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Sophomored 0910 Chem

•Mole Concept
•a counting unit used in chemistry to measure the ammount of substance
•abbreviated as “mol”
•Founded on Avogadro's Number
•6.02 X 10^(23)
•founder: Italian physicist Amedeo Avogadro
•is equivalent to the number of atoms in a carbon-12 atom
•Different masses are used
•Formula Mass:
•a measurement of an object's mass relative to that of a carbon-12
•measured in “amu”
•used for ionic compunds.
1Ionic compounds are METAL - NONMETAL
•Molecular Mass
•a measurement of an object's mass relative to that of a carbon- 12
•measured in “amu”
•used for covalent compounds
1Covalent compounds are NONMETAL – NONMETAL
•Molar Mass
•mass in grams numerically equal to formula or molecular mass.
•Measured in grams per mol, “g/mol”
•SOLVING FOR ATOMIC MASS (Given just the compund)
•Al2 (SO4)3

ElementNumber of moleculesAtomic MassNoM X Atomic MassAluminum (Al)226.9853.96Sulfer
(S)332.0796.21Oxygen (O)12*16192
Total: 342.17 amu

*:it's twelve because 4 times 3 is 12, 4 being the subscript of O and 4 being the subscript of the
sulfur AND oxygen


ElementNumber of moleculesAtomic MassNoM X Atomic MassSulfer (S)132.0732.07Fluorine
(F)619114 Total: 146.07 amu


•Note: Use this naming system
• 1 element = atoms (8 atoms of oxygen)
compounds = particles (8 particles of Freon)
molecular mass = molecules (8 molecules of H2O)
formula mass = formula units A.K.A “fu” (8 fu CaCl)

•Conversion Chart

----- ( P/AN)---> ---- (mol X amu) ---->
Particle Mole Grams
<----(P X AN)--- <---(grams/amu)------

AN = Avogadro's number (6.02 X 10^(23))

• P = Particles

•Triple Conversion
•You will either be doing a particle to gram or gram to particl conversion
•Just follow the steps in the chart above

IIPercent Composition
•a relative measure of the mass of each different element in the compound
•in other words..... the percentage of an element in a compound
•(NH4)2 SO4

ElementNumber of moleculesAtomic MassNoM X Atomic Mass(<---That)/Total AMU(<----That) X

100Nitrogen (N)214.0128.020.21221.20%Hydrogen (H)81.0088.0640.0616.10%Sulfur
(S)132.0732.070.242724.27%Oxygen (O)416640.48.4348.43%
Total: 132.154 amu This is your answer ^

•It is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms present in a compund
•percentage composition is needed here
•experiment data can be used here (seen in experiment 1 or 2, I can't remember)
10.545g of aluminum burns in oxygen to make 1.030 grams of Aluminum Oxide. Find the EF of the
ElementMass(<---- That) converted to Mole(<---- That) Divided by the least measurement (in this
case, 0.0202)(<---- That) multiplied by XAluminum(Al)0.545g0.020212Oxygen (O)0.485g (Total -
given)0.03031.53 Total = 1.030g This
is your answer ^

Final Empirical Equation: Al2O3, or Aluminum Oxide

X = any number that would make all the given numbers equal. Refer to this chart:

0.5 X 2 = 1
0.33.... X 3 = 1
0.66.... X 3 = 2
Anything really close any whole number (e.g. 1.9) is rounded off

1Empirical Mass
2Basically, it's a measurement of mass based on the empirical formula. It's the “estimated” mass
3An example based on the problem above...
1ElementEmpirical MassMultiply (<---- That) by it's Molecular MassAluminum(Al)22 x 26.98 =
53.96gOxygen (O)33 x 16 = 48g This is your answer

3The last part of this Empricial ****
4This example is the latter part of an EF problem
5The given molar mass: 120g
III.ElementEmpirical FormulaEmprical MassCarbon214.02Hydrogen33.024Nitrogen114.01Oxygen
=580 Total = 111.054

IV.The Formula is: Molar Mass / Empirical Mass

V.=> 120/111.054 (aprox =) 1
ElementEmpirical FormulaMultiplied by the (Molar Mass/Empirical Mass)Had the given molar mass
been 240...Carbon224Hydrogen336Nitrogen112Oxygen =5510

Final Molecular Formula (given 120g Molar Mass): C2 H3 N O5

Final Molecular Formula (given 240g Molar Mass): C4 H6 N2 O10
IV. Qualitative Relationship
•Basically finding the mass/mole of an unknown part of your equation
•There are 3 types of relationship
•Reactant to Reactant
•Reactant to Product
•Product to Reactant
•Mole Ratio: The ratio of the given part of the relationship it's appropriate partner based on it's type.
•Example: 2 (H2) + O ? 3 (H20); ? JUST AN EXAMPLE
•the ratio of H to H2O is: 2 (H2)/ 3 (H2O)
•the ratio of O to H2O is: 1 (O)/ 3 (H2O)
•the ratio of O to H2 is: 1 (O)/ 2 (H2)
•the study of qualitative relationships.
•There are 4 formulas used, depending on the measurements given
•Mole to Mole
•(Given Mole) X (Mole Ratio)

•Mole to Mass
•(Given Mole) X (Mole Ratio) X (Molar Mass)

•Mass to Mole
•(Given Mass) / (Molar Mass) X (Mole Ratio)

•Mass to Mass
•(Given Mass) / (Molar Mass) X (Mole Ratio) X (Molar Mass)
Note: The blue parts are simply conversion to mole and the red are conversion to mass

•Best explained through an example:
NH3 + O2 ? N2H2O
How many moles of NH3 are needed to react with 8 moles of water?

Step 1: Balance the equation

−if you don' know how to do this, give up
=> 4 (NH3) + 3 (O2) ? 2(N2) + 6(H2O)
Step 2: Identify
−just so you know what formula will be used
=> Unknown: NH3 mol
=>Type: Mole to Mole (your unknown is moles, and you given is moles, 8 to be exact)
Step 3: Solve
−this is where the fun starts
=> 8 mol (H2O) X 4 (NH3) = 5 Moles NH3 ? This is your answer
1 6 (H2O)
3Limiting/Excess reactancts
•Limiting: determines the extent of the reaction. It is the reactant that is used up first
•Excess: other reactants present in quantities greater than needed
•you have 4 wheels and 1 bike frame
•the wheels are excess, because they are left over after the”reaction” has completed
•the frame is the limiter, because it determines how much product is produced
•Scarier example
•4 (NH3) + 5 (O2) ? 4 (NO) + 6 (H2O)
•Assume that 4.50g of NH3 reacts with 7.50g Oxygen
•What is the limiter?
•Step 1: Solve for the product
•here, you will solve for the product two times, 1 for each of the reactants. Stoich will be used
14.50g NH3 ---(convert to mole)--> X 6 H2O --(mass)--> =
2 4 NH3
37.124g H2O

1(same process as above, just replace 4.50g NH3 with 7.50g O2) = 5.07g H2O
• Note that the product of NH3 is greater than O2. That makes it excess, and that being the case, O2 is
the limiter
•When asked for the amount of product used, always use the limiting reactant's assumed product. In
the previous example, we will be using 5.07g H2O as the estimated product
•When asked for how much of the excess reactant was used....
•Perform another stoich equation, but with the excess reactant instead of the product
•7.50g O2 –(mole)--> X 4 NH3 ---(mass)---> = 3.19g <--- Answer
• 5 O2
•When asked for the amount of unused excess reactant....
•Just subtract your used excess from your given excess
•4.50 – 3.19 = 1.31g NH3 excess

III. Yield
•Your amount of product
•Affected by different factors
•The Container
•Medium of reaction (heating it using a blow torch/open fire)
•Physical State