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ABSTRACT / SUMMARY

Osbourne Reynolds experiment is used to investigate the characteristic of


the flow of the liquid in the pipe which is also used to determine the Reynolds
Number for each state of the flow. The design of the apparatus allowed studying
the characteristic of the flow of the fluid in the pipe, the behaviour of the flow
and also to calculate the range for the laminar and turbulent flow where the
calculation is used to prove the Reynolds number is dimensionless by using the
Reynolds Number formula. For the first and second objectives, it involve

running the Osborne Reynolds equipment with different of water volume


flow rate. In this experiment we fix the time, which is 5 second to collect
the amount of water. At the same time we also observe the characteristic
of the flow, there are laminar, transition and turbulent flow. From the data
collected we made calculation to estimate the range for laminar and
turbulent flow. To prove that the Reynolds number is dimensionless, we
calculate by using the units only and using the appropriate formula, it is
proved that the Reynolds number is dimensionless

INTRODUCTION
The apparatus used here to demonstrate critical velocity is based on that
used by Professor Reynolds who demonstrated the nature of the two
modes of motion flowing in a tube, example laminar and turbulent. The
unit is designed to be mounted on P6100 hydraulic Bench and the
quantity of water flowing through it can be measured and timed using the
Hydraulic Bench Volumetric Tank and a suitable stopwatch. A bell mounted
glass tube 790mm long overall by 16mm bore is mounted horizontally and
concentrically in a much larger diameter tube fitted with baffles. A uniform
supply of water can then be made to flow along the 16mm bore tube.
The unit is fitted with a constant head tank and the flow rate which can be
varied by adjustment to the head tank height, can be measured using the
volumetric tank.
A dye injector is situated at the entrance to the 16 mm bore tube and thus
it is possible to detect whether the flow is streamline or turbulent.
Critical velocities and Reynolds number
Reynolds obtained the loss of pressure head in a pipe at different flow
rates by measuring the loss head (hf) over a known length of pipe (l), from
this slope of the hydraulic gradient (i) was obtained.
i=

hf
l

When Reynolds plotted the results of his investigation of how energy head
loss varied with the velocity of flow, he obtained two distinct regions
separated by a transition zone. In the laminar region the energy loss per
unit length of pipe is directly proportional to the mean velocity. In the
turbulent flow region the energy loss per unit length of pipe is proportional
to the mean velocity raised to some power, . The value of being
influenced by the roughness of the pipe wall.
hf
v 1.7
l

For smooth pipes in this region but

hf
v2
l

for very rough pipes.

1.7
hf
Example
v 2. . The dimensionless unit Reynolds number (Re) =
l
vd/ and has a value below 2000 for laminar flow and above 4000 for
2

turbulent flow (when any consistent set of units is used) the transition
zone lying in the region of Re 2000 4000 (example lower critical
velocity LCV at Reynolds number of 2000 and upper critical velocity UCV
at a Reynolds number of 4000)

Note that the value of Re obtained in experiments made with increasing


rates of flow will depend on the degree of care which has been taken to
eliminate disturbance in the supply and along the pipe. On the other hand,
experiment made with decreasing flow rates will show a value of Re
which is very much less dependent on initial disturbance.

AIMS
The objective of this laboratory experiment is to demonstrate the
differences between laminar, turbulent, and transitional fluid flow, and the
Reynoldss numbers at which each occurs.

THEORY
Laminar and turbulent flow
Professor Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912) first realized that there was a
critical velocity at which the law relating loss of pressure energy and
velocity in pipe flow changed. He first demonstrated this with his famous
Color Band (on the die-line) experiment. This consisted of injecting a line
jet of dye into the flow of water visible through a transparent pipe. At low
velocities the dye-line was unbroken, but as the velocity of the flow
through the pipe was increased, the dye-line broke up and eddies were
seen to form. From this and further experiments, he came to the
conclusion that there are two distinct types of flow:1. Streamline or Laminar Flow (Latin lamina = layer of thin sheet). The
fluid moves in layers without irregular fluctuation in velocity.
Laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds Numbers. (The flow of oil in
bearing is Laminar).
2. Turbulent flow. This results in the fluid particles moving in irregular
patterns carrying an exchange of momentum from one portion of
the fluid to another.
Reynolds investigated these two different types of motion and concluded
that the parameters which were involved in the flow characteristics were

v
d

the density of the fluid


kg/m3
the velocity of the flow of the fluid
m/s
Diameter of pipe
m
the coefficient of viscosity of the fluid
Ns/m2

He arrived at a dimensionless constant (Reynolds number)


5

(Re)=vd/
The value of which was concerned with the fluid motion. Fluid motion was
found to be laminar for Re numbers below 2000 and turbulent flows for Re
greater than 4000.

APPARATUS
1) OSBOURNE REYNOLDS APPARTUS [Figure 1]
Consist of:

Dye Injection Vessel


Water Inlet
Dye Injector
Clear Acrylic Tube
Baffles
Glass tube 16mm Boro
P6100 Hydraulic Bench
Feet on P6248 Base Locate on P6100
Overflow pipe
Discharge from Glass Tube
Inlet to flow Apparatus
Position Locking Collet
Variable Height header tank (Inlet to Flow Apparatus)

2) Beaker
3) Measuring Cylinder
4) Stopwatch

[Figure 1- Osbourne Reynolds Apparatus]

METHODOLOGY / PROCEDURE
Setting up the apparatus
The Hydraulic Bench (P6100) is mounted on the apparatus at the locating
spigots of the working surfaces so that the unit straddles the weir trough
and the outlet feeds into measuring tank. P6100 Hydraulic Bench at the
variable height header tank is connected to the water supply which it is
mounted on its support stand. The water supply was turned on and
ensured that all the air in the systems displaced prior to proceeding with
the investigation. The water flow is regulating to give a steady flow in the
system with water just trickling out of the header tank overflow. The water
level in the flow system must be above the inner bell mouthed glass tube.
Measuring flow-rate
The flow rate of water is measured through the apparatus and achieved
by using the Hydraulic Bench volumetric measuring tank or smaller
graduated vessel (not supplied), which is used to collect the known
quantity of water.
Demonstration of the difference between laminar and turbulent
This experiment demonstrated the visually laminar (streamline) flow and
its transition to turbulent flow at a particular velocity.
1. The apparatus is set up with the dye reservoir is fitted and filled,
and with a steady flow of water through the inner tube.
2. The small cock on the base of reservoir is opened to permit dye to
flow from the nozzle at the entrance to the channel. The colored dye
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3.
4.

5.
6.

will be visible along the passage. If the dye accumulates around the
nozzle, the velocity of the water flow in the passage has to be
increased or regulate the flow from the dye reservoir. The
adjustments of the dye flow are made up by using the tube outlet
tap.
The stream will be visible along the whole length of the passage
under laminar flow conditions. If it not so, the water flow is reduced
until continuous stream of dye is visible along the passage.
The water flow rate is increased by raising the height of the variable
head tank and the condition of the fluid in the channel carefully
note, for example, the streamline and turbulent. The height of head
tank is increased until instability of water flow leading to the break
up of the dye system is occurred.
The break up position in the passage is noted and the corresponding
value of the flow rate is measured by timing the collection of known
amount of water in the volumetric measuring tank.
The dose is maintain and the observation of the passage is
continued further increasing the flow rate until the whole system is
turbulent with no visible dye stream at any point.

RESULTS
No. Of
Rotation
1

No. Of
Reading (mL)
22
24
23
48
46
44
52
56
52
72
64
77
76
74
76
80
88
88
92
76
78

Average
Reading (m3)

Reynolds
Number

Description

2.3 x 10-5

613.3

Laminar

4.6 x 10-5

1220.56

Laminar

5.333 x 10-5

1415.06

Laminar

7.1 x 10-5

1866.14

Laminar

7.533 x 10-5

1998.81

Laminar

8.533 x 10-5

2210.10

Transition

8.2 x 10-5

2175.79

Transition

10

11

12

13

14

100
90
98
110
92
98
106
124
118
128
134
134
124
138
144
138
148
148
174
156
152

9.6 x 10-5

2547.26

Transition

1 x 10-4

2653.40

Transition

1.16 x 10-4

3077.94

Transition

1.32 x 10-4

3520.49

Transition

1.3533 x 10-4

3590.05

Transition

1.4467 x 10-4

3820.9

Transition

160.67

4264.27

Turbulent

CALCULATIONS
Bell mounted glass tube (length =790 mm, diameter=16mm)
Therefore the area,A = d /4 = 2.0110-4 m
Reynolds number (dimensionless constant)
Q=

(m/s)

Q = volumetric flowrate
= volume
s= time
V=

Q
A

V=Velocity
A=Area of the pipe

Re =

vd

Where,

10

= density (kg/m )

d = diameter (m)
V = velocity (m/s)
= viscosity (kg/ms)
Water density, = 1000 kg/m
Water viscosity, = 1.0 10kg/ms
NUMBER

VELOCITY

OF

(m/s)

Re =

vd

DESCRIPTION

ROTATIO
N
1

V(ml)= 23 ml
V(m)= 2.3 x 10 m
Q=

2.3 x 10 m
3s

= 7.667 x 10 m/s

Re=
1000 (0.03833)( 0.016)
1.0 10 .

Laminar

= 613.33

Velocity =
m3
7.667 x 10
s
2.01 10 m2

=0.03833 m/s
V(ml)= 46 ml
V(m)= 4.6 x 10 m
Q=

4.6 x 10 m
3s

= 1.533 x 10 m/s

Re=
1000 (0.07629)(0.016)
1.0 10 .

Laminar

= 1220.56

Velocity =
m3
1.533 x 10
s
2.01 10 m2
=0.07629 m/s
11

V(ml)= 53.33 ml
V(m)= 5.333 x 10
m
Q=

5.333 x 10 m
3s

Re=
1000 (0.08844)(0.016)
1.0 10 .

Laminar

=1415.06

= 1.778 x 10 m/s
Velocity =
3

m
s
2
2.01 10 m

1.778 x 10

=0.08844 m/s
V(ml)= 70.33 ml
V(m)= 7.033 x 10
m
Q=

7.033 x 10 m
3s

Re=
1000 (0.1166)(0.016)
1.0 10 .

Laminar

= 1866.14

= 2.344 x 10 m/s
Velocity =
3

m
s
2
2.01 10 m

2.344 x 10

=0.1166 m/s
V(ml)= 75.33 ml
V(m)= 7.533 x 10
m
Q=

7.533 x 10 m
3s

Re=
1000 (0.1249)(0.016)
1.0 10 .

Laminar

= 1998.81

= 2.511x 10 m/s
Velocity =

12

m3
2.511 x 10
s
2
2.01 10 m

=0.1249 m/s
V(ml)= 83.67 ml
V(m)= 8.367 x 10
m
Q=

8.367 x 10 m
3s

Re=
1000 (0.1388)(0.016)
1.0 10 .

Transition

= 2220.10

= 2.789 x 10 m/s
Velocity =
m3
s
2.01 10 m2

2.789 x 10

=0.1388 m/s
V(ml)= 82 ml
V(m)= 8.2 x 10 m
Q=

8.2 x 10 m
3s

= 2.733 x 10 m/s

Re=
1000 (0.1360)(0.016)
1.0 10 .

Transition

= 2175.79

Velocity =
m3
s
2.01 10 m2

2.733 x 10

=0.1360 m/s
V(ml)= 96 ml
V(m)= 9.6 x 10 m
Q=

9.6 x 10 m
3s

= 3.2 x 10 m/s

Re=
1000 (0.1592)(0.016)
1.0 10 .

Transition

= 2547.26

Velocity =

13

m3
3.2 x 10
s
2
2.01 10 m

=0.1592 m/s
V(ml)= 100 ml
V(m)= 1.0 x 10m
Q=

1.0 x 10 m
3s

= 3.333 x 10 m/s

Re=
1000 (0.1658)(0.016)
1.0 10 .

Transition

= 2653.40

Velocity =
m3
2.733 x 10
s
2.01 10 m2

10

=0.1658 m/s
V(ml)= 116 ml
V(m)= 1.16 x 10m
Q=

1.16 x 10 m
3s

= 3.867 x 10 m/s

Re=
1000 (0.1924)(0.016)
1.0 10 .

Transition

= 3077.94

Velocity =
m3
3.867 x 10
s
2.01 10 m2

11

=0.1924 m/s
V(ml)= 132 ml
V(m)= 1.32 x 10m
Q=

1.32 x 10 m
3s

= 4.4 x 10 m/s

Re=
1000 (0.2189)(0.016)
1.0 10 .

Transition

= 3502.49

Velocity =

14

m3
4.4 x 10
s
2
2.01 10 m

12

=0.2189 m/s
V(ml)= 135.33 ml
V(m)= 1.353 x 10m
Q=

1.353 x 10 m
3s

= 4.51 x 10 m/s

Re=
1000 (0.2244)(0.016)
1.0 10 .

Transition

= 3590.05

Velocity =
m3
4.51 x 10
s
2.01 10 m2

13

=0.2244 m/s
V(ml)= 144 ml
V(m)= 1.44 x 10m
Q=

1.44 x 10 m
3s

= 4.8 x 10 m/s

Re=
1000 (0.2388)(0.016)
1.0 10 .

Transition

= 3820.9

Velocity =
m3
4.8 x 10
s
2.01 10 m2

14

=0.2388 m/s
V(ml)= 160.67 ml
V(m)= 1.607 x 10m
Q=

1.607 x 10 m
3s

= 5.357 x 10 m/s

Re=
1000 (0.2665)(0.016)
1.0 10 .
= 4264.27

Velocity =

15

m3
5.357 x 10
s
2
2.01 10 m
=0.2665 m/s

DISCUSSION

Laminar flow- highly ordered fluid motion with smooth streamlines.

Transition flow -a flow that contains both laminar and turbulent


regions.

Turbulent flow -a highly disordered fluid motion characterized by


velocity and fluctuations and eddies.

According to the Reynolds`s experiment, laminar flow will occur when a


thin filament of dye injected into laminar flow appears as a single line.
There is no dispersion of dye throughout the flow, except the slow
dispersion due to molecular motion. While for turbulent flow, if a dye
filament injected into a turbulent flow, it disperse quickly throughout the
flow field, the lines of dye breaks into myriad entangled threads of dye.
In this experiment we have to firstly is to observe the characteristic of
the flow of the fluid in the pipe, which may be laminar or turbulent flow by
measuring the Reynolds number and the behaviour of the flow, secondly
to calculate the range for the laminar and turbulent flow and lastly to
prove the Reynolds number is dimensionless by using the Reynolds
number formula.
After complete preparing and setup the equipment we run this
experiment. But firstly we have to calculate the area of bell mounted glass
tube, the viscosity of water and the density of water. The density of water
is 1000 kg/m, the area of glass tube is 2.0110-4 m , while the
viscosity of water is 1.0 10kg/ms, this is done for easy step by step
calculation.
We observe that the red dye line change with the increasing of water
flow rate. The shape change from thin threads to slightly swirling which
still contains smooth thin threads and then fully swirling. We can say that
this change is from laminar flow to transitional flow and then to turbulent
flow and its not occurs suddenly.

16

CONCLUSION
As the water flow rate increase, the Reynolds number calculated also
increase and the red dye line change from thin thread to swirling in shape.
Laminar flow occurs when the Reynolds number calculated is below than
2300; transitional flow occurs when Reynolds number calculated is
between 2300 and 4000 while turbulent flow occurs when Reynolds
number calculated is above 4000.
It is proved that the Reynolds equation is dimensionless, no units left after
the calculation
In this experiment, Osbourne Reynolds apparatus was used to
investigate the characteristic of the flow of the liquid in the pipe which is also
used to determine the Reynolds Number for each state of the flow. The design of
the apparatus allowed us to study the characteristic of the flow of the fluid in the
pipe, the behaviour of the flow and also to calculate the range for the laminar
and turbulent flow where the calculation is used to prove the Reynolds number is
dimensionless by using the Reynolds Number formula.
With the data gathered, it was found that as water flow rate is increasing, the Reynolds
number will automatically increase as well, and the dye line change from straight line to swirling
streamlines. Likewise, it is proven that Reynolds number is dimensionless, since no unit is
representing the value of Reynolds number. Laminar flow is obtained if the Reynolds number is less
than 2300; meanwhile the Reynolds number for turbulent flow is more than 4000. The Reynolds
number for transition flow is in between 2300 until 4000. After 3 trials, our group computed a Reynolds
number which is more than 4000 for every trial, thus, the flow is turbulent.
The values calculated in results section might not be exactly 100% correct due to several
reasons. The one who collect the fluid might not begin right when the person monitoring the stopwatch
started ticking on it, and he/she might also not stop collecting exactly after the third second. Also, do

this experiment at steady place, control the clip and valve carefully to get long
thin of laminar dye flow, and remove the beaker which uses to collect the
amount of water at sharp when the time is up, to avoid error flow rate error.
17

Lastly, Check whether the water in the tube flows in a correct way and we should also make sure
that the flow is stable before measuring the flow rate by monitoring the time taken for collecting an
amount of water in the volumetric measuring tank.

RECOMMENDATIONS
Compare with the result diagram in the laboratory, there are bit different
between the
results collected. This might be some of parallax error such as the slow response
during
collecting the water, the position of eyes during taking the value of water
18

volume, time taken for the volume of water and regulating the valve which
control the flow rate of water unstably.
During the experiment there are several precaution steps that need to be
alert. The
experiment should be done at suitable and unshaken place. To get appropriate
laminar smooth
stream flow, the clip and the valve which control the injection of red dye must be
regulate slow
and carefully. When removing the beaker from the exit valve, we notice that
some water still
enter the beaker because of the slow response between the person who guide
the stop watch and collecting beaker. So to avoid this parallax error, it is better
to take same person who guard the stop watch and the collecting beaker.
Lastly, do this experiment at steady place, control the clip and valve
carefully to get long thin of laminar dye flow, and remove the beaker which uses
to collect the amount of water at sharp when the time is up, to avoid error flow
rate error.

REFERENCE
19

Online Journal
1) High-Reynolds number Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence
Authors: D. Livescu; J. R. Ristorcelli; R. A. Gore; S. H. Deana; W. H.
Cabot; A. W. Cook
DOI: 10.1080/14685240902870448
Published in: Journal of Turbulence, Volume 10, N 13 2009
First Published on: 01 January 2009
Subjects: Aerospace Engineering; Applied
Mechanics; Astrophysics; Computational Physics; Fluid
Dynamics; Fluid Mechanics; Meteorology; Oceanography; Physical
Oceanography; Plasmas & Fluids; Statistical Physics;

2) Structure of a high-Reynolds-number turbulent wake in


supersonic flow
J. P. Bonnet, V. Jayaraman and T. Alziary De Roquefort
Laboratoire d'Etudes Arodynamiques et Thermiques, Laboratoire Associ au
C.N.R.S. 191, Centre d'Etudes Arodynamiques et Thermiques, 43 Route de
l'Arodrome, 86000 Poitiers, France.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics (1984), 143:277-304 Cambridge University Press
Copyright 1984 Cambridge University Press
doi:10.1017/S002211208400135X

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APPENDIX

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