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Dual Vocational Training in

Germany:
Jobs and career perspectives for
young people

Dr Gnter Lambertz
Managing Director Continuing Vocational Training
Association of German Chambers of Industry and
Commerce (DIHK)

The Association of German Chambers of


Industry and Commerce (DIHK)

umbrella organization of 80 German


Chambers of Industry and Commerce
in Berlin and Bruxelles

every German company is required by


law to join a chamber

more than 3 million member


companies

coordinates bilateral chambers in


more than 80 countries

Youth Unemployment in the EU


Youth unemployment rate in 2012 of under 25s in %
60,0

51,3
50,0

40,0

35,7

35,7

34,0
29,6

30,0

26,0

EU27 (22,6 %)

22,8
18,8

20,0

15,7

19,1

19,1

30,2

26,2

22,9

19,7

16,4

11,9
7,9
10,0

9,0

9,3

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How does Vocational Training Work?


Training is mainly
provided in the
company
supported by
teaching in part-time
vocational school
(Berufsschule)

Everyone benefits from Vocational Training


Benefits for trainees:

labor market relevant training leads to excellent job perspectives


acquisition of social skills within the real life of a company
motivation by getting training fees (earning and learning)
Benefits for enterprises and trade unions:

influence on content and organization of training


at medium-term: low recruitment costs
next generation of skilled workers assured
Benefits for the government:

Private contribution eases the burden on public budgets


Win-Win-Situation and a perfect Public Private
Partnership!

Partner Company

Learning at the company

3-4 days per week


on the basis of training
regulations
within the framework of a
training contract

Partner Berufsschule

Learning at the vocational


training school

1-2 days per week on average


on the basis of a framework
curriculum
general & vocational knowledge
is taught within the framework of
compulsory education

and even more Partners


Federal Ministries

Training regulations
Employers
Organizations
Chamber
Organizations

duration
designation
of occupation
training contents:
decision-making skills
(knowledge, skills)

Lnder (State

Ministries)

Trade Unions

Occupations for every need

Alterations
tailor

Biology
laboratory
technician

Industrial
management
assistant

Mechatronics
technician

Office
manager

Role of the CCI


The Tasks
competent bodies
register training
contracts
organize interim and
final exams

National Training Pact

National Training Pact


2004: Agreement between Federal Government and DIHK, ZDH
(skilled craft and small business), BDA (employers) to prevent the
so-called training levy, a law, which was planned to force
companies to either provide training places or pay money instead

extended in 2007 and 2010

promises of the economy:

concluded on a completely voluntary basis


main aim: all applicants, who are capable and willing to
start an apprenticeship, get an offer for qualification
offer 60.000 new apprenticeship training positions
offer 40.000 positions for courses leading to a first qualification
acquire 30.000 new training companies

National Training Pact

In the meantime, Germany has faced a dramatic change due to


the demographic development

While during the last years apprenticeships were rare,


nowadays the applicants become rare

Therefore, the third Training Pact, concluded in October


2010, aims for the improvement of the education level of the
school leavers and a much better vocational guidance already
at school

Conclusion

German dual training is an excellent system for qualifying


young people for the labour market.

It leads to a win-win-situation for young people, companies,


government , altogether.

But its also a very complex system. It works because of its


history and long tradition in German culture and economy.

Here is my advice
1. Adjust the dual training principle to your cultural background!
2. Administration and companies: work together! Both of you
have to provide your part in the share!
3. A National Training Pact helps to fight youth unemployment
and to give young people access to the labor market!
4. There should be strong Chambers helping to organize
company-based vocational training!

Facts and Figures

approx. 350 nationwide recognized training occupations (270 in the


field of industry, trade and services)

two out of three young people in Germany in VET

over 160,000 professional experts work on a honorary basis in the


examination boards of the CCIs

German economy spends 23 billion per year on vocational training

around 1,5 million trainees, 560,000 new contracts per year


approx. 500,000 companies providing training
approx. 336,000 vocational training instructors only in the field of
industry, trade and services

gross costs of a trainee per year: 15,300


return on investment through productive activity: 11,700
net costs of a trainee per year: just 3.600