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Kiln Audit

ATC

SMO / 02/09/2008 - 1

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : What it means?

Review

Establish equipment / system performance

Production
Heat Consumption
Power Consumption
Efficiency

Benchmark

Present operation philosophy


Operating parameters
Operation / Quality targets
Present Constraints
Status of PID control loop operation

Past performance
Supplier guarantees
Type of equipment / system
Anticipated performance

Recommend for performance improvement


Changes in operation philosophy, operating parameters, operation / quality Targets
Modifications to individual equipment / system

SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 2

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Steps involved


Pre-audit information checklist.

Plant base information (Flow sheet, equipment details).


Past performance data (Run / production / reliability factor, energy
consumption, quality).
Type of fuels used and products manufactured.
Present problems faced by plant.

Measurement / sampling tools

Instruments (availability, suitability, functioning, calibration)

Measurement / sampling plan

Measurements / sampling / analysis requirments with priority level.


Frequency of measurement / sampling.

Calculation tools
Data from other plant audits
Result Interpretations.
Report writing
Reference documents

SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 3

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Pre-audit information


The Plant

Location (place, nearest city, MSL, Ambient temperatures, % RH)


Local line No. (if any)
Supplier
Year supplied
Supplier guarantees (Production, heat consumption, power consumption etc).

Preheater & Pre-Calciner

No. of stages
No. of strings
Whether In line calciner / separate calciner / AS / AT
Type of calciner: Low NOx / hot point etc.
Cyclone sizes
Calciner dimensions with sketch (showing firing / feed /Tertiary air entry point locations)
Feeding arrangement (air lift / bucket elevator)

Kiln

Size (Diameter x Length)


No. of supports (2 / 3)
Slope (3.5 / 4%)
Maximum speed, rpm
Lining thickness, mm
Installed motor power

SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 4

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Pre-audit information


Cooler

Supplier
Supplier product code (e.g. FLS COOLAX 1284)
Type (Conventional chamber aerated / Beam aeration etc.)
Type of inlet (e.g. Fixed)
No. of Grates
Dimensions (width x Length)
Effective Grate area
No. of compartments
No. of fans (Specify v-belt / direct drive, variable / fixed speed)
Enclose sketch showing grate plate layout with aeration arrangement
Vent air de-dusting arrangement (ESP, Heat exchanger + Bag filter)
Emergency cooling arrangements (fresh air / water spray)
Cooling air & Vent air fan specifications
Tertiary air take-off point (through kiln hood / separate)
Dust Settling Chamber in tertiary air line?
Any hot air tapping (for raw / coal / cement mill)
Under-grate dust collection arrangement (drag chain / hoppers with
pneumatic gates)
SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 5

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Pre-audit information


Burner
Supplier
Supplier product code (e.g. FLS Duoflex)
Type (Uni-flow / Multi-channel?)

Miscellaneous

Fuels used (with proportions, way of preparation)


Sketch showing gas & material flows
Present performance (Production, heat / power consumption)
Present constraints
Sketch indicating measurement / sampling point locations
Modifications done w.r.t. original supply (e.g. changed to
Lafarge Burner, installation of Hurrivanes in preheater cyclone)

SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 6

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Samples & analysis

Inputs
Kiln Feed

Fineness (Residues on 90 and 212)


Temperature
Moisture
Uniformity (KFUI),
Homogenization (Standard deviation of CaO/CaCO3/RC3S at silo exit)
Burnability (K1450)
Coarse quartz and calcite content
LOI
Chemical analysis (incl. minor oxides and chlorine)
Organic carbon
Water of crystallization / hydration
Sulfur as pyrites
TC

Fuel, as fired

Moisture
Fineness (Residues on 90 and 212)
Temperature
Heat value
Proximate analysis
Ultimate analysis
SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 7

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Samples & analysis

Outputs
Clinker

Temperature
Sieve analysis
Free lime
Liter weight
LOI
Chemical analysis (incl. Minor oxides)
Microscopy

Dust from Preheater


PSD
LOI
Chemical analysis (incl. Minor oxides)

With in Process
Bottom stage exit material

LOI
Temperature
Chemical analysis (incl. minor oxides)
Un-burnt Carbon
SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 8

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Sampling frequency

Sample

Kiln Feed
Fuel
Clinker
Dust from Preheater
PH bottom stage cyclone exit material

collection frequency
Every 2 hour
Every 2 hour
Hourly
2 samples
2 samples

Note: Except temperature, fineness, moisture, free lime and


liter weight, the detailed analysis could be performed on
composite samples.
From the composite sample, 3 sets to be prepared.
Set-1
To ARL
Set-2
To Plant Laboratory
Set-3
To be preserved by plant laboratory (till final report is released)
SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 9

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Field Measurements


Preheater
Preheater Exit Gas (Downcomer duct)

Temperature
Static Pressure
Flow
Gas analysis (O2, CO, CO2, SO2, NOx)
Dust concentration

Calciner exit
Temperature
Static Pressure
Gas analysis (O2, CO, CO2, SO2, NOx)

Each cyclone inlet and outlet


Temperature
Static pressure
Gas analysis (O2, CO, CO2)
SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 10

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Field Measurements

Kiln
Kiln inlet
Temperature
Static Pressure
Gas analysis (O2, CO, CO2, SO2, NOx)

Primary Air (Kiln / Calciner Burner)


Flow
Pressure
Temperature

Transport air for fuel


Flow
Temperature
SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 11

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Field Measurements

Cooler
Cooling air
Flow
Temperature
Pressure (at fan outlet, for each individual duct after flap damper)

Cooler vent air


Temperature
Static pressure
Flow

Secondary air
Temperature

Kiln hood
Pressure

Tertiary air (at cooler end)


Temperature
Static pressure
Flow (if possible)

SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 12

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Other Measurements

Mass flows

Power

Kiln Feed
Clinker (by drop test)
Preheater exit dust (by drop test)
Fuel to Kiln
Fuel to calciner
Kiln main drive
Preheater fan
Cooler vent fan
Individual cooling air fan
Total shop

Surface temperatures
Kiln shell
All components of preheater (cyclones incl. risers, material pipes, smoke chamber,
kiln riser pipe, calciner vessel)
Tertiary air duct
Kiln hood
Cooler walls
Remember! Always specify emissivity set in pyrometer for temperature measurement
SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 13

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Measurements

Remember!

To cross-check CCR indications w.r.t. field measurements


To have Minimum 2 sets of measurements
To perform measurements during stable kiln operation
To Specify measurement point locations
To check suitability of flow measurement point (8D 3D criteria)
To record:

Pitot tube constants


Duct diameters at flow measurement point
Emissivity used for surface temperature measurement
Surface areas required for radiation loss calculation
Transport air details (fuel / feed)
SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 14

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Measurement tools


Gas analyzer (2 Nos.)
With CO, CO2, O2, NOx, SO2 sensor

Digital manometer (1 each)


Low range: 0100 mmWG for Pd measurement
High range: 04000 mmWG

Thermocouple with indicator (2 Nos.)


Radiation pyrometer (1 No.)
Stroboscope / Taco meter (1 No.)
Measuring tape (2 Nos.)
Insulated container for clinker temperature measurement (1 No.)
Pitot tubes
S type, 2m long (2 Nos.)
L type for primary air flow measurement (1 No.)
Make sure to have calibrated instruments!

SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 15

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Operating parameters

Kiln Speed
Preheater fan speed & damper opening
Tertiary air duct damper position
Cooler grate speeds
Cooler under-grate pressure (way of calculation)
Ratios used for grate-2, 3 speed w.r.t. grate-1 speed
Individual cooler fan speed, damper opening
Cooler vent fan speed, damper opening
If SLC kiln, feed dividing gate (at PH Top) position
Material dividing gate position for material diverted to kiln riser
Primary air fan speed, damper opening
Any other relevant parameter

SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 16

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Miscellaneous


Check performance of PID control loops
Check adequacy Sampling / measurement frequency from quality /
operation / process aspects
Look for sources of air leakages / false air entry in to the system
Understand present constraints in terms of operation / quality
Analyze Stoppages / Slow downs
Monitor safety
Record fuel and power cost

SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 17

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Calculation tools


Pitot Measurement
For gas / air flow calculation

Air Distribution
Compare cooler flows w.r.t. recommended

Cooler Heat Balance

K factor
Recovery ratio
Cooling efficiency
Cooler loss

Kiln Shell & Preheater losses


For calculation of surface / radiation heat loss

Heat & Mass Balance for Kiln


Overall heat balance of pyro-processing section

SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 18

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Benchmarking


Preheater Exit Gas Temperature
4 stage preheater
5 stage preheater
6 stage preheater

380oC
330oC
300oC

Kiln Feed Homogeneity


KFUI
CaO standard deviation

Dust loss from preheater

<14
< 0.11
8% of Kiln feed

Pressure drop across preheater cyclones


Top stage
Rest

80 mmWG
60 mmWG
SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 19

Kiln Audit - ATC

Kiln Audit : Benchmarking


Heat Consumption
Kcal/Kg Cli.
4 stage preheater
5 stage preheater
6 stage preheater

760 - 780
720 - 730
690 - 700

Power Consumption
kWh/t cli.
Preheater fan
Cooling air fans
Cooler vent fan

6.5
5 5.2 (beam aeration w/ fixed speed fans)
0.6 0.8

Cooler Performance
Conventional
K-Factor
Recovery ratio
Sp. cooling air (Kg/Kg cli.)

3.0

Beam aeration

Modern (cross bar)

> 1.5
> 70
2.5 2.6

2.3
SMO / 4-Jun-2007 - 20