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- Reynold's Experiment Lab Report
- Osborne Reynolds Experiment (Laminar and Turbulent Flow)
- Osborne Reynolds Demonstration
- Experiment 3
- Development and Validation of a c++ Object Oriented Cfd Code for Heat Transfer Analysis
- Discussion Osborne Lab
- Reynolds Apparatus Experiment (Bicol University)
- 6-Energy Loss in Bends
- U67 Principles and Applications of Aircraft Mechanical Science AM2
- Pierderi in Conducte
- CPE533 Gas Absorption Full Lab Report
- Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration Lab Report Uitm
- Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Plain Journal Bearing With Modified Viscosity Temperature Equation
- Hydroelectric System Design
- Fluid Mech. Experiment
- Mechanics of Fluid November Am Rr212101
- FinFan Cooler
- OSDC for Live Oil
- Bernoulli
- Viscosity Measuring of Non Newtonian Fluids

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the flow of the liquid in the pipe which is also used to determine the Reynolds

Number for each state of the flow. The design of the apparatus allowed studying

the characteristic of the flow of the fluid in the pipe, the behaviour of the flow

and also to calculate the range for the laminar and turbulent flow where the

calculation is used to prove the Reynolds number is dimensionless by using the

Reynolds Number formula. For the first and second objectives, it involve

flow rate. In this experiment we fix the time, which is 5 second to collect

the amount of water. At the same time we also observe the characteristic

of the flow, there are laminar, transition and turbulent flow. From the data

collected we made calculation to estimate the range for laminar and

turbulent flow. To prove that the Reynolds number is dimensionless, we

calculate by using the units only and using the appropriate formula, it is

proved that the Reynolds number is dimensionless

INTRODUCTION

The apparatus used here to demonstrate critical velocity is based on that

used by Professor Reynolds who demonstrated the nature of the two

modes of motion flowing in a tube, example laminar and turbulent. The

unit is designed to be mounted on P6100 hydraulic Bench and the

quantity of water flowing through it can be measured and timed using the

Hydraulic Bench Volumetric Tank and a suitable stopwatch. A bell mounted

glass tube 790mm long overall by 16mm bore is mounted horizontally and

concentrically in a much larger diameter tube fitted with baffles. A uniform

supply of water can then be made to flow along the 16mm bore tube.

The unit is fitted with a constant head tank and the flow rate which can be

varied by adjustment to the head tank height, can be measured using the

volumetric tank.

A dye injector is situated at the entrance to the 16 mm bore tube and thus

it is possible to detect whether the flow is streamline or turbulent.

Critical velocities and Reynolds number

Reynolds obtained the loss of pressure head in a pipe at different flow

rates by measuring the loss head (hf) over a known length of pipe (l), from

this slope of the hydraulic gradient (i) was obtained.

i=

hf

l

When Reynolds plotted the results of his investigation of how energy head

loss varied with the velocity of flow, he obtained two distinct regions

separated by a transition zone. In the laminar region the energy loss per

unit length of pipe is directly proportional to the mean velocity. In the

turbulent flow region the energy loss per unit length of pipe is proportional

to the mean velocity raised to some power, . The value of being

influenced by the roughness of the pipe wall.

hf

v 1.7

l

hf

v2

l

1.7

hf

Example

v 2. . The dimensionless unit Reynolds number (Re) =

l

vd/ and has a value below 2000 for laminar flow and above 4000 for

2

turbulent flow (when any consistent set of units is used) the transition

zone lying in the region of Re 2000 4000 (example lower critical

velocity LCV at Reynolds number of 2000 and upper critical velocity UCV

at a Reynolds number of 4000)

rates of flow will depend on the degree of care which has been taken to

eliminate disturbance in the supply and along the pipe. On the other hand,

experiment made with decreasing flow rates will show a value of Re

which is very much less dependent on initial disturbance.

AIMS

The objective of this laboratory experiment is to demonstrate the

differences between laminar, turbulent, and transitional fluid flow, and the

Reynoldss numbers at which each occurs.

THEORY

Laminar and turbulent flow

Professor Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912) first realized that there was a

critical velocity at which the law relating loss of pressure energy and

velocity in pipe flow changed. He first demonstrated this with his famous

Color Band (on the die-line) experiment. This consisted of injecting a line

jet of dye into the flow of water visible through a transparent pipe. At low

velocities the dye-line was unbroken, but as the velocity of the flow

through the pipe was increased, the dye-line broke up and eddies were

seen to form. From this and further experiments, he came to the

conclusion that there are two distinct types of flow:1. Streamline or Laminar Flow (Latin lamina = layer of thin sheet). The

fluid moves in layers without irregular fluctuation in velocity.

Laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds Numbers. (The flow of oil in

bearing is Laminar).

2. Turbulent flow. This results in the fluid particles moving in irregular

patterns carrying an exchange of momentum from one portion of

the fluid to another.

Reynolds investigated these two different types of motion and concluded

that the parameters which were involved in the flow characteristics were

v

d

kg/m3

the velocity of the flow of the fluid

m/s

Diameter of pipe

m

the coefficient of viscosity of the fluid

Ns/m2

5

(Re)=vd/

The value of which was concerned with the fluid motion. Fluid motion was

found to be laminar for Re numbers below 2000 and turbulent flows for Re

greater than 4000.

APPARATUS

1) OSBOURNE REYNOLDS APPARTUS [Figure 1]

Consist of:

Water Inlet

Dye Injector

Clear Acrylic Tube

Baffles

Glass tube 16mm Boro

P6100 Hydraulic Bench

Feet on P6248 Base Locate on P6100

Overflow pipe

Discharge from Glass Tube

Inlet to flow Apparatus

Position Locking Collet

Variable Height header tank (Inlet to Flow Apparatus)

2) Beaker

3) Measuring Cylinder

4) Stopwatch

METHODOLOGY / PROCEDURE

Setting up the apparatus

The Hydraulic Bench (P6100) is mounted on the apparatus at the locating

spigots of the working surfaces so that the unit straddles the weir trough

and the outlet feeds into measuring tank. P6100 Hydraulic Bench at the

variable height header tank is connected to the water supply which it is

mounted on its support stand. The water supply was turned on and

ensured that all the air in the systems displaced prior to proceeding with

the investigation. The water flow is regulating to give a steady flow in the

system with water just trickling out of the header tank overflow. The water

level in the flow system must be above the inner bell mouthed glass tube.

Measuring flow-rate

The flow rate of water is measured through the apparatus and achieved

by using the Hydraulic Bench volumetric measuring tank or smaller

graduated vessel (not supplied), which is used to collect the known

quantity of water.

Demonstration of the difference between laminar and turbulent

This experiment demonstrated the visually laminar (streamline) flow and

its transition to turbulent flow at a particular velocity.

1. The apparatus is set up with the dye reservoir is fitted and filled,

and with a steady flow of water through the inner tube.

2. The small cock on the base of reservoir is opened to permit dye to

flow from the nozzle at the entrance to the channel. The colored dye

7

3.

4.

5.

6.

will be visible along the passage. If the dye accumulates around the

nozzle, the velocity of the water flow in the passage has to be

increased or regulate the flow from the dye reservoir. The

adjustments of the dye flow are made up by using the tube outlet

tap.

The stream will be visible along the whole length of the passage

under laminar flow conditions. If it not so, the water flow is reduced

until continuous stream of dye is visible along the passage.

The water flow rate is increased by raising the height of the variable

head tank and the condition of the fluid in the channel carefully

note, for example, the streamline and turbulent. The height of head

tank is increased until instability of water flow leading to the break

up of the dye system is occurred.

The break up position in the passage is noted and the corresponding

value of the flow rate is measured by timing the collection of known

amount of water in the volumetric measuring tank.

The dose is maintain and the observation of the passage is

continued further increasing the flow rate until the whole system is

turbulent with no visible dye stream at any point.

RESULTS

No. Of

Rotation

1

No. Of

Reading (mL)

22

24

23

48

46

44

52

56

52

72

64

77

76

74

76

80

88

88

92

76

78

Average

Reading (m3)

Reynolds

Number

Description

2.3 x 10-5

613.3

Laminar

4.6 x 10-5

1220.56

Laminar

5.333 x 10-5

1415.06

Laminar

7.1 x 10-5

1866.14

Laminar

7.533 x 10-5

1998.81

Laminar

8.533 x 10-5

2210.10

Transition

8.2 x 10-5

2175.79

Transition

10

11

12

13

14

100

90

98

110

92

98

106

124

118

128

134

134

124

138

144

138

148

148

174

156

152

9.6 x 10-5

2547.26

Transition

1 x 10-4

2653.40

Transition

1.16 x 10-4

3077.94

Transition

1.32 x 10-4

3520.49

Transition

1.3533 x 10-4

3590.05

Transition

1.4467 x 10-4

3820.9

Transition

160.67

4264.27

Turbulent

CALCULATIONS

Bell mounted glass tube (length =790 mm, diameter=16mm)

Therefore the area,A = d /4 = 2.0110-4 m

Reynolds number (dimensionless constant)

Q=

(m/s)

Q = volumetric flowrate

= volume

s= time

V=

Q

A

V=Velocity

A=Area of the pipe

Re =

vd

Where,

10

= density (kg/m )

d = diameter (m)

V = velocity (m/s)

= viscosity (kg/ms)

Water density, = 1000 kg/m

Water viscosity, = 1.0 10kg/ms

NUMBER

VELOCITY

OF

(m/s)

Re =

vd

DESCRIPTION

ROTATIO

N

1

V(ml)= 23 ml

V(m)= 2.3 x 10 m

Q=

2.3 x 10 m

3s

= 7.667 x 10 m/s

Re=

1000 (0.03833)( 0.016)

1.0 10 .

Laminar

= 613.33

Velocity =

m3

7.667 x 10

s

2.01 10 m2

=0.03833 m/s

V(ml)= 46 ml

V(m)= 4.6 x 10 m

Q=

4.6 x 10 m

3s

= 1.533 x 10 m/s

Re=

1000 (0.07629)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

Laminar

= 1220.56

Velocity =

m3

1.533 x 10

s

2.01 10 m2

=0.07629 m/s

11

V(ml)= 53.33 ml

V(m)= 5.333 x 10

m

Q=

5.333 x 10 m

3s

Re=

1000 (0.08844)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

Laminar

=1415.06

= 1.778 x 10 m/s

Velocity =

3

m

s

2

2.01 10 m

1.778 x 10

=0.08844 m/s

V(ml)= 70.33 ml

V(m)= 7.033 x 10

m

Q=

7.033 x 10 m

3s

Re=

1000 (0.1166)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

Laminar

= 1866.14

= 2.344 x 10 m/s

Velocity =

3

m

s

2

2.01 10 m

2.344 x 10

=0.1166 m/s

V(ml)= 75.33 ml

V(m)= 7.533 x 10

m

Q=

7.533 x 10 m

3s

Re=

1000 (0.1249)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

Laminar

= 1998.81

= 2.511x 10 m/s

Velocity =

12

m3

2.511 x 10

s

2

2.01 10 m

=0.1249 m/s

V(ml)= 83.67 ml

V(m)= 8.367 x 10

m

Q=

8.367 x 10 m

3s

Re=

1000 (0.1388)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

Transition

= 2220.10

= 2.789 x 10 m/s

Velocity =

m3

s

2.01 10 m2

2.789 x 10

=0.1388 m/s

V(ml)= 82 ml

V(m)= 8.2 x 10 m

Q=

8.2 x 10 m

3s

= 2.733 x 10 m/s

Re=

1000 (0.1360)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

Transition

= 2175.79

Velocity =

m3

s

2.01 10 m2

2.733 x 10

=0.1360 m/s

V(ml)= 96 ml

V(m)= 9.6 x 10 m

Q=

9.6 x 10 m

3s

= 3.2 x 10 m/s

Re=

1000 (0.1592)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

Transition

= 2547.26

Velocity =

13

m3

3.2 x 10

s

2

2.01 10 m

=0.1592 m/s

V(ml)= 100 ml

V(m)= 1.0 x 10m

Q=

1.0 x 10 m

3s

= 3.333 x 10 m/s

Re=

1000 (0.1658)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

Transition

= 2653.40

Velocity =

m3

2.733 x 10

s

2.01 10 m2

10

=0.1658 m/s

V(ml)= 116 ml

V(m)= 1.16 x 10m

Q=

1.16 x 10 m

3s

= 3.867 x 10 m/s

Re=

1000 (0.1924)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

Transition

= 3077.94

Velocity =

m3

3.867 x 10

s

2.01 10 m2

11

=0.1924 m/s

V(ml)= 132 ml

V(m)= 1.32 x 10m

Q=

1.32 x 10 m

3s

= 4.4 x 10 m/s

Re=

1000 (0.2189)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

Transition

= 3502.49

Velocity =

14

m3

4.4 x 10

s

2

2.01 10 m

12

=0.2189 m/s

V(ml)= 135.33 ml

V(m)= 1.353 x 10m

Q=

1.353 x 10 m

3s

= 4.51 x 10 m/s

Re=

1000 (0.2244)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

Transition

= 3590.05

Velocity =

m3

4.51 x 10

s

2.01 10 m2

13

=0.2244 m/s

V(ml)= 144 ml

V(m)= 1.44 x 10m

Q=

1.44 x 10 m

3s

= 4.8 x 10 m/s

Re=

1000 (0.2388)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

Transition

= 3820.9

Velocity =

m3

4.8 x 10

s

2.01 10 m2

14

=0.2388 m/s

V(ml)= 160.67 ml

V(m)= 1.607 x 10m

Q=

1.607 x 10 m

3s

= 5.357 x 10 m/s

Re=

1000 (0.2665)(0.016)

1.0 10 .

= 4264.27

Velocity =

15

m3

5.357 x 10

s

2

2.01 10 m

=0.2665 m/s

DISCUSSION

regions.

velocity and fluctuations and eddies.

thin filament of dye injected into laminar flow appears as a single line.

There is no dispersion of dye throughout the flow, except the slow

dispersion due to molecular motion. While for turbulent flow, if a dye

filament injected into a turbulent flow, it disperse quickly throughout the

flow field, the lines of dye breaks into myriad entangled threads of dye.

In this experiment we have to firstly is to observe the characteristic of

the flow of the fluid in the pipe, which may be laminar or turbulent flow by

measuring the Reynolds number and the behaviour of the flow, secondly

to calculate the range for the laminar and turbulent flow and lastly to

prove the Reynolds number is dimensionless by using the Reynolds

number formula.

After complete preparing and setup the equipment we run this

experiment. But firstly we have to calculate the area of bell mounted glass

tube, the viscosity of water and the density of water. The density of water

is 1000 kg/m, the area of glass tube is 2.0110-4 m , while the

viscosity of water is 1.0 10kg/ms, this is done for easy step by step

calculation.

We observe that the red dye line change with the increasing of water

flow rate. The shape change from thin threads to slightly swirling which

still contains smooth thin threads and then fully swirling. We can say that

this change is from laminar flow to transitional flow and then to turbulent

flow and its not occurs suddenly.

16

CONCLUSION

As the water flow rate increase, the Reynolds number calculated also

increase and the red dye line change from thin thread to swirling in shape.

Laminar flow occurs when the Reynolds number calculated is below than

2300; transitional flow occurs when Reynolds number calculated is

between 2300 and 4000 while turbulent flow occurs when Reynolds

number calculated is above 4000.

It is proved that the Reynolds equation is dimensionless, no units left after

the calculation

In this experiment, Osbourne Reynolds apparatus was used to

investigate the characteristic of the flow of the liquid in the pipe which is also

used to determine the Reynolds Number for each state of the flow. The design of

the apparatus allowed us to study the characteristic of the flow of the fluid in the

pipe, the behaviour of the flow and also to calculate the range for the laminar

and turbulent flow where the calculation is used to prove the Reynolds number is

dimensionless by using the Reynolds Number formula.

With the data gathered, it was found that as water flow rate is increasing, the Reynolds

number will automatically increase as well, and the dye line change from straight line to swirling

streamlines. Likewise, it is proven that Reynolds number is dimensionless, since no unit is

representing the value of Reynolds number. Laminar flow is obtained if the Reynolds number is less

than 2300; meanwhile the Reynolds number for turbulent flow is more than 4000. The Reynolds

number for transition flow is in between 2300 until 4000. After 3 trials, our group computed a Reynolds

number which is more than 4000 for every trial, thus, the flow is turbulent.

The values calculated in results section might not be exactly 100% correct due to several

reasons. The one who collect the fluid might not begin right when the person monitoring the stopwatch

started ticking on it, and he/she might also not stop collecting exactly after the third second. Also, do

this experiment at steady place, control the clip and valve carefully to get long

thin of laminar dye flow, and remove the beaker which uses to collect the

amount of water at sharp when the time is up, to avoid error flow rate error.

17

Lastly, Check whether the water in the tube flows in a correct way and we should also make sure

that the flow is stable before measuring the flow rate by monitoring the time taken for collecting an

amount of water in the volumetric measuring tank.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Compare with the result diagram in the laboratory, there are bit different

between the

results collected. This might be some of parallax error such as the slow response

during

collecting the water, the position of eyes during taking the value of water

18

volume, time taken for the volume of water and regulating the valve which

control the flow rate of water unstably.

During the experiment there are several precaution steps that need to be

alert. The

experiment should be done at suitable and unshaken place. To get appropriate

laminar smooth

stream flow, the clip and the valve which control the injection of red dye must be

regulate slow

and carefully. When removing the beaker from the exit valve, we notice that

some water still

enter the beaker because of the slow response between the person who guide

the stop watch and collecting beaker. So to avoid this parallax error, it is better

to take same person who guard the stop watch and the collecting beaker.

Lastly, do this experiment at steady place, control the clip and valve

carefully to get long thin of laminar dye flow, and remove the beaker which uses

to collect the amount of water at sharp when the time is up, to avoid error flow

rate error.

REFERENCE

19

Online Journal

1) High-Reynolds number Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence

Authors: D. Livescu; J. R. Ristorcelli; R. A. Gore; S. H. Deana; W. H.

Cabot; A. W. Cook

DOI: 10.1080/14685240902870448

Published in: Journal of Turbulence, Volume 10, N 13 2009

First Published on: 01 January 2009

Subjects: Aerospace Engineering; Applied

Mechanics; Astrophysics; Computational Physics; Fluid

Dynamics; Fluid Mechanics; Meteorology; Oceanography; Physical

Oceanography; Plasmas & Fluids; Statistical Physics;

supersonic flow

J. P. Bonnet, V. Jayaraman and T. Alziary De Roquefort

Laboratoire d'Etudes Arodynamiques et Thermiques, Laboratoire Associ au

C.N.R.S. 191, Centre d'Etudes Arodynamiques et Thermiques, 43 Route de

l'Arodrome, 86000 Poitiers, France.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics (1984), 143:277-304 Cambridge University Press

Copyright 1984 Cambridge University Press

doi:10.1017/S002211208400135X

20

APPENDIX

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