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WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, Water

Distribution Design and Modeling,


Full
Version V8i (metric)
Bentley Institute Course Guide

TRN012500-1/0006

Trademarks
AccuDraw, Bentley, the B Bentley logo, MDL, MicroStation and SmartLine are registered
trademarks; PopSet and Raster Manager are trademarks; Bentley SELECT is a service
mark of Bentley Systems, Incorporated or Bentley Software, Inc.
AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc.
All ther brands and product names are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Patents
United States Patent Nos. 5,8.15,415 and 5,784,068 and 6,199,125.

Copyrights
2000-2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated.
MicroStation 1998 Bentley Systems, Incorporated.
All rights reserved.

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WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, Water Distribution Design and Modeling, Full


Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Table of Contents
Agenda ____________________________________________ ix
Day 1 ____________________________________________ix
Day 2 ____________________________________________ix
Day 3 ____________________________________________ix
Day 4 ____________________________________________x
Day 5 ____________________________________________x

Welcome and Introduction ____________________________ 1


Modeling Fundamentals ______________________________ 15
Model Data ________________________________________ 35
Building a Network with Fire Flows _____________________ 59
Module Overview _____________________________________59
Module Prerequisites __________________________________59
Module Objectives_____________________________________59
Getting Started _______________________________________60
The Workspace and Dockable Windows ____________________61
Toolbars__________________________________________61
Managers_________________________________________61
Setting up the Network _________________________________64
Fire Flow Scenario _____________________________________77
Fire Flow Scenario with New Diameters ____________________80
Bonus _______________________________________________83
Results Table _________________________________________85
Workshop Review _____________________________________86
Questions ________________________________________86
Answers __________________________________________88

Tanks, Pumps, and Valves ____________________________ 91


Building a Network with Pumps, Tanks, and PRVs _________ 111
Module Overview _____________________________________111

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Module Prerequisites __________________________________111


Module Objectives_____________________________________111
Creating a New Project and Prototypes ____________________112
Prototypes________________________________________112
System Layout ________________________________________115
Entering Element Data__________________________________117
Run 1 AVG Daily _____________________________________127
Run-2 AVG Daily plus Industry __________________________128
Workshop Review _____________________________________131
Questions Run 1 AVG Daily ________________________131
Questions Run 2 - Industry Demand of 95 L/s ___________133
Answers Run 1 ___________________________________135
Answers Run 2 ___________________________________136

Model Calibration ___________________________________ 137


Steady State Calibration of Field Measurements __________ 155
Module Overview _____________________________________155
Module Prerequisites __________________________________155
Module Objectives_____________________________________155
Reviewing Field Data ___________________________________156
Creating Baseline Scenarios______________________________160
Adjusting Demands ____________________________________165
Adjusting C-Factors ____________________________________169
Overview of the Scenario Comparison Tool _________________172
Results Tables ________________________________________176
Workshop Review _____________________________________177
Questions ________________________________________177
Answers __________________________________________178
Adjusted Demands (L/s) ________________________________180

Model Applications and System Planning ________________ 183


System Design Improvements _________________________ 207
Module Overview _____________________________________207
Module Prerequisites __________________________________207
Module Objectives_____________________________________207
Problem Statement ____________________________________208
Reviewing Existing Demands _____________________________209
Max Day Fire Flow _____________________________________211
Pipe Sizing ___________________________________________213
Pipe Sizing Criteria__________________________________213
Building Cost Functions _________________________________216
Calculating Piping Costs_________________________________219
Results Table _________________________________________221

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Workshop Review _____________________________________223


Questions ________________________________________223
Answers __________________________________________225

Fire Protection and Fire Flow Analysis ___________________ 227


Automated Fire Flow Analysis _________________________ 247
Module Overview _____________________________________247
Module Prerequisites __________________________________247
Module Objectives_____________________________________247
Problem Statement ____________________________________248
Max Day Run _________________________________________249
Fire Flow Analysis Run __________________________________253
Using Auxiliary Results__________________________________258
Results Tables ________________________________________265
Workshop Review _____________________________________266
Questions ________________________________________266
Answers __________________________________________268

Extended Period Simulation ___________________________ 271


Variable-Speed Pumping and Energy Cost Analysis ________ 303
Module Overview _____________________________________303
Module Prerequisites __________________________________303
Module Objectives_____________________________________303
Problem Statement ____________________________________304
Getting Started _______________________________________307
Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario ________________________313
Scenario 2: Constant-Speed Pump with no Tank _____________324
Scenario 3: Variable-Speed Pump with no Tank _____________330
Energy Cost __________________________________________334
Results Table _________________________________________338
Workshop Review _____________________________________339
Questions ________________________________________339
Answers __________________________________________341

Fundamentals of Water Quality Modeling _______________ 343


Water Quality Analysis _______________________________ 371
Module Overview _____________________________________371
Module Prerequisites __________________________________371
Module Objectives_____________________________________371
Problem Statement ____________________________________372
Run 1- TDS Simulation __________________________________373

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Run 2- TDS-300 Simulation ______________________________383


Run 3- Chlorine Residual ________________________________386
Run 4- Chlorine Residual with Wall Reaction ________________390
Run 5- Age ___________________________________________393
Run 6- Trace__________________________________________396
Results Table _________________________________________399
Workshop Review _____________________________________400
Questions ________________________________________400
Answers __________________________________________402

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management _________ 405


Analysis of Valving and Critical Segments ________________ 429
Module Overview _____________________________________429
Module Prerequisites __________________________________429
Module Objectives_____________________________________429
Problem Statement ____________________________________430
Getting Started _______________________________________431
Criticality and Segmentation _____________________________432
Improving the System _______________________________439
Criticality of Improved System ________________________442
Results Table _________________________________________445
Workshop Review _____________________________________446
Questions ________________________________________446
Answers __________________________________________448

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER ________ 449


Optimal Calibration __________________________________ 465
Automating Calibration using Darwin Calibrator __________ 481
Module Overview _____________________________________481
Module Prerequisites __________________________________481
Module Objectives_____________________________________481
Problem Statement ____________________________________482
Available Field Data_________________________________483
Darwin Calibrator______________________________________485
Initial Data Entry ___________________________________485
Assigning Pipes to Groups____________________________490
Baseline Run ______________________________________494
Manual Calibration _________________________________496
Optimized Calibration _______________________________499
Demand Adjustments _______________________________502
Saving Optimal Solution _____________________________506

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Table of Contents

Advanced Exercise Measurement Errors __________________509


Results Tables ________________________________________513
Workshop Review _____________________________________515
Questions ________________________________________515
Answers __________________________________________517

Piping Optimization _________________________________ 521


Automating Design using Darwin Designer _______________ 535
Module Overview _____________________________________535
Module Prerequisites __________________________________535
Module Objectives_____________________________________535
Getting Started _______________________________________536
Darwin Designer ______________________________________538
Exporting the Solution __________________________________549
Tradeoff Analysis ______________________________________553
Results Tables ________________________________________559
Workshop Review _____________________________________560
Questions ________________________________________560
Answers __________________________________________562

Skelebrator ________________________________________ 565


Skeletonizing a Large Model using Skelebrator ____________ 583
Module Overview _____________________________________583
Module Prerequisites __________________________________583
Module Objectives_____________________________________583
Getting Started _______________________________________584
Skelebrator Skeletonizer ________________________________591
Smart Pipe Removal ________________________________591
Smart Pipe Removal ________________________________594
Smart Pipe Removal ________________________________596
Branch-Series-Parallel Removal _______________________598
Series Pipe Merging ________________________________599
Branch Collapsing __________________________________605
Parallel Pipe Merging _______________________________608
Results Tables ________________________________________613
Workshop Review _____________________________________614
Questions ________________________________________614
Answers __________________________________________616

Which Platform for Water Distribution Modeling? _________ 619


Modeling Water Distribution System Flushing ____________ 643

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Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Developing System Flushing Routines ___________________ 653


Module Overview _____________________________________653
Module Prerequisites __________________________________653
Module Objectives_____________________________________653
Getting Started _______________________________________654
Flushing _____________________________________________659
Conventional Flushing_______________________________659
Unidirectional Flushing ______________________________671
Results Tables ________________________________________675
Workshop Review _____________________________________676
Questions ________________________________________676
Answers __________________________________________678

Geospatial Data Management Basics ___________________ 681


ModelBuilder _______________________________________ 699
Automating Model Building using ModelBuilder __________ 713
Module Overview _____________________________________713
Module Prerequisites __________________________________713
Module Objectives_____________________________________713
ModelBuilder _________________________________________714
Inputting Model Data __________________________________729
Network Navigator ____________________________________735
Workshop Review _____________________________________740
Questions ________________________________________740
Answers __________________________________________742

LoadBuilder ________________________________________ 743


Automating Demand Allocation using LoadBuilder ________ 757
Module Overview _____________________________________757
Module Prerequisites __________________________________757
Module Objectives_____________________________________757
Getting Started _______________________________________758
Reviewing and Entering Data _________________________758
LoadBuilder __________________________________________761
Nearest Node Method ______________________________761
Nearest Pipe Method _______________________________767
Thiessen Polygon Generator__________________________773
Load Estimation by Population ________________________776
Workshop Review _____________________________________781
Questions ________________________________________781
Answers __________________________________________782

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

TRex ______________________________________________ 783


Importing Elevations using TRex _______________________ 791
Module Overview _____________________________________791
Module Prerequisites __________________________________791
Module Objectives_____________________________________791
Getting Started _______________________________________792
TRex ________________________________________________796
Workshop Review _____________________________________802
Results Table ______________________________________802
Questions ________________________________________802
Answers __________________________________________803

WaterObjects.NET ___________________________________ 805


References _________________________________________ 809

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

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Agenda
Day 1
8:30 - Registration and

Check-in

Day 2

Day 3

8:30 - Begin

8:30 - Begin

Model Calibration

Extended Period
Simulations

Hydraulic Review

Defining Network Models

Workshop 3 Steady State


Calibration of Field
Measurements - Applying
Calibration Techniques
Using WaterCAD

Demonstration of
WaterCAD Basics

Planning System
Improvements

How to Apply Models

12:00 - Lunch

Workshop 1 Building a
Network with Fire Flow Construct/Solve a basic
network
Other Pressure Network
Components
Workshop 2 Building a
Network with Pumps, Tanks
and PRVs - Analyze various
system scenarios with
pumping, minor losses,
check valves and reducing
valves.
4:30 - Q & A Session /

Adjourn

Workshop 6 - VariableSpeed Pumping and Energy


Costing Analysis - Analyze
the system's response
under time variable
conditions focusing on VSPs,
logic based controls,
advanced graphing,
topological alternatives, and
energy costs.

12:00 - Lunch

Workshop 4 System
Design Improvements Plan, Develop and
Implement a system
improvement strategy and
compare design costs using
WaterCADs new cost
manager.

Water Quality Modeling


12:00 - Lunch

Workshop 7 - Multisource
Mixing, Chlorine Residual,
Age and Trace Analysis - Run
several water quality
analyses on an existing
water model.

Fire Protection
Workshop 5 Automated
Fire Flow Analysis Calculating fire flows for a
subset of a distribution
system

Criticality Analysis &


Pressure Zone Manager
Workshop 8 - Analysis of
Valving and Critical
Segments - Find the critical
places in your system which
you can easily fix.

4:30 - Q & A Session /

Adjourn

4:30 - Q & A Session /

Adjourn

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Agenda

Day 4

Day 5

8:30 - Begin

8:30 - Begin

Transient Analysis

Basic Geospatial Data


Concepts

Workshop 9 - Automating
Calibration using Darwin
Calibrator - Automatically
design pipes using genetic
algorithms

ModelBuilder
Workshop 13 - Automating
Model Building using
ModelBuilder - Creating a
model from data

Automating Design

12:00 - Lunch

Workshop 10 - Automating
Design using Darwin
Designer - Automatically
design pipes using genetic
algorithms

LoadBuilder
Workshop 14 - Automating
Demand Allocation using
LoadBuilder - Importing
demand data from meter
data and population data

12:00 - Lunch

Automating
Skeletonization

TRex
Workshop 11 Skeletonizing a Large Model
using Skelebrator

Workshop 15 - Importing
Elevations using TRex Importing elevations from
raster grid

Interoperability is Driving
the Future of Modeling

WaterObjects.net
Flushing

4:30 - Q & A Session /

Adjourn

Workshop 12 - Developing
System Flushing Routines
4:30 - Q & A Session /

Adjourn

Agenda

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Welcome and Introduction

Welcome to the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, Water Distribution Design and Modeling


course.

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Welcome and Introduction

Welcome and Introduction

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Modeling Fundamentals

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Model Data

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Model Data

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Model Data

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Building a Network with Fire


Flows
Module Overview
In this workshop, you will lay out the water distribution system for a small
subdivision using a background image as a guide. You will feed the subdivision
from a tank and size all of the pipes in the subdivision to deliver a fire flow of 63 L/
s. You will first analyze the system, determine the weaknesses and then mitigate
any hydraulic issues with new design solutions. This course material has been
developed for the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i platform, at a minimum the Version
08.11.00.30. Modelers currently using versions prior to WaterCAD/GEMS V8i,
version 08.11.00.30, are strongly encouraged to consider upgrading today to start
taking advantage of the latest features and interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

A fundamental understanding of Water Distribution Systems is recommended

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

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Apply the basic principles of water distribution modeling

Gain essential knowledge for water system design

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Building a Network with Fire Flows

Getting Started

Getting Started
In this section you will create a new WaterCAD/GEMS project file and enter the
projects properties.

Exercise: Creating a new WaterCAD/GEMS Project


1 Start WaterCAD V8i or WaterGEMS V8i from the start menu or from the
desktop icon.
2 Click Create New Project on the Welcome dialog or select File > New.
3 Select File > Project Properties.
4 Enter the following:
Title: Subdivision Workshop
Engineer: Enter your name
Company: Enter your company name
Date: Select todays date

5 Click OK.

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The Workspace and Dockable Windows

The Workspace and Dockable Windows


The steps that follow will help guide you through the process of setting up your
workspace as well as working with toolbars and manager windows.

Toolbars
Toolbar buttons represent WaterCAD/GEMS menu commands. You can remove
buttons from any toolbar, and add commands to any toolbar on the Commands
tab of the Customize dialog box.

Exercise: To add or remove a button from a toolbar


1 Click the Toolbar Options on any toolbar.
This is the down arrow found at the end of every toolbar.
2 Select Add or Remove Buttons to open a menu where you can add or
remove the buttons in the toolbar itself.

3 Turn the buttons on or off as needed just by clicking on the menu items.

Managers
Most of the features in WaterCAD/GEMS are available through a system of
dynamic windows called Managers. When WaterCAD/GEMS first start; the default
workspace displays the Element Symbology and Background Layers managers.

The Four Possible States for each Manager:

Floating - A floating manager sits above the WaterCAD/GEMS workspace like a

dialog box. You can drag a floating manager anywhere and continue to work.

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Building a Network with Fire Flows

The Workspace and Dockable Windows

Docked Static - A docked static manager attaches to any of the four sides of the

WaterCAD/GEMS V8i window. If you click and hold a floating manager, and
move it, you will see a docking dialog that looks as shown to the left, as well as
individual docking buttons along all four sides of the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i
window. When you drag the manager over one of the four sides of the
docking dialog it will dock the manager to that side of the window and if you
drag the manager to one of the individual docking buttons along the window
edges the manager will dock to that side. The manager will stay in that
location unless you close it or make it dynamic. A vertical pushpin in the
manager's title bar indicates its static state; click the pushpin to change the
manager's state to dynamic. When the push pin is pointing downward
(vertical push pin), the manager is docked static.

Docked Dynamic - A docked dynamic manager also docks to any of the four

sides of the WaterCAD/GEMS V8 window, but remains hidden except for a


single tab. Show a docked dynamic manager by moving the mouse over the
tab, or by clicking the tab. When the manager is showing (not hidden), a
horizontal pushpin in its title bar indicates its docked dynamic state.

Closed - When a manager is closed, you cannot view it. Close a manager by

clicking the X in the right corner of the manager's title bar. Open a manager by
selecting the manager from the View menu (for example, View > Element
Symbology), or by selecting the button for that manager on the appropriate
toolbar.

Capabilities of a Docked Static Manager:

To close a docked manager, left-click the X in the upper right corner of the title
bar.

To change a docked manager to a floating manager double-click the title bar,


or click and hold the mouse and drag the manager to the desired location.

To change a static docked manager to a dynamically docked manager click the


push pin in its title bar.

To switch between multiple docked managers in the same location left-click


that particular manager's tab.

Exercise: To open and dock a manager


1 Select View > Graphs or click the Graphs button in the toolbar.
2 When the Graph manager opens, click and hold the left mouse button as
you drag it to the bottom left of the screen and place it under the
Background Layers manager.
3 Select Analysis > Scenarios or click the Scenarios button in the toolbar.

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The Workspace and Dockable Windows

4 When the Scenarios manager opens, click and hold the mouse button as
you drag it and place it under the drawing pane.
Note: The drawing pane is the white space where the model will be.

5 Select View > Properties or click the Properties button in the toolbar.
6 When the Properties manager opens, click and hold the mouse button as
you drag it and place it to the right of the drawing pane.
Your workspace should look like the following:

Exercise: To go back to the default workspace


1 Select View > Reset Workspace.

2 Click Yes to reset to the default layout.

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Building a Network with Fire Flows

Setting up the Network

Setting up the Network


The following steps lead you through the setup of the network.

Exercise: Creating pipe prototypes


1 Select Analysis > Calculation Options or click the Calculation Options
button on the toolbar.

2 Double click Base Calculation Options under Steady State/EPS Solver to


open the Properties manager.
Note: You may dock the Properties dialog if it is more convenient.

3 Set the Friction Method to Hazen-Williams.

4 Close the Calculation Options manager by clicking the X.


5 Select View > Prototypes to set the prototype of all pressure pipes.
Note: In this workshop the pipe prototype will be set to 150 mm diameter with PVC

for material and a C-factor of 150.

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Setting up the Network

6 Right-click on Pipe and select New.

7 Double click on Pipe Prototype-1 to open the Properties manager if it is


not open already, and enter 150 in the Diameter (mm) field.
8 Click in the Material field, and then click the ellipsis () to open the
Engineering Libraries manager.
9 Click the + next to Material Libraries, then select the + next to
MaterialLibrary.xml and select PVC.
10 Confirm the Hazen-Williams C Coefficient is set at 150.

11 Click Select.

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Building a Network with Fire Flows

Setting up the Network

Note: The Hazen-Williams C field automatically updates to 150 once PVC has been

assigned as the Material.

12 Close the Prototypes manager.

Exercise: To import a background layer


1 Go to the Background Layers manager which is already docked in the
workspace, or if it is not docked, select View > Background Layers.
2 Click the New button and select New File.
3 Browse to C:\Bentley Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter.
4 Select Scaled_Network.dxf and click Open.
The DXF Properties dialog box opens.
5 Since this file was drawn in feet, change the Unit to ft.

6 Click OK.

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Setting up the Network

7 Click the Zoom Extents button to view the map.

8 Select File > Save As, enter ScaledNetwork for the file name, and then
click Save.

Exercise: Laying out the network


1 Select Tools > Options and click on the Drawing tab.
2 Change the following:
Symbol Size Multiplier: 5
Text Height Multiplier: 10

3 Click OK.

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Building a Network with Fire Flows

Setting up the Network

Note: In the Element Symbology dialog click the Drawing Style button to choose

between CAD or GIS style. If you want the CAD style chage the multipliers as
mentioned above; if you want the GIS style leave the multipliers set to 1.0.
Follow the next set of instructions to layout the network as shown in the
following picture:

Hint: To view the text for the pipes and elements, it may be necessary to select the

Label check box in the Element Symbology manager for each corresponding
element.

4 Click the Pipe Layout tool and move your cursor over to the drawing pane.
Start by placing T-1, since P-1 is coming out of the tank.
5 Right-click, and on the context menu that comes up select Tank.
Note: You will notice that your cursor has changed from a pressure junction to a tank

symbol

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Setting up the Network

6 Left-click once on the drawing to place the tank in the desired position.
Hint: See the network drawing on the previous page for the tank location.

7 Move your cursor down slightly, right-click and select Junction.


Note: Notice how your cursor has changed from a tank to a junction symbol.

8 Left-click once to place J-1 in its correct location and notice how P-1 has
automatically been placed for you.
9 Continue laying out the rest of the junctions in the same manner until you
reach J-6.
10 After laying out J-6, right click and select Done.
11 Click on J-2 and go across the diagram, click to layout J-7, then up to J-8,
right-click and select Done.
12 Connect J-7 to J-4 and right-click to select Done.
13 Click on J-5 and move across and click to create J-9, right-click Done.

Exercise: Entering pipe data


1 Click the Select tool and click on P-1 to open the Properties manager.
2 Enter the following:
Has User Defined Length?: True
Length (User Defined) (m): 137.0

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Exercise: Entering tank data

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Building a Network with Fire Flows

Setting up the Network

1 Click on T-1 in the drawing to change the open Properties manager to the
tank properties.
2 Enter the following:
Elevation (Base) (m): 198.1
Elevation (Minimum) (m): 198.1
Elevation (Initial) (m): 202.7
Elevation (Maximum) (m): 207.3
Diameter (m): 15

3 Close the Properties manager.

Exercise: Entering junction data


1 Select View > FlexTables or click the FlexTables button on the toolbar.

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Setting up the Network

2 Double click Junction Table under Tables Predefined to open the Junction
FlexTable.

Hint: Another way to open the Junction FlexTable would be to select the down arrow

on the FlexTable button, from the toolbar, and select Junction from the list of
available FlexTables.
3 Right click on the Label column and select Sort > Sort Ascending.

4 Enter the elevations from the table below for each node:

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Junction

Elevation (m)

J-1

189.0

J-2

184.4

J-3

176.8

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Building a Network with Fire Flows

Setting up the Network

Junction

Elevation (m)

J-4

166.1

J-5

155.4

J-6

176.8

J-7

176.8

J-8

182.9

J-9

149.4

Your FlexTable should look like the following:

5 Close the FlexTable: Junction Table and the FlexTables manager.


6 Save your file.

Exercise: Using the Demand Control Center


1 Select Tools > Demand Control Center.

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Setting up the Network

The message below will come up on your screen:

2 Read this message, and when you are ready, click Yes to continue to the
Demand Control Center.

3 Click the New button and select Initialize Demands for All Elements.
This will add all of the junctions in the model to the table so that flows and
patterns can be entered for them.
4 Right click the Demand (Base)(L/s) column header and select Global Edit.

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5 Enter 1.26 as the Value and then click OK.

This will set the demands for all the junctions to 1.26.

6 Click Close on the Demand Control Center dialog.

Exercise: Computing the model and reviewing results


1 Select Analysis > Validate or click the Validate button.
The validate command verifies that there are no problems with the model.

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Setting up the Network

2 Select Analysis > Compute or click the Compute button.


When the run has completed, the Calculation Summary dialog opens.

3 Review the Calculation Summary and then close it.


4 Go to the FlexTables manager and open the Junction Table under TablesPredefined.
5 Review the Pressure and Hydraulic Grade columns.

6 Keeping the Junction FlexTable open, go back to the FlexTables manager


and open the Pipe FlexTable to review those results.

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Setting up the Network

7 Complete the Results Table at the end of the workshop and answer the
questions about Run 1.
Warning: Make sure the units are consistent with those on the answer table. If they are not,
modify the units on the reports. Right click the column heading and select Units
and Formatting. Make the necessary changes. You also may decrease the Display
Precision to round your values to whole numbers. Click OK to apply any changes you
make.

You may turn off the background layer to make it easier to find elements
and review results.
8 In the Background Layers manager, uncheck the box for Scaled_Network.

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Fire Flow Scenario

Fire Flow Scenario


In this section you will walk through the steps to simulate a fire flow at J-6 using
the Demand Alternative.

Exercise: Creating the fire flow demand alternative


1 Select Analysis > Alternatives or click the Alternatives button.
2 Expand the Demand alternative.

3 Right click Base Demand and select New > Child Alternative from the
context menu that comes up.
4 Click the Rename button to rename the new child alternative Fire Flow at
J-6.

Hint: You can also rename the alternative by right clicking the alternative to be

renamed and selecting Rename from the context menu.


5 Open the Fire Flow at J-6 alternative.
6 Turn J-6 on in this alternative by clicking the box for J-6 in the * column.

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Fire Flow Scenario

7 On the right side of the dialog, change the Demand (Base) (L/s) to 63.

8 Click Close.

Exercise: Creating the fire flow scenario


1 Open the Scenarios manager.
2 Right click the Base scenario and select New > Child Scenario.
3 Enter the scenario name as Fire Flow at J-6.

4 Double click Fire Flow at J-6 to open the Properties manager.

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Fire Flow Scenario

5 Select Fire Flow at J-6 as the Demand alternative.

6 Back in the Scenarios manager, select Fire Flow at J-6 and select the Make
Current button.
Note: Note that the Fire Flow at J-6 scenario icon now has a red check mark on it.

That indicates which scenario is the current scenario.


7 Click the Compute button in the Scenarios manager or on the main
toolbar.
8 Review the results and complete the Results Table at the end of the
workshop and answer the questions about Run 2.
Note: A network of 150 mm pipes will not work well in this situation. The problem

areas are most likely those pipes with the highest velocities and/or friction
slopes. Review the pipes with the highest velocities and friction slopes in the
pipe table. These pipes will need to be upsized.

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Fire Flow Scenario with New Diameters

Fire Flow Scenario with New Diameters


In this scenario we are going to try to fix the problem areas from the previous fire
flow run by upsizing the pipes with the highest velocities and friction slopes.

Exercise: Creating a new physical alternative


1 Open the Alternatives manager.
2 Expand Physical to view the Base Physical alternative.
3 Right-click the Base Physical alternative and select New > Child
Alternative.
4 Click the Rename button to rename the new child alternative New
Diameters.

5 Double click New Diameters to edit it.


6 Change the diameters to the following:
Pipe

Diameter (mm)

P-1

250

P-2

250

P-3

200

P-4

200

P-5

200

P-6

200

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Fire Flow Scenario with New Diameters

7 Close the Physical : New Diameters dialog when you are done.

Exercise: Creating the new fire flow scenario for new diameters
1 Open the Scenarios manager.
2 Select Base, click the New button, and select Base Scenario.
3 Enter the scenario name as Fire Flow with New Diameters.

4 Double click Fire Flow with New Diameters to open the Properties
manager.

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Fire Flow Scenario with New Diameters

5 Select New Diameters as the Physical alternative and Fire Flow at J-6 as
the Demand alternative.

6 Close the Properties manager.


7 Select Fire Flow with New Diameters and click the Make Current button
or right click it and select Make Current.
8 Click the Compute button.
9 Close the Calculation Summary and review the results.
10 Complete the table at the end of the workshop and answer the first
remaining questions about Run 3.

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Bonus

Bonus
If time permits, try annotating the pipes and junctions to view the results on a
plan view and to view how the results change over each scenario.

Exercise: To use annotations


1 Go to the Element Symbology manager, which should already be docked in
the workspace, or select View > Element Symbology.
2 Right-click on Pipe, and select New > Annotation to open the Annotation
Properties dialog.
3 On the Annotations Properties manager enter the following:
Field Name: Velocity
Initial Y Offset: -8
Initial Height Multiplier: 0.7

4 Click OK.
In the plan view, you can now see the placement of Velocity for each pipe.

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Bonus

Note: This information was determined by the Y Offset that you entered. The

placement of text can be changed both horizontally (X Offset) and vertically (Y


Offset).
5 Follow the same procedure to annotate Junctions by Pressure. You may
vary the X and Y Offsets so the plan view has the look you prefer.
6 When you have annotated the Pipes and Junctions, change the scenario,
using the Scenario dropdown menu on the toolbar, to view how the
annotations update as the scenarios are changed.

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Results Table

Results Table

Run 1

Run 2

Run 3

Pressure at J-1 (kPa)


Pressure at J-6 (kPa)
Pressure at J-9 (kPa)
HGL at J-5 (m)
Velocity in P-1 (m/s)
Velocity in P-6 (m/s)
Flow in P-3 (L/s)
Flow in P-7 (L/s)
Pipe with highest Headloss Gradient
Headloss Gradient in that pipe (m/m)

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions
1 Why is the pressure so high at J-9 even though it is far from the source?

2 Why must you rely so heavily on pipes greater than 150 mm in this fairly
small subdivision?

3 What would really happen if you used the system from run 2 and had a fire
at J-6 that needed 63 L/s?

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4 How does the split in flow between pipes 3 and 7 change as you change
pipe diameters? Why?

5 If another source of water were available along the highway at J-9, how
might that source affect the design?

6 What else could you do to help the pressures during normal demand
periods?

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Answers

Run 1

Run 2

Run 3

Pressure at J-1 (kPa)

131

26

125

Pressure at J-6 (kPa)

247

-183

163

Pressure at J-9 (kPa)

515

209

462

HGL at J-5 (m)

202

171

197

Velocity in P-1 (m/s)

0.64

4.14

1.49

Velocity in P-6 (m/s)

0.07

3.57

2.01

Flow in P-3 (L/s)

4.3

35.7

48.0

Flow in P-7 (L/s)

4.5

34.9

22.5

Pipe with highest Headloss Gradient

P-1

P-1

P-5

Headloss Gradient in that pipe (m/m)

0.003

0.081

0.016

* Some answers may vary between users due to the nature of this schematic
model
1 Why is the pressure so high at J-9 even though it is far from the source?
It is located at the lowest elevation in the system.
2 Why must you rely so heavily on pipes greater than 150 mmin this fairly
small subdivision?
Streets are not laid out with water distribution in mind. More loops would
result in smaller pipes/greater reliability.
3 What would really happen if you used the system from run 2 and had a fire
at J-6 that needed 63 L/s?
You would not be able to get 1000 gpm. You would have lower flow with
higher pressures.
4 How does the split in flow between pipes P-3 and P-7 change as you
change pipe diameters? Why?
Initially they are the same but there is more flow through P-3 as it is
increased.

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5 If another source of water were available along the highway at J-9, how
might that source affect the design?
You might need to make P-10 larger so it would not be a bottleneck for the
future source.
6 What else could you do to help the pressures during normal demand
periods?
If possible:

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Put the tank at a higher elevation (higher static head)

Operate the tank with more water in the tank (higher static head).

Increase the system looping

Add a fire pump to maintain adequate flow/pressure

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Tanks, Pumps, and Valves

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Building a Network with


Pumps, Tanks, and PRVs
Module Overview
In this workshop, you will lay out a small water system including a tank, a pump
and several PRV's (pressure reducing valves). You will enter the data for these
various elements and analyze the system, looking for issues with pump operation,
PRV settings and adequate pressures. This course material has been developed
for the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i platform, at a minimum the Version 08.11.00.30.
Modelers currently using versions prior to WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, version
08.11.00.30, are strongly encouraged to consider upgrading today to start taking
advantage of the latest features and interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

A fundamental understanding of Water Distribution Systems is recommended

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

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Apply the basic principles of water distribution modeling

Gain essential knowledge for water system design

Set up element prototypes

Enter pump definitions and pump data

Model PRVs and Tanks in a network

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Creating a New Project and Prototypes

Creating a New Project and Prototypes


In this section you will run through creating a new WaterGEMS project and setting
up prototypes for your new project.

Exercise: Creating a new WaterGEMS project


1 Open WaterCAD V8i or WaterGEMS V8i from the Start menu or from the
desktop icon.
2 Click Create New Project on the Welcome dialog or select File > New to
create a new project.

Prototypes
Before we get started laying out the system, we will set up a prototype for all the
pipes to be 200 mm diameter, 10-year-old cast iron pipe with a user-defined
length of 457.2 m.

Exercise: Setting the pipe prototype specifications


1 Select View > Prototypes to open the Prototype manager.

2 Left click once on Pipe within the Prototype manager and then click on the
New button.

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Note: This will create a new prototype called Pipe Prototype-1.

3 Double click on Pipe Prototype-1 to open this prototype and set the
Diameter (mm) to 200 mm.
4 Next to the Material field, click on the ellipsis () button to open the
Engineering Libraries.

5 Expand Material Libraries and MaterialLibrary.xml to find the material


Cast Iron.
6 Left click once on Cast Iron to display this materials properties on the
right side of the manager.

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7 Click Select.
You should now have Cast Iron as the chosen Material on the Prototypes
manager.
Note: The default roughness value for cast iron pipe is 130, since it is assumed to be

new pipe in the material library.


8 Change the Hazen-Williams C to 100 by simply typing it in the field.
9 Change Has User Defined Length? to True using the dropdown menu.
10 Enter in 457.2 in the Length (User Defined) (m) field.
Your Pipe Prototype should now look like the one below:

11 Close out of the Properties - Pipe - Pipe Prototype - 1 dialog and


Prototypes manager by clicking the small close button.
12 Select File > Save As, name the file PumpsAndTanks and click Save.

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System Layout

System Layout
Now that the pipe prototype is set up the system can be drawn out. In this section
you will layout the system shown below.

Exercise: Laying out the system


1 Select the Pipe Layout tool from the tool palette.
2 Move your cursor over to the drawing pane, right click and select
Reservoir from the context menu that comes up.
3 Place the reservoir on the left hand side of the drawing window as shown
above.
4 After you place the reservoir, move the cursor to the right, right click and
select Junction.
5 Place junction, J-1 by left clicking, and then right-click to select Pump.
This will place P-1 in the drawing pane.
6 Place the pump in the drawing, then change the element type to a
Junction and continue to lay out J-2 and J-3.
7 After J-3, right click to select PRV, then place the PRV as shown above.
8 Right click, select Junction and place junctions J-4 and J-5.

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System Layout

9 Continue to lay out the rest of the system.


Note: Make sure to draw the network in sequential order so that the numbering of

the network corresponds to that shown on the previous page.


10 The PRVs need to be drawn from the upstream node to the downstream
node to indicate the direction of flow.
Hint: If you lay out a pump, valve, or pipe in the direction opposite the one you want,

you can change its direction by clicking once on the element in the drawing
window to select it, and then right click to choose Reverse.
11 Before continuing, review each PRV and make sure that they are oriented
correctly (from upstream to downstream) and if they are not, use the
Reverse option to orient them correctly.
Node

Downstream Pipe

PRV-1

P-6

PRV-2

P-8

PRV-3

P-16

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Entering Element Data

Entering Element Data


Enter the data for the pipes and junction nodes as provided in the following
tables. The best way to do this is using the FlexTables.
Warning: Make sure your FlexTables are sorted so they match the order of the elements in
the following tables before entering the data. Right click the Label column and
select Sort > Ascending.

Exercise: Entering pipe data


1 Select View > Flex Tables.
2 Open the Pipe Table from the Tables Predefined section, and enter the
following:

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Pipe

Diameter (mm)

Length (m)

P-1

300

3.0

P-2

300

3.0

P-3

300

1524.0

P-4

200

304.8

P-5

200

30.5

P-6

200

457.2

P-7

200

457.2

P-8

200

457.2

P-9

200

30.5

P-10

200

304.8

P-11

200

457.2

P-12

200

30.5

P-13

200

304.8

P-14

200

548.6

P-15

250

457.2

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Entering Element Data

Pipe

Diameter (mm)

Length (m)

P-16

250

304.8

P-17

300

457.2

3 While you are in the Pipe FlexTable, right click on the heading for Length
(User Defined) (m) and select Units and Formatting.
This opens the Set Field Options Length dialog.
4 Change the Display Precision to 1.

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Entering Element Data

5 Click OK.

Note: Notice that now the lengths are displayed as 457.2 instead of 457.20. Notice

also that many of the fields in the tables have values of (N/A). This is because
the values have not yet been calculated.
6 Close the Pipe FlexTable and save the file.

Exercise: Entering junction data


1 Open the Junction FlexTable.
2 Enter in the Elevation data given below:

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Node

Elevation (m)

Demand (L/s)

J-1

249.9

0.0

J-2

249.9

3.2

J-3

265.2

3.2

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Entering Element Data

Node

Elevation (m)

Demand (L/s)

J-4

234.7

4.7

J-5

234.7

3.2

J-6

271.3

4.7

J-7

271.3

5.0

J-8

277.4

0.0

J-9

275.8

3.2

The Junction FlexTable with the elevation data should look like the
following:

Note: To enter in the demand data, you could enter in the data within the FlexTable

by clicking the ellipsis () button within each cell in the Demand Collection
column, which will then open a table where the demands can be entered for
that specific node. If you do not want to follow this procedure, proceed to the
following step.
3 Close the FlexTable: Junction Table.
4 Select Tools > Demand Control Center.
The Demand Control Center is often the quicker method of entering in
demand data.

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Entering Element Data

5 Click Yes if you are prompted with the dialog shown below.

6 Once inside the Demand Control Center, click the New button and select
Initialize Demands for All Elements.
7 Fill in the Demand (Base) (L/s)column from the data in the table on the
previous pages.

8 Click Close when done.

Exercise: Entering PRV Data


1 Open the PRV Table from the FlexTables manager.
2 Enter the following:

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Entering Element Data

PRV Label

Elevation (m)

Diameter (mm)

Hydraulic Grade Setting (initial) (m)

PRV-1

249.9

100

285.0

PRV-2

253.0

100

286.5

PRV-3

253.0

100

286.5

3 Check the PRV FlexTable to see if Hydraulic Grade Setting (Initial) is in the
table. If it is, then fill in that column and go to Step 8.
If it is not, you will need to add the column for Hydraulic Grade Setting
(Initial) to the PRV FlexTable.
4 Within the PRV FlexTable, select the Edit button.
This opens the Table: PRV Table dialog.
5 Scroll through the Available Columns list, highlight Hydraulic Grade
Setting (Initial), and select the first Add button.
6 Using the Up button, move Hydraulic Grade Setting (Initial) under
Diameter.

7 Select OK to update the table with the values from the PRV table above.

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Entering Element Data

Note: Make sure Label is sorted in ascending order and enter the data from the table.

8 Close out of the PRV FlexTable and FlexTables manager to return to the
main drawing screen.

Exercise: Entering reservoir data


1 Open the Properties manager for the Reservoir by clicking once on R-1 if
your Properties manager is docked; if it is not currently docked, simply
double click on R-1 and this will bring up the Properties manager.
2 Enter in an Elevation (m) of 289.6 for R-1.

Exercise: Creating a pump definition and entering pump data


1 Open the Pump Definitions manager by selecting Components > Pump
Definitions.
2 Click the New button.
3 Accept the default name and select Standard (3 Point) from the
dropdown menu for Pump Definition Type.
4 Enter the following information:

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Entering Element Data

Flow (L/s)

Head (m)

Shutoff

48.8

Design

63

39.6

Max. Operating

88

33.8

5 After you have entered the data, view the graph that gets created.

Note: Do not worry about the blue line. That is only used for efficiency in energy

costing which we are not doing here.


6 Click Close and save your file.
7 Back in the main drawing screen, click on the PMP-1 to open the pumps
Properties manager.
8 Enter in the Elevation (m) of the pump as 288.0.

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Entering Element Data

9 Use the dropdown menu next to Pump Definition and select Pump
Definition - 1.

Exercise: Entering tank data


1 Click on T-1 to open the Properties manager.
2 Enter in the data given below:

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Elevation
(Base) (m)

Elevation
Elevation
(Minimum) (m) (Initial) (m)

Elevation
Elevation (m) Diameter (m)
(Maximum) (m)

307.8

313.9

326.1

320.0

125

289.6

15.0

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Entering Element Data

3 Save your file.

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Run 1 AVG Daily

Run 1 AVG Daily


In this section you will run the model as is for an average daily run.

Exercise: Computing the model


1 Open the Scenarios manager.

You will be calculating the base scenario, that uses the base demand
alternative, in order to generate results for an average daily steady state
analysis.
2 Rename the Base scenario to AVG Daily by right clicking Base, selecting
Rename, and typing the new name.

3 Click the Compute button within the Scenarios manager.

4 Review the results and answer the questions for Run 1.

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Run-2 AVG Daily plus Industry

Run-2 AVG Daily plus Industry


Now, suppose that an industry wants to move into a site near junction node J-5
and you have been asked to evaluate the adequacy of the distribution system. The
new industry demand at this node is 95 L/s, and it is fairly steady throughout the
day.
The difference between this run and Run 1 is the increased demand. You are going
to set up a new demand alternative to create a scenario for this run.

Exercise: Creating the AVG Daily + Industry Base Demand Alternative


1 Select Analysis > Alternatives and select the Base Demand alternative.
2 Right click and select New > Child Alternative.
3 Rename this new alternative AVG Daily + Industry.
4 Open the new alternative by double clicking on it.
5 Change the Demand of J-5 to 95 L/s to simulate the industrys
requirements.

Note: Notice how there is now a check mark next to J-5 indicating that its data has

changed from that of the parent alternative.


6 Click Close and exit the Alternatives manager.

Exercise: Creating the AVG Daily + New Industry Scenario


Now you will create a new child scenario to incorporate this new demand
alternative.

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Run-2 AVG Daily plus Industry

1 Select Analysis > Scenarios.


2 Right click on AVG Daily and select New > Child Scenario.
3 Name the new scenario AVG Daily + New Industry.

4 Open the new scenario and change the Demand alternative to Avg Daily +
Industry.

5 Within the Scenarios manager, click the down arrow next to the Compute
button and select Batch Run.

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Run-2 AVG Daily plus Industry

6 Check both scenarios and click Batch.

7 Review the results and answer the questions for Run 2.


Note: Remember to switch the current scenario to the AVG Daily + New Industry

scenario before you start answering Run 2 questions.

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions Run 1 AVG Daily


1 What is the hydraulic grade line elevation at junction J-6? At J-4?

2 Which PRVs will be the main feed to the lower zone? As the pressure
drops, which PRV will open last: PRV-1, PRV-2, or PRV-3? Why?

3 Is tank T-1 filling or draining?

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4 Are there any hydraulic problems in the system?

5 What can you say about the capacity of the system if this output is for
average flow conditions?

6 If the pump is a nominal 63 L/s pump, what can you generally say about its
efficiency?

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Questions Run 2 - Industry Demand of 95 L/s


1 What is the hydraulic grade line elevation at junction J-6? At J-4?

2 Is the pressure adequate in the lower zone?

3 Is tank T-1 filling or draining?

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4 Are there any hydraulic problems in the system?

5 What can you say about the capacity of the system if this output is for
average flow conditions?

6 If the pump is a nominal 63 L/s pump, what can you generally say about its
efficiency?

7 How much more would the pump PMP-1 need to produce to keep the
tank T-1 from draining?

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Answers Run 1
1 What is the hydraulic grade line elevation at junction J-6? At J-4?
J-6 has HGL at 320.5 m
J-4 has HGL at 286.5 m

2 Which PRVs will be the main feed to the lower zone? As the pressure
drops, which PRV will open last: PRV-1, PRV-2, or PRV-3? Why?
PRV-1 will open last because it has a lower HGL setting.

3 Is tank T-1 filling or draining?


Filling

4 Are there any hydraulic problems in the system?


No

5 What can you say about the capacity of the system if this output is for
average flow conditions?
The system is adequate to meet capacity for average daily conditions.

6 If the pump is a nominal 63 L/s pump, what can you generally say about its
efficiency?
Good efficiency, because it is operating close (within 65.5 L/s) and 39.1 m
of head which is very close to the design point on the pump curve. A more
accurate efficiency % can be determined by consulting the efficiency
curves in the pump manufactures catalog.

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Answers Run 2
1 What is the hydraulic grade line elevation at junction J-6? At J-4?
J-6 has HGL at 304.7 m
J-4 has HGL at 284.8 m

2 Is the pressure adequate in the lower zone?


Yes.

3 Is tank T-1 filling or draining?


Draining

4 Are there any hydraulic problems in the system?


Yes. The pump cannot keep up with demands.

5 What can you say about the capacity of the system if this output is for
average flow conditions?
The system is not adequate to meet capacity for average daily conditions
because the tank is draining.

6 If the pump is a nominal 63 L/s pump, what can you generally say about its
efficiency?
The pump does not appear to be operating efficiently. It is operating at
approximately 8.4 L/s above its design operation point. A more accurate
efficiency % can be determined by consulting the efficiency curves in the
pump manufactures catalog.

7 How much more would the pump PMP-1 need to produce to keep the
tank T-1 from draining?
Approximately 47.6 L/s

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Steady State Calibration of


Field Measurements
Module Overview
For this case study, you will start with an existing network model. You also have
three sets of field data that were collected during average day water use and
during two separate hydrant flow tests. The field data consists of flows measured
at the hydrants and pressures measured at other locations in the system. The
pressures were converted to hydraulic grade lines for use during the calibration
process. You must manually calibrate the model and reproduce the results of the
field measurements by changing demands, roughness coefficients or possibly
simulating closed valve(s). This course material has been developed for the
WaterCAD/GEMS V8i platform, at a minimum the Version 08.11.00.30. Modelers
currently using versions prior to WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, version 08.11.00.30, are
strongly encouraged to consider upgrading today to start taking advantage of the
latest features and interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

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Reviewing Field Data

Reviewing Field Data


In this section you will review the field data shown below in the WaterCAD/GEMS
interface. You have been given three kinds of pressure (and HGL) data to use for
the calibration:

Pressures collected at a number of nodes during static conditions

Pressures at residual hydrants during flow tests

Pressure transmitters at the pump discharge (J-1) and a monitoring point (J13)

You know that one pump is operating at the pump station, and both tanks have a
water surface elevation of 48.8 m. There are no unusual events in the system to
cause abnormal demands. You have taken your elevation data from maps with
0.6 m contour intervals, so you feel confident about elevations. You checked the
pump curve and know it is correct.
There are two kinds of pipes in your system:

Older cast iron pipes from the original system, which will initially have a Cfactor of 90.

Newer ductile iron pipes, which will initially have a C-factor of 130.

Note: These C-factors have already been assigned.

The hydrant flow test at J-10 produced 71 L/s and the test at J-31 produced 66 L/s.
These flows will be entered as demands in the appropriate demand alternatives.
The data collected in the field is as follows:
Static Condition
Location

Pressure (kPa)

Corresponding HGL (m)

J-1

483

56.7

J-2

393

47.5

J-4

324

48.5

J-8

207

48.5

J-12

365

47.9

J-13

352

47.9

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Static Condition
Location

Pressure (kPa)

Corresponding HGL (m)

J-23

296

48.2

J-32

393

47.9

Fire Flow at J-10 (71 L/s)


Location

Pressure (kPa)

Corresponding HGL (m)

J-1

448

53.6

J-10

186

39.3

J-13

283

41.1

Fire Flow at J-31 (66 L/s)


Location

Pressure (kPa)

Corresponding HGL (m)

J-1

448

53.3

J-13

255

38.4

J-31

234

32.9

This data has already been set-up as User Data Alternatives making it easy to
compare the calculated results with measured field data. Hydraulic grade lines
have also been entered.

Exercise: Reviewing existing data in WaterGEMS

The network model to be used in this workshop is in a file called


SteadyCalibration.wtg.
1 Start WaterCAD V8i or WaterGEMS V8i.
2 Open the SteadyCalibration.wtg file in the following location: C:\Bentley
Workshop\WaterDistribution\Starter.
3 Open the Alternatives manager and go to User Data Extensions.

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4 Double click on the User Data Extensions category or click on the plus sign
next to the category to see the User Data Alternatives.

5 Each User Data Alternative has been named according to the field data it
holds.
6 Double click on each User Data Alternative to open it.
Note: The default display will be pipe information, but our field data (HGLs) are

Junction information.

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Reviewing Field Data

7 Click on the Junction tab to view the data.

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Creating Baseline Scenarios

Creating Baseline Scenarios


In this section you will create the alternatives and scenarios for your baseline
data.

Exercise: Creating demand alternatives for the collected data


The first step is to set up demand alternatives that correspond to Average
Day, Average Day + Hydrant Flow at J-10, and Average Day + Hydrant Flow
at J-31.

Note: Average Day demands already have been entered under the Base Demand

Alternative.
1 You want to retain the Base Demand alternative because it will be needed
later in the workshop, so create a child alternative from it called Average
Day.
2 Create two child alternatives from Average Day called Hydrant Flow at J10 and Hydrant Flow at J-31.
Your screen should appear as follows:

3 Open the Hydrant Flow at J-10 alternative by double clicking it.

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Creating Baseline Scenarios

4 Locate J-10 in the node list, select it, and input the hydrant flow rate of 71
L/s in the Demand (Base) (L/s) column.

5 Close the Demand: Hydrant Flow at J-10 dialog to apply the demands.
6 Edit the Hydrant Flow at J-31 alternative, locate J-31 in the node list,
select it, and input the hydrant flow rate of 66 L/s.

7 Close the Demand: Hydrant Flow at J-31 dialog to apply the demands.
8 Save your file.

Exercise: Creating new scenarios for the new alternatives


1 Start your calibration by setting up three Scenarios using the 3 different
Demand alternatives and the 3 different User Data Extension alternatives.

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Creating Baseline Scenarios

2 Make sure the correct Demand and User Data alternatives are listed with
each Scenario.

Scenario

Demand Alternative User Data Alternative

Average Day

Average Day

Static Condition

Average + Flow at J-10 Hydrant Flow at J-10

Fire Flow at J-10

Average + Flow at J-31 Hydrant Flow at J-31

Fire Flow at J-31

3 After the three scenarios are prepared, use the down arrow next to the
Compute button, and select Batch Run.

4 Click in all three boxes and then click the Batch button to run all three
scenarios.
5 Click OK after all the scenarios have been computed.

Exercise: Using FlexTables to view results


1 Use the FlexTables to view the output and fill in the first column of the
results table.

Note: Remember the field data is already entered into the model as User Data

Extensions, but this column of information may not be in the pre-defined


junction table.
2 With the FlexTable: Junction Table open, you can add the User Data
column by clicking on the Edit icon.

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Creating Baseline Scenarios

3 Find and highlight Observed HGL in the Available Columns.


4 Click the single Add button to add it to the Selected Columns and then click
OK.

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You will now see an Observed HGL column in the FlexTable: Junction Table.

Note: You had limited field data so several of the junctions will have no Observed

HGL. Focus on the junctions that you do have Observed HGL data for (Sorting
the data first, then filtering the data can make this easier) and fill in the
calculated values in the Results Tables at the end of the workshop. Remember
to note which scenario is active when viewing the Junction Table. You also can
select different scenarios while the table is displayed.

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Adjusting Demands

Adjusting Demands
For the next three runs, we will increase demands by a factor of 2 at each
junction, except for the hydrant flow rates. You will set up three additional
demand alternatives and scenarios. User Data are field measurements, so the
User Data alternatives already prepared will be used again.

Exercise: Varying demands with alternatives


1 Open the Alternatives manager, and generate another child from the Base
Demand alternative.
2 Call the new child demand alternative 2X Average Day.
3 Now create two child alternatives from 2X Average Day called 2X Average
Day + J-10 and 2X Average Day + J-31.

4 Edit 2X Average + J-10 and input 71 L/s at junction J-10.

5 Edit 2X Average Day + J-31 and input 66 L/s at junction J-31.

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Exercise: Creating the new 2x scenarios

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Adjusting Demands

1 Create three more scenarios.


2 Assign descriptive names to the scenarios.
3 Assign the new Demand alternatives and the appropriate User Data
alternatives to these new Scenarios.

Note: You are not ready yet to run these new scenarios. You need to double the

demands in 2X Average Day before you make your runs.

Exercise: Applying double demands


1 Set the scenario 2X Average Day as active and open the Demand Control
Center by choosing Tools > Demand Control Center.
2 Right click on the Demand (Base) column heading and select Global Edit.
3 Change the Operation to Multiply by 2, and then click on OK.

Note: All of the original average daily demands have doubled. In addition, since 2X

Average Day is the parent to 2X Average Day + J-10 and 2X Average Day + J-31,

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Adjusting Demands

all of the demands in those alternatives also doubled, except the hydrant flow
rates at J-10 and J-31 which were input as local data.

4 Close the Demand Control Center and use FlexTables to confirm this is
accurate.

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Exercise: Batch Run of the new scenarios

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Adjusting Demands

1 Open the Scenarios manager, and batch run the 3 new scenarios with
doubled average demands and hydrant flows.

2 Close the Scenarios manager, and use FlexTables to compare these results
with the field data.
3 Fill in the Results Tables at the end of this workshop.

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Adjusting C-Factors

Adjusting C-Factors
For the next three runs, we will go back to using average daily demands, and will
try reducing C-factors to 80% of their original values. Pipe C-factors are a physical
property, so you need to create a new Physical Alternative.

Exercise: Adjusting the C-Factors


1 Open the Alternatives manager and expand the Physical alternative.
2 Create a child alternative from Base-Physical and name the child 80% CFactors.

3 Edit 80% C-Factors and right click on the column heading for HazenWilliams C.
4 Globally multiply all pipe C-factors by 0.8.

5 Create three more scenarios pairing the Average Day, Hydrant Flow at J10, and Hydrant Flow at J-31 Demand alternatives with the new Physical
alternative 80% C-Factors.

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Adjusting C-Factors

Note: Make sure that the correct Demand, Physical, and User Data alternatives are

listed correctly for each Scenario.


Scenario

Physical
Alternative

Demand
Alternative

User Data
Alternative

Average with 80% C

80% C-Factors

Average Day

Static Condition

Average, 80% C, Flow at J-10 80% C-Factors

Hydrant Flow at J-10

Fire Flow at J-10

Average, 80% C, Flow at J-31 80% C-Factors

Hydrant Flow at J-31

Fire Flow at J-31

6 Batch run these three Scenarios, and fill in the third column in the Results
Table.

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Exercise: Additional Runs (If time allows)


1 Given the feel you now have for the model, try making two additional runs
to zero in on the field measurements.
Do not focus too much on static conditions, but rather on the fire flow
tests.

Hint: Given the pressure drop near the pump, you might look for a closed or partially

closed valve on one of these pipes. Valves may be indicated by closed pipes.
Warning: This is the end of the workshop for those using a build of WaterCAD/GEMS V8i prior
to build 08.11.01.32 (Select Update 1). The next section is for those who have
upgraded to this latest build.

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Overview of the Scenario Comparison Tool

Overview of the Scenario Comparison Tool


Warning: This section is only for those who have downloaded and installed build 08.11.01.32
of WaterCAD/GEMS.

The Scenario Comparison tool is a new tool that was added to build 08.11.01.32
(Select Update 1) for WaterCAD/GEMS. This new tool simplifies the process of
understanding and viewing the differences between any two scenarios in a
model. Since we have multiple scenarios in this model, lets take a look to view
the differences between two of them.

Exercise: Using the Scenario Comparison tool


1 Select Tools > Scenario Comparison.

2 Click the New button.


This will bring up the Create new scenario comparison dialog.

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Overview of the Scenario Comparison Tool

3 Using the dropdown menu, select Average Day for Scenario 1.


4 Select Average with 80% C for Scenario 2.

5 Click OK.
The Scenario Comparison dialog will be updated to look like the screen
below.

Note: As you can see, all the available alternatives are listed in the left pane of the

dialog, and on the right you will see those same alternatives, except that the
alternatives that are different are highlighted. Also, note that for the Physical
alternative in the left pane, the icon contains a red mark depicting that the
alternatives are different between the two selected scenarios. The icon with
the green check indicates that there are no differences.

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Overview of the Scenario Comparison Tool

6 Click on the Physical alternative in the left pane.

7 Click the Compare button.


Note: This will return a summary of the comparison which indicates the time when

the comparison was run, which scenarios were used, and the number of
elements and attributes for which there were differences.
8 Click on Differences below the Physical alternative to view these
differences.

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Overview of the Scenario Comparison Tool

Note: As you can see, you are shown that the Hazen-Williams C values are different

between the scenarios. In the Average Day scenario for P-67 the C value is 90.0
whereas, in the Average with 80% C scenario it is 72.0.
9 Click the Select in Drawing button and choose Select in Drawing from the
menu.
10 Move the Scenario Comparison dialog out of the way and see that all the
pipes in the model are selected. This means that all of the pipes have
different C-values between the two selected scenarios.

11 Close the Scenario Comparison dialog and save your model.

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Results Tables

Results Tables

Static Condition
Node HGL
HGL Run 1 (m) HGL Q=2x (m) HGL C=80%
Observed (m)
(m)
J-1

56.7

J-2

47.5

J-4

48.5

J-8

48.5

J-12

47.9

J-13

47.9

J-23

48.2

J-32

47.9

HGL User 1
(m)

HGL User 2
(m)

HGL Q=2x (m) HGL C=80%


(m)

HGL User 1
(m)

HGL User 2
(m)

HGL Q=2x (m) HGL C=80%


(m)

HGL User 1
(m)

HGL User 2
(m)

Fire Flow at J-10


Node

HGL
HGL Run 1
Observed (m) (m)

J-1

53.6

J-10

39.3

J-13

41.1

Fire Flow at J-31


Node

HGL
HGL Run 1
Observed (m) (m)

J-1

53.3

J-13

38.4

J-31

32.9

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions
1 Did adjusting the nodal demands make a difference in the HGL? Why?

2 After which node did you notice a fairly abrupt drop in HGL in the
observed data?

3 Did changing the C-factors have a bigger effect on the static or fire flow
runs?

4 What did you end up adjusting and why?

5 If you could get more data, what data would you get?

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Answers

Static Condition
Node HGL Observed (m)

HGL Run 1 (m)

HGL Q=2x (m)

HGL C=80% (m)

J-1

56.7

50.6

49.2

51.3

J-2

47.5

49.2

47.5

49.4

J-4

48.5

48.8

48.3

48.8

J-8

48.5

48.9

48.6

48.9

J-12

47.9

49.7

48.4

50.1

J-13

47.9

49.4

48.2

49.6

J-23

48.2

49.0

48.3

49.1

J-32

47.9

49.4

48.1

49.6

Fire Flow at J-10


Node

HGL Observed (m)

HGL Run 1 (m)

HGL Q=2x (m)

HGL C=80% (m)

J-1

53.6

46.5

43.1

46.8

J-10

39.3

43.2

40.8

42.3

J-13

41.1

44.9

41.5

44.4

HGL Run 1 (m)

HGL Q=2x (m)

HGL C=80% (m)

Fire Flow at J-31


Node

HGL Observed (m)

J-1

53.3

J-13

38.4

J-31

32.9

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1 Did adjusting the nodal demands make a difference in the HGL? Why?
It had little effect on the static condition run.
It made a significant change on the fire flow runs.
The extra flow caused extra head loss but in the static condition scenario
the velocity was so low the HGL was flat.

2 After which node did you notice a fairly abrupt drop in HGL in the
observed data?
J-1
Closed valve suspected downstream of that valve.

3 Did changing the C-factors have a bigger effect on the static or fire flow
runs?
It had a bigger effect on the fire flow runs.
The velocity was too low in static run.

4 What did you end up adjusting and why?


Closed pipe P-22.
Lowered C factors for cast iron to 60%
Changed demands as shown in the table on the next page

5 If you could get more data, what data would you get?
Another fire flow test with several residual gages downstream of P-22.

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Adjusted Demands (L/s)

Adjusted Demands (L/s)

Node

Initial Demand (L/s)

Adjusted Demand (L/s)

6.3

7.6

5.0

6.3

3.5

3.5

6.3

7.6

0.6

0.9

1.5

10

0.6

11

0.6

0.9

12

0.5

2.0

13

0.9

3.2

14

1.2

15

1.7

16

0.6

0.8

17

1.6

2.2

18

1.3

19

0.9

20

0.8

21

1.3

22

0.6

1.6

23

0.3

0.9

24

1.9

25

0.9

1.3

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Initial Demand (L/s)

Adjusted Demand (L/s)

26

1.9

27

1.3

1.9

28

0.9

1.3

29

0.9

1.3

30

2.2

2.6

31

1.3

32

0.6

1.3

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Planning

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System Design Improvements


Module Overview
For this case study, you will receive a network in which the streets and the piping
have been laid out for a new industrial park. You must resize a portion of the pipes
based on a set of criteria that will be given to you. You will use Darwin Designer to
help you quickly design cost effective design solutions that will meet the
proposed industrial demands and system pressures adequately. This course
material has been developed for the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i platform, at a
minimum the Version 08.11.00.30. Modelers currently using versions prior to
WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, version 08.11.00.30, are strongly encouraged to consider
upgrading today to start taking advantage of the latest features and
interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Model Calibration

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

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Understand how to model the operation of a water distribution system

Designg cost effective water distributions systems with the help of Darwin
Designer

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Problem Statement

Problem Statement
In this workshop, you will receive a network in which the streets and the piping
have been laid out for a new industrial park. You must resize a portion of the pipes
based on a set of criteria that is provided to you below. The network is stored in
the file SystemImprovements.wtg that you can find in C:\Bentley
Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter.
The industrial park is served through existing 1200 mm and 900 mm transmission
mains (pipes P-1, P-31 and P-30), which is fed from a reservoir (water plant
clearwell) at node R-3 and has an HGL of 296.0 m.
The reservoir provides water to residential areas at nodes J-17 (through a 600 mm
pipe, P-29) and node J-18 (through a 900 mm pipe, P-23).

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Reviewing Existing Demands

Reviewing Existing Demands


An engineer has assigned the demands to nodes as shown in the matrix below.
Notice there are demands for average day, max day, and peak hour. These three
demand alternatives have already been entered in the workshop problem for you.
Note: There are no demands associated with J-5 or J-19.
Demands

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Label

Avg Day

Max Day

Peak Hour

J-1

25.24

37.85

63.09

J-2

25.24

37.85

63.09

J-3

25.24

37.85

63.09

J-4

12.62

18.93

31.55

J-5

J-6

6.31

9.46

15.77

J-7

6.31

9.46

15.77

J-8

6.31

9.46

15.77

J-9

12.62

18.93

31.55

J-10

6.31

9.46

15.77

J-11

6.31

9.46

15.77

J-12

6.31

9.46

15.77

J-13

6.31

9.46

15.77

J-14

6.31

9.46

15.77

J-15

12.62

18.93

31.55

J-16

6.31

9.46

15.77

J-17

126.18

145.11

189.27

J-18

157.73

220.82

283.91

J-19

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Reviewing Existing Demands

Exercise: Reviewing demands in the Demand Control Center


1 Start WaterCAD V8i or WaterGEMS V8i and open the
SystemImprovements.wtg file in C:\Bentley
Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter.
2 Select one of the scenarios in the file as the current scenario and then
select Tools > Demand Control Center.
3 In the Demand Control Center spot check that the demands in WaterCAD/
GEMS match the demands listed on the previous page.

Note: The demands can be sorted to match the table on the previous page by right

clicking the Label column and selecting Sort Ascending.

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Max Day Fire Flow

Max Day Fire Flow


In addition to the 3 demand alternatives that have already been set up for you,
you need to also set-up an additional demand alternative with a demand of
230.28 L/s on the max day at junction node J-14. This will be representing a fire
occurring at junction J-14.

Exercise: Creating the Max Day Fire Flow at J-14


1 To set up the alternative, select Analysis > Alternatives.
2 Highlight the Max Day demand alternative and create a child alternative
by clicking the New button.
3 Name the child MaxDayJ-14Fire.

4 Double click on that alternative, select J-14, and change the Demand to
230.28 L/s.

5 Create a scenario that uses that fire flow by opening the Scenarios
manager, Analysis > Scenarios.

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Max Day Fire Flow

6 Create a new child scenario from Max Day called MaxDayOrigSystFireJ14.

7 Double click on that scenario and change the Demand alternative to


MaxDayJ-14Fire.

8 Close the Scenarios manager.

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Pipe Sizing

Pipe Sizing
In this section you will learn how to go through the process of sizing pipes while
meeting specified constraints. You will be using physical alternatives to record the
different pipe sizes for each trial.

Pipe Sizing Criteria

You are to size the pipes in the industrial park so that the following constraints
are met:

All nodes have at least 240 kPa and no more than 550 kPa when there is not a
fire occurring at J-14.

All nodes have at least 140 kPa and no more than 550 kPa during a fire on the
max day at junction node J-14.

The 1200, 900, and 600 mm pipes (P-1, 23, 29, 30 and 31) are existing
transmission mains, and the water authority does not want to add a tap onto
them for each customer. You can only tap into this line at two points (nodes J1 and J-8 are recommended).

Initially, all the pipes you must size have been set to 150 mm with a C-factor of
130. Change the diameters but not the C-factors.

Additional Tips

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It will be helpful for you to set up color-coding of the pipes based on Diameter
so that you can easily see the different pipe sizes on a plan view.

Before getting started with sizing the pipes, run the base scenario to see that
the pipes work for the average day flow.

Next, run the Max Day Scenario already created. Review the pressure results
for this run.

Add another scenario using the Base-Physical alternative and the MaxDayJ14Fire Demand alternative.

Set up an additional color coding scheme based on Velocity for the pipes.

Allow WaterCAD/GEMS to initialize the colors or you can choose your own.
This will help you identify bottlenecks within the system.

Set up a new Physical alternative trying as a first pass using all 200 mm pipes
(excluding the transmission mains mentioned earlier) and except for a 300
mm loop made up of pipes P-2, P-15, P-3, P-4, P-5, P-6, P-7, and possibly P-16.

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Pipe Sizing

Run the new sizes using the Peak Hour and the MaxDayJ-14Fire demands
since these are the scenarios that will give you the highest pressures and
should be used to size the pipes.

Continue trying various pipe sizes setting up a new Physical alternative each
time until you come up with a reasonable design (but not over-designed!).

Record your results as you go along in the table at the end of the workshop.

Set up color coding of Junctions for Pressures (using Color and Size) based on
the pressures, colors, and sizes below:
Value

Color

Size

100

Green

240

Cyan

300

Blue

400

Magenta

550

Red

Note: This color coding scheme will allow you to easily see where the problem areas

are once you start running the scenarios with various pipe sizes.

Exercise: Setting up Color Coding


1 To set up color coding, select View > Element Symbology.
2 Select the type of element (e.g. Junction), right click on it, and choose
New > Color Coding.
3 When the Color Coding dialog appears, select the property you wish to
color code for from the Field Name dropdown menu (e.g. Pressure).
4 Set the number of Steps to 5.
5 Select Color and Size from the Options box and enter the information
from the table above.

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Pipe Sizing

Note: You can also edit the Above Range Color and the Above Range Size if you would

like, but it is not necessary.

6 Click Apply and then OK.

Exercise: Pipe Sizing


1 You will now go through a trial and error process of sizing the pipes; to
keep track of your trials, you will set up a new Physical alternative for each
new set of pipe sizes that you want to try.
2 You will put this physical alternative together with one of the Demand
alternatives (creating a scenario) and record your results in the table at the
end of the workshop.
3 For each new set up of pipes, remember that you will need to first create
and edit a physical alternative and then create a scenario that uses this
physical alternative.

Note: Do not record runs where you made a mistake.

4 When you have a solution that appears to meet the design criteria,
determine the cost for piping in that solution.

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Building Cost Functions

Building Cost Functions


To perform cost estimating using Darwin Designer, you must first create cost
functions that contain the pricing of your different pipe diameters.

Exercise: Creating cost functions using Darwin Designer


1 Start Darwin Designer by selecting Analysis > Darwin Designer.
2 Within Darwin Designer, click the New button to select New Designer
Study.
3 Click on the Cost/Properties tab in the right pane, click the New button
and select Design Options Group.
4 Create two cost functions: one for pipes inside the development called
Inside and one for pipes laid along the highway called Highway.
Cost ($/m)
Diameter (mm)

Inside ($/m)

Highway ($/m)

150

200

262

200

302

381

250

413

512

300

531

646

350

659

791

400

797

942

500

1,086

1,257

600

1,404

1,594

750

1,919

2,129

900

2,477

2,700

5 Rename Cost Function New Pipe-1 to Inside and fill in the cost data from
the table above.
6 Set Material for all pipes to PVC and C-factors to 130.
Note: These C-factors are not used in costing.

7 Create another cost function for the pipe laid in the highway.

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Building Cost Functions

When completed, the cost function should look like the one below:

Exercise: Assigning Cost Functions to Design Groups


Now assign pipes to Design Groups, i.e. pipes that share the same cost
function.
1 Click the tab labeled Design Groups and click the New button.
2 Name the new group, Inside Pipes.
3 Under Element IDs column, click the ellipsis () button next to collection
to open the Selection Set dialog.
4 Click Select from Drawing button and pick all the pipes in the development
(all the small pipes except P-8, P-9, P-10 and P-11).
5 Click the green check mark (Done button) when you have selected the
pipes.

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Note: You should have 16 pipes as shown in the screen shot below (though one pipe

is not showing there are 16 pipes in the selection).

6 Click OK and repeat for the Highway Pipes which include P-8, P-9, P-10,
and P-11.
The Design Groups tab should look like this when done:

Note: The cost data is now ready for use.

7 Be sure to save your file periodically.

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Calculating Piping Costs

Calculating Piping Costs


This section will show you how to use Darwin Designer to calculate the costs of
your scenario.

Exercise: Calculating Pipe Costs in Darwin Designer


1 To calculate costs in Darwin Designer, select New Design Study 1 in the
left pane and select the Design Events tab in the right pane.
2 Select the scenario corresponding to the pipe sizes you wish to use in
costing.

3 Create a manual cost estimate by clicking the New button on the left pane
and selecting New Manual Cost Estimate Run.
4 Assign it a name like that of the scenario you have chosen so that you will
remember the basis for the costs.
5 Make sure the box for Use Diameters from Representative Scenario is
checked.
6 Check Is Active for the pipe groups to be priced and select the appropriate
Cost/properties for each Design Pipe Group.

7 To start the cost estimate, click Compute and click Close when the run is
complete.

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Calculating Piping Costs

Two new lines appear in the left pane; the one labeled Solutions displays
the total cost and the line labeled Solution 1 contains a detailed
breakdown of the cost for each pipe.

Warning: Nothing is displayed under the Simulated Results tab because a cost run does not
include any hydraulic calculations.

8 Repeat the iteration between hydraulic analysis and costing until you are
satisfied that the solution meets the design criteria at a reasonable cost.
9 Fill in the Results Table after each good run.

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Results Table

Results Table

Diameters
Pipe #

Run 1

Run 2

Run 3

Run 4

Run 5

Run 6

Run 7

Run 8

P-2
P-3
P-4
P-5
P-6
P-7
P-8
P-9
P-10
P-11
P-12
P-13
P-14
P-15
P-16
P-17
P-18
P-19
P-20
P-21

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Results Table

Run 1

Run 2

Run 3

Run 4

Run 5

Run 6

Run 7

Run 8

Avg., Max, or Peak?


Fire at
Fire Q (L/s)
Pressure (min) (kPa)
@ node #
HGL @ node (m)
Velocity (max) pipe #
Velocity (max) (m/s)
Cost ($)
Check?

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions
1 Explain why you selected the pipes you did.

2 Do you think the head loss in the 900 mm pipe is significant?

3 Why was node J-14 so troublesome? How did you resolve this problem?

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4 Why were 150 mm pipes not seriously considered in this system?

5 Why did node J-4 give you trouble at peak hour?

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Workshop Review

Answers

Diameters

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Pipe #

Run 1

Run 2

Run 3

Run 4

Run 5

Run 6

P-2

300

P-3

300

P-4

300

P-5

300

P-6

300

P-7

300

P-8

200

300

P-9

200

300

P-10

200

300

P-11

200

300

P-12

200

300

P-13

200

300

P-14

200

300

P-15

200

P-16

200

P-17

200

P-18

200

P-19

200

P-20

200

P-21

200

400

400
300

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Run 1

Run 2

Run 3

Run 4

Run 5

Run 6

Peak

Peak

Peak

Avg

Max

Max

Fire at

J-14

J-14

Fire Q (L/s)

230

230

Avg., Max, or Peak?

Pressure (min) (kPa)

195

216

249

291

-662

162

@ node #

J-4

J-4

J-4

J-4

J-14

J-14

HGL @ node (m)

285

287

291

295

191

276

Velocity (max) pipe # P-8

P-2

P-2

P-2

P-16

P-16

Velocity (max) (m/s) 1.95

1.66

1.30

0.53

7.32

3.25

Cost ($)

4.148 M

4.546 M

4.546 M

4.546 M

4.922 M

OK

OK

3.597 M

Check?

OK

1 Explain why you selected the pipes you did.


Used trial and error to meet requirements without excess capacity.

2 Do you think the head loss in the 900 mm pipe is significant?


It is not too bad in this problem.

3 Why was node J-14 so troublesome? How did you resolve this problem?
It is a dead end line at a high elevation.

4 Why were 150 mm pipes not seriously considered in this system?


Too much demand and high fire flows for that pipe size.

5 Why did node J-4 give you trouble at peak hour?


It has the highest elevation.

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Fire Protection and Fire Flow


Analysis

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Automated Fire Flow Analysis


Module Overview
In this case study, you will start with a large water system and evaluate the fire
flows at each hydrant in a proposed subdivision project. Your design criteria will
include a needed fire flow of 41 L/s at each hydrant at 130 kPa residual, a
minimum zone pressure of 130 kPa, and a velocity limitation. You will analyze the
system using color coding and annotation to locate pipes with the highest velocity
that may be limiting the design, as well as any nodes that may have insufficient
pressure. This course material has been developed for the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i
platform, at a minimum the Version 08.11.00.30. Modelers currently using
versions prior to WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, version 08.11.00.30, are strongly
encouraged to consider upgrading today to start taking advantage of the latest
features and interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Model Calibration

System Planning & Operation

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

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Specify and assign fire flow constraints

Perform automated and auxiliary fire flow analyses

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Automated Fire Flow Analysis

Problem Statement

Problem Statement
The overall steps of this workshop will include the following:

Setting up a scenario for max day demand (1.5 times average day) and running
it to get a feel for how the system will work under normal conditions.

Setting up an automated fire flow scenario to include only those hydrants in


the subdivision.

Using the results of the fire flow analysis, simulate a representative fire to
determine the weak links in the system.

Making some improvements to the system and determining the effects on fire
flows.

The file to be used for this workshop is called Automated_Fire_Start.wtg and can
be found in C:\Bentley Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter.

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Max Day Run

Max Day Run


This section is for setting up the max day demand scenario and for you to get
familiar with the system. To make fire flow runs, you will need to first set up a
scenario based on max day demand.

Exercise: Setting up the max day demand alternative


1 Open the AutomatedFireStart.wtg file in C:\Bentley
Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter.
2 Open the Alternatives manager.
3 Expand the Demand alternative category.
4 Create a child alternative from the Base-Average Daily alternative by
highlighting Base-Average Daily and clicking the New button.
5 Name the new child alternative Max Day Demand.

Exercise: Creating the max day scenario


1 Open the Scenarios manager and create a child scenario from the Base
scenario by highlighting Base and clicking on the New button.
2 Name the child scenario Max Day Base Physical.

3 With the Scenarios manager still open, right click on Max Day Base
Physical and select Properties.

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Max Day Run

4 Change the Demand alternative to Max Day Demand.

5 Within the Scenarios manager, right click on Max Day Base Physical and
select Make Current.

Note: Notice the red check mark will be displayed next to this scenario now indicating

that this is the current scenario.


6 Close the Scenarios manager.

Exercise: Multiplying the demands by 1.5 and computing the max day
scenario
1 Open the Demand Control Center (Tools > Demand Control Center).

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Max Day Run

2 Globally multiply all demands by a factor of 1.5.

3 All of the demands should now be 0.11 L/s.

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Max Day Run

4 Click Close to exit the Demand Control Center.


5 Make sure Max Day Base Physical is still the current scenario, and then
run the scenario by clicking Compute .
6 Review the results and fill in the table for the Max Day Run found at the
end of the workshop.
Note: The results can be reviewed using tables, color-coding, or annotation.

7 Answer the design questions that pertain to this run.

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Fire Flow Analysis Run

Fire Flow Analysis Run


In this section you will set up and compute the fire flow scenario for the
Greendale subdivision.

Exercise: Reviewing pressures from max day run


Our fire flow minimum zone pressure requirement is 130 kPa. Before
setting up the fire flow run, review the pressures in the system under Max
Day conditions so that you will have an idea of how the system will react
to fire flows.
1 Open the Junction FlexTable.
2 Sort the Pressures in Ascending order.
Notice that one of the pressures is already below 130 kPa. Do not be
concerned with this junction as it is located on the suction side of the
pump and has already been placed in a separate zone.
Also note that all of the other junctions are above 276 kPa.

3 Close out of the FlexTable.

Exercise: Creating the fire flow alternative


1 Open the Alternatives manager.

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Fire Flow Analysis Run

2 Expand the Fire Flow alternative category and create a Child Alternative
from Base-Fire Flow.
3 Name the child Greendale Fire Flows.

4 Edit Greendale Fire Flows and the Fire Flow: Greendale Fire Flows dialog
will appear.
5 Our analysis constraints are based on pressures, not velocity, so do not
check the Use Velocity Constraint? box.

6 Set the Fire Flow (Needed) to 41 L/s, and the Fire Flow (Upper Limit) to 221
L/s.
7 Set the Apply Fire Flows By to Adding to Baseline Demand in order to add
these flows to the existing demands.

8 Continue by setting the Pressure (Residual Lower Limit) to 130 kPa and the
Pressure (Zone Lower Limit) to 130 kPa.
9 Do not check the Use Minimum System Pressure Constraint box.
10 Let the Fire Flow Auxiliary Results Type remain as its default of None.
Note: The junction nodes in Greendale already have been placed into a selection set.

You need to choose it for your Fire Flow Nodes.


11 Select Greendale FF Junctions from the Fire Flow Nodes dropdown menu.

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Fire Flow Analysis Run

12 The junction nodes in the table below should be listed:


J-115

J-145

J-210

J-139

J-204

J-224

J-138

J-117

J-197

J-217

J-143

J-208

J-236

J-199

J-136

J-198

J-219

J-144

J-209

J-237

J-221

When finished, the Fire Flow dialog should appear as follows:

13 Click on Close to exit the Fire Flow dialog, and then close the Alternatives
manager.

Exercise: Setting up the fire flow calculation option


1 Select Analysis > Calculation Options.
2 Select Base under Steady State/EPS Solver.
3 Use the Duplicate button to make a copy of the Base calculation options.

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Fire Flow Analysis Run

4 Enter Fire Flow Calcs for the name by clicking the Rename button.

5 Open the Fire Flow Calcs Properties dialog by double clicking on Fire Flow
Calcs.
6 Change the Calculation Type to Fire Flow.

7 Close the Calculation Options manager.

Exercise: Creating and computing the fire flow scenario


1 Open the Scenarios manager.
2 With the Max Day Base Physical scenario highlighted, create a child
scenario called Greendale Fire Base Physical.

3 Double click Greendale Fire Base Physical to bring up its properties.

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Fire Flow Analysis Run

4 Set the Fire Flow alternative to Greendale Fire Flows and also set the
Calculation Option to Fire Flow Calcs.

5 Return to the Scenarios manager.


6 Make Greendale Fire Base Physical the current scenario by right clicking
on the scenario and selecting Make Current.
7 Close the Scenarios manager.
8 On the main drawing window, click Compute to run the fire flow analysis.
9 Close the Calculation Summary dialog and save your file.
10 Review the results with the Fire Flow Report FlexTable.
Note: Use the sort function to get results for the junction nodes in Greendale to come

to the top of the table; these are the junction nodes that have values whereas
all other junctions have N/A in the various fields.
11 Complete the Results Table for Fire Flow Analysis found at the end of the
workshop as well as answer any questions that pertain to this run.

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Using Auxiliary Results

Using Auxiliary Results


Now that you have found the fire flows, you would like to know which pipes have
unusually high velocity and which nodes are troublesome for particular fire flows.
To do this, you will use auxiliary results and the Fire Flow Results Browser.

Exercise: Setting up and computing the auxiliary fire flow scenario


1 Open the Alternatives manager and create a child alternative of the
Greendale Fire Flows alternative, called Greendale Auxiliary.

2 Open the Greendale Auxiliary alternative.


3 Select All Nodes from the Fire Flow Auxiliary Results Type dropdown menu
to indicate you want results to be saved for all fire flow runs.
4 Check the box for Use Node Pressure Less Than? and enter 207 kPa to see
any nodes that have pressures below 207 kPa.
5 Check the box for Use Pipe Velocity Greater Than? and enter 1.5 m/s as
the velocity above which you will store pipe flow results.

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Using Auxiliary Results

6 Make sure that the Fire Flow (Needed) is set to 41 L/s, the Pressure
Constraints are both set to 130 kPa and Greendale FF Junctions are
selected for Fire Flow Nodes.

7 Close the alternative and create a new scenario called Auxiliary as a child
of Greendale Fire Base Physical.

8 Open the Auxiliary scenario to edit its properties.


9 Set the Fire Flow alternative to Greendale Auxiliary.
10 Make Auxiliary the current scenario.
11 Click Compute from the toolbar and close the Calculation Summary when
it comes up.
12 Browse through the Fire Flow FlexTable, it should look essentially the
same as the previous fire flow run.

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Using Auxiliary Results

Exercise: Reviewing results using the fire flow results browser

Now you will use the Fire Flow Results Browser to look at auxiliary results.
1 Select Analysis > Fire Flow Results Browser and you will see the dialog
below:

Note: This indicates that all the fire flows passed, but you would like to see the

marginal nodes and pipes.


2 Open the Junction FlexTable.
3 Right click on the Pressure column and select Sort > Sort Descending.
4 Click on any junction node in the Fire Flow Results Browser and you will
see the results update in the Junction FlexTable.

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Using Auxiliary Results

Note: You will see results for all nodes from the Greendale FF Junctions set which

have pressure below 207 kPa.

Note: Above shows results for when J-115 is selected in the Fire Flow Results Browser.

5 Close the Junction FlexTable and open the Pipe FlexTable.


6 Sort the Velocity column in Descending order and you will only see results
for pipes with high velocity and the pipes connected to the selected fire
flow node.

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Note: The prior image shows results for when J-136 is selected in the Fire Flow

Results Browser. WaterCAD/GEMS does not save results for pipes that do not
meet the velocity criteria except for the pipes that are connected to the fire
flow node.
7 Fill in the Results Table at the end.
8 If you go back to the Fire Flow Results Browser and pick some other fire
flow junction node, you will see the results change in the Pipe FlexTable.
9 If you have additional time, use color coding to see which pipes are critical
for each fire flow node.

Exercise: Color coding critical pipes


1 Select View > Element Symbology and uncheck the Diameter color coding for
the pipes.
2 With Pipe highlighted, click the New button and select New Color Coding.
3 Select Velocity for Field Name.
4 Select Color and Size from the Options dropdown menu.
5 Set the following:
Value

Color

Size

Blue

Green

Red

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Using Auxiliary Results

6 Click Apply and then OK.


7 Now that you are color coding by velocity (only for those pipes that have
velocity greater than 1.5 m/s (as set in auxiliary results), you can step
through the fire flow nodes in the Fire Flow Results Browser and look at
the high velocity pipes for each fire flow.

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8 Try zooming to the new development portion of the system to better see
the pipes.

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Results Tables

Results Tables

Max Day Base Physical Scenario


Junction Node

Pressure (kPa)

HGL (m)

J-83
J-114
J-138

Fire Flow Analysis - Fire flow analysis run with the existing
distribution system
Node

Fire Flow
(Available) (L/s)

Pressure (Calculated
Residual Lower Limit) Pressure at Fire flow Node
(kPa)

Junction with
Minimum Pressure
(Zone)

Calculated
Minimum Zone
Pressure (kPa)

J-115
J-136
J-197
J-237

Auxiliary Results Pipe Data - List pipes with Velocity greater than
3 m/s when fire flow node is J-115
Pipe Number

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Flow (L/s)

Velocity (m/s)

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions
1 In reviewing the pressures from the max day steady state run, what would
you conclude about the pressures in this system?

2 In the fire flow analysis for this system the node which limited the fire flow
was not near the fire, why was this the case?

3 Is this typical for most systems?

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4 What pipe(s) had the highest velocity and were most responsible for
limiting fire flows?

5 What was the source of the water during the Max Day run vs. the source
for the Fire Flow run?

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Answers

Max Day Base Physical Scenario


Junction Node

Pressure (kPa)

HGL (m)

J-83

284

558

J-114

643

557

J-138

960

557

Fire Flow Analysis - Fire flow analysis run with the existing
distribution system
Node

Fire Flow
(Available) (L/s)

Pressure (Calculated
Residual Lower Limit) Pressure at Fire flow Node
(kPa)

Junction with
Minimum Pressure
(Zone)

Calculated
Minimum Zone
Pressure (kPa)

J-115

68.01

136

J-114

130

J-136

107.17

387

J-83

130

J-197

72.89

131

J-144

148

J-237

107.17

178

J-83

130

Auxiliary Results Pipe Data - List pipes with Velocity greater than
3 m/s when fire flow node is J-115
Pipe Number

Flow (L/s)

Velocity (m/s)

P-162

73.54

4.2

P-163

73.32

4.2

P-164

73.21

4.1

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Workshop Review

1 In reviewing the pressures from the max day steady state run, what would
you conclude about the pressures in this system?
Pressures are generally quite high. More than half of the node pressures
are greater than 600 kPa.

2 In the fire flow analysis for this system the node which limited the fire flow
was not near the fire, why was this the case?
High points other than at the flowed hydrant can control available fire
flow.

3 Is this typical for most systems?


This is not typical of systems in flatter terrain.

4 What pipe(s) had the highest velocity and were most responsible for
limiting fire flows?
Non-looped pipes had the highest velocity (e.g. P-162, P-163, and P-164).
However for some cases, head loss back in the other part of the system
controlled fire flow.

5 What was the source of the water during the Max Day run vs. the source
for the Fire Flow run?
Max day flows came from the pump while fire flows came primarily from
the tank. Pumps are limited by their curve.

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Extended Period Simulation

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Feb-10

Variable-Speed Pumping and


Energy Cost Analysis
Module Overview
In this case study, you will begin with a small existing model and set up 3 design
conditions: a variable speed pump connected to a closed system, a soft-start
pump connected to a closed system, and a soft-start pump connected to a system
with an elevated water tank. You will set up the controls for the pump and run the
scenarios over an extended period of time using the Extended Period Simulation
(EPS) calculator. You will review the results and compare the life cycle energy costs
for the three different pump operating strategies. This course material has been
developed for the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i platform, at a minimum the Version
08.11.00.30. Modelers currently using versions prior to WaterCAD/GEMS V8i,
version 08.11.00.30, are strongly encouraged to consider upgrading today to start
taking advantage of the latest features and interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Model Calibration

System Planning & Operation

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

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Model Variable-speed pumps

Set up logical water distribution system controls

Perform energy audits on a water distribution system and improve its


operation

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Problem Statement

Problem Statement
In this workshop, you will compare the energy costs for following three different
pump operating strategies:

Constant-speed pumping with storage

Constant-speed pumping without storage

Variable-speed pumping without storage

You will make this comparison by setting up and running a 24-hour EPS simulation
for each operating strategy. The network layout and most of the input data have
already been entered into the file EPS.wtg.

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Problem Statement

You will need to enter the demand pattern (continuous type) given below and
assign this pattern to all of the node demands for every scenario.
Hour

Multiplier

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

12

1.2

15

1.0

18

0.8

21

0.6

24

0.8

The pump efficiency curve for both pumps under all scenarios is described by:

Efficiency Type: Best Efficiency Point

Motor efficiency = 95%

BEP efficiency = 75%

BEP Flow = 657.19 L/s

For all operating strategies, PMP-4 is initially ON and PMP-5 is OFF.


The operating strategies for the three scenarios are given below.

Scenario 1: Tank Control


Tank levels for pump switches are shown in the following table:

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On if T-1 HGL (m) is <

Off if T-1 HGL (m) is >

PMP-4

106.7

109.4

PMP-5

105.2

108.2

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Problem Statement

Scenario 2: Constant speed/no tank

PMP-4 is always on.

PMP-5 comes on when flow in P-18 is greater than 657.19 L/s; else, PMP-5 is
off.

T-1 and P-16 are inactive for this scenario.

Scenario 3: Variable speed/no tank

PMP-4 is a variable speed pump, which is always on and set to maintain a


target head of 115.8 m at J-1.

The maximum relative speed is 1.0.

The controls on PMP-5 are the same as those used in scenario 2.

T-1 and P-16 are inactive for this scenario.

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Getting Started

Getting Started
You will be using an existing WaterCAD/GEMS file named EPS.wtg. This file
includes the layout of the system with a base physical scenario for which node
demands, elevations, pipe, pump, and tank characteristics have already been
entered. You will need to finish entering the rest of the data to get the model set
up for the different scenarios.

Exercise: Entering demand data


1 Select Components > Patterns.
2 In the Patterns dialog, click on Hydraulic, and then select the New button.
3 Instead of accepting the default name Hydraulic Pattern-1, rename the
pattern to Diurnal.
4 Enter a Start Time of 12:00:00 AM and a Starting Multiplier of 0.8.
5 Set the Pattern Format to Continuous.
6 Complete the pattern as shown below:

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Hour

Multiplier

1.0

1.2

1.4

12

1.2

15

1.0

18

0.8

21

0.6

24

0.8

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Getting Started

7 Close the Patterns manager.

Exercise: Assigning the demand pattern to demand nodes


1 Assign the diurnal demand pattern to each of the demand nodes by
selecting Tools > Demand Control Center.
2 Right click on the Pattern (Demand) column header and select Global Edit.

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Getting Started

3 Select Diurnal for the Value.

4 Click OK and click Close to return to the drawing pane.


Next, you must define the efficiency curve for each pump.

Exercise: Entering pump efficiency data


1 Select Components > Pump Definitions to open the Pump Definitions
manager.

Note: Notice that there are currently two pumps defined.

2 Highlight Pump Definition 3 (PMP-4), select the Efficiency tab and enter
the following:
Pump Efficiency Best Efficiency Point
BEP Flow 657.19 L/s
BEP efficiency 75%

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Getting Started

Note: The pump efficiency curve is displayed as the red line.

3 Select the Motor tab and set the Motor Efficiency to 95%.
4 Enter the same efficiency data for Pump Definition-2 (PMP-5).

Exercise: Setting pump initial conditions


For all scenarios, PMP-4 is initially ON and PMP-5 is initially OFF.

Note: These can be easily set in the Pump FlexTable.

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Getting Started

1 Open the Pump FlexTable and set those conditions using the Status
dropdown menus.

Hint: You may need to edit the FlexTable to add Status (Initial) as a column in the

FlexTable.

Exercise: Setting the calculation options


You are going to analyze this system using 24-hour extended period
simulation runs so you need to set the calculation options up for that type
of analysis.
1 Select Analysis > Calculation Options.
2 Make sure Steady State/EPS Solver is highlighted and click the New button.
3 Name the new calculation option 24-Hour EPS.

4 Adjust the properties of 24-Hour EPS as follows:


Base Date:Enter todays date
Time Analysis Type: EPS
Start Time: 12:00:00 AM
Duration (hours): 24

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Hydraulic Time Step (hours):1.0

5 Close the Calculation Options manager.


6 Save your file.

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Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario

Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario


You will now set up controls for the first Scenario described in the Problem
Statement. All of the controls will be set up through Components > Controls. In
the Controls dialog, you can set up the controls directly, or build conditions and
actions individually and then combine them to make controls. New in WaterCAD/
GEMS V8i is the Control Wizard which we will use in this training.

Exercise: Setting up the tank control conditions


1 Select Components > Controls.
2 On the Controls tab click the Control Wizard button.

3 Select the following from the associated dropdown menus in the Control
Wizard dialog to enter the controls for PMP-4:
Pump: PMP-4
Tank: T-1
On Operator: <
On HGL (m): 106.7
Off Operator: >
Off HGL (m): 109.4

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Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario

4 Click the New button and add the following controls for PMP-5.
Pump: PMP-5
Tank: T-1
On Operator: <
On HGL (m): 105.2
Off Operator: >
Off HGL (m): 108.2
5 Click the Create button when you are done.
Note: When you click Create the Control Wizard enters the different Conditions and

Actions of the controls that you entered into their associated tabs on the
Controls dialog and builds the controls for you.
You should now see four controls listed on the Controls tab of the Controls
dialog.

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Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario

6 Click on the Conditions and Actions tabs to review what the wizard did.
Note: These four logical controls are needed for the first scenario, in which the pumps

are controlled by tank level. We are going to group them into a Logical Control
Set.

Exercise: Creating a logical control set


1 Select the Control Sets tab and click on the New button to open the Logical
Control Set dialog.

2 Move all four controls from the Available Items pane to the Selected Items
pane by clicking the Add All button.
3 Click Close when done.
4 Right click on Logical Control Set-1 and select Rename.

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Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario

5 Give it a name of Tank Controls.

6 Close out of the Controls dialog when you are done.


7 Save your file.

Exercise: Creating the control alternative


1 To create a new alternative and scenario named Tank Control that
incorporates the logical controls you just created, first go to the
Alternatives manager and expand the Operational alternative category.
2 Create a child alternative from Base-Operational Controls.
3 Name the new child alternative Tank Control Operations.

4 Open the Tank Control Operations alternative.

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Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario

5 Select Tank Controls from the dropdown menu for Control Set.

6 Click Close.

Exercise: Creating the tank control scenario


1 Open the Scenarios manager.
2 Add a child scenario to Base named Tank Control Scenario.

Note: This scenario will use the base topology, physical, demand and initial conditions

alternatives.

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Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario

3 Edit the properties for the Tank Control Scenario and set the Operational
alternative to Tank Control Operations and the Calculation Option to 24Hour EPS.

4 Close the Scenarios manager.

Exercise: Computing the tank control scenario


1 Make Tank Control Scenario the active scenario.
2 Click Compute.
3 Review the Calculation Summary results.

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Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario

Note: The buttons for every time increment should be green.

4 Close the Calculation Summary.

Exercise: Using graphs to compare junction pressures


1 Click on the Graphs button to create a graph to compare pressures at
nodes J-1, J-3 and J-9.
2 Select the down arrow next to the New button and select Line-Series
Graph.
The Select toolbar appears with the Add button already selected.
3 Select junctions J-1, J-3 and J-9 on the drawing pane, then select Done
(green check mark).
The Graph Series Options dialog appears.
4 Select Pressure and uncheck Hydraulic Grade for the Fields.

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Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario

Your screen should look as shown below.

5 Click OK to generate the graph.

6 Use the Chart Settings button to enhance the appearance of your graph.

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Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario

7 Arrange the information listed in the legend so the nodes are in ascending
order, left to right.
Note: Use the up and down buttons to rearrange the legend.

8 Change the graph to 3-D by clicking on the 3-D tab.


9 Put a check mark in the 3 Dimensions box, select Best Quality from the
Quality dropdown menu.

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Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario

10 Click Close to exit out of the Chart Options dialog.

11 Close the graph and rename it Junction Pressures.

12 Save your file.

Exercise: Graphing a pumps flow over time


Now, create another graph of pump PMP-4 flow over time.

Note: On the drawing nodes J-1, J-3 and J-9 may still be highlighted.

1 Click on PMP-4 to highlight it instead of the junctions.

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Scenario 1: Tank Control Scenario

2 Click the New button from the Graphs dialog and select Line Series Graph.
Again, make sure the correct Scenario, Element, and Field are checked.
Note: You can use Flow (Total) or Flow (Absolute) to plot pump flows.

3 Select OK to view the graph.


4 Enhance the graph appearance if you like the 3-D look.

5 Close this graph and rename it Pump PMP-4 Flow.


6 Complete the column in the Results Table for the With Tank scenario.
7 Results can be found using graphs or tables.
Note: For each run, wait until later in the workshop to answer the energy cost

questions. Computing energy cost will be addressed in detail after you have
set-up all 3 scenarios.

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Scenario 2: Constant-Speed Pump with no Tank

Scenario 2: Constant-Speed Pump with no Tank


The next two scenarios will model the system with no storage tank. To do this
within the same model file without losing any data, you will need to set up an
alternative topologyone without T-1 and P-16.

Exercise: Creating an active topology alternative


1 To make T-1 and P-16 inactive, go to the Alternatives manager and expand
the Active Topology category.
2 Add a child alternative to Base-Active Topology and name it No Tank.

3 Double click on No Tank to edit it.


4 On the Pipe tab, uncheck the Is Active? box for P-16.

5 On the Tank tab, uncheck the Is Active? box for T-1.

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Scenario 2: Constant-Speed Pump with no Tank

6 Click Close.
7 Close the Alternatives manager.

Exercise: Creating a new control condition


You must now set up a new logical control set for this scenario. PMP-4 will
remain on at all times in this scenario because there is no storage. Under
higher flow conditions, it may be necessary to run PMP-5 as well. Set up a
control that will turn PMP-5 on when the flow in P-18 is greater than
657.19 L/s.
1 Select Components > Controls and select the Conditions tab.
2 Click the New button and select Simple.
3 Set the parameters as listed below:
Condition Type: Element
Element: P-18 (click the ellipsis and select from drawing)
Pipe Attribute: Flow
Operator: >
Discharge: 657.19 L/s

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Scenario 2: Constant-Speed Pump with no Tank

Exercise: Creating the new control


Because you have already created the Actions (PMP-5 = On) and (PMP-5 =
Off), you do not need to recreate them.
1 Go directly to the Controls tab, click New, and set the following:
IF Condition: (P-18 Flow > 657.19 L/s)
THEN Action: (PMP-5 = On)
ELSE Action: (PMP-5 = Off) (check the Has Else? box to activate option)

Exercise: Creating the new control set


1 Select the Control Sets tab and click on New.
2 Add only the control for pipe P-18 flow that you just created using the
single Add button.
3 Click OK and rename this control set No Tank.

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Scenario 2: Constant-Speed Pump with no Tank

Note: It should only contain one control.

4 Close the Controls dialog.

Exercise: Creating a new control alternative


1 Go to the Alternatives manager and expand the Operational alternative
category.
2 Add another child to Base-Operational Controls and name it No Tank
Operations.

3 Open No Tank Operations and select No Tank as the Control Set.

4 Click Close.

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Exercise: Creating and computing the new scenario

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Scenario 2: Constant-Speed Pump with no Tank

A new scenario is needed that uses this new control.


1 Open the Scenarios manager, highlight Base, click the New button and
select Child Scenario.
2 Name it No Tank Constant Speed.
3 Set the following:
Active Topology: No Tank
Operational: Control Set: No Tank Operations
Calculation Options: 24-Hour EPS

4 Close the Scenarios manager and make No Tank Constant Speed the
active scenario.
5 Compute this scenario and check the results to make sure that there are
no warnings.
6 Close the Calculation Summary.
7 Go back to your graphs and view the pressure comparison graph you
created in the last scenario.

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Scenario 2: Constant-Speed Pump with no Tank

Note: Make sure No Tank Constant Speed is the selected scenario in the Graph Series

Options dialog box.

8 Fill in the Results Table and answer the questions for this scenario.

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Scenario 3: Variable-Speed Pump with no Tank

Scenario 3: Variable-Speed Pump with no Tank


The variable speed pump scenario will use the same active topology and
operational controls as the constant speed scenario, so it will be created as a child
of that scenario. The only change between the two runs is that the lead pump,
PMP-4, will now be a variable-speed pump (VSP).

Exercise: Creating a new physical alternative


Change PMP-4 to a variable-speed pump by creating a new physical
alternative called Variable Speed.
1 Go to the Alternatives manager and expand the Physical alternative
category.
2 Add a child to Base-Physical named Variable Speed.

Note: Make no more modifications here; we will modify this alternative from the

drawing.

Exercise: Creating the no tank variable speed scenario


1 Go to the Scenarios manager and add a child to No Tank Constant Speed
named No Tank Variable Speed.

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Scenario 3: Variable-Speed Pump with no Tank

2 Change its Physical alternative to Variable Speed.

3 Close the Scenarios manager.

Exercise: Changing PMP-4 to a VSP


1 On the main window make No Tank Variable Speed the active scenario.
2 Double click on PMP-4 to edit its pump properties.
3 In the Physical category, change Is Variable Speed Pump? to True.
4 Set the following:
VSP Type: Fixed Head
Control Node: J-1
Hydraulic Grade (Target) (m): 115.8

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Scenario 3: Variable-Speed Pump with no Tank

Relative Speed Factor (Maximum): 1.0

Exercise: Computing and reviewing the variable speed scenario


1 Make sure No Tank Variable Speed is the active scenario and Compute it.
You can get an overview of how the operations of the pumps affect
pressures by looking at junctions J-1 and J-3.
2 In the Graphs dialog, create a new Line-Series Graph.
3 Select J-1 in the drawing.
4 In the Graph Series Options dialog select Pressure and check all three
boxes for your scenarios: Tank Control Scenario, No Tank Constant
Speed, and No Tank Variable Speed.

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Scenario 3: Variable-Speed Pump with no Tank

5 Click OK to view the graph.

6 Enhance the graph appearance if you like.


7 Fill in the Results Table and answer questions for this run.
Note: You can use the Data tab and column sort functions to help find minimum and

maximum pressures.
8 Close the graph and give it a descriptive name.
9 Repeat these steps for junction J-3.
10 Complete the rest of the first Results Table.

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Energy Cost

Energy Cost
Now you are going to calculate the energy cost for each scenario.

Exercise: Setting up energy costs


1 Select Analysis > Energy Costs.
2 Click the Energy Pricing button and then click the New button on the
Energy Pricing dialog.
3 Rename this energy pricing data Uniform Energy Price.
4 Enter a Start Energy Price of $0.10/kWh with no demand charge.
5 Enter the same price, $0.10/kWh at 24 hours.

6 Click Close on the Energy Pricing dialog.

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Energy Cost

7 Stay in the Energy Cost dialog and select the Tank Control Scenario.
8 Include PMP-4 and PMP-5 in the energy calculations and assign Uniform
Energy Price in the Energy Pricing column.

9 Click the Compute button on the Energy Costs dialog and record the daily
pumping cost.
10 Review energy cost information and pump/storage details.
11 Select the No Tank Constant Speed scenario, compute it, and record the
daily cost.
12 Finally, do the same for the No Tank Variable Speed scenario.
13 When finished, exit the Energy Cost dialog.

Exercise: Reviewing Wire-to-Water Efficiencies


The next results to review are Wire-to-Water Efficiencies and Pump Heads.
1 Create a new Line-Series Graph for pump PMP-4.
2 On the Graph Series Options dialog, set the Scenario to Tank Control
Scenario and the Fields to Wire to Water Efficiency found under the
Results (Energy Costs) section.

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Energy Cost

3 Click OK to view the graph.

4 Review the graph and the Data tab.


5 Record the range of efficiencies in the Results Table.
Note: Do not use a minimum efficiency value that occurred when the pump is off.

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Energy Cost

6 Change the graph to show Pump Head, and record the minimum and
maximum pump operating heads.

Note: Record head values that occurred when the pump is running.

7 Use the graphing capabilities to obtain the wire-to-water efficiencies and


pump heads for the other two scenarios.
8 You may use this existing graph and adjust the scenario, or you can create
additional graphs.
Hint: An effective procedure for comparing results is to plot multiple scenarios on

one graph.
9 Complete the results table and finish the questions.

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Results Table

Results Table
Please use graphs and data tables to complete the results table with approximate
values. Do not record zero hour values. Complete this first table after the
extended period simulation runs.

Attribute

With Tank

No Tank Constand
Speed

No Tank Variable
Speed

Max Pressure J-1 (kPa)


Min Pressure J-1 (kPa)
Max Pressure J-3 (kPa)
Min Pressure J-3 (kPa)

After you complete the energy costing runs, fill in the table below.
Attribute

With Tank

No Tank Constant
Speed

No Tank Variable
Speed

Max W-toW Efficiency


PMP-4 (%)
Min W-to-W Efficiency
PMP-4 (%)
Max Head PMP-4 (m)
Min Head PMP-4 (m)
Daily Energy Cost ($)

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions
1 In the tank control run, why does the pressure vary more at J-1 than J-3?

2 In the variable speed pump run, why does pressure vary more at J-3 than
J-1?

3 What is the number of pump starts during the day for the scenario with
the tank? Is it excessive?

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4 Do you think the pumps have enough capacity for this application?

5 Which scenario had the lowest energy costs? Which do you think would
have the lowest life-cycle cost?

6 Why was the energy use for the no tank constant head scenario the
greatest? What did the other two scenarios do to lower costs?

7 What was the range of relative speeds for the variable speed pump? If the
target head were increase, how do you think the speed would change?

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Answers

Attribute

With Tank

No Tank Constand
Speed

No Tank Variable
Speed

Max Pressure J-1 (kPa) 579

702

537

Min Pressure J-1 (kPa) 406

630

537

Max Pressure J-3 (kPa) 481

692

527

Min Pressure J-3 (kPa) 438

589

495

Attribute

No Tank Constant
Speed

No Tank Variable
Speed

Max W-toW Efficiency 71.2


PMP-4 (%)

68.9

70.3

Min W-to-W Efficiency 70.5


PMP-4 (%)

43.9

48.8

Max Head PMP-4 (m)

54.9

65.9

50.0

Min Head PMP-4 (m)

51.6

59.6

49.1

Daily Energy Cost ($)

691

986

730

With Tank

1 In the tank control run, why does the pressure vary more at J-1 than J-3?
The tank tends to keep pressure constant. The cycling of pumps affects J-1
the most because of location.

2 In the variable speed pump run, why does pressure vary more at J-3 than
J-1?
Pressure is controlled to be constant at J-1.

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3 What is the number of pump starts during the day for the scenario with
the tank? Is it excessive?
5, not excessive.

4 Do you think the pumps have enough capacity for this application?
Yes, pumps turn off or run at less than full speed.

5 Which scenario had the lowest energy costs? Which do you think would
have the lowest life-cycle cost?
Tank had lowest energy cost, while variable speed will probably have
lowest life-cycle cost. Must compare VFD costs with tank costs and
benefits.

6 Why was the energy use for the no tank constant head scenario the
greatest? What did the other two scenarios do to lower costs?
Constant speed pump cannot turn off if there is no storage or slow down if
there is no variable speed drive.

7 What was the range of relative speeds for the variable speed pump? If the
target head were to increase, how do you think the speed would change?
0.87 to 0.92, speed would increase if target head increased.

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Fundamentals of Water Quality


Modeling

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Water Quality Analysis


Module Overview
In this case study you will create 6 different scenarios for a Water Quality analysis.
You will learn to set up a network scenario to investigate the blending of two
sources, perform a water age analysis, a chlorine residual analysis (one with wall
decay and the other without), and a trace analysis. You will also consider tank
mixing models and the importance of setting good initial concentrations. This
course material has been developed for the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i platform, at a
minimum the Version 08.11.00.30. Modelers currently using versions prior to
WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, version 08.11.00.30, are strongly encouraged to consider
upgrading today to start taking advantage of the latest features and
interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Model Calibration

System Planning & Operation

Extended Period Simulation

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

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Analyze various Water Quality parameters using Extended-period simulations

Disinfection by products (DBPs) formation

Understand tracer studies and constituent mixing within a water distribution


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Problem Statement

Problem Statement
Runs 1-2
You are working with a system with two sources: one source (R-1) has low total
dissolved solids (TDS) of 250 mg/L, while a second source (R-3) has a TDS of 600
mg/L. The low TDS source runs continuously, while the high TDS source only
comes on when the water level in tank 1 drops to 50 m. It goes off when the level
reaches 51.5 m. You want to investigate the blending of the two sources in the
distribution system.

Runs 3-4
You are also concerned with the chlorine residual in the system. You will simulate
2 chlorine residual runs for the system, one considering wall decay and the other
not considering wall decay and compare the results.

Runs 5-6
There have also been reports that the water in the system may be quite old, so
you want to investigate the water age. In addition you would like to trace water
from R-1 to determine how much of the systems water is being generated by this
reservoir.
An EPS model of the system has already been constructed and is stored in a file
named WaterQuality.wtg. You will use this model to analyze the water quality
runs discussed above. Open this file from C:\Bentley
Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter to begin the workshop.

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Run 1- TDS Simulation

Run 1- TDS Simulation


WaterGEMS has a default water quality alternative called Default -Constituent
which already exists. You will create an additional alternative to model TDS. Any
substance can be modeled provided you enter the correct data to describe its
concentration and decay.

Exercise: Creating the TDS Alternative


1 Open the Alternatives manager.
2 Expand the Constituent alternative category and add a child alternative to
Default-Constituent.
3 Rename it to TDS.

Next, you will need to define TDS as a constituent.

Exercise: Creating the TDS Constituent


1 Open the TDS alternative.

2 Click the ellipsis () to open the Constituents dialog.


3 Click the New button and create a new constituent label named TDS.

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Run 1- TDS Simulation

4 Click on the TDS label and confirm that a Diffusivity value of 1.208e-009
m2/s is entered and the box for Unlimited Concentration? is checked.

Note: Since TDS is a conservative constituent, the reaction rate (bulk and wall decay)

coefficients are zero.


5 Click Close and you should be back at the Constituent: TDS dialog.
6 Select TDS from the Constituent dropdown menu.

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Run 1- TDS Simulation

7 You will need to set the concentration of TDS in the two reservoirs based
on the table below.
Reservoir TDS-Concentration (Initial) (mg/L)
R-1

250

R-3

600

8 Select the Reservoir tab on the Constituent dialog to enter the above
concentrations.

Note: The initial TDS concentration in T-1, T-2, and the junctions are zero so you will

not need to modify these.


9 Close the Constituent: TDS alternative dialog to accept the data.

Exercise: Entering the calculation option for analyzing TDS


1 Set up a calculation option for analyzing TDS concentrations with the
name Constituent Analysis 144 hours.

2 Edit the new calculation option and set the following:


Calculation Type: Constituent
Base Date: Todays Date
Start Time: 12:00:00 AM

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Run 1- TDS Simulation

Duration (hours): 144


Hydraulic Time Step (hours): 1.0

3 Close the Calculation Options manager.

Exercise: Creating the TDS Scenario


1 Open the Scenarios manager.
2 Create a child scenario from Base.
3 Name the new scenario TDS.

4 Review the properties of TDS and set the Demand alternative to Peak
Hour and the Constituent alternative to TDS.

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Run 1- TDS Simulation

5 The Calculation Option should be Constituent Analysis 144 hours.

6 Close the Scenarios manager.

Exercise: Computing the TDS scenario and reviewing results


1 Make TDS the active scenario.
2 Select Compute from the menu bar.
3 Review the Calculation Summary (all time step buttons should be green).
4 Close the Calculation Summary.

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Exercise: Using color coding to review the TDS

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Run 1- TDS Simulation

To view the results graphically set up pipe color-coding for TDS using the
color range table below:
Value <=(mg/L)

Color

260

Green

300

Cyan

400

Yellow

500

Magenta

625

Red

1 Select View > Element Symbology if the manager is not already open.
2 Right click on Pipe and select New > Color Coding to create a color-coding
table.
3 Select Concentration (Calculated) for the Field Name.
4 Click the Calculate Range button to see the Minimum and Maximum
values.
5 Make sure Options: is set to Color.
6 Enter the information from the above table.

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Run 1- TDS Simulation

7 When finished, click Apply and then OK.

Exercise: Using the EPS Results Browser to scroll through the time steps
The EPS Results Browser will be used to scroll though the TDS scenario
time steps.
1 Click the EPS Results Browser button or select Analysis > EPS Results
Browser.
2 Size and drag the EPS Results Browser window to a convenient location on
your screen.
3 Set the Increment to 1.0 hour and use the Step button to scroll through
several time steps and see how TDS levels fluctuate by observing link color
changes.

Note: It should be obvious when the pump starts and stops.

4 Click the Play button to automatically scroll through the time steps.
5 Use the Speed slider to increase or decrease the scroll rate.

Exercise: Graphing calculated concentration at J-13


Make a graph of calculated concentration at Junction J-13.
1 Select View > Graphs.
2 On the Graphs manager select New > Line-Series Graph using the drop
down arrow next to the New button.

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Run 1- TDS Simulation

3 Select node J-13 from the drawing and click the Done button.
4 On the Graph Series Options dialog, the TDS scenario should be checked
and under Elements only J-13 should be checked.
5 In the Fields section, expand Results (Water Quality) and check the box for
Concentration (Calculated).
6 Clear the check marks for the other Fields.

7 Click OK.

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Run 1- TDS Simulation

You should see the graph below:

Note: You can enhance the appearance of your graph if you would like to.

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Run 1- TDS Simulation

8 Click the Data tab to view the data that was used to create the graph.

Note: You can sort and filter the information shown under the Data tab.

9 To access the filter option, right click on the column header for Time and
select Filter > Custom.
10 You can apply a filter to show only the last 24 hours of any run and then
sort the TDS column in ascending and descending order to get the
minimum and maximum values.
11 Close the graph and in the Graphs manager, rename your graph TDS.

12 Open the graph again and use the graphs and tables to fill in the Results
Table and answer the questions for Run 1.
13 Save your file.

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Run 2- TDS-300 Simulation

Run 2- TDS-300 Simulation


In the second run you will set more realistic initial conditions and run the
simulation for a longer time period. Results from the first scenario run can be
used to generate a graph of TDS concentration over time for the two tanks and
use the graph to estimate starting initial concentrations.
Hint: Notice that in T-1 and T-2 the concentration was still climbing at the end of the

144-hour run. Tank T-1 has a concentration of 255 mg/l and climbing and T-2
has a concentration of 256 mg/l and climbing. Based on these graphs, we
decide to modify our initial conditions for Run 2. A good starting condition for
both T-1 and T-2 is 300 mg/l for Run 2.
For this run you will need to create a new TDS alternative and enter more
accurate starting conditions (300 mg/l) for T-1 and T-2. Then set-up a second
scenario for this updated TDS alternative.

Exercise: Creating the TDS-300 Scenario


1 Open the Alternatives manager and create a child alternative from TDS.
2 Name it TDS-300.

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Run 2- TDS-300 Simulation

3 Open TDS-300, click on the Tank tab, and enter 300 mg/L in Concentration
(Initial) for each tank.

4 Click Close and close out of the Alternatives manager.

Exercise: Setting the 288 hour calculation option


1 Open the Calculation Options manager (Analysis > Calculation Options)
and duplicate the Constituent Analysis 144 hours.
2 Rename the new calculation option Constituent Analysis 288 hours and
change its Duration (hours) to 288.
3 Close the Calculation Options manager.

Exercise: Creating the TDS-300 Scenario


1 Open the Scenarios manager and create a child scenario from TDS.
2 Rename the new scenario TDS-300.

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Run 2- TDS-300 Simulation

3 Edit the scenario and change the Constituent alternative used by this
scenario to be TDS-300, and change the Calculation Option to Constituent
Analysis 288 hours.

4 Close the Scenarios manager.


5 Set TDS-300 as the active scenario on the main screen.
6 Select Compute from the menu bar to calculate the scenario.
7 Close the Calculation Summary.
Note: Fill in the column for Run 2 using graphs and other viewing tools. Remember to

look at the last 24 hours.

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Run 3- Chlorine Residual

Run 3- Chlorine Residual


In the next 2 runs you will simulate the resulting chlorine residual throughout the
system. To begin you need to add chlorine as a constituent.

Exercise: Creating the chlorine constituent and alternative


1 Open the Alternatives manager, create another child from the DefaultConstituent alternative and name it Chlorine.

2 Open the Chlorine alternative.


3 Select the ellipsis button for the Constituent field to add Chlorine as a
constituent.
4 Click New to create a new constituent and name it Chlorine.
5 The Diffusivity is 1.208e-009 m2/s.
Note: Chlorine reaction is a first order reaction.

6 From a bottle test of decay you know that the Bulk Reaction Rate is 0.3
(mg/L)^(1-n)/day.

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Run 3- Chlorine Residual

Note: Do not worry about entering Wall Reaction.

7 Select Close to bring you back to the Constituents dialog.


8 Select Chlorine for the Constituent.

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Run 3- Chlorine Residual

9 Enter a Concentration (Initial) of 1.0 mg/L for R-1 and R-3 on the Reservoir
tab.

10 Close the Constituent alternative.

Exercise: Creating, computing and reviewing the chlorine scenario


1 Open the Scenarios manager.
2 Add a child to the Base scenario and name the new scenario Chlorine
Residual.

3 Set the following properties for the Chlorine Residual scenario:


Demand: Peak Hour
Constituent: Chlorine

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Run 3- Chlorine Residual

Calculation Option: Constituent Analysis 144 hours

4 Close the Scenarios manager.


5 Confirm that the active scenario on the main window is Chlorine Residual.
6 Select Compute to run the scenario.
7 Fill in the results column for Run 3 using graphs and other viewing tools.

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Run 4- Chlorine Residual with Wall Reaction

Run 4- Chlorine Residual with Wall Reaction


For the next chlorine residual run we will make a modification to the wall
reaction. Your supervisor has noticed that the observed chlorine residual in the
network is generally lower than modeled results and she suspects there is a
significant wall demand. In order to more accurately model the real world
situation we need to enter a wall reaction rate for chlorine.

Exercise: Creating the chlorine plus wall reaction alternative


1 Open the Alternatives manager and create a child alternative to the
Chlorine constituent alternative.
2 Name it Chlorine + Wall.

3 Open Chlorine + Wall and click on the ellipsis () to enter the wall reaction
coefficient.
4 Click on Chlorine and then click the Duplicate button.
5 Rename the new item Chlorine + Wall.
Note: The Diffusivity and Bulk Reaction Rate fields should already be filled in.

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Run 4- Chlorine Residual with Wall Reaction

6 Select First Order for Wall Reaction Order and enter -0.305 m/day as the
value.

7 Click Close.
8 Select Chlorine + Wall as the Constituent, and then click Close.

Exercise: Creating the chlorine residual scenario


1 Go to the Scenarios manager and create a child scenario from Chlorine
Residual.
2 Name the new scenario Chlorine with Wall.

3 Edit the scenario and select Chlorine + Wall as the Constituent alternative.

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Run 4- Chlorine Residual with Wall Reaction

4 You want to analyze over a longer duration, so set the Calculation Option
to Constituent Analysis 288 hours.

5 Close Scenarios manager and make sure that Chlorine with Wall is the
active scenario on the main screen.
6 Select Compute to calculate the scenario.
7 Fill in the results column for Run 4 using tables and graphs.

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Run 5- Age

Run 5- Age
In the fifth run you will investigate water age in the system.

Exercise: Creating the age alternative


1 Go to the Alternatives manager and expand the Age category.
You will notice that a Default-Age alternative already exists.
2 Add a child to Default-Age and name it Age.
3 Open the new alternative.
4 Set the Age (Initial) (hours) in J-1 through J-19 to 1 hour.

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Run 5- Age

5 Select the Reservoir tab and set the water age in the reservoirs to 0.00
hours.

6 Select the Tank tab and set the Age (Initial) in both tanks to 72 hours (3
days). This is a typical water age found in many tanks.

7 After you have entered these values close out of the Age alternative.

Exercise: Creating new age calculation options


1 Go to the Calculation Options manager (Analysis > Calculation Options).
2 Create a new calculation option called Age-144 that has the following
settings:
Calculation Type: Age
Start Time: 12:00:00 AM
Duration (hours): 144
Hydraulic Time Step (hours): 1.0

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Run 5- Age

3 While you are here, create another calculation option named Age-288
with the same parameters, but with a Duration of 288 hours.

4 Save your file.

Exercise: Creating the new Age scenarios


1 Open the Scenarios manager and create a new child scenario from the
Base scenario.
2 Name the new scenario Age-144.
3 Open the scenario and select Age as the Age alternative and Age-144 as
the Calculation Option.
4 Close the Scenarios manager.

Exercise: Computing and reviewing the Age scenario


1 Make Age-144 the active scenario and Compute it.
2 Use a graph to review the water age in the two tanks over the 144 hours.
3 Have both tanks reached an equilibrium condition?
4 If not, then run the age scenario for a longer duration (try 288 hours) in
order to select better starting ages for the tanks and make another run.
5 Once you feel the starting conditions for age are correct, complete the
results column and answer the questions for Run 5 in the results table.

Note: The answers at the end of the workshop are based on T-1 initial age = 72 hours,

T-2 initial age = 144 hours, and an analysis duration of 288 hours).

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Run 6- Trace

Run 6- Trace
In the sixth run you will do a source tracing for reservoir R-1. This will tell you the
amount of water at each node that comes from this reservoir.
You know from historical analysis that on average about 80% of the water comes
from reservoir R-1, so as a starting point, you will set the initial trace percentage
to 80% for all junctions and tanks. Set the initial trace percentage to zero for R-1
and R-3.

Exercise: Creating the trace alternative


1 Open the Alternatives manager and expand the Trace alternative
category.
2 Create a child alternative from Default-Trace and name it Trace.

3 Open the Trace alternative and set the Trace Element to R-1 by clicking the
ellipsis () and then selecting R-1 from the drawing.

4 Select the Junction tab and globally change all Trace (Initial) (%) to 80%.
5 Select the Tank tab and set both tanks at 80%.
6 Close the alternative when you are done.

Exercise: Setting up the trace calculation options


1 Open the Calculation Options manager (Analysis > Calculation Options).

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Run 6- Trace

2 Create a calculation option and name it Trace-450.


3 Set the following:
Calculation Type: Trace
Start Time: 12:00:00 AM
Duration (hours): 450
Hydraulic Time Step (hours): 1.0

Exercise: Creating and computing the trace scenario


1 Open the Scenarios manager and create another child from the Base
scenario.

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Run 6- Trace

2 Name this scenario Trace.

3 In the Scenario Properties set Trace as the Trace alternative and Trace-450
as the Calculation Option.

4 Close the Scenarios manager.


5 On the main window, make sure that Trace is the active scenario.
6 Run the trace analysis by selecting Compute.
7 Complete the results column and answer the questions for Run 6 in the
results table.

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Results Table

Results Table
Choose the minimum and maximum values by looking at the last 24 hours of each
simulation.
Node

Feb-10

Condition Run 1

Run 2

Run 3

Constituent

TDS (mg/L) TDS (mg/L) Chlorine


Residual
(mg/L)

Initial values
at T-1

Initial values
at T-2

J-13

Min Value

J-13

Max Value

J-3

Min Value

J-3

Max Value

T-1

Min Value

T-1

Max Value

T-2

Min Value

T-2

Max Value

399

Run 4

Run 5

Run 6

Chlorine
Residual
w/wall
(mg/L)

Age
(hours)

Trace R1

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Water Quality Analysis

Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions
1 Why were initial conditions at the tanks maintained so long in comparison
with those at the nodes?

2 How long did it take to reach the equilibrium pattern of TDS at nodes:
J-13
J-3
T-1
T-2

3 What is the maximum water age at the two tanks (T1 and T2)? What type
of problems could result in tanks with water that is this old?

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Feb-10

Workshop Review

4 What part of the distribution system showed the greatest and least
temporal variation in source water tracing?

5 If you were deciding where to live in town based on water supply, which
area would you choose and why?

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401

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Water Quality Analysis

Workshop Review

Answers

Node

Condition Run 1

Run 2

Run 3

Run 4

Run 5

Run 6

Constituent

TDS (mg/L) TDS (mg/L) Chlorine


Residual
(mg/L)

Chlorine
Residual
w/wall
(mg/L)

Age
(hours)

Trace R1
(%)

Initial values
at T-1

300

72

80

Initial values
at T-2

300

144

80

J-13

Min Value 250

250

0.8

0.71

46

J-13

Max Value 440

440

0.9

1.32

100

J-3

Min Value 243

250

0.6

0.4

1.19

58

J-3

Max Value 398

398

1.0

0.8

65.66

100

T-1

Min Value 241

300

0.4

0.3

74.91

85

T-1

Max Value 257

303

0.5

0.4

83.05

85

T-2

Min Value 233

376

0.3

0.2

142.12

61

T-2

Max Value 257

378

0.3

0.2

150.65

61

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Feb-10

Workshop Review

1 Why were initial conditions at the tanks maintained so long in comparison


with those at the nodes?
There is a much greater volume in the tanks than in pipes to flush out the
initial conditions.

2 How long did it take to reach the equilibrium pattern of TDS at nodes:
J-13 - 10 hours
J-3 - 10 hours
T-1 - 250 hours
T-2 - 300 hours

3 What is the maximum water age at the two tanks (T1 and T2)? What type
of problems could result in tanks with water that is this old?
Maximum age in Tank T-1 is 3 days and the maximum age in Tank T-2 is 5
days. Especially in water as old as 5 days, you can lose your chlorine
residual and bacterial re-growth can occur.

4 What part of the distribution system showed the greatest and least
temporal variation in source water tracing?
The area near reservoir R-1 showed the least temporal variation while the
area near reservoir R-3 showed the most variation. This behavior is
because R-1 is always being used as a source and R-3 is intermittent.

5 If you were deciding where to live in town based on water supply, which
area would you choose and why?
In the area served directly by Reservoir R-1 (near nodes J-1, J-14, J-12, etc.)
because it is always served by a single source, the water is very young, the
TDS is lower, and the pressure is reasonable (420 kPa).

Feb-10

403

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Water Quality Analysis

Workshop Review

Water Quality Analysis

404

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Feb-10

Criticality Analysis & Pressure


Zone Management

Feb-10

405

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

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Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

406

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

407

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management


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Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

408

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Feb-10

Feb-10

409

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management


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Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

410

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Feb-10

Feb-10

411

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management


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Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

412

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Feb-10

Feb-10

413

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management


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Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

414

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Feb-10

Feb-10

415

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management


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Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

416

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

417

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management


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Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

418

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

419

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management


Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

420

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

421

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management


Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

422

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

423

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management


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Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

424

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

425

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management


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Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

426

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Feb-10

Feb-10

427

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management


Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Criticality Analysis & Pressure Zone Management

428

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Analysis of Valving and Critical


Segments
Module Overview
In this case study you will become familiar with an existing system and the
isolating valves that it already contains. Using the Criticality tool you will identify
segments in the system and determine if there are any outage segments. You will
also identify problem areas in the system and the criticality of the identified
segments. This is an excellent tool for consultants and utilities alike to use on
existing or proposed designs by quickly determining how to improve system
reliability. This course material has been developed for the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i
platform, at a minimum the Version 08.11.00.30. Modelers currently using
versions prior to WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, version 08.11.00.30, are strongly
encouraged to consider upgrading today to start taking advantage of the latest
features and interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Model Calibration

System Planning & Operation

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Feb-10

Locate, analyze, and remediate critical pipe segments within a water system

Model isolation valves in a water system

429

Analysis of Valving and Critical Segments

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Problem Statement

Problem Statement
In this workshop, you will start with a pipe network model that already contains
isolating valves. You will use the information about the valves to create
distribution system segments. You will identify problem areas in the system using
the information about segments and view the segments in the drawing.

You will then find if there are any outage segments.

Next you will quantify the criticality of the segments.

You will then identify some pipes and valves that may be inserted into the
system to improve the performance of the system.

The pipe network you are starting with is shown below. The source is in the
southwest corner of the drawing.

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Feb-10

Getting Started

Getting Started
This section just walks you through the existing model so that you are familiar
with it for the rest of the workshop steps.

Exercise: Opening the starter file


1 Open WaterCAD V8i or WaterGEMS V8i.
2 On the Welcome screen, click Open Existing Project or select File > Open.
3 Navigate to C:\Bentley Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter.
4 Open the Criticality.wtg file.

Note: The drawing shown in the Problem Statement will open.

Exercise: Familiarizing yourself with the system


1 Click on the Properties button and type R-1 into the search box at the top
of the Properties dialog.
2 Click the Zoom In button from the main toolbar and it will automatically
zoom to that element which is the source for this system.

3 Use the Pan button or hold down the scroll wheel and follow the pipes
back through the system.
4 You may want to zoom out by rolling the scroll wheel or using the Zoom
Out button.
5 Select the scenario called Original Valves from the scenario dropdown
menu.
6 Zoom into any intersection and look at the isolating valve elements which
are labeled ISO-number.
7 Double click on one of the isolating valve elements so that the Properties
manager will open.
Note: Each isolating valve has a Reference Pipe which is the pipe on which the valve is

located. The pipe stays associated with the valve even if the valve element
symbol is moved off the pipe.

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Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Criticality and Segmentation

Criticality and Segmentation


Now that you have gotten a feel for isolating valves we are going to move onto the
Criticality Manager.

Exercise: Creating a criticality study


1 Open the Criticality manager by selecting Analysis > Criticality or by
clicking the Criticality button from the toolbar.
This will open an empty Criticality dialog.

2 Click the New button to create a criticality study.

Analysis of Valving and Critical Segments

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Criticality and Segmentation

3 On the Add Scenario dialog select Original Valves as the scenario.

4 Click OK.
5 On the Segmentation Scope tab, select Entire Network from the
dropdown menu.

6 Click the Compute button to start the segment identification.

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Criticality and Segmentation

Note: If the following screen comes up click Yes.

When complete, a list of segments should be displayed as shown below:

The table shows the number of segments and gives some statistics about
the segments.

Exercise: Viewing segments with color coding


1 Color code the drawing by segment, by clicking on the Highlight Segments
button at the top of the middle pane in the Criticality manager.
2 Drag the Criticality manager away from the top of the drawing and view
the segments.

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Criticality and Segmentation

Note: The black and white drawing below does not do justice to the drawing.

3 Find which segment requires the largest number of valves to isolate a


segment by right clicking on the Isolation Elements <Count> column
heading and selecting Sort > Sort Descending.
Note: This will give you the segment with the most valves.

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Criticality and Segmentation

4 Click on that segment in the Label column and only the results for that
segment will appear as shown below:

5 Click the Zoom To Segments button at the top of the middle pane and this
will zoom the drawing to that segment.

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Criticality and Segmentation

6 Fill in the appropriate results at the end of this problem.

Exercise: Finding Outage Segments


1 In the left pane of the Criticality manager, click on Outage Segments and
click Compute.
2 In the right pane, right click on the Outage Set Length column heading and
select Sort > Sort Descending.

3 Select the largest outage segment based on Outage Set Length and
highlight it in the Label pane by clicking on it.
4 Click the Highlight Segment button on top of the Label pane.

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Criticality and Segmentation

5 Move the Criticality manager aside and look at the drawing.

Note: This shows the somewhat trivial results in which when the segment from the

source fails, the entire system is without water.


6 Repeat these steps for the second and third largest outage segments.
These are interesting in that they show locations where a single outage
can put a large number of customers out of service and a single isolation
valve can greatly reduce the outage segment size.

Exercise: Determining Criticality


1 Click on Criticality in the left pane of the Criticality manager.
2 In the right pane, check the box marked Run Hydraulic Engine.
3 Click Compute above the left pane.

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Criticality and Segmentation

You should get the following results:

4 Sort the segments in the System Demand Shortfall (%) column in the right
pane in Descending order.
5 Review the shortfalls due to outages of various segments.
6 Fill in the appropriate results at the end of the problem.
7 Close out of the Criticality dialog when finished.

Improving the System


You will now install a pipe, with valves at each end, connecting nodes J-44 and J45 in an attempt to improve the system.

Feb-10

Exercise: Setting up the new improved system

439

Analysis of Valving and Critical Segments


Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Criticality and Segmentation

1 Create a new active topology alternative, called New Interconnect, which


will be a child of W-Valves.

2 Create a new scenario called Improved System, which will be a child of


Original Valves.

3 Edit the Improved System scenario and using the dropdown menu for
Active Topology select New Interconnect as the alternative.

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Feb-10

Criticality and Segmentation

4 Switch to the Improved System scenario.


5 Zoom to the portion of the drawing where node J-44 is located.
6 Select the Pipe Layout tool and draw a new pipe between J-44 and J-45,
right click and select Done.
7 Select the Isolating Valve tool and place isolating valves at each end of the
new pipe.

Note: Do not worry if the element labels for the valves are different from above.

8 Double click on each isolating valve to insure that it is referenced to the


correct pipe.

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441

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Criticality and Segmentation

Criticality of Improved System

Exercise: Viewing the criticality of the Improved System Scenario


1 Select Analysis > Criticality.
2 In the left pane, highlight Criticality Studies and click the New button.
3 Select the Improved System from the Add Scenario dialog.

4 Click OK.
5 Select Improved System in the left pane and switch to the Segmentation
Scope tab in the right pane.
6 From the Scope Type pull down menu, select Entire Network.
7 Click the Compute button above the left pane.
8 Review the results under the Segmentation Results tab in the right pane.
9 Highlight Outage Segments under Improved System and click Compute.

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Criticality and Segmentation

10 In the right pane, right click on Outage Set Length and select Sort > Sort
Descending.

Note: Note the length of the second longest segment.

11 Fill in the Results Table.


Note: Notice how that single pipe greatly improved the impact of a shutdown.

12 View the second longest outage segment by selecting Outage Segment


46 from the middle pane and clicking the Highlight Segments color coding
button at the top of the middle pane.

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Criticality and Segmentation

It should look like the drawing below.

13 Think about where you could install valves to minimize the size of this
outage segment.
14 If you have time after you answer the questions, insert additional valves or
pipes to improve the system further.

Analysis of Valving and Critical Segments

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Feb-10

Results Table

Results Table

Result
Max number of Isolation Elements <count>
Length of the third longest outage segment (m)
System Demanded Flow (L/s)
System Supplied Flow for third largest segment (L/s)
Length of second longest outage segment (m) (Improved System)

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445

Analysis of Valving and Critical Segments


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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions
1 Why is it undesirable to have segments where a large number of valves are
needed to shut down the segment?

2 What do outage segments show?

3 Would you expect there to be a correlation between the length of


distribution segments and system shortfall.

Analysis of Valving and Critical Segments

446

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Workshop Review

4 Would you expect the same results for a steady state and an EPS criticality
analysis?

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Analysis of Valving and Critical Segments


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Workshop Review

Answers

Result
Max number of Isolation Elements <count>

Length of the third longest outage segment (m)

2,209

System Demanded Flow (L/s)

38.5

System Supplied Flow for third largest segment (L/s)

28.1

Length of second longest outage segment (m) (Improved System) 936

1 Why is it undesirable to have segments where a large number of valves are


needed to shut down the segment?
More difficult to shut down system making it more likely that some valves
will be inoperable, thus spreading the outage to additional customers.

2 What do outage segments show?


They show the impact of an outage. Sometimes, even in looped systems,
there may be significant number of downstream customers out of service.

3 Would you expect there to be a correlation between the length of


distribution segments and system shortfall.
In general, the shortfalls will be correlated with the length of the segment
because larger segments have more demand. However, a failure of a key
segment, no matter how small, can place a large number of customers out
of service. The size of the outage segment is more important in terms of
criticality than the size of the segment.

4 Would you expect the same results for a steady state and an EPS criticality
analysis?
For this system, yes, because no storage tanks were involved. If there were
storage tanks, the EPS and steady results would be very different once the
tanks drained.

Analysis of Valving and Critical Segments

448

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Hydraulic Transient Modeling


Featuring HAMMER

Feb-10

449

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER

450

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

451

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER


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Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER

452

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

453

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER


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Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER

454

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Feb-10

Feb-10

455

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER


Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER

456

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Feb-10

Feb-10

457

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER


Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER

458

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

459

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER


Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER

460

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

461

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER


Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER

462

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

463

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER


Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Hydraulic Transient Modeling Featuring HAMMER

464

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Optimal Calibration

Feb-10

465
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Optimal Calibration

Optimal Calibration

466

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

467

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Optimal Calibration

Optimal Calibration

468

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

469

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Optimal Calibration

Optimal Calibration

470

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

471

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Optimal Calibration

Optimal Calibration

472

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Feb-10

Feb-10

473

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Optimal Calibration

Optimal Calibration

474

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Feb-10

Feb-10

475

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Optimal Calibration

Optimal Calibration

476

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

477

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Optimal Calibration

Optimal Calibration

478

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Feb-10

479

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Optimal Calibration

Optimal Calibration

480

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Feb-10

Automating Calibration using


Darwin Calibrator
Module Overview
For this workshop you will be given field data sets that consist of flows measured
at hydrants and pressures measured at other locations in the system. You will
calibrate the model using Darwin Calibrator to automatically reproduce the
results of the field measurements by changing roughness coefficients and
demands. This course material has been developed for the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i
platform, at a minimum the Version 08.11.00.30. Modelers currently using
versions prior to WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, version 08.11.00.30, are strongly
encouraged to consider upgrading today to start taking advantage of the latest
features and interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Feb-10

Calibrate distribution system models automatically and manually with field


data such as pressure recorder readings, pump discharge, hydraulic grade line
data, and flow meter data

Increase productivity by using automated approaches to complete common


modeling tasks

481

Automating Calibration using Darwin Calibrator

Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Problem Statement

Problem Statement
You have a network model, which you have built using the best available data.
You also have three sets of field data that were collected during average day water
use and during two separate hydrant flow tests. The field data consists of flows
measured at the hydrants and pressures measured at other locations in the
system. The pressures were converted to hydraulic grade lines for use during the
calibration process. You must calibrate the model and reproduce the results of
the field measurements.
The network model to be used in this workshop is in a file called
DarwinCalibrator.wtg.

You will use Darwin Calibrator to improve the solution given in the problem and
you will need to make some of your own adjustments.

Automating Calibration using Darwin Calibrator

482

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Feb-10

Problem Statement

Available Field Data


You have been given three kinds of pressure (and HGL) data to use for the
calibration:

Pressures collected at a number of nodes during static conditions.

Pressures at residual hydrants during flow tests.

Pressure transmitters at the pump discharge (J-1) and a monitoring point (J13)

You also have flow readings at the pump station corresponding to the pressure
readings.
You know the following boundary conditions: one pump is operating at the pump
station, and both tanks have a water surface elevation of 48.8 m. There are no
unusual events in the system to cause abnormal demands. You have taken your
elevation data from maps with 2-ft contour intervals, so you feel confident about
elevations. You checked the pump curve and know it is correct.
There are two kinds of pipes in your system:

Older cast iron pipes from the original system, which you will initially assign a
C-factor of 90.

Newer ductile iron pipes, which will initially have a C-factor of 130.

The data collected in the field is as follows:


Average Day
Location Pressure (kPa) Corresponding HGL (m) Location Discharge (L/s)

Feb-10

J-1

421

50.6

J-2

393

47.9

J-4

324

48.8

J-8

207

48.8

J-12

372

49.4

J-13

359

49.1

J-23

303

48.8

J-32

407

48.8

Q, Pump 42.8

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Automating Calibration using Darwin Calibrator


Copyright 2010 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Problem Statement

Fire Flow at J-10 (70.9 L/s)


Location Pressure (kPa) Corresponding HGL (m) Location Discharge (L/s)
J-1

372

45.7

J-10

214

42.1

J-13

303

43.6

Q, Pump 48.1

Fire Flow at J-31 (66.2 L/s)


Location Pressure (kPa) Corresponding HGL (m) Location Discharge (L/s)

J-1

352

43.9

J-13

276

40.2

J-31

241

33.8

Q, Pump 49.8

Exercise: Renaming the Base Scenario


1 Start WaterCAD V8i or WaterGEMS V8i.
2 Open the DarwinCalibrator.wtg file located in C:\Bentley
Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter.
3 Before proceeding to Darwin Calibrator, open the Scenarios manager and
rename the Base scenario to Average Daily Demand.

4 Close the Scenarios manager.

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Feb-10

Darwin Calibrator

Darwin Calibrator
In this section you will run through the use of Darwin Calibrator to help you
calibrate your model to existing field data measurements.

Initial Data Entry

Exercise: Creating a new Calibration Study


1 Activate Darwin Calibrator by selecting Analysis > Darwin Calibrator or
click on the Darwin Calibrator button.
The Darwin Calibrator dialog will open.

We are now going to create the new calibration study.


2 Click on the New button and select New Calibration Study.
3 Accept the default name of New Calibration Study-1.
4 Confirm that the Representative Scenario is set to Average Daily Demand.

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Darwin Calibrator

Exercise: Creating a new Field Data Snapshot


You have three field data set tables listed in the Problem Statement of this
workshop (Average Day, Fire Flow at J-10 and Fire Flow at J-31).
We will enter this data as Field Data Snapshots.
1 Select the Field Data Snapshots tab.
2 Click the New button, located on the Field Data Snapshots tab.
3 Click the Rename button and rename the new snapshot Average Day.

4 Click OK.
5 Accept the default Date, Time, and Time from Start of 1/1/2000, 12:00:00
AM, and 0.00 respectively.
6 Set the Demand Multiplier to 1.00.

Now that general information is entered, you need to input field measured
data.

Exercise: Entering the field measured data


1 In the lower part of the Darwin Calibrator dialog, select the Observed
Target tab and click the New button.
2 Click in the Element field, and then click the ellipsis ().
This will bring up the Select dialog and bring you to the drawing pane.

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Darwin Calibrator

3 Select node J-1 from the drawing by clicking on the node.


Note: You will be returned to the Darwin Calibrator dialog, where J-1 has been placed

into the Element field.


4 Enter 50.6 for the Value corresponding to the Hydraulic Grade (m).
5 Continue this process for the remaining values in the Average Day field
data table.
Note: Do not forget to enter the pump discharge.

6 When finished with the Average Day data, create another Field Data
Snapshot called Fire Flow at J-10.

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Darwin Calibrator

7 Enter the same general information that was input for Average Day, and
then input the Hydraulic Grade Value and Pump Flow data from the Fire
Flow at J-10 table in the Problem Statement.

Note: You also need to input the measured hydrant fire flow at J-10.

8 In the lower part of the Darwin Calibrator dialog, select the Demand
Adjustments tab.
9 Click on the New button, click in the Element field, and then click on the
ellipsis ().

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10 Select node J-10 from the drawing, and enter an Additional Demand of
70.9 L/s.

11 Continue by adding another Field Data Snapshot and name it Fire Flow at
J-31.
12 Input general information, corresponding HGL data, Pump Discharge data,
and an Additional Demand of 66.2 L/s at node J-31.

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13 When finished, click on All Snapshots (3) and the display should appear as
follows:

Assigning Pipes to Groups


Next we will assign all pipes in the system to groups based on material. Your basis
for this is that the unlined cast iron pipes should have different adjustments than
the lined ductile iron pipes.

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Exercise: Creating roughness groups


1 Select the Roughness Groups tab.
2 Click on the New button, and rename the new roughness group to Cast
Iron.
3 Click in the Element IDs field.

4 Click on the ellipsis ().


The Selection Set: Cast Iron dialog will open.
5 Click on the Select from Drawing button to bring up the Select toolbar.
6 Click the Query button and select Custom Queries > Pipe.
A Query Builder - Pipe dialog will open.
7 In the Fields list scroll down until you see Material.
8 Double click on Material to make pipe material part of your query criteria.
9 Now click on the equal sign = button.
10 Select the Refresh Unique Values button to list the possible pipe material
choices in the Unique Values list.
Note: Cast iron and Ductile Iron will be displayed.

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11 Double click on Cast iron.

12 Click OK.
Note: Several pipes should be highlighted red on the drawing.

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13 Click on the Done button in the Select toolbar.


You are returned to the Selection Set: Cast Iron dialog.

Note: The pipes that were highlighted on the drawing will be listed.

14 Click OK.
15 The Roughness Groups display will now show a Cast Iron group with 17
items (pipes) in it.
16 Click the New button and add another Roughness Group called Ductile
Iron.

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17 Follow the same steps as used for Cast Iron to create a Ductile Iron
roughness group with the remaining 29 pipes.

Baseline Run
You are almost ready to perform a calibration. First, however, you will make a
baseline run with existing data.

Exercise: Setting up a baseline run


1 Click the New button in the left pane of the Darwin Calibrator dialog and
select New Manual Run.
2 Name the run Baseline.

Note: You should now see the Roughness tab.

3 Set the roughness multiplier Value for both groups to 1.0 in order to hold
C constant for the baseline run.

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4 Make sure Baseline is highlighted in the left window pane and select the
Compute button to run calculations and view results.

5 Close the Calibration progress dialog.


6 Select Solutions under Baseline to see the Fitness of the manual run.

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7 Click on Solution 1 and then view the Solution and Simulated Results tabs
for Average Day, Fire Flow at J-10, and Fire Flow at J-31.

8 Use this data to fill in the first column (Initial Run) of the Results Table at
the end of this workshop.
9 Also enter the Adjustments and Fitness in the Adjustment Factors table for
this run.

Manual Calibration
Now, you are ready to run a calibration. For the first run, you will manually guess
at an adjustment to see how the model behaves.

Exercise: Creating a manual run to reduce C by half


1 To set up the calibration, highlight New Calibration Study-1 in the left
pane.

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2 Click the New button and select New Manual Run.


3 Name the run Reduce C by half.
You should now see the Roughness tab for Darwin Calibrator.
4 Set the roughness multiplier Value for both groups to 0.5 to get a feel for
how the model responds to changes in C.

5 With Reduce C by half highlighted, click Compute to run the calibration.


6 Close the Calibration progress dialog.
Note: The model ran a simulation with C factors set to one half the values in the

representative scenario.
7 View results by selecting Solutions and Solution 1 under Reduce C by half.

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Note: The agreement is to within a few feet for the average day, not quite as good for

fire at J-10 condition and is far off for the J-31 fire.

8 Fill in the Results Table for this run.


9 Look at the correlation graph between observed and predicted heads by
picking the Graph button to open the graph on the next page.

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Hint: You must have Solution 1 highlighted to activate the Graph button.

Optimized Calibration
You could spend a lot of time trying to determine what to adjust next; what data is
good, what data is not reliable or is less reliable, etc, or you can try an automated
calibration instead.

Exercise: Step 1 - Setting the calibration criteria.


1 Highlight New Calibration Study-1 in the left window pane, and then
select the Calibration Criteria tab.
2 Confirm that the following criteria are:
Fitness Type: Minimize Difference Squares
Head per Fitness Point: 0.3 m
Flow per Fitness Point: 0.63 L/s

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Flow Weight Type: Linear

3 Make sure New Calibration Study-1 is still highlighted.


4 Click the New button, and then select New Optimized Run.
This creates an Optimized Calibration Run called New Optimized Run-1.
Note: In this case, since we only have roughness groups; that is the only parameter to

adjust.
5 You will allow the original roughness to be adjusted by multiplying it by
values from 0.5 to 1.5.
These values should appear on the Roughness tab by default.

6 Click the Options tab.


7 Set the following values:
Fitness Tolerance: 0.001
Maximum Trials: 50,000
Non-Improvement Generations: 100

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Solutions to Keep: 8
8 Leave the remaining values on their defaults.

9 Make sure New Optimized Run-1 is highlighted, and then click Compute to
start the optimization.
10 When finished, close the Calibration progress dialog.
11 Look at the results of the optimized calibration, and record the values in
the Adjust C Only column of the Results Table.
12 Also enter the Adjustments and Fitness in the Adjustment Factors Table for
this run.

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13 Use values from the best fit solution (Solution No. 1).

The Fitness for this solution is lower than for the manual solution, which indicates
that in terms of matching heads and flows this solution is better. However, the
roughness adjustments do not make much sense. Why would lined Ductile Iron
pipe have a C-factor of 104 while old Cast Iron pipe have a C-factor of 108? Maybe
you were trying to adjust the wrong things? Possibly the error in your original
results was due to errors in demand allocation. Let us try adjusting demands.

Demand Adjustments
In this system, the observed data were not taken during an average time, but
rather during the middle of a day when demands are above average. It is felt that
commercial demands peak higher than residential (or fixed) demand nodes. So
you will set up two demand adjustment groups: Residential and Commercial.
System zoning maps show that commercial customers are located at Junctions J-2,
J-10, J-13, J-16, J-22, J-27, J-28, and J-30.

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Exercise: Creating the commercial demand group


1 Highlight New Calibration Study-1 in the left pane, and select the
Demand Groups tab.
2 Create a demand group and label it Commercial.
3 Click in the Element IDs field, and then on the ellipsis to open the Selection
Set: Commercial dialog.
4 Click on the Select from Drawing button and on the drawing pick the
commercial zone nodes (J-2, J-10, J-13, J-16, J-22, J-27, J-28, and J-30).

5 Click Done.
The eight nodes will be shown in the Selection Set: Commercial dialog.
6 Click OK.
7 Now create a second Demand Group called Residential that will contain
the remaining nodes in the network.
8 This time, when you select nodes from the drawing use a window to
choose all of the nodes at once.

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9 Use the Remove button to deselect the Commercial nodes.

10 Then click on Done and OK.


Note: You should now have two Demand Groups: Commercial with 8 items (junction

nodes) and Residential with 21 items.

You are now ready to try another optimized calibration. This calibration
will build on your previous runs.

Exercise: Running another optimized calibration using the new demand


groups

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1 With New Optimized Run-1 highlighted, click the New button and select
New Optimized Run.
2 Accept the default name New Optimized Run-2.
3 Click the Options tab and set the Maximum Trials to 50,000 and the
Solutions to Keep to 4.

4 Select the Demand tab and see that the Minimum, Maximum and
Increment values under the Demand tab are set to default values of 0.50,
1.50, and 0.10.
5 Highlight New Optimized Run - 2 in the left pane and click Compute.
6 Close the Calibration progress window.
7 Record the Solution 1 results in the Optimal column of the Results Table.
8 Also enter the Adjustments and Fitness in the Adjustment Factors Table for
this run.
Note: These look better than the previous results in terms of rational adjustments to

C and demands.

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9 Review a graph of Solution 1 results.

Saving Optimal Solution


We are now going to export the best fit results from our calibration to a scenario.

Exercise: Exporting calibration data to a scenario


1 Select Solution 1 from the New Optimized Run - 2 and click on the Export
to Scenario button at the top of the left pane.

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Note: Default names are automatically selected. You can rename the scenario and

alternatives you are creating as you choose.

2 Click OK to export the data.


You should receive the following confirmation:

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3 Go to the Scenarios manager and check to see that the new calibration
scenario has been created.

4 Open the Alternatives manager and confirm the corresponding physical


and demand alternatives also were created.

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Advanced Exercise Measurement Errors

Advanced Exercise Measurement Errors


If you have time, try this exercise. Let us say that you only took measurements
during normal demands and you were not very careful in calibrating your gages.
Your data is in the table below:t
Location Corresponding HGL (m) Location Discharge (L/s)

J-1

50.3

J-2

48.5

J-4

49.4

J-8

48.2

J-12

50.0

J-13

49.1

J-23

47.2

J-32

47.9

Pump

43.5

Exercise: Creating the calibration run with errors


1 Click on the Field Data Snapshots tab.

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2 Build a new Field Data Snapshot called Avg. Day w/errors using the above
field data.

3 With New Optimized Run-2 highlighted, click the New button and select
New Optimized Run.
4 Name it Optimized with errors.

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5 Set the Maximum Trials to 50,000 on the Options tab.

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6 Select the Field Data tab; uncheck the Is Active? box for everything except
Avg. Day w/Errors.

7 Select Compute and record the results in the Results Table.


8 Also enter the Adjustments and Fitness in the Adjustment Factors Table.
9 Answer the questions following the Result Tables.

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Results Tables

Results Tables

Average Day
Node

HGL
Observed
(m)

Initial Run
(m)

1/2 C-factor Adjust C


(m)
only (m)

Optimal
(m)

Data Optimized
Error w/Error
(m)

J-1

50.6

50.3

J-2

47.9

48.5

J-4

48.8

49.4

J-8

48.8

48.2

J-12

49.4

50.0

J-13

49.1

49.1

J-23

48.8

47.2

J-32

48.8

47.9

PUMP (L/s)

42.8

43.5

Fire Flow at J-10

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Node

HGL
Observed
(m)

J-1

45.7

J-10

42.1

J-13

43.6

PUMP (L/s)

48.1

Initial Run (m)

1/2 C-factor (m) Adjust C only


(m)

513

Optimal (m)

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Results Tables

Fire Flow at J-31


Node

HGL
Observed
(m)

J-1

43.9

J-13

40.2

J-31

33.8

PUMP (L/s)

49.8

Initial Run (m)

1/2 C-factor (m) Adjust C only


(m)

Optimal (m)

Adjustment Factors
Initial

1/2 C-Factor

Adjust C-only

Optimized

Optimized w/
error

Cast Iron
Ductile Iron
Commercial
Residential
Fitness

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions
1 What would happen if you relied on a model that only adjusted C-factor?

2 Did changing the C-factors have a bigger effect on HGL in the static or fire
flow runs? Why?

3 What was the lesson learned when you tried to run optimal calibration at
low demand with some small errors in the data?

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4 If you could get more data, what data would you get?

5 In a real system would you expect all the commercial customers to have
the same demand adjustments?

6 What accuracy would you expect to get with real HGL measurements?

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Answers

Average Day
Node

HGL
Observed
(m)

Initial Run
(m)

1/2 C-factor Adjust C


(m)
only (m)

Optimal
(m)

Data Optimized
Error w/Error
(m)

J-1

50.6

50.7

53.9

50.8

50.3

50.3

50.3

J-2

47.9

49.3

49.5

49.3

48.2

48.5

48.3

J-4

48.8

48.8

48.7

48.8

48.7

49.4

48.6

J-8

48.8

48.9

49.0

48.9

48.8

48.2

48.8

J-12

49.4

49.8

51.2

49.7

49.3

50.0

49.1

J-13

49.1

49.4

50.2

49.4

48.9

49.1

48.8

J-23

48.8

49.0

49.2

49.0

48.8

47.2

48.7

J-32

48.8

49.4

50.2

49.4

48.9

47.9

48.8

PUMP (L/s)

42.8

42.9

39.0

42.8

43.3

43.5

43.2

Fire Flow at J-10

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Node

HGL
Observed
(m)

Initial Run (m)

1/2 C-factor (m) Adjust C only


(m)

Optimal (m)

J-1

45.7

47.3

45.1

45.5

45.7

J-10

42.1

44.1

32.8

42.1

42.0

J-13

43.6

45.6

38.6

43.5

43.4

PUMP (L/s)

48.1

46.57

48.7

47.25

48.4

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Fire Flow at J-31


Node

HGL
Observed
(m)

Initial Run (m)

1/2 C-factor (m) Adjust C only


(m)

Optimal (m)

J-1

43.9

45.7

40.4

43.9

44.0

J-13

40.2

42.4

28.3

40.1

40.1

J-31

33.8

37.0

8.7

33.8

33.5

PUMP (L/s)

49.8

48.2

53.2

50.0

49.0

Adjustment Factors
Initial

1/2 C-Factor

Adjust C-only

Optimized

Optimized w/
error

1.0

0.5

1.2

0.8

0.9

Ductile Iron 1.0

0.5

0.8

1.0

0.8

Commercial N/A

N/A

N/A

1.5

1.4

Residential

N/A

N/A

N/A

1.3

1.5

Fitness

20.175

579.357

4.419

0.218

5.726

Cast Iron

1 What would happen if you relied on a model that only adjusted C-factor?
You would end up adjusting the wrong parameter to get calibration. HGL
would be right but C and demand are wrong. This is an example of
calibration by compensating error.

2 Did changing the C-factors have a bigger effect on HGL in the static or fire
flow runs? Why?
Much more dramatic effect on fire flow runs because of higher velocity.

3 What was the lesson learned when you tried to run optimal calibration at
low demand with some small errors in the data?
When head loss is on same order of magnitude as error in head loss, the
calibration does not know what to adjust.

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4 If you could get more data, what data would you get?
Would run some actual C-factor tests on cast iron pipes.

5 In a real system would you expect all the commercial customers to have
the same demand adjustments?
No, they would be different.

6 What accuracy would you expect to get with real HGL measurements?
It depends on care taken and instruments used. With GPS elevations and
quality gages you can get +/- 0.6 m accuracy; with topo map and average
quality gage, +/- 3.0 m.

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Piping Optimization

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Automating Design using


Darwin Designer
Module Overview
In this workshop, you are going to size pipes for a new commercial site that will be
constructed in an existing system. You must provide a 189 L/s fire flow to the site
on max day at a minimum pressure of 130 kPa and a pressure of at least 276 kPa
during peak hour conditions at the site. There are two pipes that must be sized
within the customers site plus some additional piping that is needed in the
distribution system to bring water to the site. You will set up Darwin Designer to
find the least cost solution and then you will look at some tradeoffs with other
design options. This course material has been developed for the WaterCAD/GEMS
V8i platform, at a minimum the Version 08.11.00.30. Modelers currently using
versions prior to WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, version 08.11.00.30, are strongly
encouraged to consider upgrading today to start taking advantage of the latest
features and interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Model Calibration

System Planning & Operation

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

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Getting Started

Getting Started
This short section will get you familiar with the model that you will be using
Darwin Designer on.

Exercise: Setting up for Darwin


1 Start WaterGEMS V8i and open the file called DarwinDesigner.wtg.

Look on the east side of the system for node J-500 which is the new site. It
is served by pipes P-500 and P-501 which must be sized and installed.
However, the system does not have excess capacity in this area and simply
connecting those pipes into the grid will not provide sufficient fire flows.
That area needs to be connected back into some larger pipes. There are
three major directions through which this can be done:

From the West through pipes P-600 through P-601

From the North through pipes P-700 through P-702

From the South through pipes P-800 through P-804

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Getting Started

Note: The proposed pipes have all temporarily been assigned diameters of 25 mm

and show up as gray lines in the drawing.


2 Compute the Avg day scenario.

3 Review the pressures and velocities in the pipes to check to make sure that
the existing system is in reasonable shape before you start.
4 Open the Junction FlexTable and confirm that there are no nodes that fail
to meet the 130 kPa and 276 kPa pressure standard for average day
conditions.

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Darwin Designer
Now we are going to begin to build the data needed for a Darwin Designer run.
We will first focus on creating a design event.

Exercise: Creating a new Designer Study


1 Open Darwin Designer by clicking the Darwin Designer button or by
selecting Analysis > Darwin Designer.

You need to create a new Designer Study.


2 Click the New button and select New Designer Study.
3 Name the new design study Least Cost Design.

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4 Check that the Representative Scenario is Avg day.

Exercise: Establishing a Design Event


1 Click on the Design Events tab.
2 Click the New button on that tab.
3 Click the Rename button and name the new design event 189 Fire at J500.

4 Click OK.

Exercise: Setting demand constraints for the design event


1 On the Design Events tab in the right window pane, leave the Start Time
and Design Time at 12:00:00 PM and the Time from Start (hours) at 0.0.

Note: The Design Event to be tested is a fire flow under maximum day demands.

2 Enter a Demand Multiplier of 1.5 to convert average demands to max day


demands.
3 In the lower half of the Design Events tab, select the Demand
Adjustments tab.
4 Click the New button.
5 Click in the Node field and select the ellipsis ().
Note: This will bring you to the drawing pane.

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6 Click on J-500 on the east side of the system.


7 When you are brought back to the Darwin Designer dialog, enter an
Additional Demand for J-500 of 189 L/s.

Next, you need to set pressure criteria.

Exercise: Setting the pressure constraints for the design event


1 Select the Pressure Constraints tab.
2 Click on the Select from Drawing button.

Note: This will bring you to the drawing pane.

3 On the Select toolbar click on the Query button and select Network > All
Junctions.
Note: This will highlight all the junction nodes in the model.

4 Click the Done button on the Select toolbar when you are done.
5 Back on the Pressure Constraints tab; confirm that you have 148 nodes
listed in the table.
6 Right click the Override Defaults? column heading and select Global Edit.
7 On the Global Edit dialog select the Value box and click OK.
8 Use Global Edit again to set a Minimum Pressure of 130 kPa and a
Maximum Pressure of 1379 kPa at all nodes.

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Darwin Designer

Warning: Do not put check marks in the Consider Pressure Benefit? column.

Exercise: Selecting the pipes to size using Design Groups

Next you need to create some design groups because you will not want to change
the pipe size at every block. For your study you will want to create four design
groups representing the three directions from which you can bring water to the
site, plus a group for the two pipes at the site.
1 Select the Design Groups tab.
2 Click the New button.
3 Rename the new design group Internal and click in the Elements IDs field.
4 Click on the ellipsis ().

This opens the Selection Set: Internal dialog.

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5 Click the Select from Drawing button and select pipes P-500 and P-501.
Note: These pipes are connected to J-500.

6 Click the Done button once the pipes are selected and then click OK on the
Selection Set: Internal dialog.
7 Repeat steps 2-6 to create three additional groups with the following
names and pipes based on the direction from which the water will reach
the site:
Name of Design Group Pipes in Design Group
West

P-600, P-601

North

P-700, P-701, P-702

South

P-800, P-801, P-802, P-803, P-804

Note: The pipe numbering was set up with these groups in mind. This may not always

be the case.

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When done, the Design Groups tab should look like the following:

Exercise: Entering Costs and Roughness Data

Cost and roughness data for the new pipes are specified on the Costs/Properties
tab.
1 Select the Costs/Properties tab.
2 Make sure New Pipe is selected.
3 Click the New button and select Design Option Groups.
4 Name the new group to Cost New.
You will now enter the data for the pipes that must be installed during the
project.
5 Click in the Material field and select the ellipsis ().
6 In the Engineering Libraries dialog expand Material Libraries and
MaterialLibrary.xml.
7 Select Ductile Iron from the list and click Select.
8 Make sure all the pipes you enter have a Hazen-Williams C of 130 and are
made of Ductile Iron.
Note: You can use the Material ellipsis and Material Libraries to select Ductile Iron, or

you can type the words in the Material field.


9 Enter the costs associated with each Diameter listed below:
Diameter (mm) Unit Cost ($/m)

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182

200

198

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Diameter (mm) Unit Cost ($/m)


250

264

300

347

400

396

When complete, the table should look like the one below:

Note: Pipes that use this option group will need to be installed (i.e. there is no

diameter). However, some of the pipes are indeed optional. A new option
group will be created from the existing group for these pipes.
10 With Cost New selected click the Duplicate button.
11 Rename the new group to Cost Optional Pipes.
12 Add a new line with $0.00 Unit Cost and a Diameter of 0.0 to account for
the fact that no pipe is a viable option for some pipes.
13 Modify the remaining costs shown in the table below:
Diameter (mm) Unit Cost ($/m)
0

150

198

200

231

250

297

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Darwin Designer

Diameter (mm) Unit Cost ($/m)


300

380

400

446

When completed, the table should look like the one below:

14 Select the Design Type tab.


15 Check to make sure that the default of Minimize Cost has been selected
for Objective Type.

Exercise: Creating a new Optimized Design Run

You will now create a new Design Run.

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Darwin Designer

1 With Least Cost Design selected in the left pane, click the New button and
select New Optimized Design Run.
2 Rename the run to 189 Fire at J-500, Min Cost, Pump On, which
corresponds to the design event, type of optimization and boundary
condition.
Note: In setting up the design run, you must pick which design events, design groups

and cost functions are to be used.


3 Select the Design Events tab.
4 Make sure that the Design Event, 189 Fire at J-500 is marked as Active.

5 Select the Design Groups tab.


6 Make sure that all four Design Pipe Groups are Active for this run.
7 Assign the following Design Pipe Groups to their associated Cost/
properties using the dropdown menu:
Design Pipe Group Cost/properties
Internal

Cost New

West

Cost Optional Pipes

North

Cost Optional Pipes

South

Cost Optional PIpes

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Darwin Designer

8 Select the Options tab.


9 Leave the GA Parameters and Stopping Criteria sections alone.
10 Set the Solutions to Keep field to 10.

Now that you are all set up, you can run Darwin Designer.

Exercise: Running Darwin Designer


1 Make sure that the design run 189 Fire at J-500, Min Cost, Pump On is
highlighted.
2 Click the Compute button.

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Darwin Designer

3 When Darwin Designer has completed its run, Close the Designing dialog
box.

Now you can look at the results of your runs.

Exercise: Reviewing results


1 Select Solutions in the left pane.
2 Review the Solutions listed in the right pane.
3 Look at the costs for the top 10 solutions and see how much they differed.

4 Highlight the individual solutions and review the results.


5 Complete the first Results Table at the end of the workshop.

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Exporting the Solution

Exporting the Solution


Now you will export Solution 1 to the Scenarios manager and set up the
maximum day alternative.

Exercise: Exporting a solution to a scenario


1 Select Solution 1 and click the Export to Scenario button.
2 In the Export Design to Scenario dialog, rename the new scenario Least
Cost.
3 Check the box for Use Scenario Name for Alternatives to give the same
name to your new Physical and Active Topology alternatives.
4 Check the box for Export Physical Alternative? and Export Active Topology
Alternative?.

5 Click OK.
6 Minimize Darwin Designer.
7 In WaterGEMS, switch to the Least Cost scenario.
8 Select Analysis > Scenarios and double click on the Lease Cost scenario.
9 Review the properties of the Least Cost scenario.

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Exporting the Solution

Note: You will see that it contains the Least Cost Physical and Active Topology

alternatives generated by Darwin, but the Demand alternative is still set to


Base-Average Daily.

Exercise: Creating a maximum day demand alternative

You need to set up maximum day demands with 1.5 times average day demands
plus a 189 L/s fire flow at node J-500.
1 Select Analysis > Alternatives.
2 Expand the Demand alternative and click on Base-Average Daily.
3 Click the New button to create a child alternative from it.
4 Name the new child 189 L/s Fire.

Exercise: Assigning the new demand alternative to the new scenario and
computing
1 Select Analysis > Scenarios.
2 Open the Properties manager for the Least Cost scenario.

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Exporting the Solution

3 Select 3000 gpm Fire as the Demand alternative.

4 Make sure Least Cost is the active scenario and select Tools > Demand
Control Center.
5 Globally multiply all values in the Demand (Base) column by 1.5.

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Exporting the Solution

6 Close the Demand Control Center.


7 Locate J-500 on the drawing and double click on the node to open its
Properties manager.
8 Click in the Demand Collection field and then on the ellipsis.
9 In the Demands dialog set a 189 L/s fire Demand at J-500 with a Fixed
Pattern.

10 Close out of the Demands dialog.


11 Compute the Least Cost scenario.
12 Verify that the Pressure at J-500 and all the other nodes is above 130 kPa.
13 Check the Velocities in pipes around J-500 to make sure they are not too
high.
14 Look at the gray pipes to be sized in the Avg Day scenario and then switch
the scenario to Least Cost and see how the pipes change color.

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Tradeoff Analysis

Tradeoff Analysis
Now that you have found the least cost solution, it is also instructive to examine
the tradeoffs between cost and performance.

Exercise: Creating the tradeoff analysis study


1 Restore Darwin Designer from the lower window tray.
You will modify the already created Least Cost Design Study to convert it to
a Tradeoff Analysis.
2 Start by renaming Least Cost Design to Tradeoff Analysis.

Note: For this study, you will want to trade off the benefits of improved performance

against cost. The value of this project will be judged partly by how it improves
residual pressure at node J-500. The benefit will be measured by the extent to
which pressure exceeds 130 kPa during the fire.
You need to change the Design Type and define how benefits will be
calculated during this additional design event.
3 Click on the Tradeoff Analysis design study.
4 Select the Design Type tab.
5 Select Multi-Objective Tradeoff as the Objective Type.
6 Set the Available Budget to $500,000.
Note: This means that solutions costing more than $500,000 will not be considered.

7 For Benefit Type, select Unitized.


Note: This means that the total benefits will have units of kPa in this case.

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Tradeoff Analysis

8 Leave the Pressure Benefit fields to 1.0.

Exercise: Creating and setting up the new tradeoff design event


1 Select the Design Events tab.
2 Select the 189 Fire at J-500 Design Event and click the Duplicate button.
3 Rename the Design Event to 189 Fire Flow Benefit.

4 Click OK.

Exercise: Confirming demand data


1 Select the new design event and confirm that the Demand Multiplier is set
to 1.5.
2 Select the Demand Adjustments tab on the bottom of the Design Events
tab.

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Tradeoff Analysis

3 Verify that the Additional Demand at J-500 is 189 L/s.

Exercise: Confirming the pressure constraints


1 Select the Pressure Constraints tab.
2 Confirm Minimum Pressure for all nodes is set at 130 kPa and Maximum
Pressure for all nodes is set to 1379 kPa.
3 Sort the Node column in Descending order to easily find node J-500.
4 Check the box for Consider Pressure Benefit? only for J-500.

Exercise: Renaming the design run and verifying its data


1 In the left pane, click on 189 L/s Fire at J-500, Min Cost, Pump On, and
rename it to Tradeoff Fire J-500.

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Tradeoff Analysis

2 Select the Design Events tab and make sure only the 189 Fire Flow Benefit
event is Active.

3 Select the Design Groups tab and make sure that all 4 design groups are
Active.
4 Also make sure that the Design Option Group called Cost Optional Pipes is
assigned to the West, North and South groups, and Cost New is assigned
to Internal.

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Tradeoff Analysis

5 Select the Options tab and set Solutions to Keep to 20.

Exercise: Computing the tradeoff design run and reviewing results


1 Select Tradeoff Fire J-500 and click Compute.
2 Watch the run and check the message tab when it is done.
3 Close the Designing dialog box when the run is complete.
4 Select Solution 1 and click on the Graph button to display the Pareto
Optimal Plot.

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Tradeoff Analysis

5 Look at the overview of the non-inferior solutions.

6 Close the graph and review the different solutions to compare results.
7 Choose about 5 of the solutions that cover a range of costs.
8 Write the solution number, benefits, and costs in the second Results Table
at the end of the workshop.
9 For the 5 solutions you picked above, look up the pipe diameters, and
write them down in the Results Table.
10 Consider how these solutions compare with the least cost solution.
11 Answer the questions at the end of the workshop.

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Results Tables

Results Tables
1 For each of the first set of Design Runs, list the pipe sizes and cost (leave
blank if pipe not installed), Round cost to thousands of dollars.
Solution Internal

West

North

South

Total Cost
($1000)

1
2
3
4
5

2 For the multi-objective run, list the sizes, costs and benefits for 5 noninferior solutions.

Solution Internal

West

North

South

Total Cost
($1000)

Benefit

3 What solution would you recommend?

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions
1 If you were adding another subdivision on the opposite side of town,
should you include sizing those pipes with the pipe sizing for this problem
or should you create a new design study?

2 Why did the South piping not get selected as the least cost alternative?

3 How would you force the South pipes not to be eliminated from the
solution?

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Workshop Review

4 What do you think would have happened if you included a node that could
not reach 130 kPa for any combination of pipe sizes (e.g. a node on the
suction side of a pump) and what would you need to do to handle that
node?

5 How would you decide between non-inferior solutions in the tradeoff


analysis?

6 What would happen if you included a lot of nodes on the south side of the
system in calculating benefits?

7 Why would you not have used Average Day demands as an event in
Designer?

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Workshop Review

Answers
1 For each of the first set of Design Runs, list the pipe sizes and cost (leave
blank if pipe not installed), Round cost to thousands of dollars.
Solution Internal

West

North

South

Total Cost
($1000)

200

200

175

150

200

181

200

200

186

250

250

200

196

200

207

2 For the multi-objective run, list the sizes, costs and benefits for 5 noninferior solutions.
Solution Internal

West

North

200

300

300

200

7
18

South

Total Cost
($1000)

Benefit

250

412

2.12

200

400

254

1.78

200

200

207

1.42

300

300

175

1.03

250

300

268

1.84

3 What solution would you recommend?


If your budget is limiting consider solution 4. Otherwise choose on budget
limit.

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Workshop Review

1 If you were adding another subdivision on the opposite side of town,


should you include sizing those pipes with the pipe sizing for this problem
or should you create a new design study?
It depends on whether there likely to be interactions between the piping
used to solve each problem.

2 Why did the South piping not get selected as the least cost alternative?
It contained the longest (and hence most costly) piping.

3 How would you force the South pipes not to be eliminated from the
solution?
Not allowing them a zero diameter in the cost table.

4 What do you think would have happened if you included a node that could
not reach 130 kPa for any combination of pipe sizes (e.g. a node on the
suction side of a pump) and what would you need to do to handle that
node?
You would get a no feasible solution message and you would need to set
a very low pressure as the pressure constraint for that node (or only
enforce pressure constraints for a smaller selection set and not all nodes).

5 How would you decide between non-inferior solutions in the tradeoff


analysis?
You would need to consider available budget and amount of safety factor
you want to build in.

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Workshop Review

6 What would happen if you included a lot of nodes on the south side of the
system in calculating benefits?
Those solutions bigger pipes on the south side would tend to have higher
benefits and are more likely to show up as non-inferior.

7 Why would you not have used Average Day demands as an event in
Designer?
For most situations average day demands do not control pipe sizing.

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Skelebrator

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Skeletonizing a Large Model


using Skelebrator
Module Overview
In this workshop, you will skeletonize an existing model and examine the
differences in the results between the methods involving equivalent pipes and
those that simply remove pipes. To do this you will examine the effects on the
pressure at a node, the fire flow at that node, and the system head curve at the
pump station as the system becomes more skeletonized. Initially, you will only use
pipe removal to skeletonize the model. Then you will restart the problem and use
a collection of techniques, with minimal use of pipe removal. This course material
has been developed for the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i platform, at a minimum the
Version 08.11.00.30. Modelers currently using versions prior to WaterCAD/GEMS
V8i, version 08.11.00.30, are strongly encouraged to consider upgrading today to
start taking advantage of the latest features and interoperability advantages of
V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

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Skeletonize an existing water model effectively using Skelebrator

Generate system head curves

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Getting Started

Getting Started
This section will walk you through opening the starter file and getting it ready for
our Skelebrator runs.

Exercise: Opening the WaterGEMS model


1 Start WaterGEMS V8i.
2 Open the file SkelebratorStart.wtg from C:\Bentley
Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter.
Once open, the schematic should look like the one below, with two
scenarios named Base and Fire at A-100.

Exercise: Starting Skelebrator


1 Start Skelebrator by clicking the Skelebrator button or by selecting Tools >
Skelebrator Skeletonizer.

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Getting Started

The main Skelebrator Skeletonizer dialog will open.

Exercise: Protecting an element and computing the model


The first thing you want to do is protect Junction A-100 so that it is not
removed.
1 Select the Protected Elements tab, and then click the Select from Drawing
button.
2 On the Select toolbar, click the Find Element button.
3 In the Find dialog click the Find Element button again to populate the list
with the elements in the model.
4 Click on element A-100 in the list to highlight it.
5 Click OK and then click the Done button from the Select toolbar.
6 Minimize the Skelebrator Skeletonizer dialog.
7 Select Analysis > Scenarios.
8 Click the down arrow next to the Compute button, and select Batch Run.

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Getting Started

9 In the Batch Run dialog select the boxes for the Base and Fire at A-100
scenarios.

10 Click the Batch button.


11 You will be prompted with the Please Confirm dialog to confirm that you
would like to run two scenarios as a batch, select Yes.
12 When the simulation is complete, select OK and then close the Scenarios
manager.
Note: The Base scenario should be selected as the active scenario.

13 As you go through the following steps, record the results in the Results
Tables at the end of the workshop.
14 Go to the Results table and review it now so you can see the data you
should be recording as you go.

Exercise: Running a Project Inventory Report of a model


1 Determine the number of pipes and nodes before skeletonization by
selecting Report > Project Inventory.

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Getting Started

2 On the bottom of the first page of the Project Inventory Report you should
see that there are 656 pipes and 517 junctions.

3 Close the Project Inventory Report.

Exercise: Using the Find tool


1 Find node A-100 in the schematic by selecting Edit > Find Element.
2 Type A-100 into the top left field of the Properties dialog.
3 Set the Zoom Percent to 75%.
4 Click the Find button to locate A-100.

5 Close the Properties dialog.

Exercise: Recording pressures for A-100 in both scenarios

The schematic has been annotated by Pressure at each node.

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Getting Started

Note: The pressure at A-100 for the Base scenario is 291.3 kPa.

1 Record this value in the table in the Results Table at the end of the
workshop.
2 Switch to the Fire at A-100 scenario from the Scenario dropdown menu on
the main screen and see that the pressure at A-100 for this scenario is
208.7 kPa.

3 Record this value in the Results Table.

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Getting Started

Exercise: Viewing the system head curve for PMP-1


1 Switch back to the Base scenario.
2 Use the Find Element tool again to locate PMP-1.
3 Right click on PMP-1 and select System Head Curve.
The System Head Curve dialog will appear.
4 Set the Maximum Flow to 126.2 L/s and click the Compute button.
Your graph should look like the one below:

5 Select the Data tab and look up the Head of the System Head Curve at
126.2 L/s.
6 Note that the Head is 60.4 m; record this value in the table in the Results
Table.
7 Click Close.
8 Click Yes to save the System Head Curve.

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Getting Started

Exercise: Creating a backup of our SkelebratorStart.wtg file


So that this file will be available for the second part of the workshop, we
will save another copy of the file with a different name.
1 Select File > Save As.
2 Name the file SkelebratorEnd.wtg.
3 Click Save.

Note: This is the file you will be modifying using Skelebrator, while

SkelebratorStart.wtg is a backup file in case we need it.

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Skelebrator Skeletonizer

Skelebrator Skeletonizer
In this section you will run through the different operations that are available in
Skelebrator.

Smart Pipe Removal

Exercise: Removing Pipes Less Than 150 millimeters


1 Back on the main screen your active scenario should be Base, if it is not,
change it before you continue.
2 Select View > Zoom > Zoom Extents to see the full view.
3 Restore Skelebrator Skeletonizer and select Smart Pipe Removal on the
left hand side.

4 Click the New button and accept the default operation name.
Note: There are three tabs along the top of the window: Settings, Conditions, and

Notes.
5 Select the Settings tab and adjust the Loop Retaining Sensitivity to 40 by
moving the slider bar to the right.
Note: If the numerical indicator does not update automatically as you move the

slider, uncheck and recheck the box marked Preserve Network Integrity? to
synchronize the displayed number with the position of the slider.
6 Select the Conditions tab and click the Add button.
7 Set the following:
Attribute: Diameter
Operator: Less Than

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Skelebrator Skeletonizer

Diameter: 150 mm

8 Preview the operation by clicking the Preview button to see the pipes that
will be removed.
9 Minimize Skelebrator to view the drawing.

10 After your review, restore Skelebrator.


11 Click the Compute button.
12 You will be warned that you are about to perform a process that cannot be
undone, select Yes to continue.

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Skelebrator Skeletonizer

Note: Always select Yes in this workshop when Skelebrator asks you if you want to

continue.
The Skelebrator Progress Summary dialog provides information on the
pipes and nodes removed from the model.

13 After reviewing the Skelebrator Process Summary, close it and minimize


Skelebrator.
Now we will evaluate the hydraulic impact of the Smart Pipe Removal
procedure.

Exercise: Evaluating the hydraulic impact of this Smart Pipe Removal


1 Open the Scenarios manager and Batch Run both the Base and Fire at A100 scenarios.
2 Select OK when the simulations are complete and close the Scenarios
manager.
3 Select Report > Project Inventory.
4 Record the number of pipes and nodes remaining and enter this data in
the Results table at the end of the workshop.

Exercise: Finding A-100s Pressure and PMP-1s System Head Curve


1 As you did before, find junction A-100 and record the Pressure for both
the Base and Fire at A-100 scenarios in the results table at the end of the
workshop.
2 Go to the PMP-1 and record the Head at 126.2 L/s from the System Head
Curve for the Base scenario in the results table at the end of the
workshop.

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Skelebrator Skeletonizer

Warning: Make sure to switch your scenario to Base before continuing to the next exercise.

Smart Pipe Removal

Exercise: Removing Pipes Less Than or equal to 150 millimeters


1 Restore Skelebrator.
2 With Smart Pipe Removal-1 highlighted in the left pane, select the
Conditions tab.
3 Select the existing Attribute Diameter.
You will change the condition so that pipes of diameter equal to 150
millimeters or less are removed.

Note: Recall that in the previous pipe removal we removed pipes that were less than

150 millimeters, but not the 150 millimeter pipes as we will in this run.
4 Change the Operator to Less Than or Equal.

5 Select the Compute button to run automated skeletonization.


Note: You will be warned that you are about to perform a process that cannot be

undone.
6 Select Yes to continue.

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7 Review the Skelebrator Progress Summary, and then close it and minimize
Skelebrator.

Exercise: Computing the scenarios and reviewing results


1 Go to the Scenarios manager and run the Base and Fire at A-100 scenarios
using Batch Run.
2 Select OK when the simulation is complete and close the Scenarios
manager.
3 Select Report > Project Inventory.

4 Record the number of pipes and nodes remaining and enter this data in
the Results Table at the end of the workshop.
5 As you did before, go to element dialog for junction A-100 and record the
Pressure for both the Base and Fire at A-100 scenarios in the Results Table
at the end of the workshop.
6 Also, go to PMP-1 and record the Head at 126.2 L/s from the System Head
Curve for the Base scenario in the results table at the end of the
workshop.
Warning: Make sure to switch your scenario to Base before continuing to the next exercise.

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Smart Pipe Removal

Exercise: Removing Pipes Less Than or Equal to 200 millimeters


You will repeat the process above one more time, this time removing
pipes that are less than or equal to 200 millimeters in diameter.
1 Restore Skelebrator.
2 Select Smart Pipe Removal 1.
3 On the Conditions tab, change the Diameter to 200 millimeters.

4 Select Compute.
Note: You will be warned that you are about to perform a process that cannot be

undone.
5 Select Yes to continue.

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Skelebrator Skeletonizer

6 Review the Skelebrator Progress Summary, then close it and close


Skelebrator.

Exercise: Computing the scenarios and reviewing the results


1 Open the Scenarios manager and run the Base and Fire at A-100 scenarios
using Batch Run.
2 Select OK when the simulations are complete and close the Scenarios
manager.
3 Select Report > Project Inventory.

4 Record the number of pipes and nodes remaining and enter this data in
the Results Table at the end of the workshop.
5 As you did before, go to element dialog for junction A-100 and record the
Pressure for both the Base and Fire at A-100 scenarios in the Results Table
at the end of the workshop.
6 Also, go to PMP-1 and record the Head at 126.2 L/s from the System Head
Curve for the Base scenario in the results table at the end of the
workshop.
Note: This section has shown that removing half the pipes and two fifths of the pipes

can affect model results, particularly in high-demand cases.


Next, you will try a different approach.

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Skelebrator Skeletonizer

Branch-Series-Parallel Removal

Exercise: Opening SkelebratorStart.wtg, computing and reviewing results


1 Select File > Open.
2 Select SkelebratorStart.wtg and click Open.
At the top of the drawing window, you will note that you have two
WaterGEMS projects open, SkelebratorStart.wtg and
SkelebratorEnd.wtg.
3 Click on each tab to look at the pipe changes produced by Skelebrator.
4 When finished with your comparison, make sure that the active project is
SkelebratorStart.wtg.
5 Open the Scenarios manager and Batch Run the two scenarios Base and
Fire at A-100.
6 Select OK when the simulations are complete and close the Scenarios
manager.
7 Select Report > Project Inventory.

8 Record the number of pipes and nodes in the model at the start in the
results table at the end of the workshop.
Note: You should be back to 656 pipes and 517 nodes.

9 As you did before, go to element dialog for junction A-100 and record the
Pressure for both the Base and Fire at A-100 scenarios in the Results Table
at the end of the workshop.
10 Also, go to PMP-1 and record the Head at 126.2 L/s from the System Head
Curve for the Base scenario in the Results Table at the end of the
workshop.
11 After recording the results, select File > Save As and save the file as
SkelebratorEnd2.wtg.
12 Click Save.

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Note the changed name in the project tab above the drawing window.
Warning: Make sure to switch your scenario to Base before continuing to the next exercise.

Exercise: Protecting junction A-100


1 Start Skelebrator by clicking the Skelebrator button or by selecting Tools >
Skelebrator Skeletonizer.
2 Select the Protected Elements tab, and then click on the Select from
Drawing button.
3 On the Select toolbar, click the Find Element button.
4 In the Find dialog click the Find Element button again to populate the list
with the elements in the model.
5 Click on element A-100 in the list to highlight it.
6 Click OK and then click the Done button from the Select toolbar.

Series Pipe Merging

Exercise: Running a Series Pipe Merging


1 Restore Skelebrator.
2 Highlight the Series Pipe Merging option in the left pane.
3 Select the New button and accept the default operation name.
4 Select the Settings tab.

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5 Set the Maximum Number of Removal Levels to 5.

Note: No other changes are needed.

6 With Series Pipe Merging-1 highlighted in the left pane, select the Preview
button.

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7 Minimize Skelebrator to view the drawing.

8 Use the drawing window zoom buttons to zoom to an area where you can
see several pipes and nodes.
9 Restore Skelebrator.
10 Select the Manual button.

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11 Select Yes to continue with the skeletonization.

12 Click the Go To button and you will zoom into pipe E-2582.
13 Click Execute and you will merge one pipe into one that is connected to it
in series, creating a single longer pipe.
14 Select Close to return to the Skelebrator dialog and click the Compute
button.

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15 Select Yes to automatically merge the remaining pipes.

16 Review the Skelebrator Progress Summary and then close it.


17 Continue without recording results at this point.
Note: You will need to remove some pipes because this system has few dead ends or

series pipes.

Exercise: Running a Smart Pipe Removal for pipes less than 100 millimeters
1 Highlight Smart Pipe Removal.
2 Click the New button, and accept the default operation name.

3 On the Settings tab, adjust the Loop Retaining Sensitivity to 40.


4 Select the Conditions tab and click the Add button.

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5 Create a condition to remove pipes less than 100 millimeters in diameter.

6 With Smart Pipe Removal-1 highlighted in the left pane, click the Compute
button and select Yes to continue.

7 Review the Skelebrator Progress Summary, and then close it.


8 Minimize Skelebrator.

Exercise: Computing the scenarios and reviewing the results


1 Open the Scenarios manager and run the Base and Fire at A-100 scenarios
using Batch Run.
2 Select OK when the simulation is complete and close the Scenarios
manager.

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3 Select Report > Project Inventory.

4 Record the number of pipes and nodes remaining and enter this data in
the Results Table at the end of the workshop.
5 As you did before, go to the element dialog for junction A-100 and record
the Pressure for both the Base and Fire at A-100 scenarios in the Step 1
row of the Results Table at the end of the workshop.
6 Also, go to PMP-1 and record the Head at 126.2 L/s from the System Head
Curve for the Base scenario in the Step 1 row of the Results Table at the
end of the workshop.
Warning: Make sure to switch your scenario to Base before continuing to the next exercise.

Branch Collapsing

Exercise: Executing a branch collapsing run


1 Restore Skelebrator and highlight Branch Collapsing.

2 Select the New button and accept the default operation name.
3 Select the Settings tab, set the Maximum Number of Trimming Levels to
10.

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Skelebrator Skeletonizer

Note: Do not change the Load Distribution Strategy and do not specify any

Conditions.

4 With Branch Collapsing-1 highlighted in the left pane, select the Preview
button.
5 Minimize Skelebrator to view the drawing.

6 When finished, restore Skelebrator.

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7 Make sure that Branch Collapsing-1 is still highlighted.


8 Click the Compute button and select Yes to continue.
9 Review the Skelebrator Progress Summary and then close it.

Note: Now that you have eliminated some branches, you have created more pipes in

series.

Exercise: Running the Series Pipe Merging-1 to clean up pipes


1 Highlight Series Pipe Merging-1 in the left pane.
2 Select the Compute button and select Yes to continue.
3 Review the Skelebrator Progress Summary report and then close it.

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Skelebrator Skeletonizer

4 Minimize Skelebrator.

Exercise: Computing the scenarios and reviewing the results


1 Go to the Scenarios manager and run the Base and Fire at A-100 scenarios
using Batch Run.
2 Select OK when the simulation is complete and close the Scenarios
Manager.
3 Select Report > Project Inventory.

4 Record the number of pipes and nodes remaining and enter this data in
the Results Table at the end of the workshop.
5 As you did before, go to the element dialog for junction A-100 and record
the Pressure for both the Base and Fire at A-100 scenarios in the Step 2
row of the Results Table at the end of the workshop.
6 Also, go to PMP-1 and record the Head at 126.2 L/s from the System Head
Curve for the Base scenario in the Step 1 row of the Results Table at the
end of the workshop.
Warning: Make sure to switch your scenario to Base before continuing to the next exercise.

Parallel Pipe Merging

Exercise: Setting up a Parallel Pipe Merging Operation


1 Restore Skelebrator and highlight Parallel Pipe Merging.
2 Select the New button and accept the default operation name.
3 Select the Settings tab and increase the Maximum Number of Removal
Levels to 5.

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Note: Do not change other Settings or Conditions.

4 With Parallel Pipe Merging-1 highlighted in the left pane, select the
Preview button to preview the operation.
5 Minimize Skelebrator to view the drawing.

6 Restore Skelebrator.
7 Make sure Parallel Pipe Merging-1 is still highlighted, and select the
Compute button.
8 Click Yes to continue.

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Note: No nodes are removed in Parallel Pipe Removal.

9 Close the Skelebrator Project Summary to return to the main window.

Exercise: Trimming branches with Branch Collapsing Operation


1 Highlight Branch Collapsing-1.
2 Select the Compute button and Yes to continue.
3 Review the Skelebrator Progress Summary and then close it.

Exercise: Running a Series Pipe Merging Operation to collapse pipes in series


1 Highlight Series Pipe Merging-1.
2 Select the Compute button and Yes to continue.

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3 Review the Skelebrator Summary Report and close it to return to the main
Skelebrator window.

4 Minimize Skelebrator.

Exercise: Computing the scenarios and reviewing the results


1 Go to the Scenarios manager and run the Base and Fire at A-100 scenarios
using Batch Run.
2 Select OK when the simulation is complete and close the Scenarios
manager.
3 Select Report > Project Inventory.
4 Record the number of pipes and nodes remaining and enter this data in
the Results Table at the end of the workshop.
5 As you did before, go to the element dialog for junction A-100 and record
the Pressure for both the Base and Fire at A-100 scenarios in the Step 3
row of the Results Table at the end of the workshop.
6 Also, go to PMP-1 and record the Head at 126.2 L/s from the System Head
Curve for the Base scenario in the Step 3 row of the Results Table at the
end of the workshop.

Note: After Step 2, there was basically no impact on the results for the scenarios and

locations at which we are looking due to further Skeletonization.


7 Select the FlexTables dropdown from the toolbar, and select Pipe to view
that table.

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Skelebrator Skeletonizer

8 Scroll through the Pipe FlexTable and you will see that some of the pipes
created with series or parallel removal, the ones with the P prefix, have
non-standard diameters (or C-factors if you chose that setting).
9 If you have time, try to reduce the model to the absolute minimum
number of pipes.
10 Keep applying Branch Collapsing, Series Pipe Merging, and Parallel Pipe
Merging until you can go no further.
11 Occasionally you will need to do a Smart Pipe Removal, but try to
minimize the use of that operation.
12 Answer the questions at the end of the workshop.

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Results Tables

Results Tables
Note: You may round your answers.

Pipe Removal
Action

Pipes Left

Nodes Left

Pressure A-100 Pressure A-100 System Head


(kPa) Base
(kPa) Fire
Curve PMP-1
(m) Base

Start
Remove < 150 mm
Remove <= 150 mm
Remove <= 200 mm

Branch-Series-Parallel Removal
Action Pipes Left

Nodes Left

Pressure A-100
(kPa) Base

Pressure A-100
(kPa) Fire

System Head
Curve PMP-1 (m)
Base

Start
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions
1 Why did the pressures during the Base scenario not change much as pipes
were removed?

2 Why did the pressures during the Fire at A-100 scenario seem more
sensitive?

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Workshop Review

3 Why were the effects less dramatic in the runs using the series, parallel,
and branch removal operations?

4 Do you think you can generate system head curves with a fairly highly
skeletonized model?

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Answers

Pipe Removal
Action

Pipes Left

Nodes Left

Pressure A-100 Pressure A-100 System Head


(kPa) Base
(kPa) Fire
Curve PMP-1
(m) Base

Start

656

517

291.3

208.7

60.4

Remove < 150 mm

504

451

291.3

108.2

60.6

Remove <= 150 mm 381

354

291.2

40.9

61.4

Remove <= 200 mm 312

290

290.2

39.2

64.6

Branch-Series-Parallel Removal
Action Pipes Left

Nodes Left

Pressure A-100
(kPa) Base

Pressure A-100
(kPa) Fire

System Head
Curve PMP-1 (m)
Base

Start

656

517

291.3

208.7

60.4

Step 1 453

365

291.3

202.4

60.5

Step 2 227

139

291.3

202.1

60.5

Step 3 199

122

291.2

202.1

60.4

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Workshop Review

1 Why did the pressures during the Base scenario not change much as pipes
were removed?
The velocities (and hence head losses) in the system were so low that it
was difficult to see impact.

2 Why did the pressures during the Fire at A-100 scenario seem more
sensitive?
This scenario had much higher velocities so that the impact of removing a
pipe was more dramatic.

3 Why were the effects less dramatic in the runs using the series, parallel,
and branch removal operations?
These operations maintain hydraulic capacity.

4 Do you think you can generate system head curves with a fairly highly
skeletonized model?
Yes, the results show that you can skeletonize a model and still obtain an
accurate system head curve.

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Which Platform for Water


Distribution Modeling?

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Which Platform for Water Distribution Modeling?

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Which Platform for Water Distribution Modeling?

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Which Platform for Water Distribution Modeling?

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Which Platform for Water Distribution Modeling?

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Which Platform for Water Distribution Modeling?

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Which Platform for Water Distribution Modeling?

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Which Platform for Water Distribution Modeling?

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Which Platform for Water Distribution Modeling?

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Which Platform for Water Distribution Modeling?

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Which Platform for Water Distribution Modeling?

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Modeling Water Distribution


System Flushing

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Modeling Water Distribution System Flushing

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Modeling Water Distribution System Flushing

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Modeling Water Distribution System Flushing


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Modeling Water Distribution System Flushing

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Modeling Water Distribution System Flushing

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Modeling Water Distribution System Flushing

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Developing System Flushing


Routines
Module Overview
In this workshop, you will evaluate conventional flushing and identify locations
where unidirectional flushing (UDF) may improve flushing velocities. This course
material has been developed for the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i platform, at a
minimum the Version 08.11.00.30. Modelers currently using versions prior to
WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, version 08.11.00.30, are strongly encouraged to consider
upgrading today to start taking advantage of the latest features and
interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Model Calibration

System Planning & Operation

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

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Set up and analyze a flushing program using conventional and unidirectional


flushing

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Getting Started

Getting Started
In this section you will open the existing WaterCAD/GEMS model and compute it.
Once computed you will set up color coding and review the setup of the model.

Exercise: Opening WaterCAD/GEMS model


1 Start WaterCAD or WaterGEMS V8i.
2 Open the file FlushWorkStart.wtg and make sure Steady is the current
scenario.
The model should look like this:

Exercise: Calculating and reviewing the model


1 Click the Compute button or select Analysis > Compute to check that the
model is complete.
2 Close the Calculation Summary and User Notification dialogs if they come
up.
3 Look through the Pipe and Junction FlexTables to make sure that values
are reasonable.

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Getting Started

Note: This system has two pressure zones, an upper one fed by a variable speed

pump with no tank and a lower one fed by constant speed pumps and has a
tank serving it.
4 Select View > Element Symbology.
5 Expand Pipe.
6 Uncheck Diameter and put a checkmark in Hydraulic Grade (Start).

Note: The upper zone should be red and the lower one blue; like this:

Exercise: Adding pipe velocity color coding


1 Select View > Element Symbology.
2 Right click on Pipe and select New > Color Coding.
3 Set the following on the Color Coding Properties dialog:

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Getting Started

Field Name: Velocity


Selection Set: <All Elements>
Minimum: 0 m/s
Maximum: 6.1 m/s
Steps: 5
Options: Color and Size
4 Click the Initialize button (third button).

5 Change the Values, Colors and Sizes as shown below:


Value

Color

Size

0.03

Gray

0.3

Green

0.9

Blue

1.5

Magenta

6.1

Red

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Getting Started

6 Click Apply and then OK.

Exercise: Adding hydrant demand color coding


Now set up Hydrant element color coding so that the flowed hydrant for
any event will appear very large.
1 Select View > Element Symbology.
2 Right click on Hydrant and select New > Color Coding.
3 Set the following values:
Field Name: Demand
Selection Set: <All Elements>
Minimum: 0 L/s
Maximum: 126.2 L/s
Steps: 3
Options: Color and Size
4 Click the Initialize button.

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Getting Started

5 Change the Values, Colors and Sizes as shown below:


Value

Color

Size

3.2

Green

31.5

Blue

10

126.2

Red

10

6 Click Apply and OK.


7 Fill in the Results Table at the end of the workshop for normal conditions.

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Flushing

Flushing
This section will walk you through the two different types of Flushing in
WaterCAD/GEMS: Conventional and Unidirectional Flushing.

Conventional Flushing

Exercise: Creating a selection set for all hydrants in the model


In this analysis, you will open all hydrants one at a time (Conventional
Flushing).
1 Create a selection set of all hydrants by selecting Edit > Select by Element
> Hydrant.
2 Then right click on the drawing pane and select Create Selection Set.
3 Name this selection set All Hydrants.

4 Click OK.

Optional Exercise: Viewing the selection set using Network Navigator


1 If you want to view the selection set, you can select View > Network
Navigator.

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Flushing

2 On the Network Navigator dialog, click in the dropdown box at the top
and select the All Hydrants selection set.

3 Close out of Network Navigator when you are done.

Exercise: Creating the flushing alternative


1 Select Analysis > Alternatives.
2 Expand Flushing and open the Base Flushing alternative.
3 Set the following:
Target Velocity: 0.91 m/s
Pipe Set: All Pipes

Note: This means the target velocity will be checked for all pipes in the system.

Compare velocities across prior scenarios? Leave unchecked


Flowing Emitter Coefficient: 12.04 L/s/(mH2O^n
Flowing Demand: 0 L/s
Apply Flushing Flow By: Adding to baseline demand
Report on minimum pressure?: Check the box
Include nodes with pressure less than?: Check the box
Node Pressure Less Than: 206.8 kPa

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Flushing

4 Do not check Include pipes with velocity greater than? because you have
already selected All Pipes as the Pipe Set.

5 Select the Conventional tab in the Flushing Alternative dialog.


6 Click the Initialize from Selection Set button.
7 Select All Hydrants as the Selection Set; these are the nodes to flush.

8 Click OK.
Note: You will specify the flushing alternative to use the 100 mm outlet on hydrant H-

91.

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Flushing

9 Select the Use local? box for Hydrant H-91 and set the Emitter Coefficient
to 30.1 L/s/(mH2O)^n.

10 Close the Flushing Alternative dialog and Alternatives manager.

Exercise: Setting the Calculation Options for Flushing


1 Select Analysis > Calculation Options.
2 With Steady State/EPS Solver selected, click the New button.
3 Name this Calculation Option FlushingCalc.

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Flushing

4 Double click on FlushingCalc and in the Properties manager, set the


Calculation Type to Flushing.

5 Close out of the Calculation Options manager.

Exercise: Creating the flushing scenario


1 Open the Scenarios manager by selecting Analysis > Scenarios.
2 Click on the Steady scenario.
3 Click the New button and select Child Scenario.
4 Name the new scenario, FlushConv.

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Flushing

5 Open the Flush-Conv scenario and set the Steady State/EPS Solver
Calculation Options to Flushing Calc.

6 Make FlushConv the current scenario by selecting it in the Scenarios


manager and clicking the Make Current button.
7 Close the Scenarios manager.

Exercise: Computing the Flush-Conv scenario and reviewing results


1 Select Analysis > Compute or click the Compute button.
2 Close the Calculation Summary and User Notification dialogs if they come
up.

Exercise: Reviewing conventional flushing results


1 Select View > FlexTables.
2 Open the Flushing Report.

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Flushing

3 Right click on the Maximum Achieved Velocity column heading and select
Sort > Sort Descending.

4 Fill in the Results Table at the end of the workshop.


5 Notice the following:

P-675 had no velocity because it was a closed zone divide pipe.

P-665 had no velocity because it was a dead end pipe with no hydrant

TL-107 had marginal velocity because it is a larger pipe with two


directional feed

P-455 had good velocity

P-294 had very high velocity because it was a dead end pipe

6 Close out of the FlexTable windows.

Exercise: Color coding pipes based on maximum velocity


1 Select View > Element Symbology.
2 Right click on Pipe and select New > Color Coding.
3 Set the following:

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Flushing

Field Name: Velocity Maximum Achieved


Selection Set: <All Elements>
Minimum: 0 m/s
Maximum: 6.1 m/s
Steps: 5
Options: Color and Size
4 Click the Initialize button.
5 Change the Value, Color and Size as shown below:
Value

Color

Size

0.03

Gray

0.3

Green

0.9

Blue

1.5

Magenta

6.1

Red

6 Set the Above Range Size to 9.

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Flushing

7 Click Apply and OK.


8 Back in the Element Symbology manager, check only Velocity Maximum
Achieved.
9 Review the drawing.

10 Remember to save your file periodically.

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Exercise: Using the Flushing Results Browser to view individual flushing


events

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Flushing

1 Select Analysis > Flushing Results Browser.

2 In the Element Symbology manager, check Velocity and uncheck Velocity


Maximum Achieved.
3 Make sure that Demand is checked for Hydrant.

4 Once the Flushing Results Browser is open, click on the various flushing
events to see which pipes experienced high velocity during the particular
flush.

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Flushing

5 For example, here is the view for Hydrant H-42 which flushes TL-107.

Note: The velocities are not very high.

6 Click on the Flushing Event Results button.


7 Review some of the details for this selected event.

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Flushing

Note: Not a single section of pipe experienced its maximum flushing velocity when

this hydrant was opened. Also see that one node reached -0.2 kPa pressure.
Flushing this hydrant may not be useful since the pipes around this area were
better flushed by H-33.
8 To review pressures for any event, open the Junction FlexTable.
9 Right click on the Pressure column heading and select Sort > Sort
Descending.
10 Most of the table will be N/A because those junctions did not drop below
the 206.8 kPa specified.
Remember you set 206.8 kPa for Include nodes with pressure less than?.
Note: The junctions that do drop below 206.8 kPa are mostly on the suction sides of

pumps.

11 Close the Junction FlexTable.


12 Continue to browse around to other flushing events using the browser and
see how effective each event was.
13 For example, Flushing H-16 did not flush a large section of pipes because
the hydrant was very close to the source.

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Feb-10

Flushing

14 On the other hand, Flushing H-91 flushed a sizable length of pipe because
of its location and the fact that the 100 mm outlet was used.
15 Close the Flushing Results Browser when you are done.

Unidirectional Flushing
Pipe TL-107 did not achieve a very high velocity even though it is fairly close to the
source because it gets flow equally from both directions and it is a larger pipe. You
will need to set up a unidirectional event that will try to force flow from one
direction.

Exercise: Reviewing TL-107


1 Zoom into TL-107.

Note: You would like to feed it from the tank so you will not be limited by the pump

curve.
2 Isolating valves ISO-85 and ISO-212 are at the downstream end of this
pipe.

Exercise: Creating the new flushing alternative


1 Select Analysis > Alternatives.
2 Select the Base Flushing alternative.
3 Click the New button to create a new child alternative.
4 Name the new alternative UDF-107.

5 Double-click the UDF-107 alternative to open the Flushing Alternative


dialog.
6 Check that the Flushing Criteria tab still has the same entries as before.
7 Select the Unidirectional tab.
8 Click the New button and select Add Flushing Event.

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Flushing

9 Name the event Flush-107.

10 Click OK.
11 Click in the Element ID field and click the ellipsis ().
12 On the Select toolbar, click the Find Element button.
13 In the Find dialog type H-42 in the top field and click the Find Element
button.
Note: This will select the element for you and bring you back to the Flushing

Alternative.

Exercise: Closing the valves at the end of the line


1 On the Unidirectional tab, click the New button and select Add Elements.
2 On the Select toolbar, you can use the Find Element tool as you did above
to locate valves, ISO-85 and ISO-212.
3 When you have selected the two elements, click the Done button on the
Select toolbar to return to the Flushing Alternative dialog.

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Flushing

4 The Unidirectional tab should look like the one below indicating that H-42
will be flowed while ISO-85 and ISO-212 will be closed.

5 Select the Flushing Criteria tab and make sure this event appears in the
right pane.
6 Check the box for Compare velocities across prior scenarios? so that this
result will be added to the others.

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Flushing

7 Close the Flushing Alternative.


8 Save your file.

Exercise: Creating the unidirectional flushing scenario


1 Select Analysis > Scenarios.
2 Create a child scenario of Flush-Conv.
3 Name the new scenario Flush UDF-107.

4 Open the Flush UDF-107 scenario and change the Flushing alternative to
UDF-107.
5 Close the Properties manager and make Flush UDF-107 the current
scenario.
6 Compute the Flush UDF-107 scenario.

Exercise: Reviewing results with UDF


1 Select View > Zoom > Zoom Extents.
2 Set the Pipe color coding in the Element Symbology manager to Velocity
Maximum Achieved.
3 Look at the color coding for TL-107.
4 Select View > FlexTables and open the Flushing Report.

Note: The velocity in TL-107 for this scenario did not increase dramatically, partly

because it is fairly far from the source and partly because it is a 300 mm pipe.
5 Make sure the color coding for Pipe is set to Velocity, and then select
Analysis > Flushing Results Browser.
6 Look at the velocities associated with this event.

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Feb-10

Results Tables

Results Tables

Pipe

Velocity (Normal) (m/s) Maximum velocity (m/s) (from Flushing Report)

P-675
P-665
P-455
P-294
TL-107 (Conventional)
TL-107 (UDF)

Normal Hydraulic Grade (Scenario Steady)

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Zone

Pump

Upper

PMP-12

Lower

PMP-1

Discharge HGL (m)

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions
1 What could have been done to improve flushing?

2 Why did the velocity at P-103 change so much between normal and
flushing demands?

3 What could you do to flush the short dead end pipes in the cul-de-sacs
without hydrants?

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Workshop Review

4 Would you expect unidirectional flushing to be beneficial for TL-107?


Why?

5 In flushing P-294, the velocity was very high. What warning would you give
to operators that would be especially true for this pipe?

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Workshop Review

Answers

Pipe

Velocity (Normal) (m/s) Maximum velocity (m/s) (from Flushing Report)

P-675

0.0

0.0

P-665

0.0

0.0

P-455

0.02

1.66

P-294

0.01

4.24

TL-107 (Conventional) 0.01

0.72

TL-107 (UDF)

0.80

0.01

Normal Hydraulic Grade (Scenario Steady)


Zone

Pump

Discharge HGL (m)

Upper

PMP-12

435.9

Lower

PMP-1

382.1

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Workshop Review

1 What could have been done to improve flushing?


Turn on stand-by pumps at the sources.

2 Why did the velocity at P-103 change so much between normal and
flushing demands?
It was a dead end with virtually no demand on normal day.

3 What could you do to flush the short dead end pipes in the cul-de-sacs
without hydrants?
Install blow offs at end of line.

4 Would you expect unidirectional flushing to be beneficial for TL-107?


Why?
You would expect that but the impact was marginal because the pipes
being closed did not carry much flow to the flowed hydrant during
conventional flushing. The main being flushed is 300 mm which is going to
be difficult to flush in any case, especially when it is far from the source
and head loss between the source and flowed hydrant would be large.

5 In flushing P-294, the velocity was very high. What warning would you give
to operators that would be especially true for this pipe?
Be very cautious in closing and opening hydrants in these dead end pipes
to minimize water hammer.

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Workshop Review

Developing System Flushing Routines

680

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Feb-10

Geospatial Data Management


Basics

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Geospatial Data Management Basics

Geospatial Data Management Basics

682

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683

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Geospatial Data Management Basics

Geospatial Data Management Basics

684

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Geospatial Data Management Basics

Geospatial Data Management Basics

686

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Feb-10

687

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Geospatial Data Management Basics

Geospatial Data Management Basics

688

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689

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Geospatial Data Management Basics

Geospatial Data Management Basics

690

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Feb-10

Feb-10

691

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Geospatial Data Management Basics

Geospatial Data Management Basics

692

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Feb-10

Feb-10

693

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Geospatial Data Management Basics

Geospatial Data Management Basics

694

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695

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Geospatial Data Management Basics

Geospatial Data Management Basics

696

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Feb-10

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697

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Geospatial Data Management Basics

Geospatial Data Management Basics

698

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Feb-10

ModelBuilder

Feb-10

699
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ModelBuilder

ModelBuilder

700

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Feb-10

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ModelBuilder

ModelBuilder

702

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ModelBuilder

ModelBuilder

704

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ModelBuilder

ModelBuilder

706

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ModelBuilder

ModelBuilder

708

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709

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ModelBuilder

ModelBuilder

710

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Feb-10

Feb-10

711

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ModelBuilder

ModelBuilder

712

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Feb-10

Automating Model Building


using ModelBuilder
Module Overview
In this workshop, you will build a model from shapefiles created in ArcGIS and
analyze it. You will also learn how to use the network navigator tool to find and
locate elements quickly. This course material has been developed for the
WaterCAD/GEMS V8i platform, at a minimum the Version 08.11.00.30. Modelers
currently using versions prior to WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, version 08.11.00.30, are
strongly encouraged to consider upgrading today to start taking advantage of the
latest features and interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Feb-10

Automate model building through the use of ModelBuilder

Use Network Navigator to quickly locate elements

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ModelBuilder

ModelBuilder
This section will walk you through the steps of creating a model from ESRI
Shapefiles with the use of ModelBuilder.

Exercise: Opening WaterGEMS and creating a new project


1 Start WaterGEMS V8i.
2 On the Welcome dialog, click Create New Project or if that window is not
open select File > New from the WaterGEMS main toolbar.

Exercise: Starting ModelBuilder


1 Start ModelBuilder by clicking on the ModelBuilder button or by selecting
Tools > ModelBuilder.
The empty ModelBuilder dialog will appear.

Note: ModelBuilder itself is a wizard, but the settings from the wizard dialogs are

saved in this manager for future use and editing.

2 Click the New button to kick off the ModelBuilder Wizard.

Exercise: Step 1 Specify Your Data Source


1 In the Select a Data Source Type dropdown menu select ESRI Shapefiles.
2 Click the Browse button next to Select your Data Source.
3 Navigate to C:\Bentley Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter\ModelBuilder.
4 Hold down the Ctrl key on your keyboard and then select the following
three shapefiles: Pipes_1.shp, Junctions_1.shp, and Tanks_1.shp.

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ModelBuilder

5 Click Open to send this selection to ModelBuilder.


This adds the three feature classes to the left pane of the wizard.
Note: Each of the feature classes listed has a checkbox next to it that you can use to

exclude it from processing by the wizard.


6 Check the Show Preview box and you will see the type of data available
with each table in the right pane.
7 Select Tanks-1 and note that the following fields: ELEV_MAX, and
ELEV_MIN have no data; however the field ELEV_BASE has numeric data.

8 Click the Next button to advance to the Specify Spatial and Connectivity
Options step.

Exercise: Step 2 Specify Spatial Options


1 Specify m as the Coordinate Unit of the data.

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ModelBuilder

2 Make sure the Create nodes if none found at pipe endpoint and Establish
connectivity using spatial data fields are NOT checked.

3 Click Next.

Exercise: Step 3 Specify element create/remove/update options


1 Leave the defaults on this step as is.

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ModelBuilder

2 Click Next.

Exercise: Step 4 Specify additional options


1 Leave the defaults on this step as they are.

Note: If you were importing this data into an existing model you can choose to import

the data into the current scenario or you can create a new child scenario. New
scenario and alternatives will be automatically labeled Created by
ModelBuilder followed by the date and time when they were created. If there
is no data change for a particular alternative, no child alternative will be
created in that case.
2 Click Next.

Exercise: Step 5 Specify Field Mappings for each table


Now you are in the section of ModelBuilder where you connect attribute
fields from your Shapefiles to WaterGEMS element properties.
1 Click on Junctions_1 in the left pane and select the Settings tab in the
right.
2 Select Junction from the Table Type menu.

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ModelBuilder

Note: This gives you access to all the fields in your source file.

3 Set Key Fields to LABEL.


4 Leave the X Field and Y Field set to <auto> since the coordinates will
automatically be transferred from the data file.
5 Under the Field column, click on ELEVATION, then from the Property
menu select Elevation and then select m from the Unit menu.

6 Select Pipes_1 in the left pane and select Pipe as the Table Type.
7 For the Key Fields, select LABEL from the menu.
8 Leave the Start and Stop fields to <none> as these particular fields are
related to the Spatial Connectivity option in a previous window.
9 Select DIAMETER under the Field column and select Diameter from the
Property menu.

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ModelBuilder

10 Select mm from the Unit menu.

11 Select Tanks_1 in the left pane and select Tank as the Table Type on the
right.
12 Select LABEL from the menu under the Key Fields.
13 Select DIAMETER in the Field column and select Diameter from the
Property menu.
14 Make sure you select m from the Unit menu.

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ModelBuilder

15 Select ELEV_BASE in the Field column and select Elevation (Base) from
the Property menu, and m in the Unit menu.

16 Click Next when done.

Exercise: Step 6 Create Model Now?

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ModelBuilder

1 On the next screen, select Yes to build the model and leave the other two
boxes checked as well.

2 Click Finish.
Note: If you receive the message below, read it, and then click Yes to continue.

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ModelBuilder

3 After ModelBuilder has run, the ModelBuilder Summary dialog will state
that it was unable to create pipes due to missing topology.

4 Select the Messages tab and you will see that the pipes could not find
their start and stop nodes.

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ModelBuilder

5 Close the ModelBuilder Summary.

Exercise: Fixing the spatial data issue


To resolve this issue, we will go back into ModelBuilder and let it resolve
the topology based on the proximity of nodes to the pipe ends.
1 In the ModelBuilder dialog, select the Duplicate button to make a copy of
the existing connection.

2 With the copy, ModelBuilder(1) highlighted, select the Edit button to go


back into the ModelBuilder Wizard.
3 Click Next since the Data Source fields are already filled in.
Note: This is where you implicitly tell ModelBuilder to establish connectivity from the

data source itself. If this box is unchecked, then you would need to explicitly
specify the connectivity in the Field Mappings: Pipes Start/Stop fields.
4 On the Specify Spatial and Connectivity Options step, check the box for
Create nodes if none found at pipe endpoint.

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ModelBuilder

5 Check the box for Establish connectivity using spatial data and set the
Tolerance to 0.03 m.

6 Click Next until you get to the Create Model Now? step.
7 Select Yes to build the model now.
8 Click Finish.

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ModelBuilder

This time 657 pressure pipes were updated.

9 Close the ModelBuilder Summary and close ModelBuilder.


10 Click Yes to the following dialog:

Exercise: Reviewing the model


1 Back on the WaterGEMS screen; select View > Zoom > Zoom Extents to
view the newly built model.

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ModelBuilder

2 Review the model information that has been created with the
ModelBuilder.
3 Select View > Selection Sets.
Note: You will see that two selection sets have been created.

4 Highlight one of the sets and click the Select In Drawing button.
5 Close the Selection Sets manager when you are done and select Report >
Element Tables > Junction.
Note: You should see the elevations that were mapped from source file.

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ModelBuilder

6 Sort the Elevation column in Ascending order.


You will see the eight nodes that were created by ModelBuilder, and do
not yet have elevations.

7 Close the Junction table and select Report > Element Tables > Pipe.

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ModelBuilder

8 Close the Pipe table and select Report > Element Tables > Tank.

Note: If you review other tables, such as Reservoirs, or PRVs, they will be empty

because these elements were not present in the source file.

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Feb-10

Inputting Model Data

Inputting Model Data


Now that we have the model built we would like to compute the model, however
some additional information needs to be entered.

Exercise: Saving your model


1 Select File > Save As.
2 Name your file ModelBuilder.wtg.
If you ran the model now, it would not run because you do not have initial
water surface elevations in the tanks. You will need to set them.

Exercise: Entering tank data


1 Select the FlexTables button or select View > FlexTables.
2 Double click on Tank Table.
3 Enter the following for both tanks:
Minimum Elevation (m): 445.01
Initial Elevation (m): 449.58
Maximum Elevation (m): 451.10

4 Close out of the FlexTable: Tank Table.

Exercise: Entering junction demands


You recall from the ModelBuilder procedure that the only data assigned to
model junction nodes were elevations; so there are no demands on the
model.
1 Select Tools > Demand Control Center.

Note: If you receive a warning message regarding cancel and undo, click Yes.

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Inputting Model Data

2 Click on the down arrow next to the New button, and select Initialize
Demands for All Elements.

3 Right click the Demand (Base) column heading and select Global Edit.
4 Set all demands to 0.13 L/s.

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Inputting Model Data

5 Click OK.

6 Click Close to exit the Demand Control Center.

Exercise: Computing the model and reviewing results


1 Select the Compute button on the main window to run the model.
When the run is complete, the Calculation Summary will be generated.
2 Close out of the Calculation Summary.
3 Select the FlexTables button, and double click Junction Table to open it.
4 Review the Pressure column for the junctions.
5 Sort the Pressure column in Ascending order.

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Inputting Model Data

You will see one node A-311 with low pressure because of its elevation.

6 Click Zoom To button to locate A-311 on the drawing.


You will see that A-311 is near the Hillside tank.

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Feb-10

Inputting Model Data

7 Restore the FlexTable: Junction Table and sort Pressure column in


Descending order.

Note: You will see a few nodes with very high pressures reported because they did

not have elevations assigned. These are eight the nodes created during the
ModelBuilder process.
8 Complete the node elevation data by entering the missing elevations using
the following values:
Label

Elevation (m)

J-1

396.55

J-2

396.85

J-3

397.15

J-4

397.46

J-5

397.76

J-6

398.07

J-7

398.37

J-8

398.68

Warning: Make sure to match the correct elevation up with the correct junction.

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Inputting Model Data

9 Minimize the FlexTable: Junction Table and Compute the model again.
10 Close the Calculation Summary, restore the FlexTable: Junction Table.

11 Fill the Run values in the table for question one at the end of the
workshop.

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Feb-10

Network Navigator

Network Navigator
In this section you will use a few of the Network Navigator tools to review the
data in your newly built model from ModelBuilder.

Exercise: Finding pipe split candidates


1 Select View > Network Navigator.

First you need to look for pipes that are not connected to nodes.
2 Click the Select button and select Network Review > Pipe Split
Candidates.
3 Set the Tolerance to 6.1 m.

4 Click OK.

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Network Navigator

Note: You will find four nodes that meet this criterion.

5 Adjust the Zoom to 75%, click on A-663 and select the Zoom To button.
6 Do this for each of the four nodes moving the Network Navigator dialog to
the side to view the nodes.

With each case, you will see situations where you may need to go back to
the original As-Built drawings to decide if connections really exist in the
field. If there is an error, you need to decide if you want to correct it only
in the model or in the GIS, and then re-import the model.

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Network Navigator

Exercise: Finding nodes in close proximity


1 Click the Select button in Network Navigator and select Network Review >
Nodes in Close Proximity.
2 Set the Tolerance to 9.1 m and click OK.

Note: You will find one node that meets this criterion.

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Network Navigator

3 Again, you can select the Zoom To button to review the situation.

Note: If two nodes are in close proximity, only one of the nodes is listed in the

Network Navigator window. Without additional information it is difficult to


determine if these nodes are connected.
4 If necessary, move the Network Navigator window so you can see the
drawing tools.
5 On the main screen, select the Junction layout tool, and add a junction to
the drawing.

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Network Navigator

6 Label this junction J-9.

7 In Network Navigator, click Select > Network Review > Orphaned Nodes.
8 J-9 is the only junction you should see in the list.

9 Close out of Network Navigator.


10 Delete J-9 by right clicking on it and selecting Delete.
11 Save your file and answer the questions that follow.
Note: You may need to re-run the model to generate results.

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Questions
1 What was the pressure (kPa) at the following nodes?
Node Pressure (kPa) (Run Values)
A-26
A-162
J-8

2 There were some fields in the data file that were not mapped to an
attribute in WaterGEMS. Why was this the case?

3 The data could have been exported to a standard MS Access file and then
imported into WaterGEMS. Why was this not a good idea?

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Workshop Review

4 Instead of entering tank level information in WaterGEMS Modeler, how


else could you have brought that data into the model?

5 Explain the difference in the tolerance specified in ModelBuilders Specify


Spatial Options dialog and the tolerance specified in Network Navigator.
In general which should be lower?

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Workshop Review

Answers
1 What was the pressure (kPa) at the following nodes?
Node Pressure (kPa) (Run Values)
A-26

262.7

A-162 495.5
J-8

497.8

2 There were some fields in the data file that were not mapped to an
attribute in WaterGEMS. Why was this the case?
These fields were not needed in WaterGEMS and did not have a
corresponding attribute.

3 The data could have been exported to a standard MS Access file and then
imported into WaterGEMS. Why was this not a good idea?
Importing the feature classes directly into WaterGEMS enabled bends, (x,
y) coordinates, and topology to be automatically imported (preserved).

4 Instead of entering tank level information in WaterGEMS Modeler, how


else could you have brought that data into the model?
You could have created fields in your source file for tank elevations and
used ModelBuilder to bring in the data.

5 Explain the difference in the tolerance specified in ModelBuilders Specify


Spatial Options dialog and the tolerance specified in Network Navigator.
In general which should be lower?
In ModelBuilder, if the tolerance is met, the nodes are merged
automatically, while in Drawing Review, if the tolerance is met, the user is
given a chance to edit the nodes. As such, the ModelBuilder tolerances
should be set finer (Drawing Review larger). Drawing review will allow you
to double-check that other connections were not missed because of too
small a value in ModelBuilder.

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LoadBuilder

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LoadBuilder

LoadBuilder

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LoadBuilder

LoadBuilder

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LoadBuilder

LoadBuilder

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LoadBuilder

LoadBuilder

750

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LoadBuilder

LoadBuilder

752

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LoadBuilder

LoadBuilder

754

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LoadBuilder

LoadBuilder

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Feb-10

Automating Demand
Allocation using LoadBuilder
Module Overview
In this workshop, you will import model demand data from two different kinds of
data sources including shapefile data. The first raw data source you will use is
customer meter data. The second data source you will use is population data
assigned to polygons. You will also take into account the unaccounted-for water of
15%. This course material has been developed for the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i
platform, at a minimum the Version 08.11.00.30. Modelers currently using
versions prior to WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, version 08.11.00.30, are strongly
encouraged to consider upgrading today to start taking advantage of the latest
features and interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Feb-10

Determine the most applicable method(s) to simulate system demand and


where that demand data may come from

Develop a deeper understanding of model creation

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Getting Started

Getting Started
You have a basic water model that has been created, but it does not have
demands loaded onto it. Information relating to metered customer demands is
contained in an ESRI Shapefile Meters.shp. Population data is provided in an ESRI
Shapefile called PopulationCensus.shp.

Exercise: Opening WaterGEMS and the starter file


1 Start WaterCAD V8i or WaterGEMS V8i.
2 On the Welcome dialog click Open Existing Project or if that window does
not come up select File > Open.
3 Browse to C:\Bentley Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter\LoadBuilder
and open the LoadBuilderStart.wtg file.

Reviewing and Entering Data

Exercise: Importing a background layer


1 Select View > Background Layers to open the Background Layers
manager.
2 Click the New button and select New File.
3 Browse to C:\Bentley Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter\LoadBuilder,
select the Meters.shp file, and click Open.

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Getting Started

4 On the Background Properties for ESRI Shapefiles dialog box change the
Line Color to a color other than black.

Note: We chose orange for the color.

5 Click OK to complete the import.

Exercise: Entering element elevation data


1 Select View > Find Element.

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Getting Started

2 In the Properties manager, type PMP-1 into the search bar and click the
Find button.
Note: This will zoom to the element and open its properties.

3 Enter 813.82 for the Elevation (m).


4 Enter the following element elevation data in the same manner or use the
Junction FlexTable to finish:

Element

Elevation (m)

J-104

792.48

J-108

813.82

J-112

792.48

J-113

792.48

Exercise: Reviewing the existing demand alternative


1 Select Analysis > Alternatives.
2 Expand the Demand alternative category.

Note: Note that the only demand alternative is the default, Base-Average Daily.

Exercise: Computing the model and reviewing the results


1 Select Analysis > Compute or click the Compute button from the main
toolbar to calculate the Base scenario.
2 Close the Calculation Summary dialog and open the Junction FlexTable.
3 Review the demands and pressures.

Note: The FlexTable shows zero demands and high pressures; this is because there is

no demand data and the pump is running near shutoff head.


4 Close the FlexTable when you are done.

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LoadBuilder

LoadBuilder
This section is going to walk you through applying customer meter data using the
Nearest Node and Nearest Pipe Methods. You will then apply demands based
upon population data assigned to polygons.

Exercise: Opening LoadBuilder


1 Activate LoadBuilder by clicking the LoadBuilder button or by selecting
Tools > LoadBuilder.

Nearest Node Method

Exercise: Applying loads using the Nearest Node Method


1 Start the LoadBuilder Wizard, by clicking the New button.
2 On the Available LoadBuilder Methods dialog, select the Allocation radio
button and click Nearest Node.

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LoadBuilder

3 Select Next to continue.


4 Click the ellipsis () for Node Layer to open the Select a Layer dialog.

5 Click on Junction\All Elements and click Select.


6 Use the dropdown menu to set the Node ID Field to ElementID.
7 Click the ellipsis () button for Billing Meter Layer.
8 Browse to C:\Bentley Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter\LoadBuilder,
select the Meters.shp file and select Open.
You will receive this message:

9 Click OK.

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LoadBuilder

10 Set the Load Type Field to <none>, the Usage Field to DEMAND in L/s and
check the Use Previous Run box.

11 Click Next to continue.


The Calculation Summary will be generated.

12 Note that the total load associated with the meter records is 70.76 L/s.

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LoadBuilder

Note: If the calculation fails and gives you a message, click Back and uncheck the Use

Previous Run box and try again. This time the calculation might take longer.
These records are based on customer meter readings, so they do not
include unaccounted-for water. We need to apply a factor to provide for
UAF water.
Note: The unaccounted for water in the system is 15%, so multiply the demands

globally by 1.176 [which is = 1/ (1-0.15)] to correct for unaccounted-for water.


13 Set the Global Multiplier to 1.176.

14 Select Next to continue.


You do not have to change anything on the Results Preview dialog, just
note that there are no inflow nodes.

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LoadBuilder

15 Select Next to continue.


16 On the Completing the LoadBuild Process dialog, enter NearNode1 for the
Label.
17 Select the New Alternative radio button and enter a name of NearNode.
18 Set the Parent Alternative to Base-Average Daily.

19 Click Finish.
20 Confirm that 102 demands were successfully exported.

21 Close the LoadBuilder Run Summary and LoadBuilder dialogs.

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Exercise: Creating the NearNode Scenario

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LoadBuilder

1 Before you create the scenario select Analysis > Alternatives.


2 Expand the Demand alternative category and make sure there is a new
child alternative to Base-Average Daily called NearNode.

3 Close the Alternatives manager and select Analysis > Scenarios.


4 Click the New button and select Child Scenario.
5 Name the new scenario Load_at_Node.

6 Edit the properties of Load_at_Node and select NearNode as the Demand


alternative.

7 Close the Scenarios manager.

Exercise: Computing and reviewing the results of the NearNode Scenario


1 Make Load_at_Node the active scenario.
2 Compute the model using Analysis > Compute or the Compute button.

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LoadBuilder

3 When the Calculation Summary is displayed note the value listed for Flow
Demanded (gpm).
4 Compare this demand total (83.21 L/s) with the metered total (70.76 L/s);
the difference is due to the unaccounted - for allowance.

5 Close the Calculation Summary.


6 Open the Junction FlexTable and review the demands that were input
with LoadBuilder.
7 Record the pressures in the table at the end of the workshop.

Nearest Pipe Method


Next you will use the same metered data but this time you will use the Nearest
Pipe Method.

Exercise: Applying loads using the Nearest Pipe Method


1 Activate LoadBuilder by clicking the LoadBuilder button or by selecting
Tools > LoadBuilder.

2 Click the New button to start the LoadBuilder Wizard.

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LoadBuilder

3 Select the Allocation radio button, scroll down and select Nearest Pipe.

4 Click Next.
5 Set the following for the Model Pipes Data section:
Pipe Layer: Pipe\All Elements
Pipe ID Field: ElementID
Load Assignment: Distance Weighted
6 Set the following for the Model Node Layer section:
Node Layer: Junction\All Elements
Node ID Field: ElementID
Use Previous Run: Check the box
7 Click the ellipsis () for Billing Meter Layer and browse to the location of
the Meters.shp file like we did earlier.
8 Set the following:
Load Type Field: <none>
Billing Meter ID Field: OBJECTID

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LoadBuilder

Polyline Distribution: Equal Distribution


Usage Field: DEMAND L/s

9 Click Next to continue.


Note: The base metered consumption should be 70.76 L/s again.

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LoadBuilder

10 As you did in the previous run, set the Global Multiplier to 1.176.

11 Click Next to continue.


Your Results Preview should look like the one below:

12 Click Next to continue.


13 Enter NearestPipe for the Label.
14 Select the New Alternative radio button and name the new alternative
NearPipe.

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LoadBuilder

15 Select Base-Average Daily as its Parent Alternative.

16 Click Finish.
You should see that 102 demands were exported successfully.

17 Close the LoadBuilder Summary and close LoadBuilder.

Exercise: Creating the NearPipe Scenario and computing the model


1 Select Analysis > Alternatives.
2 Expand the Demand alternative category.

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LoadBuilder

You should see the new alternative, NearPipe, as a child to Base-Average


Daily.

3 Select Analysis > Scenarios and create another child from the Base
scenario.
4 Name the new scenario Load_at_Pipe.

5 Edit the properties of Load_at_Pipe and change the Demand alternative


to NearPipe.
6 Close the Scenarios manager and make Load_at_Pipe the active scenario.
7 Click Compute to run the scenario.
8 On the Calculation Summary, note the Flow Demanded relative to the
metered consumption and UAF percentage.

9 Close the Calculation Summary.

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LoadBuilder

10 Go to the Junction FlexTable and review the demands that were input
with LoadBuilder.
11 Record the pressures in the table at the end of the workshop.

Thiessen Polygon Generator


In the next part of the exercise, you will use population data provided to you in a
shapefile called PopulationCensus.shp. Before you can use Population data, you
need to construct service area polygons around your nodes. This can be done
using the Thiessen Polygon Generator.

Exercise: Creating Thiessen Polygons


1 Click the Thiessen Polygon button or select Tools > Thiessen Polygon.
2 Select the Node Layer radio button, and then click on the ellipsis ().
3 Select Junction\All Elements as your Node Layer.

4 Click Next.
5 Select the Buffering Percentage radio button and enter 10 as the
percentage.

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LoadBuilder

Note: Do not enter a Polygon boundary layer.

6 Click Next.
7 Click on the ellipsis () for Output file.
8 Browse to C:\Bentley Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter\LoadBuilder,
enter a file name of Tpoly and click Save.

9 Click Finish.
10 When the processing is complete you will be returned to the main
WaterGEMS window.

Exercise: Adding the Tpoly Shapefile as a background layer


1 Select View > Background Layers.
2 Click the New button and select New File.

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LoadBuilder

3 Browse to C:\Bentley Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter\LoadBuilder


and select the Tpoly.shp file.
4 On the Background Properties for ESRI Shapefile dialog make sure the Fill
Figure box is unchecked.
Note: You can change the Line Color if you would like.

5 Click OK.
6 Turn off the Meters.shp background layer by removing the check mark
from its box.

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LoadBuilder

This gives you an idea of the relationship between the polygons used for service
junctions and those for the population data.

Load Estimation by Population

Exercise: Applying loads by population


1 Open the LoadBuilder tool once again.
2 Click the New button to start the LoadBuilder Wizard.

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LoadBuilder

3 Select the Projection radio button and select Load Estimation by


Population.

4 Click Next.
5 Click the ellipsis () button for Service Area Layer.
6 Browse to the Tpoly.shp file we just created and select it.
7 Set the Node ID Field to ElementID.
8 Click the ellipsis () for Population Layer and browse to the LoadBuilder
folder to select the PopulationCensus.shp file.
9 Set the Population Density Type Field to Type and set the Population
Density Field to Density, with units of pop/ha.
10 In the Demand Densities per Capita table, enter the following:

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LoadBuilder

Demand Type Load Density (L/capita/day)


R1

371

76

R2

310

11 Click Next.

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LoadBuilder

12 Enter 1.176 for the Global Multiplier; in order to account for the 15 % - unaccounted water.

13 Click Next.
14 Review the Results and click Next.

15 Enter the Label as Pop_LandUse.


16 Select the New Alternative radio button and add Pop_LandUse for the
name.

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LoadBuilder

17 Select Base-Average Daily as the Parent Alternative.

18 Click Finish.
19 Close the LoadBuilder Summary and then go back into the WaterGEMS
modeler to view the new demand data and create a new scenario that
incorporates it.
20 Compute the scenario, add the answers to the table and answer the
questions.

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.
Node

Location

C_028

North

Near Node Pressure


(kPa)

Near Pipe Pressure


(kPa)

Population & Land Use


Pressure (kPa)

D1_078 East
D1_091 Near Source

Questions
1 How would you get metering data for a model run for demands in the year
2040?

2 Why did small changes in demand make big differences in pressure in this
model?

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Workshop Review

Answers

Node

Location

Near Node Pressure


(kPa)

Near Pipe Pressure


(kPa)

Population & Land Use


Pressure (kPa)

C_028

North

573

573

728

366

366

520

D1_091 Near Source 589

589

741

D1_078 East

1 How would you get metering data for a model run for demands in the year
2040?
You do not have a good source of meter data, so you need to use another
source such as population or land use to drive demands.

2 Why did small changes in demand make big differences in pressure in this
model?
This was a dead end system with a pump and no tank. Therefore any
change in demand affected not only head loss but the operating point on
the pump curve.

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TRex

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TRex

TRex

784

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785

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TRex

TRex

786

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787

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TRex

TRex

788

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TRex

TRex

790

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Feb-10

Importing Elevations using


TRex
Module Overview
In this workshop you will obtain elevation data from a digital elevation model and
import it into a model. The model you will be starting with has been constructed
without elevation data. The digital elevation model (DEM) that you will bring in
using Terrain-Extractor (TREX) is provided to you as a shapefile. This course
material has been developed for the WaterCAD/GEMS V8i platform, at a
minimum the Version 08.11.00.30. Modelers currently using versions prior to
WaterCAD/GEMS V8i, version 08.11.00.30, are strongly encouraged to consider
upgrading today to start taking advantage of the latest features and
interoperability advantages of V8i.

Module Prerequisites

Modeling Basics

Module Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

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Import elevations for a water network using the TRex tool

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Importing Elevations using TRex

Getting Started

Getting Started
In this section you will open the basic WaterGEMS starter file that does not have
elevation data loaded into it. You will review the data and view your elevation
shapefile as a background layer.

Exercise: Opening the WaterGEMS starter file


1 Start WaterCAD V8i or WaterGEMS V8i.
2 Click Open Existing Project on the Welcome dialog or select File > Open.
3 Browse to C:\Bentley Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter\TRex and open
the TRexStart.wtg file.

Exercise: Viewing the elevation shapefile as a background layer


1 Select View > Background Layers.
2 Click the New button and select New File.
3 Browse to the TRex folder and select the dempts.shp file.

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Getting Started

4 Confirm the Unit is set to meters.


5 Select a Line Color of grey.

6 Click OK.
You should see the model file directly overlay the shapefile itself.

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Importing Elevations using TRex

Getting Started

Note: A few nodes fall outside the DEM; you will enter those elevations manually in

the next few steps.

Exercise: Reviewing the junction data


1 Select Report > Element Tables > Junction.

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Getting Started

This will open the Junction FlexTable.

Note: The Elevation column has no data.

2 Close the Junction FlexTable.

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Importing Elevations using TRex

TRex

TRex
Now you are ready to generate model elevation data. You will now Populate
WaterGEMS elevations from the shapefile data source.

Exercise: Importing elevations using TRex


1 Select the TRex button or select Tools > TRex.
This will open the TRex Wizard.
2 For Data Source Type, select ESRI Shapefile.
3 Select the ellipsis () for File.
4 Browse to C:\Bentley Workshop\WaterDistMetric\Starter\TRex select
dempts.shp and click Open.
5 Set the following:
Select Elevation Field: DEMmete
X-Y Units: meters
Z Units: meters
6 Leave the rest of the fields with their default values.

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TRex

Your window should look like the one below:

Note: The Spatial Reference field is set to Unknown. This is correct because the DEM

and model already are on the same spatial reference, which you saw when you
overlaid the model and DEM (shapefile in this case).
7 Click Next.
At this point, you will see the calculation window and TRex will begin
extracting elevations.

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Importing Elevations using TRex

TRex

You will receive the following message:

8 Click OK.
On this next screen you can preview the elevation data and now see that
there are now elevations assigned to particular nodes.
9 Select the Use Existing Alternative radio button and select Base-Physical
from the dropdown menu.

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TRex

10 Click Finish to export these elevations to the chosen alternative.

Exercise: Reviewing the junction elevations and entering the missing ones
1 Select View > FlexTables.
2 Double click the Junction Table to open it.

Note: The elevation data has been transferred to the model.

3 Right click on the Elevation (m) column and select Filter > Custom.
4 Select Elevation in the left pane and double click it to add it to the query
below.

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TRex

5 Click the equals sign and then type 0 for the value.

6 Click OK.
7 Right click the Elevation (m) column again and select Global Edit.
8 Set an elevation of 2555 meters at each of these nodes and click OK.

9 Right click the Elevation (m) column again and select Filter (Active) >
Reset to display all junctions again.
10 Click Yes to reset the filter.

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TRex

11 Minimize the Junction FlexTable.

Exercise: Computing the model and reviewing the results


1 Back on the main drawing window, click Compute to run the Base
scenario.
2 Close the Calculation Summary.
3 Restore the Junction FlexTable and review the pressures.

4 Complete the Results Table and answer the questions at the end of the
workshop.

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Workshop Review

Workshop Review
Now that you have completed this workshop, lets measure what you have
learned.

Results Table
Node

Elevation (m)

Pressure (kPa)

Node-1
Node-1374
Node-1836

Questions
1 For a model this size, how long do you think it would take to read off all
the 2000+ elevations manually?

2 Look at the number of digits past the decimal place that elevation data are
reported. Is that precision justified?

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Workshop Review

Answers
Node

Elevation (m)

Pressure (kPa)

Node-1

2555.0

440

Node-1374

2566.2

325

Node-1836

2549.3

489

1 For a model this size, how long do you think it would take to read off all
the 2000+ elevations manually?
At 2 minutes per node, about a week.

2 Look at the number of digits past the decimal place that elevation data are
reported. Is that precision justified?
No, most of those digits are meaningless.

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Importing Elevations using TRex

Workshop Review

Importing Elevations using TRex

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WaterObjects.NET

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WaterObjects.NET

WaterObjects.NET

806

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WaterObjects.NET

WaterObjects.NET

808

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References

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References

References

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References

References

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References

References

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