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RADIOSS for Impact


Explicit Large Displacement Analysis

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Table of Contents

RADIOSS for Impact Analysis


Explicit Large Displacement
Analysis
Chapter 1: Introduction to RADIOSS ...................................................................... 1
Chapter 2: RADIOSS Tools...................................................................................... 9
Exercise 2.1: First Run with RADIOSS ................................................................................. 15

Chapter 3: Elements............................................................................................... 17
Exercise 3.1: Hands on Twisted Beam ................................................................................ 41

Chapter 4: Common Features ............................................................................... 43


Chapter 5: Time Step Control................................................................................ 51
Exercise 5.1: Time Step Demo with an Example.................................................................. 59

Chapter 6: Materials ............................................................................................... 61


Exercise 6.1: Tensile Test Setup using HyperMesh ............................................................. 71

Chapter 7: Interfaces.............................................................................................. 81
Exercise 7.1: Box Tube on HyperMesh ................................................................................ 97

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II

III

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HyperWorks 10.0

Chapter 1 - Introduction to RADIOSS

Chapter 1

Introduction to RADIOSS

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 1

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Chapter 1 - Introduction to RADIOSS

Application Fields

Structural Mechanics
Fluid-Structure interaction

Material characterization

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Application Fields

Composite shell

Stamping
Safety

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Chapter 1 - Introduction to RADIOSS

Application Fields

Centrifugal Fan Noise

Centrifugal Fan Noise

Computational Fluid Dynamics


Computational Aero Acoustics
Noise Vibration Harshness

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Modeling A Physical Problem


1. Geometry (Physical model)

1D, 2D or 3D ? 

Beam, Shell or Solid ?

2. Physical laws (conservation)

Physical laws (conservation)

Mass conservation

Energy conservation

Momentum conservation (equilibrium)

3. Formulation:

Choice of time and space discretizations

Lagrangian

Eulerian

Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE)

4. Space Discretization:

Finite Element (FE)

5. Time Integration:

Newmark scheme

simple form

Explicit formulation + Central Difference Method


Implicit formulation

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 3

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Chapter 1 - Introduction to RADIOSS

Formulations
How to combine time and space discretization?

1. Lagrangian Formulation (Structural Analysis)

The mesh points coincide with the material points

Elements are deformed with material

Element deformation = Material deformation

2. Eulerian Formulation (CFD - fluid)

Nodes fixed in space, Material goes through the mesh

Fixed nodes

 No degradation of mesh in large deformation problems

3. ALE: Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Formulation (Impact - missile)

Between two previous formulations

Internal nodes move to minimize element distortion

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Formulations
Fluid flow for three kinds of formulations

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Chapter 1 - Introduction to RADIOSS

Time Integration

Explicit formulation + Central Difference Method

simple form

Newmark scheme

Implicit formulation
tn-1

tn

xn 1

xn

x&n 1

tn+1

xn +1

x&n + 1

&x&n
x&n + 1 = x&n 1 + &x&n t
2

xn+1 is obtained with a precision t 2


xn +1 = xn + x&n + 1 t
2

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Explicit Flow Chart


t =t+t

Fext

Loop over elements

v j

2 x j xi
& ij = f (&ij )
ij (t + t ) = ij (t ) + & ij t

1 v
&ij = i +
Fint

{Fcont }

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{ }

Assemble {Fint }, Fhrg

v&i = Fi mi

x&n+ 1 = x&n 1 + &x&nt

Time integration

xn+1 = xn + x&n+ 1 t

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 5

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Chapter 1 - Introduction to RADIOSS

Implicit Newmark Flow Chart


Form [K ], [M], [C]

& 0 }{
&& 0 }
Initialize {U 0 }{
,U
,U

t + t

] [

R =

t +t

&& } + [C ] a 1 {t U }+ a 4 {t U& }+ a 5 {t U
&& }
R + [M ] a 0 {t U }+ a 2 {t U& }+ a 3 {t U

Solve LDLT {t +t U} =

Select t, , then det. a i i = 1..7


a0 = 1t 2 ;

a1 = t ;

a2 = 1t ;

a3 =

a4 = 1; a5 =

t
2

1
2

1;

{
{

t + t

( 2);

t + t

a6 = t (1 ); a7 = t;

{ R }
t + t

&& } = a ({t +t U} {t U}) a {t U


& } a {t U
&& }
U
0
2
3
t &
t &&
t + t &&
&
U} = { U}+ a { U} a { U}
6

= K + a [M ] + a [C]
Form K
0
1

[ ][ ]

:K
= LDLT
Triangularize K

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Explicit  Implicit
Non Linearity
Rupture

Damage

Explicit
Buckling

Plasticity

Implicit

Elasticity
Static
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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 6

Dynamic

Velocity

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Chapter 1 - Introduction to RADIOSS

Explicit  Implicit

Cost (CPU)
Implicit
Explicit

Complexity
Static / Elastic

Nonlinear Dynamic

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Advantages / Disadvantages

Explicit
(-) Conditional stability
(-) Small
(+) Precision

t < t c

t ( s )

(t )2

(+) Large

t (ms )

(+) Precision

(t )2

(+) [M]-1 (diagonal matrix)

(-) ([M]+[K])-1 (non diagonal)

(+) Low memory (10 MW)

(-) High memory (6000 MW)

(+) Dynamic and Shock problems

(+) Dynamic and Static problems

(+) Element-by-Element method

(-) Global resolution

Local treatment
(+) High Robustness
High and Coupled nonlinearities
(+) Relatively low cost
Low CPU, Low Memory
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Implicit
(+) Always stable

Need of convergence at each step


(-) Low Robustness
Null pivots, Divergence,
(-) Too expensive
High CPU, High Memory
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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 7

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Chapter 1 - Introduction to RADIOSS

RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 8

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Chapter 2 - RADIOSS Tools

Chapter 2

RADIOSS Tools

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 9

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Chapter 2 - RADIOSS Tools

Radioss Tools
Access Radioss from HyperWorks 10.0 Suite:

Launch Radioss

Radioss Manuals

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Pre-Processor - HyperMesh

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Chapter 2 - RADIOSS Tools

Pre-Processor - HyperCrash
Create / Modify a RADIOSS
model from a FE mesh

RADIOSS
RADIOSSInput
Input(fixed/block)
(fixed/block)
NASTRAN
NASTRANFormat
Format
Universal
UniversalFormat
Format(IDEAS)
(IDEAS)
Ls-Dyna
Ls-DynaFormat
Format
Pam
Pam2G
2GFormat
Format

Databases
. properties
. materials

HyperCrash

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RADIOSS
RADIOSS4.1
4.1block
blockand
andFixed
FixedFormats
Formats
RADIOSS
4.1,
4.4
&
51
Block
Formats
RADIOSS 4.1, 4.4 & 51 BlockFormats
Nastran
NastranFormat
Format
Universal
UniversalFormat
Format(Ideas)
(Ideas)
Ls-Dyna
Ls-DynaFormat
Format
Pam
Pam2G
2GFormat
Format
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Pre-Processor - HyperCrash

Quality
Quality
Menu
Menu

Loadcase
Loadcase
Menu
Menu

HyperCrash

Mesh
MeshEditing
Editing
Menu
Menu

Connection
Connection
Menu
Menu

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Model
ModelChecker
Checker
Menu
Menu

Safety
Safety
Menu
Menu

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 11

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Chapter 2 - RADIOSS Tools

Processor RADIOSS Computation


_0000.rad / D00

Input Deck (ASCII)

STARTER

_0000.out / L00
Listing File (ASCII)

_0000.rst / R00

Restart File (BINARY)

ENGINE

_0001.rad / D01

_0001.rst / R01
Restart File (BINARY)

Engine File (ASCII)

_0001.out / L01
Listing File
(ASCII)

A01-Ann

T01

Animation File
(Binary)

TH File
(Binary)

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RADIOSS Starter
Input Deck (ASCII)
_0000.rad / D00

STARTER

_0000.rst / R00

_0000.out / L00

Restart File (BINARY)

Listing File (ASCII)

Checks consistency of the model


Gives you warning and errors
Generates R00 file for engine
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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 12

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Chapter 2 - RADIOSS Tools

RADIOSS Engine
Engine File (ASCII) Restart File (Binary)

_0001.rad / D00

_0000.rst / R00

ENGINE

_0001.rst / R01

T01

Restart File
(Binary)

TH File
(Binary)

A001-Annn 0001.out / L01


Animation File
(Binary)

Listing File
(ASCII)

Generates output files (Annn Tnnn)


Details the computation (Lnn)
Generates Rnn file for restart
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Post-ProcessorHyperView
Reads animations (Annn)
Displays selected variables (Von Mises Stress, Plastic
Strains, etc.

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 13

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Chapter 2 - RADIOSS Tools

Post-Processor HyperGraph
Reads Time history (Tnn)
Plots selected variables (Energies, Nodal, Element, and etc.)

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RADIOSS Files
File
_0000.rad
D00 (V4)

Description

Input RADIOSS File

_0001.rad

Read by

Written by

Format

Starter/ HyperMesh

HyperMesh
HyperCrash

ASCII

HyperCrash

HyperCrash

Engine input

Engine

List files

Text Editor

Starter/Engine

Restart files

Engine

Starter/Engine

Annn

Animation files

HyperView

Engine

Tnn

Time history file

HyperGraph

Engine

D01 (V4)
_000n.out
L00, Lnn (V4)
_000n.rst
R00, Rnn (V4)

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 14

/Text Editor

ASCII

ASCII

Binary
(by default)

Binary

Binary
(by default)

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Chapter 2 - RADIOSS Tools

Exercise 2.1: First Run with Radioss


Objective
To introduce the Radioss manager and give a first overview about the simulation process
using Radioss.
The model simulates an impact of a half section box beam on a rigid wall with symmetric
boundary conditions.

Model Description

Units: Length (mm), Time (ms), Mass (g), Force (N) and Stress (MPa)
Simulation time
o 0001.rad
[0 10] ms
o 0002.rad
[10 16] ms
The model is represented on its symmetric part (Z - axes).
On the free extreme (x minor) where the 500,000 g is attached has an initial velocity
VX = 5 mm/ms applied to it.
Box dimensions = 80 x 80 x 480 with a uniform thickness = 1.5 mm
Results requested:
o /ANIM/ELEM/EPSP
Plastic strain
o /ANIM/ELEM/VONM
Von Mises stress
Johnson-Cook Elasto-Plastic Material /MAT/LAW2.
o STEEL
= 7.9 g/mm3
[Rho_I] Initial density
2
[E]
Youngs modulus
E = 199355 N/mm
= 0.29
[nu]
Poissons ratio

HyperWorks 10.0

0 = 185.4
= 540.0
n = 0.32
= 336.6

[a]

Plasticity yield stress

[b]
Plasticity hardening parameter
[nu]
Plasticity hardening exponent
[SIG_max] Max Stress

RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 15

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Chapter 2 - RADIOSS Tools

Input files for this tutorial: MY_MODEL_0000.rad, MY_MODEL_0001.rad and


MY_MODEL_0002.rad

Step 1: Open Radios Manager

Step 2: Run the model MY_MODEL_0000.rad using Radioss Manager on the


class_exercise folder with the options: starter
Step 3: Review the listing file called MY_MODEL_0000.out and verify the
model:
1. If the checking had finish with no error.
2. See if there is any warning
3. Please find the minimum time step, and write it down. MIN DT = _____________.

Step 4: Edit the engine file


1. Add on the end of the file these 2 commands: If the checking had finish with no error.
/ANIM/ELEM/EPSP ............................................................................. Plastic Strains
/ANIM/ELEM/VONM ..................................................................... VonMises Stresses

Step 5: Run the engine file using the RADIOSS Manager with the option:
-engine
Step 6: Review the files generated Animation (A0n) files with HyperView, TimeHistory (T0n) files with HyperGraph, Listing (.out) files with a Text Editor.

RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 16

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Chapter 3 - Elements

Chapter 3

Elements

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 17

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Chapter 3 - Elements

Stress/Strain - Definitions
Logarithmic TRUE STRAIN tensor

true = ln = ln (1 + eng )
l0
Cauchy TRUE STRESS tensor

true = eng (1 + eng )

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Stress/Strain Small strain option

Usually used for small deformation simulations :

Linear elastic studies

Usually not used for crash analysis


Sometimes used to resolve some special numerical problems :

Large mesh distortion due to large deformations

Decrease of time step due to decrease of element length

Negative volume of brick elements due to large deformation

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 18

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Chapter 3 - Elements

Hourglass Formulation

Under Integrated Elements (1 IP)

Efficiency

Constant Stress over Elements

Hourglass mode exists

IP

Zero energy deformation

Strain and stress are zero

X
1

xx = 0

dx = 0

xx = 0

8 Nodes SOLID
4 Nodes SHELL
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Hourglass - Control

Additional internal forces are required to maintain the


deformation stability of the element

Resistance forces [ Generate an ARTIFICIAL energy


Y
f4 4

f3

IP

X
1

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f1

f2 2

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 19

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Chapter 3 - Elements

Hourglass Shell Modes


12 translational modes:

12 rotational modes:

3 rigid body modes (1, 2, 9)

6 deformation modes (3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11)

4 out of plane rotation modes (1 [ 4)


2 deformation modes (5, 6)

3 hourglass modes (7, 8, 12)

2 rigid body or deformation modes (7, 8)

4 hourglass modes (9 [ 12)

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Hourglass Brick Modes


4 modes for each directions:

12 hourglass modes for a brick element

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 20

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HyperWorks 10.0

Chapter 3 - Elements

Hourglass - Checking

For the Model: HE/IE < 10%

Plot Global Hourglass for the model in HyperGraph

For each Subset/Part: HE/IE < 10%

Select PARTS for Output in the D00 file

Plot Hourglass for selected Parts in HyperGraph

Check Hourglass with HyperView

Add the command below in the Engine file

Display Hourglass contour over Elements

/ANIM/ELEM/HOURG

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3D Solid - Hexahedron
A simple Brick element:

8 nodes with Linear interpolation

Integration :

Reduced

> 1 POINT (DEFAULT)

Full

> 8 POINT

s
8

Characteristic length

Volume
lc =
largest face area

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 21

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Chapter 3 - Elements

Degenerated Solid Elements


Put nodes of the same edge together to obtain other shapes

Use of a normal
tetra element is
recommended

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Not Recd Element Degenerations


Element symmetry must be respected
Not recommended elements:

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 22

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Chapter 3 - Elements

3D Solid - Tetrahedron
4 nodes solid tetrahedron

Linear shape functions

Integration:

No HOURGLASS

Shear Locking

Low convergence

1 POINT

Characteristic length
lc = a

2
= 0.816a
3

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3D Solid - Tetrahedron
10 nodes solid tetrahedron

Quadratic shape functions

Integration :

4 POINTS

No HOURGLASS

Low time step

No shear locking

High convergence

Characteristic length
lc = a

5
6

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2 = 0.264 a

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 23

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Chapter 3 - Elements

Quadratic 4 nodes tetra element

Quadratic 4 nodes tetra element

4 nodes tetra element with enriched nodal variables (6 DOF per each node)

4 integration points

Displacement of the dummy nodes is computed on the basis of rotational DOF

Advantages

High time step versus 10 nodes tetra element with same accuraccy

Shear locking effect low or negligible (it may appear in bending)

Compatibility with shells

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3D Other Elements
Other solid elements:
HA8: 8 node linear brick with variable integration schemes from 2x2x2 to
9x9x9
HEPH: 8 node linear brick with 1 integration point , Elastic-plastic physical
stabilization method
BRICK20: 20 node quadratic brick with reduced 2x2x2 or full 3x3x3
integration schemes
8

19

20
5
6

17

18

15

14

13
12

11

SHELL16 : Thick shell element

RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 24

16
14

5
13
1

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15

10
1

6
10
2

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Chapter 3 - Elements

3D Solid Control Card

Isolid: Solid & Hourglass


formulations

Default = 0 > 1 IP

12 > 8 IP

24 > HEPH

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Ismstr: Small Strain control

Default = 0 > Large Strain

1 > Small Strain from t = 0

2 > Small Strain if criteria


reached
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3D Solid - Applications

Bushings

Inserts

Barriers

Bumpers

Dummies

Seat

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 25

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Chapter 3 - Elements

2D Shell Q4 Formulations
Crashworthiness simulations: Over 90% shell elements BT
Four Node Quadrilateral Elements (Q4)

Belytshko & Tsay (BT) formulation (DEFAULT)

1 Integration Point [ Hourglass

Unphysical Hourglass Control

QEPH

1 Integration Point [ Hourglass

Physical Hourglass Control

BATOZ

4 Integration Point > No hourglass

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2D Shell Q4 - BT
1 Integration point over the surface
Low cost elements to save CPU time
Four non-coplanar nodes

N4

N3

Normal constant over the element


(without curvature)
ez =

N1N 3 N 2 N 4

N1
N2

N1N 3 N 2 N 4

The local z axis is the vector product of two element diagonals

For warped surfaces > precision P


Drawbacks: Hourglassing, flat element and cannot couple
bending & membrane behavior
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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 26

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Chapter 3 - Elements

2D Shell Q4 - QEPH
Four-node curved element
Four independent normals at nodes
Hourglass physical Stabilization

n4

n3

N4

n1

N3
n2

N1
N2

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2D Shell Q4 - Batoz
Fully Integrated Elements: 4 Gauss point over the element

More Expensive Today 3*CPU cost

Variable Stress over Elements

No Hourglass

Y
4

IP

IP

dx 0

xx 0

xx 0

IP

IP

X
1

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 27

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Chapter 3 - Elements

2D Shell Q4 - Conclusion
BT

Use of Q4BT (Belytschko Tsay) : robust, CPU cost effective

Popular + Compatible + Cannot couple bending-membrane behavior

Best choice for coarse mesh

QEPH

15% CPU > BT + Sensitive to mesh quality + Avoid hourglassing

Good trade off quality/cost

BATOZ

No Hourglass + Good curvature + Couples bending-membrane


behavior

Best choice for fine mesh

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2D Shell Q3 C0
Q3

A flat facet element

No HOURGLASS

Too stiff

z
y
x

Degenerated Q4 (Not Recommended)

Q4 > T3

Non homogenous mass

distribution

m/4

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 28

m/4

m/4

m/4

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Chapter 3 - Elements

2D- Shell Q3 DKT18

DKT18: Batoz Triangle:


Three in-plane integration points with Hammer scheme
No hourglass
Good bending behavior but high cost element
Globally, twice more expensive than C0 element

z
y
x

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2D IP Through Thickness

Global Integration (DEFAULT)

Average value is computed

Bad strain/stress computation for the bending out of plane

Integration Points

From 1 to 5

1 IP gives no out of plane stiffness

Use 5 for a good accuracy

N4

N3

N1
N2
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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 29

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Chapter 3 - Elements

Plastically Admissible Stresses

Two methods :

Radial return (IPLAS = 2)

Iterative algorithm (IPLAS = 1)

Iterative algorithm:

Radial return:

CPU m, precision m

Use Newton-Raphson method


CPU N, precision N

Iterative Plasticity
Iplast = 1

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Thickness Variation

By default Radioss considers a constant thickness through the


element:

Ithick = 0

To take the thickness changes into account :

Ithick = 1

Thickness Changes
Ithick = 1

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Chapter 3 - Elements

2D Shell Control Card

Ishell: Shell & Hourglass

formulations

Default = 0 > BT

4 > BT with improved Hourglass

12 > BATOZ

24 > QEPH

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Ismstr: Small Strain control

Default=0 > Large Strain

1 > Small Strain from t = 0

2 > Small Strain if criteria


reached
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2D Shell - Applications

Manufacturing

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Automotive

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 31

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Chapter 3 - Elements

1D Beam Element
A standard Euler-Bernouilli beam

Element with three nodes

Third node to define the orientation of the cross-section

z
y

3
y
1, 2
1

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1D Beam Element
Beam inputs:

A : cross section area

Ix : moment of inertia of cross section about local x axis

Iy : moment of inertia of cross section about local y axis

Iz : moment of inertia of cross section about local z axis

Recommendations:

Time Step:

L> A

0.1A4 < 12 I y I z < 10 A4

0.01 < I y / I z < 100

0.5( I y + I z ) < I x < 2( I y + I z )

t = a Lc

with

c=

a = 0.5 min(4, 1 + B / 12, B / 3)

B = AL2 / max( I y , I z )
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Chapter 3 - Elements

1D Beam Control Card

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1D Truss Element
A standard two node element

N1

N2

Material law:

Type 1 : Linear Elastic

Type 2 : Elastic Plastic

Property set:

A : Cross section area

Time Step:

t =

L (t )
c

L(t) : Current Truss length

c=

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 33

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Chapter 3 - Elements

1D Beam/TrussApplications

Suspensions, Supports

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1D Springs

Type 4

Spring with 1 d.o.f.

Type 8

Mathematical spring

Type 12

Pulley type

Type 13

Beam type

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Chapter 3 - Elements

1D Spring Type 4

Simple physical spring with a dashpot

F = kx + cx&

1 d.o.f spring:

Tension-Compression behavior

The nodal forces are always collinear


Time step is depending on the spring
mass, its stiffness and its damping

dt =

KM + C 2 C
M

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1D Spring Type 8, 12, 13


Type 8:

Mathematical def. having 6 DOFs total; L > 0

Not enough DOFs to represent Rigid Body Motion

Global momentum not respected

Type 12:

3 Nodes to define pulley

Deformable rope with friction at node 2

Sliding is locked when node 1 or 3 touches node 2

Type 13:

Works like a Beam element (bending & shear coupled); L > 0

12 DOFs to represent Rigid Body Motion

3 nodes, 2 to define axis of spring and 3rd for local frame

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 35

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Chapter 3 - Elements

1D Spring Property Set


F

l0

l0

Linear Spring

Non linear Elastic Spring H=0

Non linear Elastic-Plastic Spring


With Isotropic Hardening H=1

f1
F

l0

l0

l0

resid

l0
f2

Non Linear Elastic-Plastic Spring


With kinematic hardening H=4

Non Linear Elastic-Plastic Spring


With uncoupled hardening H=2

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Non Linear Elastic-Plastic Spring


With nonlinear unloading H=5

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1D Spring Property

Dashpot behavior
F

d / dt

Multidirectional Failure Criteria

DY
Dyp
Dxn

Dxp

DX

Dyn

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Chapter 3 - Elements

1D Spring Control Card

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1D Spring Applications

Joints

Rivets

Spotwelds

Pretension

Retractors

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 37

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Chapter 3 - Elements

Element Compatibility
PROPERTY SET LIST

Fixed format number


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Description
Void element
Shell element
Truss element
Beam element
Spring element
Old rivet
Orthotropic solid element
General spring element
Orthotropic shell element
Composite shell element
Sandwich shell element
3 nodes spring element
Beam type spring element
General solid element

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Keywords
TYPE0, VOID
TYPE1, SHELL
TYPE2, TRUS
TYPE3, BEAM
TYPE4, SPRING
TYPE5, RIVET
TYPE6, SOL_ORTH
TYPE8, SPR_GENE
TYPE9, SH_ORTH
TYPE10, SH_COMP
TYPE11, SH_SANDW
TYPE12, SPR_PUL
TYPE13, SPR_BEAM
TYPE14, SOLID
Copyright 2008 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved.

Element Compatibility
MATERIAL LAWS DESCRIPTION
34
25
14
24
22
21
1
19
33
35
32
43
28
4
6
3
40
10
23
42
27
2
36
2
29
30
31
38
0

Law
BOLTZMAN
COMPSH
COMPSO
CONC
DAMA
DPRAG
ELAST
FABRI
FOAM_PLASTIC
FOAM_VISCOUS
HILL
HILL_TAB
HONEYCOMB
HYD_JCOOK
HYD_VIS
HYDPLA
KELVINMAXW ELL
LAW 10
LAW 23
OGDEN
PLAS_BRIT
PLAS_JOHNS
PLAS_TAB
PLAS_ZERIL
USER1
USER2
USER3
VISC_TAB
VOID

Type
Viscoelastic
Elastic plastic orthotropic
Elastic plastic orthotropic
Elastic plastic brittle
Elastic plastic
Elastic plastic
Elastic
Shell orthotropic
Viscous plastic
Viscous elastic
Elastic plastic orthotropic
Elastic plastic orthotropic
Orthotropic
Johnson Cook
Hydrodynamic Viscous
Elastic plastic hydrodynamic
Viscous elastic
Elastic plastic Drcker-Prager
Elastic plastic
Hyperelastic
Elastic plastic brittle
Elasto plastic (Johnson Cook)
Elastic plastic
Elastic plastic (Zerilli-Armstrong)
Users
Users
Users
Viscous elastic
Void material

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 38

Description
Boltzman
Composite shell
Composite material
Reinforced concrete
Ductile damage
Drcker-Prager Law for rock or concrete, hydrodynamic behaviour is given by a function
Linear elastic model
Linear elastic orthotropic
Closed cell, elasto-plastic foam
Generalized Kelvin-Voigt
Hills model
Tabulated Hill model
Honeycomb material
Strain rate and temperature dependent yield stress
Turbulent viscous flow
Von Mises isotropic hardening, polynomial pressure
Generalized Maxwell - Kelvin law
Law for rock or concrete, hydrodynamic behaviour is polynomial
Ductile damage
Ogden - Mooney-Rivlin
Brittle shell (aluminum, glass)
Von Mises isotropic hardening
Piecewise linear
Von Mises isotropic hardening

Foam (Tabulated law)


Fictitious

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Chapter 3 - Elements

Element Compatibility
ELEMENT COMPATIBILITY
34
25
14
24
22
21
1
19
33
35
32
43
28
4
6
3
40
10
23
42
27
2
36
2
29
30
31
38
0

Law
2D QUAD 3D BRICK
BOLTZMAN
yes
yes
COMPSH
COMPSO
yes
yes
CONC
yes
yes
DAMA
yes
yes
DPRAG
yes
yes
ELAST
yes
yes
FABRI
FOAM_PLASTIC
yes
yes
FOAM_VISCOUS
yes
yes
HILL
HILL_TAB
HONEYCOMB
yes
yes
HYD_JCOOK
yes
yes
HYD_VIS
yes
yes
HYDPLA
yes
yes
KELVINMAXW ELL
yes
yes
LAW 10
yes
yes
LAW 23
yes
yes
OGDEN
yes
yes
PLAS_BRIT
PLAS_JOHNS
yes
yes
PLAS_TAB
yes
yes
PLAS_ZERIL
yes
yes
USER1
yes
yes
USER2
yes
yes
USER3
yes
yes
VISC_TAB
yes
yes
VOID
yes

SHELL

TRUSS

BEAM

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes

yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes

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Exercise 3.1: Hands on Twisted Beam

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 39

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Chapter 3 - Elements

RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 40

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Chapter 3 - Elements

Exercise 3.1: Hands on Twisted Beam


Objective
To test different shell element formulations available in RADIOSS with a twisted beam.
BT Shell behaves poorly when the elements are warped and in bending. The test will
confirm this.

Model Description

Units; NOT DEFINED.

Simulation time
o

D01

[0 0.02001]

D02

[0.02001 0.05001]

The model is a rectangular plate twisted on Axes X.

The simulation consist on clamp on one extreme and on the other apply a force on
the middle node with the value = 1 on Y direction.

Plate dimensions = 12 x 1.1 with a uniform thickness = 0.32 mm

Elastic Material: /MAT/LAW1.

= 7.34e-3

[Rho_I] Initial density

E = 29e6

[E]

Youngs modulus

[nu]

Poissons ratio

= 0.22

Input files for this tutorial:


o

BT

BATOZ: TWISBE12_0000.rad, TWISBE12_0001.rad and TWISBE12_0002.rad

QEPH : TWISBE24_0000.rad, TWISBE24_0001.rad and TWISBE24_0002.rad

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: TWISBEAM_0000.rad, TWISBEAM_0001.rad and TWISBEAM_0002.rad

RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 41

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Chapter 3 - Elements

Step 1: Copy the folders BATOZ, BT and QEPH from the Model Files directory to
the solved folder.
Step 2: Open RADIOSS Manager

Step 3: Run the models TWISBE12, TWISBEAM and TWISBE24 using RADIOSS
Manager on the class_exercise folder with the option: both
Step 4: Review the listing files for each run and verify on the results:
1. Plot Dy (Y-Displacement) of the node in time history with HG (one window for each shell
formulation)

DISPLACEMENT (mm)

RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 42

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Chapter 4 - Common Features

Chapter 4

Common Features

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Chapter 4 - Common Features

Interfaces

The interfaces solve the contact between two parts


Different kinds of interfaces exist depending on the contact
Surface 1

Surface 2

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Rigid Wall

Four kinds of rigid walls are available


Infinite plane
Cylindrical rigid wall
Spherical rigid wall
Parallelogram

Each wall can be fixed or moving


A rigid wall is defined by a Master Node and a group of slave
Nodes
The group of Slave Nodes is defined by an explicit list
and/or by a distance for slave search
A rigid wall is a Kinematic Condition

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Chapter 4 - Common Features

Rigid Wall

M0
M1

Slave Nodes

Diameter
M
Spherical
Plane Rigid Wall

Slave Nodes
M1
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Cylindrical
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Rigid Body
A Rigid Body is an underformable structure
A Rigid Body is defined with a set of slave nodes and a
master node
A kinematic condition is applied on each node and for all
directions
By default, the master node is moved to the center of mass

Input master node


localization

Rigid body center of mass


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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 45

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Chapter 4 - Common Features

Rigid Body

Rigid Parts (Undeformable parts, walls


engine, battey)

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Connections between Parts

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Monitored Volumes
Simulate a volume of gas or fluid
Requirement
The surface defined must be closed
The shell normal must be oriented outward the volume
Only 3 or 4 shell elements sets

5 types of monitored volume


Type 3 for tire and fuel tank
For simple unfolded airbag use monitored volume type 4
For chambered airbag use type 5

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Chapter 4 - Common Features

Monitored Volumes

Tank

Airbag
Deploying

Tire

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Boundary Conditions
A boundary condition is a constraint on node degrees of
freedom
A boundary condition is a kinematic condition
6 degrees of freedom :
X translation
Y translation
Z translation
X rotation
Y rotation
Z rotation

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#-BOUNDARY CONDITION:
#--1---|---2---|---3---|---4---|---5---|
/BCS/1
boundary_condition
#trarot
nskew gr_node
101 110
0
1004
# BCS NODE GROUP
/GRNOD/NODE/1004
group_of_nodes
207
#--1---|---2---|---3---|---4---|---5---|

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 47

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Chapter 4 - Common Features

Velocity & Imposed Displacements

Initial velocity: defined by a value in each direction and a


group of nodes
Imposed velocity: defined by a function, a direction and a
group of nodes
Imposed displacement (Block only): same as Imposed Velocity

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Loads & Gravity

Concentrated load

Pressure load

Gravity load

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 48

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Chapter 4 - Common Features

Added Masses

An added Mass is a mass which is added on a group of


nodes
The mass is equally divided among the nodes in the group
or is added to each node of the list
#-ADDED MASS:
#--1---|---2---|---3---|---4---|---5---|
/ADMAS/1/1
BOAT
#Mass|
Node|
0.5
1000
/GRNOD/NODE/1000/
ADDED MASS
207

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Skew Frames
SKEW FRAMES are used to define local directions
Two types of skew frames are available in RADIOSS
Fixed skew frame
Moving skew frame

Zs
Ys

Xs
Fixed skew frame
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Moving skew frame (defining by 3 nodes)


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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 49

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Chapter 4 - Common Features

Sections
A section is a cut in the structure where forces and
moments will be stored in TH files
A section is defined by a group of element, a group of nodes
and a skew defined by three nodes

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Chapter 5 - Time Step Control

Chapter 5

Time Step Control

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Chapter 5 - Time Step Control

Stability of Time Integration


Explicit Scheme:
Conditionally stable
t < tcritical

If

Stable scheme

Unstable case:
If information passes across more than one element per time step

Fext(t)

Stability Condition depends on two factors:


Size of the smallest element > Numerical
> Physical

Sound propagation speed

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Courants Stability Condition


Courants stability condition

t <

lc
c

c : Speed of sound in the material


lc : Characteristic element length

Characteristic length
It depends on the shape of the element:

lc
l
lc = 0.707 l

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 52

lc
l
lc = 0.866 l

lc = A D

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Chapter 5 - Time Step Control

Time Step Control in Radioss

In principle, no need of user intervention (automatic)


The time step is calculated using two methods:
Element time step
Nodal time step

The time step is influenced by existence of interfaces


Interface time step

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Element Time Step Control


For the smallest element, the following relation must be
verified:
l
te < S f Where Sf is the Scale Factor
c

Scale Factor:

To ensure the stability


To introduce the nonlinearity in Courants condition
Particular cases:
One element mesh > Sf = 0.1

Foams (high nonlinearity) > Sf = 0.67

t e <

lc
E

lc

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>

>

> te

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 53

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Chapter 5 - Time Step Control

Nodal Time Step Control


For any node, the following relation must be verified:
t n <

2m
k

m : nodal mass
k : equivalent stiffness of node

For a regular mesh:

t n = te
For an irregular mesh (generally):

t n > te

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Interface Time Step


The interface time step depends on the type of interface
used:
Type 2:
Just a kinematic condition > No need of time step condition

Types 3, 4, 5 and 8:
A small stiffness is used > Stable with Sf = 0.9 or less

Types 7, 10 and 11:


A variable stiffness is used
May be large enough compared to element stiffness
> A stability condition must be established

ti =

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 54

2m
k

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Chapter 5 - Time Step Control

RADIOSS Input for Time Step Control


Time Step Control in Engine (0001.rad) file
/DT
Tsca

Tmin

/DT/BRICK
/DT/SHELL
/DT/QUAD
/DT/SH_3N
/DT/BEAM

/DT/INTER
/DT/NODA

>

Element Time Step Control

>
>
>

Interface Time Step Control


Activate Nodal Time Step Control
Larger Time Step for non-optimized mesh

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RADIOSS Input for Time Step Control


/DT/Keyword2
Tsca

Tmin

Keyword 2: Brick, Quad, Shell, Sh3n, Truss, Beam, Spring, Airbag, Inter, Noda
/DT/Keyword2/Keyword3
Tsca

Tmin

Keyword 2: Stop, Del, Cst


Delete Option
/DT/BRICK/DEL
/DT/SHELL/DEL

To delete Elements where te < tmin

/DT/INTER/DEL

To remove nodes from interface where

ti < t min

DEL option > Mass / Volume is lost > Change of the physics

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 55

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Chapter 5 - Time Step Control

RADIOSS Input for Time Step Control


Constant Option:
/DT/NODA/CST
/DT/INTER/CST
To apply a constant time step
Radioss adds mass to the model to satisfy the nodal stability condition
Increase of kinetic energy
The added mass should be checked by user to ensure the validity of
results

/DT/BRICK/CST
/DT/SHELL/CST
Switch an element to small strain formulation > time step is then
independent of the size of the element

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Remarks on Time Step Control


Many time step options influence the results:
Keep the numerical model close to the physical problem

Small Time Step for:


Stiff material:

E >

Light material:

>

Small element:

l >

With te =

l
l
=
E
c

For mild steel:


c 5000m / s

t 1s (For crash problems)

lmin 5mm

Characteristic length
for elements

Remove details to save CPU time


More than 1 Million elements are needed to mesh a complete car
model with 5x5mm2 elements
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Chapter 5 - Time Step Control

Remarks on Time Step Control


Default values:
Scale factor = 0.9
Minimum time step = 0

By default if te < tmin :


Radioss deletes the shell element which control the time step
Radioss stops calculation if a brick element control the time step

The /DT/INTER concerns only the interface type 7


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Demo of Time Step Control in RADIOSS


Take a simple Tensile Test model

Case 1: Run it with Natural Time Step (No Time Step Commands)

Time Step is 2.164E-4

Total Number of Cycles = 55467 Cycles

Case 2: Add Command:


/DT/NODA
0.9

0
Time Step = 2.2521E-4

Total Number of Cycles = 53291 Cycles

This proves that Nodal Time Step > Element Time Step

Case 3: Add Command:


/DT/NODA/CST
0.9

3E-4

Time Step = 3E-4 Must be input after reviewing Nodal Time Step in Starter Listing File

Total Number of Cycles = 40001 Cycles with 2.19% Added Mass 28% Faster
Computation

This explains why we add mass to the models For Faster Computation Time

In Dynamic Analysis, its recommended not to add more that 2% Mass

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Chapter 5 - Time Step Control

Exercise 5.1: Time Step Demo with an Example

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 58

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Chapter 5 - Time Step Control

Exercise 5.1: Time Step Demo with an Example


Objective
To understand the influence of time step commands by using tensile test model.

v
TENSILE

Only a quarter of the specimen is needed to be meshed:

Model Description

UNITS: Length (mm), Time (ms), Mass (kg), Force (kN) and Stress (GPa)
Simulation time
o 0001 [0 10]
The model is Quarter size mesh with symmetric boundary conditions.

Boundary Conditions:
o The 3 upper right nodes (TX, TZ and RZ, RY, RZ)
o The center node on left is totally fixed (TX, TY, TZ, RZ, RY, RZ)
o A symmetry boundary condition on all bottom nodes (TY, TZ, RZ, RY, RZ)

Proof bar dimensions = 11 x 100 with a uniform thickness = 1.7 mm


Elastic-plastic Material: /MAT/LAW2 (Aluminum 6063 T7)

= 2.7e-6

E = 60.4

Kg/mm3
GPa

[Rho_I] Initial density


[E]
Youngs modulus

Poissons ratio
[a]
Yield Stress
[b]
Hardening Parameter
[n]
Hardening Exponent
Maximum Stress

= 0.33

0 = 0.09026
K = 0.22313
n = 0.374618
max = 0.175

GPa
GPa
GPa

[nu]

All other values that are not listed above are default values.

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Chapter 5 - Time Step Control

These are the main steps of this exercise:


1. Run the model without any time step control (natural time step)
2. Set a nodal time step
3. Set a constant nodal time step.

Step 1: Run the model without time step commands.


1. Launch RADIOSS using the launcher located on Programs >> Atair HyperWorks >>
RADIOSS
2. On the input file select the starter file TENSI51_0000.rad
3. Enter with the options both to run the starter and the engine at the same time.

3. Select Run.
4. After you run the model, open the file TENSI51_0001.out and look for the TIME-STEP values, write
down here the mean value you have found.
Element time step = _____________.

Step 2: Run the model with /DT/NODA.


1. Open the file TENSI51_0001.rad and add this command to it:
/DT/NODA
0.9

2. Repeat the steps 1.2 1.4.


Mean time step = _____________.

Step 3: Run the model with /DT/NODA.


1. Open the file TENSI51_0001.rad and add this command to it:
/DT/NODA/CST
0.9

0.3E-3

2. Repeat the steps 1.2 1.4.


Mean time step = _____________.
DM/M

= _____________

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Chapter 6 - Materials

Chapter 6

Materials

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Chapter 6 - Materials

Material Laws In RADIOSS


Type

Description

Model

Law (MID)

Isotropic
Elasticity

Linear elastic model

Hook

(1)

Hyper elastic

Ogden-Mooney-Rivlin

(42)

Linear elastic for orthotropic shells

Fabric

(19)

Nonlinear pseudo-plastic orthotropic


solids without strain rate effect

Honeycomb

(28)

Nonlinear pseudo-plastic orthotropic


solids with strain rate effect

Crushable foam

(50)

Hill

(32)

Hill (tabulated)

(43)

Composite Shell

(25)

Composite Shell with


Chang-Chang failure

(15)

Composite Solids

(14), (53)

Composite
and
Orthotropic
materials

Elastic-plastic orthotropic shells

Elastic-plastic orthotropic composites

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Material Laws In RADIOSS


Type

Description

von Mises hardening


without damage

Elasticplasticity of
Isotropic
Materials

von Mises hardening


with brittle damage

von Mises hardening


with ductile damage

von Mises with


viscoplastic flow
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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 62

Model

Law (MID)

Johnson-Cook

(2)

Zerilli-Armstrong

(2)

Zhao

(48)

Cowper-Symonds

(44)

Piecewise linear

(36)

Drucker-Prager for rock or concrete

(10), (21)

Aluminum, glass, etc.

(27)

Predit rivets

(54)

Reinforced concrete

(24)

Ductile damage for solids and shells

(22)

Ductile damage for solids

(23)

Ductile damage for porous materials,


Gurson

(52)

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HyperWorks 10.0

Chapter 6 - Materials

Material Laws In RADIOSS


Type

Description

Model

Law (MID)

Boltzmann

(34)

Generalized Kelvin-Voigt

(35)

Tabulated law

(38)

Generalized Maxwell-Kelvin

(40)

Visco-plastic

Closed cell, elasto-plastic


foam

(33)

Strain rate and temperature


dependence on yield stress

Johnson-Cook

(4)

Turbulent viscous flow

Hydrodynamic viscous

(6)

Elastio-plastic hydrodynamic

von Mises isotropic


hardening with polynomial
pressure

(3)

Elastio-plastic hydrodynamic with


thermal softening

Steinberg-Guinan

(49)

Void material

Fictitious

(0)

Viscous
Materials

Hydrodynamic

Visco-elastic

Void

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Failure Models In RADIOSS


Independent and can be coupled with compatible material laws
/FAIL/TYPE/MAT_ID

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Chapter 6 - Materials

Materials discussed in this class

Law 2: Elastic Plastic Isotropic (Von Mises)


Law 27: Elastic Plastic Brittle
Law 28: Honeycomb Material
Law 36: Elastic Plastic Isotropic Piecewise Linear

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Material Law 2: Elastic-Plastic

Elastic for stresses lower than the yield stress


Plastic when the stress reaches the yield stress
Available for brick, shell, beam and truss elements
Two plasticity models:
Johnson-Cook
Zerilli Armstrong

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HyperWorks 10.0

Chapter 6 - Materials

Material Law 2: Johnson-Cook

Stress-Strain relation:
&)(1 T *m )
= (a + b np )(1 + c ln &
0

Influence of temperature change


Influence of strain rate
Influence of plastic strain

= Stress level

p = Plastic strain
a = Yield stress

c = Strain rate coefficient

b = Hardening modulus

&= Strain rate


&0 = Reference strain rate

n = Hardening Exponent

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Material Law 2: Zerilli-Armstrong

Stress-Strain relation:

( )))

& + C n
= C0 + C1 exp C3T + C4T ln &
5 p
0

Influence of plastic strain


Influence of temperature change and strain rate

= Stress level

p = Plastic strain
C0 = Yield stress
n = Hardening Exponent

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& = Strain rate


&0 = Reference strain rate

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Chapter 6 - Materials

Material Law 2: Element Rupture

Element rupture if the plastic strain is larger than max


For shell elements:
Ruptured element is deleted

For solid elements:


Deviatoric stress tensor is set to zero
The element is not deleted

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Material Law 27: Elastic-Plastic Brittle


Only for shell elements
The isotropic elastic-plastic computation and modeling is the
same as for law 2
Law allows material damage and brittle failure
Glass, aluminium,

Brittle failure is modeled by the introduction of a crack


Crack throughout the element thickness for type 1 elements (regular
shell)
Crack in the layer that the material is applied for type 11 elements
(composite shell with variable layers)

2
1
Crack orientation
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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 66

Layer cracking
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HyperWorks 10.0

Chapter 6 - Materials

Material Law 27: Damage Model

Damage effected material

t1 = Tensile rupture strain in direction 1


m1 = Maximum strain in direction 1

Linear damage

dmax1 = Maximum damage in direction 1


f1 = Maximum strain for element
deletion in direction 1

Linear stress
E

E(

)
1-d

tp t m

Nominal and effective stress:


n = eff (1 d )

0<d<1

t
m t

d=

Linear damage:

Linear stress:

d : damage factor

=E

( m ) ( p )

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Material Law 28: Honeycomb


Typical honeycomb, crushable foams

s
8

Only for solid elements

7
6

Two drawbacks:

No viscous effect

Plastic behavior

2
t

Material behaves as three independent membrane spring:


Hooks law

11 E11
0
22
33 0
=

12 0
23 0

31 0

For an isotropic material


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0
E22
0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0

E33
0 G12
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

G23
0

0 11
0 22

0 33

0 12
0 23

G31 31

E11 = E22 = E33 and G12 = G23 = G31 =

E11
2

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Chapter 6 - Materials

Material Law 28: Honeycomb


Plasticity is represented by independent stress-strain curves
Material behavior is always orthotropic

The input yield stress is always positive


Volumic strain or strain dependent yield curve (users choice)
The failure plastic strain is input for each direction
If the failure strain is reached in one direction, the element is deleted
ij
User defined
yield curve ij

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1 or ij

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Mat. Law 36: Elastic-Plastic Tab.


Isotropic elastic-plastic material
User defined function for the stress-strain curve
Available for brick and shell elements
Elastic portion of material stress-strain curve defined by
Young modulus and Poissons ratio
Material plasticity curves can be given for an arbitrary
number of strain rates
Linear interpolation of strain-stress curve
For a given strain rate

For a given plastic strain

& &
1
&= &
1
& &0
p

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HyperWorks 10.0

Chapter 6 - Materials

Exercise 6.1: Hands on Tensile Test

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HyperWorks 10.0

Chapter 6 - Materials

Exercise 6.1: Tensile Test Setup using HyperMesh


Objective
To simulate a uniaxial tensile test using a quarter size mesh with symmetric boundary
conditions

Only a quarter of the specimen is needed to simulate the tensile test

Model Description

UNITS: Length (mm), Time (ms), Mass (kg), Force (kN) and Stress (GPa)
Simulation time D01 [0 10.]
The model uses Quarter size mesh with symmetric boundary conditions.
Boundary Conditions:
o The 3 upper right nodes (TX, TZ and Rx, RY, RZ)
o The center node on left is totally fixed (TX, TY, TZ, Rx, RY, RZ)
o A symmetry boundary condition on all bottom nodes (TY, TZ, Rx, RY, RZ)
At the left side is applied a constant velocity = 1 mm/ms on -X direction.
Proof bar dimensions = 11 x 100 with a uniform thickness = 1.7 mm

Johnson-Cook Elastic Plastic Material /MAT/PLAS_JOHNS (Aluminum 6063 T7)

= 2.7e-6

E = 60.4
= 0.33
0 = 0.09026
K = 0.22313
n = 0.374618
max = 0.175
max = 0.75

Kg/mm3
GPa

[Rho_I] Initial density


[E]
Youngs modulus

GPa
GPa
GPa

[nu]
Poissons ratio
[a]
Yield Stress
[b]
Hardening Parameter
[n]
Hardening Exponent
[SIG_max] Maximum Stress
[EPS_max] Failure Plastic Strain

Input file for this tutorial: tensile.nas.

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Step 1: Load the model.


1. Launch HyperMesh.
2. Go to Preferences pull-down menu, pick User Profiles.
3. Pick Nastran and click OK.
4. Go to the File pull-down menu and pick Import.
5. Navigate until you pick the file tensile.nas
6. Click Import.

Step 2: Convert Nastran deck to RADIOSS.


1. Go to Tools menu , convert functionality.
2. Select the NASTRAN to RADIOSS {Block Format} option as below

3. From the Nastran to Radioss conversion browser on the left select the Radioss template
as Block44 and hit the convert button. A conversion status window pops up showing the
completion of conversion and the Radioss block user profile is automatically loaded
4. Note: You can use the Convert panel from the TOOLS page instead. However the
convert option from the menu bar is recommended.

Step 3: Update the materials.


1. On Collector toolbar, click Materials (

).

2. Go to update sub-panel.
3. Click mats button and select Mat1_1.

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Chapter 6 - Materials

4. Click select.
5. Click type = ELASTO-PLASTIC
6. Click card image = and select M2_PLAS_JOHNS_ZERIL.
7. Click update/edit button
8. Input the values as shown in the following image.

9. Click return twice to get back to main menu.

Step 4: Update the properties.


1. On Collector toolbar, click Properties (

).

2. Go to update sub-panel.
3. Click props button and select PSHELL_1.
4. Click select.
5. Click card image = and pick P1_SHELL.
6. Click update/edit
7. Input values as shown in the following image.

8. Click return twice to get back to main menu.

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Chapter 6 - Materials

Step 5: Update bar component with material and property.


1. On Collector toolbar, click Components (

2. Go to update sub-panel.
3. Click comps button and select COMP_PSHELL_1.
4. Click card image = and pick Part.
5. Click update
6. Click return to exit the panel.
7.
Step 6: Create Boundary Conditions
1. From the utility page, start the BCs manager or pull down menu Tools BCs manager,
2. Enter name as constraint1, choose type boundary condition and set the GRNOD to Nodes

3. Click on the nodes, nodes selection appears; select the three nodes as shown in the figure below
and click proceed.

4. Fix all degrees of freedom, except Ty

5. Click create tab to create the constraint. The created constraint appears in the table also handle
appear in graphics
6. Enter name as constraint2, choose type boundary condition and set the GRNOD to Nodes
7. Select node as shown in the picture below

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Chapter 6 - Materials

8. Fix all degrees of freedom

9.Click create tab to create the constraint. The created constraint appears in the table also handle
appear in graphics
10. Enter name as constraint3, choose type boundary condition and set the GRNOD to Nodes
11. Select node as shown in the screen

12. Fix all degrees of freedom except Tx


13.Click create tab to create the constraint. The created constraint appears in the table also handle
appear in graphics

Step 7: Create Imposed Velocity


1. From the utility page, start the BCs manager,.
2. Enter name as velocity, choose type imposed velocity and set the GRNOD to Nodes
3. Select the nodes as shown in the figure below

4. Set the direction as X and Y scale as -1.0


5. Click on the Create/Select curve ID, a XY curve editor comes up
6. Create a new curve with Name Load and values as in table

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Chapter 6 - Materials

7. Close the XY curve editor, the created curve is assigned to this constraint
8. Click create to create the velocity boundary condition

Step 11: Create output requests.


1. Go to the Utility Menu and click Engine File.
2. In the RADIOSS Engine File Tool window, click the GENERAL tab and enter values as
in the following image:

3. Click Apply.
4. In the ANIM tab, enter values as in the following image, open the panel if something is
not visible:

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5. Click Apply.
6. Click Close.

Step 12: Export the model as TENSILED00.


1. On Standard toolbar at the top of the HyperMesh window, click Export (

).

2. For File:, click the folder icon and navigate to destination directory where you want to
run.
3. Enter the name TENSILED00 and click Save.
4. Click the downward-pointing arrows next to Export options to expand the panel.
5. Click Auto export engine file to export the engine file with the model file.

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Chapter 6 - Materials

6. Click Export.
7. Click Close.

Step 13: Open RADIOSS Manager from windows Start menu

Step 14: Run the model TENSILED00 using RADIOSS Manager on the
class_exercise folder with the option: both
Step 15: Review the listing files for this run and verify on the results:
1. See if there is any warning or errors on .out files
2. Using HyperView plot the displacement and strain contour.

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Chapter 6 - Materials

EXERCISE EXPECTED RESULTS

Total Displacement Contour (mm)

Plastic Strain Contour

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Chapter 6 - Materials

RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 80

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Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Chapter 7

Interfaces

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Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Interfaces in RADIOSS
Type
1&9

Description

Comments

For Radioss ALE

Fluid structure interaction

Tied interface, No sliding

Change of mesh density (solid)

3&5

Contact between 2 parts

Use of type 7 is recommended

Contact for a single part

Not recommended anymore

Contact between two rigid bodies

User defined contact

General purpose contact impact between 2


parts

Good contact at all speeds

10

Like type 7 but with a tied contact

Tied After impact with or without


rebound

11

Impact between two lines

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For beams, bars or springs


Edge-to-edge impact (7+11)
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Interfaces in RADIOSS

Type

Description

Comments

12

Connects 2 fluid meshes with free, tied or


periodic options

ALE or Euler or Lag.

14

Ellipsoidal surfaces to nodes contact

Radioss/Madymo Coupling

15

Ellipsoidal surfaces to segments contact

Radioss/Madymo Coupling

16 / 17

Meshes with 8- or 16-node thickshell or 20 bricks

18

Contact between nodes to quadratic shape


solids and solid-shells or between quadratic
shapes
CEL Lagrange / Euler interface

19

Slave and Master Surfaces

21

Rigid master surface/slave surface

Combination of Type 7 and


Type11
Fast interface for Stamping

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Fluid-structure inetractions

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HyperWorks 10.0

Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Contact Modeling & Treatment


The interfaces solve the contact between several parts of the
model
Contact modeling:

Type 7:
Node-to-surface contact
Symmetric Node-to-Surface contact
Self-contact Node-to-Surface
Generalized Node-to-Surface contact

Type 11:
Edge-to-Edge contact

Contact treatment:

Kinematic master-slave formulation

Penalty method

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Nodes-to-Surface Contact

The velocity and displacement of the slave nodes are


controlled by the master segments in order to satisfy the
kinematic contact conditions
Slave nodes

Master surface

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Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Symmetric Nodes-to-Surface
The nodes of each surface are treated as slaves
Each surface is treated as a master surface

Slave + Master

Slave + Master

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Self-contact Nodes-to-Surface
Self-contact of a single surface due to buckling ...

Slave node + Master surface


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Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Generalized Nodes-to-Surface
A node may be master and slave at the same time
Slave nodes may belong to different surfaces

Master nodes
Slave Nodes

Master surface

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Limitation of Nodes-to-surface

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Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Edge-to-Edge Contact
For contacts between beams, bars, springs or the edges of
shells

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Contact treatment in RADIOSS


Penalty method:

A spring is added between a slave node and a master segment

Each contact is treated as an element

The kinematic continuities are not directly respected

The energy conservation is verified

The stiffness of the spring is very important


>

Too stiff

Too flexible >

Numerical instabilities
Large penetration, kinematic discontinuity

Interface Spring
Mm

Vm

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RADIOSS for Impact Analysis 86

Vs

Ms

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HyperWorks 10.0

Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Interfaces discussed in this class

Type 2: Tied interface


Type 7: General contact
Type 11: Edge-to-Edge interface

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Type 2: Tied Interface


Tied interface is a kinematic condition
Applications:

To connect a fine and a coarse solid lagrangian mesh

To connect spring elements to shell surfaces for spotweld or rivet


modeling

Shell elements (master segments)

Spotwelds modeled by spring elements (slave nodes)

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Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Type 2: Tied Interface


Tied interface formulation:

Masses and forces of the slave nodes are added to the master
nodes

Accelerations and velocities of the master nodes are computed with


the added masses and added forces

Kinematic constrains are applied to all slave nodes in order to keep


them on the initial position with respect to their master segments

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Interface Type 7
For all types of impact between a set of nodes and a master
surface
A node can impact on several master segments
A node can impact on the edge of a master segment
Direct search of the closest segment

No search limitation

Only edge-to-edge contacts are not solved


Possible to put a slave node on the master surface
Impact is possible on the two sides of segments
Variable interface stiffness is used to avoid penetration larger than
gap
A time step is computed to insure the stability
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Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Type 7: Search Algorithm

Fast Sorting Method

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Type 7: Detection of Penetration

A gap is used to:


Give a physical thickness to the
surface
Allows to distinguish the
impacts on the top or the lower
part from the facet

Master gap
P

The contact is activated if:


The node penetrates inside the
gap

Slave

gap

Distance Between Node to


Surface < Gape

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Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Type 7: Constant Gap

Physical value for constant Gap:


GAP = 1/2 (thickness1+thickness2)
e1
e2

Default value for GAPmin (used if no constant gap is given)


GAPmin= min (lmin/10 , t , l/2)
lmin : the smallest side length of the master brick element
l

: the side length of the element brick

: thickness of the master shell

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Type 7: Variable Gap


Possible to use a different gap value for each interface segment
The gap is computed for each impact as:
Gap = Gapm+ Gaps

(m: master s: slave)

Gapm= shell thickness or zero for brick elements


Gaps = largest thickness of the elements connected to the slave node

or

zero for a node connected to a brick or spring elements

or

(beam cross-section)1/2 for beam elements

If the slave node is connected to multiple elements, the largest Gaps is


used

The minimum value of Gap is given by Gapmin as it is explained


previously

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Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Type 7: Penalty Force

F = KsP + C dp
dt

Ks = 0.5sEt (

g
) Where E and t are the young modulus and the
g p thickness of the master surface
S is a scale factor (1 by default)

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Type 7: Time Step


A kinematic time step is applied to prevent large penetrations
If dp/dt > 0
t 0.5

(g p )
(dp / dt )

p
g

g-p

For a crash problem:


t

1mm
= 100 s
2(5000mm / s )

The nodal time step is computed as following:


t

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2M
K

With

K = K Interface + K elements

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Type 7: Hints and Remarks

Initial penetration is not allowed for interface type 7


The node is deactivated from interface when:
node to element mid-plane distance is smaller than 10-10*Gap

For self impacting surfaces, use the following recommended


value:
Gap < (smallest segment edge) / 2

For impact between stiff and soft materials the stiffness


factor has to be adjusted
S = Eslave*Thickslave / Emaster*Thickmaster

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Type 7: Hints and Remarks

Contacts between a soft and a rigid part (foam/steel or


tire/structure)
2 interfaces

Rigid

Soft

Rigid

Soft

Master

Slave

Slave

Master

K1=Eslave / Emaster

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K2 = Eslave / Emaster = 1 / K1

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Type 7: Hints and Remarks


Deep penetrations are not tolerated
Deep penetration leads to:
high penalty forces
small time step
infinite loop message
large contact force vectors in post-processing

Deep penetrations are caused by:


Initial penetrations of adjacent plates
Edge impacts
Full local collapse
Rigid body impact on another rigid body or on fixed nodes or on very stiff part
Impact between heavy stiff structures
High impact speed
Small gap

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Type 7: Hints and Remarks


Time step reduces for high speed impacts or small gaps
To avoid time step problems:
Increase gap, but check if no initial penetration is resulted
Increase stiffness factor STFAC
Some ENGINE options can be used but attention should be paid to
the quality of results:
/DT/INTER/DEL
Some nodes will be allowed to pass through the impacted surface
/DT/INTER/CST
Nodal masses will be modified to maintain a constant time step

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Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Type 7: Hints and Remarks

Initial penetrations:
are generally due to the discretization
result in high initial contact forces
should be avoided

Remedies:
Modify node coordinates
Reduce gap
For small penetrations

Initial penetration

Deactivate node stiffness


Simple approach
Option used after geometry adjustments

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Interface Type 11

Simulates impacts between two


lines
Lines: Beams, Bars, Springs, Edge
of shell elements

Works as the interface type 7:


Penalty formulation
Same search method

In association with interface type


7, the edge-to-edge impacts can
be simulated

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Chapter 7 - Interfaces

Exercise 7.1: Hands on Boxtube

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Exercise 7.1: Box Tube on HyperMesh


Objective
To simulate buckling of a tube using half tube mesh with symmetric boundary conditions on
X axis.
The figure illustrates the structural model used for this tutorial: a half tube with a rectangular
section (38.1 X 25.4 mm), a length of 203 mm.

Model Description

UNITS: Length (mm), Time (ms), Mass (kg), Force (kN) and Stress (GPa)
Simulation time: Engine [0 10.01]
The tube thickness is 0.914 mm.
An imposed velocity of 13.3 mm/ms (~30MPH) is applied to one of the ends of the
tube
Elasto-plastic Material /MAT/PLAS_JOHNS. (STEEL)
Kg/mm3
[Rho_I] Initial density
o = 7.8e-6
o E = 210
GPa
[E]
Youngs modulus
o = 0.3
[nu]
Poissons ratio
GPa
[a]
Yield Stress
o 0 = 0.206
o K = 0.450
GPa
[b]
Hardening Parameter
o n = 0.5
[n]
Hardening Exponent
o max = 0.0
GPa
Maximum Stress
Files need to complete this exercise: Filename: boxtube.nas

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Step 1: Load the model.


1. Launch Hypermesh.
2. Go to Preferences menu, and select User Profiles.
3. Toggle Nastran and click OK.
4. From the File pull-down menu, select Import.
5. Under File selection, for File, browse the file boxtube.nas.
6. Click Import.
7. Click Close.

Step 2: Convert Nastran deck to RADIOSS.


1. From the main menu, go to the Tool page and select the convert panel.
2. From the Preferences menu, select User Profiles.
3. Toggle RADIOSS-Block51 and click OK.
4. From the main menu, go to the 2D page and select the elem types panel, 2D & 3D subpanel.
5. Select the element types as shown in the following image.

6. Select elems >> all.


7. Click update.

Step 3: Update the definition and values for Mat1_1.


1. On the toolbar, click Materials (

).

2. Go to the update sub-panel.


3. Click mats and select Mat1_1.
4. Click select.
5. Set card image = to M2_PLAS_JOHNS_ZERIL.
6. Click update/edit.

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7. Input the values as shown in the following image.

8. Click return.

Step 4: Update definition and values for property PSHELL_1.


1. On the toolbar, click Properties (

).

2. Toggle to the update sub-panel.


3. Click props and select PSHELL_1.
4. Click select.
5.

Set card image = to P1_SHELL.

6. Click update/edit .
7. Input the values as shown in the following image.

8. Click return.

Step 5: Update a component with a material and property.


1. On the toolbar, click Components (

) and go to the update sub-panel.

2. Click comps and select COMP_PSHELL_1.

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3. Click select.
4. Set card image = to Part.
5. Set material = to MAT1_1.
6. Set property = to PSHELL_1.
7. Click update.

Step 6: Create a rigid body.


1. On the toolbar, click Components (

) and go to the create sub-panel.

2. For name= enter Rigids.


3. Switch card image = to no card image.
4. Click create.
5. Click return to go back to the main menu.
6. From the main menu, go to the 1D page and in the elem types panel, ensure that rigid
configuration is set to RBODY type.
7. Click return to go back to the 1D page.
8. Click the rigids panel.
9. For nodes 2-n:, click the switch button and select multiple nodes.
10. For primary node click the switch button and select calculate node.
11. In the graphic area, select nodes as in the following image

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12. Click create.


13. Click return to exit the panel.

Step 7: Create entity sets for a boundary condition.


1. From the main menu, go to the Analysis page and select the entity sets panel.
2. For name =, enter Boundary.
3. Set card image = to GRNOD.

4. Select the node as shown in the following image.

5. Click create.
6. As described in step 7.1 7.4, create an entity set with name Symmetry and card image
GRNOD and select the nodes as shown in the following figure.

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7. Click create.

Step 8: Create boundary conditions.


1. Click Load Collectors (

).

2. For loadcol name =, enter RBody.


3. Set card image = to BCS_Collector.
4. Click create/edit.

5. Click Grnod_id and select the entity set Boundary.


6. Fix Translation_Vx, Translation_Vy, Rotation_Wx, Rotation_Wy, and Rotation_Wz
by toggling the check boxes next to each BC as shown in the following image.

7. Click return.
8. In the loadcol = field, enter Symmetry.
9. Set card image = to BCS_Collector.
10. Click create/edit.
11. Click Grnod_id and select the entity set Symmetry.
12. Fix Translation_Vx, Rotation_Wy, and Rotation_Wz by toggling the check
boxes next to each BC as shown in the following figure.

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13. Click return twice to exit the panel.

Step 9: Create imposed velocity.


Define load function:
1. From the main menu, go to the Post page and select XY plots and click the plots
panel.
2. For plot =, enter load as shown in the following image.

3. Click create plot.


4. Click return.
5. Go to the edit curves panel.
6. Toggle math.
7. Enter the values as shown in the following image.

8. Click create.
A curve is now created and displayed in the graphic area. This curve is used to give
imposed velocity to the master node of the rigid body.
9.

Click return.

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10. Click exit to return to the main menu.


11. Go to the Analysis page and select the entity sets panel.
12. For name =, enter velocity.
13. Set card image = to GRNOD
14. Select the master node of the rigid body as shown in the following image.

15. Click create.


16. Click Load Collectors (

).

17. For loadcol name =, enter Velocity.


18. Set card image = to IMPVEL _Collector (use

to scroll to the selection).

19. Click create/edit.


20. Click Grnod_id and select the entity set Velocity.
21. Set DIR to Z.
22. Set Scale_y to -1.
23. Click lfunct and select Curve1, the curve you created for imposed velocity.
24. All fields should be as shown in the following image.

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25. Click return twice to exit the panel.

Step 10: Create a rigid wall.


1. From the main menu, go to the Geom page and click nodes, or else press the F8 key.
You will create a base node for the rigid wall. A small gap is recommended between the
mesh and the rigid wall.
2. Enter the coordinates as shown in the following image.

3. Click create node.


4. Click return.
5. From the main menu, go to the Analysis page and click on rigid walls panel, go to
create sub-panel.
6. For name =, enter Rigid_Wall.
7. Set size = to 10.
8. Set type = to RWALL.
9. Set card image = to RWALL.
10. Click create.
11. Go to the geom sub-panel.
12. Click on base node and select the node created on step 10.2.
13. Set shape: to infinite plane,
14. For normal vector, switch to components.
15. For Z comp =, enter 1.
16. Click update.

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17. Go to add sub-panel.


18. For slaves:, switch to nodes.
19. Click nodes >> by window and select the nodes shown in the following image.

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20. Click select entities.


21. Click add.
22. Go to the card sub-panel.
23. Click edit to edit the card.
24. Select [fric] and enter 0.200.

25. Click return twice to exit the panel.

Step 11: Create a self contact.


1. From the main menu, go to the Analysis page and select the interfaces panel.

2. For name =, enter Contact.


3. Set type = to TYPE 7.
4. Set card image = to TYPE 7.
5. Click create.
6. Go to the add sub-panel.
7. For master:, switch to comps in the drop down menu.
8. Click the comps entity selector and select the component COMP_PSHELL_1.
9. Click select.
10. Click update.
11. For slave:, switch to comps.
12. Click comps and select the component COMP_PSHELL_1.
13. Click select.
14. Click update.
15. Click review to review the interface.

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16. Go to the card image sub-panel.


17. Click edit.
18. Enter the following:
STFAC = 1
FRIC = 0.200
GAPmin = 0.900

19. Click return twice to exit the panel.

Step 12: Create an Engine file (0001.rad).


1. In the Utility browser, click RADIOSS Tools and then click Engine File.
2. In the Radioss Engine File Tool, in the GENERAL tab, enter values as shown in the
following image.

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3. Click the ANIM tab and enter values as shown in the following image.

4. Click Apply.
5. Click Close.

Step 13: Export the model, write Starter (_0000.rad) and Engine files
(_0001.rad).
1. On the Standard toolbar at the top of the window, click Export (

).

2. Check options as shown in the following image.

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3. Under File type:, click the file folder icon and navigate to the destination directory.
4. Enter the filename as TUBE and click Save.
Click Export.
5. Click Close.

Step 14: Open RADIOSS Manager from windows Start menu

Step 15: Run the model TUBE_0000.rad using RADIOSS Manager on the
class_exercise folder with the option: both
Step 16: Review the listing files for this run and verify on the results:
1. See if there is any warning or errors on .out files
2. Using HyperView plot the displacement and strain contour and vectors

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EXERCISE EXPECTED RESULTS

Total Displacement Contour (mm)

Von Mises Stress Contour

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