since the percentage difference is more than 10%, the experiment can be declared as
failed.

CONCLUSION

In

nutshell,

the

experiment

was

to

determine

the

properties

of

measurement/PVT according to Boyles law, Gay-Lussacs law, isentropic expansion, and


heat capacity equation. We managed to prove the Boyles law and Gay-Lussacs law which
is based on their law. The volume ratio of gas indicates and expresses the dynamics of
compression and expansion of gases. Although there is fail experiment but we managed to
fine the reason behind the failure. For example experiment 7, related to heat capacity ratio,
the experiment fail maybe because of the intermediate pressure not taken after the valve is
closed.
In conclusion, the experiment is successfully done and the objective of the
experiment is achieved. The boyles law cannot be proven. The relationship of pressure is
linearly proportional to temperature. The heat capacity ratio experimental is k=1.400 where
as the theoretical value is 1.3996. The isentropic process is shown.

Похожие интересы