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Part ONE

Use of HDC to Identify Problematic Ground


in Tunnel Projects

AGS(HK) Technical Seminar


14 August 2012

By Janice Tam

Introduction of New Ground Investigation Guideline


Horizontal Directional Coring (HDC)

1. Introduction
2. Considerations for HDC Planning

By

3. HDC for Geological Model Assessment

Bruce Cunningham
& Janice Tam

AGS (HK) Ground Investigation Guideline (2012)


G4.9 Horizontal Directional Coring
http://www.ags-hk.org/
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Part ONE

1. Introduction

What is Horizontal Directional Coring?


Ground Investigation Technique developed in Norway, in late 80s.
Steerable coring along the planned trajectory.
Provide continuous core sample.

Part ONE

Used in petroleum & mineral explorations and tunnel project.

2. Considerations for HDC Planning

Side-tracking Coring

Steerable Coring along Tunnel Alignment

Why uses HDC in Tunnel Projects?

When & Where should HDC be used?


Confirmed tunnel alignment.

Minimize the risk of unforeseen tunneling


conditions.

Preliminary Geological Model.

Extent of problematic rock.

Target the Identified key areas of Geotechnical Hazards / Problematic Ground.

Natural groundwater inflow measurement.

Vert.
BH

Continuous core near the tunnel level gives


a lot more information for design and for the
tenderers to price than can be obtained from
vertical boreholes at regular spacing.
HDC launching point can be positioned on
land for core sampling seawards and under
water.

Improve Ground Model


For Reliable Assessment

Vert.
BH

Proposed
Tunnel

Reduce Geological &


Construction Risks

Specification of HDC Technique

Proposed HDC Trajectory

Max. bending angle:

Designer should provide the proposed trajectory to the coring specialists


e.g. control points of coordinates & level.

DV

9 deg/30 m (R=180 m).

Tolerance Envelope

Max. core-run:

NQ

Smooth launching & curvature to get optimum coring length.

3 m in deviated section.
3 or 6 m in straight section.
Core diameter:
DV size (31.5 mm) in deviated
section.
NQ size (47 mm) in straight
section.
Hole diameter:
Typically in N-size (76 mm).
Primary steerable coring system was designed
for directional coring in competent rock.

As-built alignment of HDC


Proposed trajectory of HDC
Tolerance envelope
Steerable Barrel

As-built corehole trajectory for recent completed Hong Kong tunnel project

11

Typical Working Areas

Proposed HDC Trajectory

HDC for ~1200 m


Works Area 25 m long & 20 m wide

10

Proposed trajectory of HDC


Control Point
Tolerance envelope
DV coring & steering with curvature
NQ coring in straight section

HDC for ~600 m


Works Area 15 m long & 10 m wide

DV & NQ Coring within the Designed Envelope

12

Coring Duration

What is Geological Model?


Examination of regional & local geological conditions

Coring length

Characterizes the site focusing on

Tolerance envelope

Geological feature

Field test quantity

Geomorphological feature
Hydrogeological feature
Characteristics relevant to the engineering project

Approx. Coring
Length

Tolerance Envelope
(Dist. from trajectory)

Approx. Coring
Duration (Months)

Remarks

300 m

2m

Field tests

600 m

5m

Field tests

1200 m

5m

10

Field tests

1200 m

8m

No field test

To anticipate variations in material properties and boundaries in 3D.

Coring duration of HDC referring to the recent completed Hong Kong projects

13

15

Identify Problematic Ground for HATS 2A Design

HD04

Part ONE

HD01

3. HDC for Geological Model Assessment

HD02
HD05

HD03a
HD03

16

HDC passing through inferred Fault Zone

HDC passing through Tai Tam Fault


Altered & highly
chloritized, medium
to coarse grained
GRANITE

Shear Zones

Causeway Bay
Typhoon Shelter

Granite with Basalt


Dykes & Microfractured
within the Tai Tam Fault
Zone

Causeway Bay
Typhoon Shelter

HD03a

Basalt Dyke up to
120 m long

HD03

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19

What we found in Tai Tam Fault?

GI Data for Geological Model Assessment


Altered & highly
chloritized, medium to
coarse grained GRANITE

NR

NR

NR

NR

Fault
Breccia

Sheared Granite

Vertical & Inclined BH


Rockhead Level
Continuous core sample of HDC
Geology along tunnel alignment
Lugeon Tests
Rock Permeability
Water Inflow Tests
Water Ingress Prediction
Lab Tests Rock Mass Quality around tunnel level

Tai Tam Fault Zone

With Consistent high


Lugeon Test Value

HD03a

Rockhead
Fault
Breccia

Tunnel

Grade III-II, locally


sheared Basalt Dyke
Strong, dark grey, striped
white, slightly
decomposed BASALT..
18

Grade II Basalt Dyke, 120 m


apparent width with sheared III-IV
20

Grade III-II, highly


altered & chloritized
Granite, with local
shear zones, quartz
vein and microfractures

Grade III-II, locally


NR, locally highly
fractured, altered
Granite

Potential Hydrothermal Alteration Zone along TKO-LTT

Information from HDC

Altered rock in the TKO Line.


Across MTRC Black Hills tunnels at about 200 m deep.
Encountered unexpectedly, caused collapse & programme delay of the TKO Line.
GI indicated a RH depression in the area of veins on geological map.
TKO Line

Tuff
HDC

Hydrothermally
Altered Rocks

Greisenised Granite
& Pegmatite
Greisenised
Granite

Granite

Tuff

Black Hills Tunnel Incident

Granite
Tuff

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23

Information from Vertical Borehole

Summary

Tuff & Granite Contact


at +69mPD

BH offset 70m
Tuff & Granite Contact
at +3mPD

Tuff & Granite Contact


at +18mPD

Engineering Parameters used for the


Assessment
Rock Types & decomposition grades
Identification of Problematic Ground
Rockhead Level
Rock mass classification (Q-value)
Rock permeability (Lugeon Value)
Lab test results

More Detailed Ground Model such


as adopting the HDC Technique
with Field tests in HDC

HDC

Granite

Greisenised Granite

More Reliable Assessment &


Reduced Construction &
Geological Risks

Tuff

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HDC
Tuff & Granite Contact
at about 555m depth
(+33mPD)

Key of Geological Model Assessment


Estimation of Rock mass quality
Determination of rock permeability
Prediction of groundwater ingress

Estimation of Tunnel Construction Performance


Rates of production
Temporary support requirements
Measures to reduce inflow of groundwater

Route 8 Eagles Nest Tunnel


Road Tunnel at Construction Stage

Part Two
Project References and HDC Technique

HDD/NP/1, March 04 to Sept. 04

By Bruce Cunningham

HDD/SP/1, Dec. 04 to Jan. 04


Tolerance envelope of 8 m radius

1. Project References
2. HDC Technique
HDD/SP/1
(550 m)

3. Typical Field Tests in HDC


4. Tunnelling Though Fault Zone

25

HDD/NP/1
(1152 m)

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Route 8 Eagles Nest Tunnel


HDC Setup at North Portal

Northbound
Tunnel

Part TWO

1. Project References

Working area
of HDC

Southbound
Tunnel

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Route 8 Eagles Nest Tunnel

Po Shan Road Drainage Tunnel

Site Formation at South Portal

Drainage Tunnel Design & Construction


2 nos. of HDC
Nov. 05 to Jan. 06
Tolerance envelope of 2 m radius

HDC along Tunnels

Setting up HDC at the rear of


South Portal
Tunnel
Alignment

PS-HDC/01
252 m

PS-HDC/02
310 m

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Route 8 Eagles Nest Tunnel

Po Shan Road Drainage Tunnel


Site Setup of HDC

HDC at South Portal

HDD/SP/1

Working Platform for PSPS-HDC01 (252 m)

Coring rig for PSPS-HDC02 (310 m)

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Harbour Area Treatment Scheme Stage 2A


Ap Lei Chau

HD03
(655m)

North Point

HD03a
(795m)

Harbour Area Treatment Scheme Stage 2A


HATS 2A Site Setup of HDC

Aberdeen

Wa Fu

Wan Chai East

HD02
(610m)

Cyberport

Sandy Bay
Central

HD01
(1250m)

HD04
(1085m)

HD05
(700m)

Sai Ying Pun

HDC01 at Sai Ying Pun(1250 m)

HDC02 at Central (610 m)

HDC03 at Wai Chai East (655 m)

HDC03a at Cargo Area (795 m)

HDC04 at Stonecutters Island (1085 m)

HDC05 at Kennedy Town (700 m)

Trajectory of HDC
HATS 2A the Pioneer Project in Hong Kong for:
First sub-sea level application with HDC.
Deepest core (reaching target zone at -160mPD) with
HDC.
Longest continuous samples below Victoria Harbour
(i.e. over 1000m from HD01 & 04).
In-situ Groundwater Inflow Measurement in subhorizontal hole under sub-sea condition.

Stonecutters Island

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35

Harbour Area Treatment Scheme Stage 2A

Harbour Area Treatment Scheme Stage 2A


Details of HDC in HATS 2A

HDC

Duration

Length

Level of
Horizontal
section

Nos. of
Inflow
Test

Nos. of
Packer
Test

Nos. of
IP Test

HD01

10 months

1250 m

~140 mPD

10

13

20

HD02

5 months

610 m

~145 mPD

HD03

6 months

655 m

~145 mPD

12

12

HD03a

5 months

795 m

~150 mPD

10

HD04

8 months

1085 m

~135 mPD

24

HD05

5 months

700 m

~135 mPD

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36

Harbour Area Treatment Scheme Stage 2A

Harbour Area Treatment Scheme Stage 2A

37

39

Harbour Area Treatment Scheme Stage 2A

Liantang / Heung Yuen Wai Boundary Control Point

Sheung Shui

Fanling
BCP

NE NT

38

40

Liantang / Heung Yuen Wai Boundary Control Point


Tai Mo Shan
Formation

HDC1:
1,200m

Tseung Kwan O Lam Tin Tunnel

Geology
HDC
Layout

HDC:
946 m

Shing Mun Formation

HDC2:
950m

HDC3:
1,000m
HDC6:
470m

Drilling of HDC5 & 6 completed.


Others in progress.
HDC5 completed in 2 months.
HDC6 completed in 2.5 months.
Tolerance Envelope of 8 m radius.

HDC5:
400m

HDC4:
530m

Drilling of HDC completed in June 12.


Testing in progress.
Duration: Approx. 6 months.
Tolerance Envelope: 5 m radius.

41

43

Liantang / Heung Yuen Wai Boundary Control Point

Tseung Kwan O Lam Tin Tunnel

42

HDC3 Proposed length 1000 m

HDC of 945 m

Tolerance envelope of 8 m radius

Tolerance envelope of 5m radius

44

Coring Procedure of HDC

Procedure of HDC
Planning
Trajectory along the tunnel horizontal alignment
Targeting to pass through the expected fault zones
Coring
Steerable within planned trajectory.

Part TWO

2. HDC Technique
Steerable Coring Barrel

Surveying
Regular surveys to ensure the HDC remained within the planned
Borehole surveying tool
trajectory envelope.

47

HDC Specialist

Coring Procedure of HDC


Coring

Set
toolface orientation
and Core
with
Steerable
Coring
Tool.

Survey
during
Coring
Connect the
innertube
and
surveytool.
Read
orientation
and
inclination.

Corhole
Survey

Survey
through out
the bit for
azimuth
reading.

Extension
Rod
Peewee
Tool

46
48

HDC Steerable Barrel

Borehole Surveying Tool

The 3 main components of a steerable barrel


Locking Piston to provide a locked position for the barrel.
Packer Assembly to maintain the toolface position during the streering
process.
Adjustable Eccentric Housing to adjust the bending angle.
Dogleg /

Corehole Surveying Tool PeeWee EMS

Corehole Survey

A miniature electronic multishot that is used


for surveying of borehole profile.
Length of 0.975 m.
Diameter of 30 mm.
To provide orientation of a borehole.

Survey
through out
the bit for
azimuth
reading.

Bending Angle
Extension
Rod

Toolface /
Rolling Angle

Peewee
Tool

49

51

2. HDC Steerable Barrel

HDC Working Procedure


LOCKING PIN

ADJUSTABLE
ECCENTRIC
HOUSING

HDC Working Procedure in HATS 2A

CORING RIG

GROUND

HARD ROCK

160m

1. INSERT CASING INTO ROCK HEAD


2. STEER HDC DOWN AND LEVEL OUT TO TUNNEL HORIZON
3. DRILL OUT HORIZONTAL CORING IN 50m STAGES WITH SPECIALIST
STEERING AND WITH PUMP DOWN PACKER WATER INFLOW
TESTING
4. COMPLETE HORIZONTAL CORING THROUGH EXPECTED
GEOLOGICAL FEATURE AND TO INVESTIGATE ALONG TUNNEL
ALIGNMENT
5. COMPLETE WATER ABSORPTION TESTING WITH DOUBLE PACKER
ALONG SELECTED LENGTHS OF HDC BORE
6. GROUT AND BACKFILL HDC BORE

PACKER
CORING BIT

PROPOSED SEWAGE
CONVEYANCE TUNNEL

SECTION A-A
50

52

HDC Working Procedure

HDC Working Procedure

HDC Working Procedure in HATS 2A

HDC Working Procedure in HATS 2A


CORING RIG

GROUND

CORING RIG

GROUND

HARD ROCK

HARD ROCK

PROPOSED SEWAGE
CONVEYANCE TUNNEL

PROPOSED SEWAGE
CONVEYANCE TUNNEL

53

55

HDC Working Procedure

HDC Working Procedure

HDC Working Procedure in HATS 2A

HDC Working Procedure in HATS 2A


CORING RIG

GROUND

HARD ROCK

CORING RIG

GROUND

HARD ROCK

1200m1100m 1000m 900m 800m 700m 600m 500m 400m

PROPOSED SEWAGE
CONVEYANCE TUNNEL

PROPOSED SEWAGE
CONVEYANCE TUNNEL

54

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300m 200m

Operation Principle

Operation Principle

Steerable Core Barrel

Soft Ground

Bending Angle

Hard Rock
Soft Ground

ADJUSTABLE ECCENTRIC HOUSING

Hard Rock

ANTI ROTATION
SHOE

CORING BIT

LOCKING PIN

2. Adjustable Eccentric Housing to adjust the bending angle.

57

59

Operation Principle

Operation Principle

Non-Rotating Outer Barrel

Rotating Inner Barrel


ECCENTRIC
BEARING

Soft Ground

Soft Ground

Hard Rock

Hard Rock

Fixed

CORE BARREL &


INNER DRIVE SHAFT
Circulation
Pressured Fluid

1. Non-rotating, stationary outer barrel, by packer inflation, controls the directional setting.
It is for maintaining the toolface angle, i.e. the coring orientation.
58

3. Rotating inner barrel comprises an outer casing and an inner tube for core collection.
60

Operation Principle

Progress Diagram for HD/01 at Sai Ying Pun

Corehole Survey

Soft Ground

Hard Rock

SURVEY TOOL
4. Borehole profile is surveyed using PeeWee EMS,
which is a survey tool of miniature electronic multishot.
61
63

Working Principles

Define the trajectory and


tolerance

Straight section Conventional Wireline


Coring

Curve section - Steerable


Coring System

Navigation by toolface &


dogleg angle

Borehole surveying (i.e.


to get the azimuth and
inclination)

Steering System:

Non-rotating outer barrel: Slides in a set toolface while coring


Rotating inner corebarrel: Drive the bit
Non-rotating innertube: Collect the core
62

Part TWO

3. Typical Field Tests in HDC

Water Absorption (Lugeon)Test in HDC

Water Inflow Test by PDPS

Double Packers for Injection Test

HATS Stage 2A

Pump Down Packer System (PDPS)

Conventional injection method to determine equivalent rock mass


permeability over relatively short lengths in a horizontal direction.

HATS Stage 2A

Sectional inflows in HDC, along the proposed tunnel alignment.


Water quantity seeping naturally from the formation as a result
of pressure difference (i.e. predicting inflow during excavation)
A more realistic hydrogeological model than using the
conventional water absorption test.
To determine an effective grouting approach.

Testing Section: 3 m
Perforated Pipe: 15 mm diameter
Packer: 76 mm diameter

Setup of PDPS in HDC

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Water Absorption (Lugeon)Test in HDC

Water Inflow Test by PDPS

Double Packers for Injection Test

Conventional injection method to determine equivalent rock mass


permeability over relatively short lengths in a horizontal direction.
Testing Section : 2 m long
Perforated Pipe:
20 mm diameter

HATS Stage 2A

Po Shan Road Drainage Tunnel

Testing Procedure

Testing Section : 2 m long


Perforated Pipe:
20 mm diameter

P
S

Typical Length of Testing Section: 100 m


Ranging from 50 m to 120 m.

Proposed
Tunnel
Conventional Coring Method
66

Wireline Coring Method


68

Water Inflow Test by PDPS

Water Inflow Test by PDPS

Operation Principle
PDPS

FLOW METER

PUMP
ROCK HEAD

ROCK HEAD

Retrieve the core barrel string and NQ barrel


FAULT ZONE

Pump down the PDPS along the core barrel


strings

FAULT ZONE
PDPS
PACKER

NQ
CASING
NQ PACKER

FORMATION PACKER

Insert the pump to withdraw water from the test


section in a steady rate
INNER PACKER

OUTER PACKER

Change in flow and pressure at the test section are


recorded

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Water Inflow Test by PDPS

Water Inflow Test by PDPS

PUMP OUT WATER

Operation Principle
ROCK HEAD

Apply hydraulic pressure in stepwise to break the


inflation shear pin and inflate the packers

FAULT ZONE

ROCK HEAD
PDPS
FAULT ZONE

Further apply pressure to open the passage for test

PDPS

MECHANICAL PULL-OUT FORCE

INFLATION SHEAR PIN

PASSAGE SHEAR PIN


CASING
NQ PACKER

INNER
NQ PACKER

OUTER PACKER

Slightly pull out the core string barrel to break the


deflation shear pin
PRESSURED FUILD

70

Packers deflate and the PDPS is retrieved with


overshot
72

FORMATION PACKER

Water Inflow Test in Horizontal Hole

Impression Packer Test


Po Shan Road Drainage Tunnel

To obtain Discontinuity Data

Overshot
Head

Use of:

Stopwatch

Measurement
Jar / Container

Inner
Packer

Inflation
Shear Pin

Impression
Packer

Deflation
Shear Pin

Landing
Shoulder

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Water Inflow Test in Horizontal Hole

Impression Packer Test

Survey Tool

Po Shan Road Drainage Tunnel

Testing Procedure

Testing Procedure
Retrieve the core barrel strings and NQ core barrel
Pump down the impression packer tool

Test
Section

Rock
Joint

NQ Barrel

Proposed Tunnel
Inner
Packer

Typical Length of Testing Section: 20 m


Ranging from 10 m to 25 m.

Landing
Shoulder
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76

Impression
Packer

Impression Packer

Impression Packer Test


HATS Stage 2A

Joints printed & marked on Packer

Part TWO

4. Tunnelling Though Fault Zone

2 m long impression packer .


FlexitMultismart at the front to
obtain the orientation.
Keep the inflation pressure at
about 50 60 bar for 20 minutes.
Increasing to about 80 90 bar
that opens the last valve, inflation.
After packer expansion, fractures
will be printed on the soft material
surface,
Mark the fractures on the packer.
Copy to the wrapped plastic foil.

Joints copied to plastic foil

Survey Tool

77

Collapsed in Tunnel

Impression Packer Test


Po Shan Road Drainage Tunnel
Reflex EzShot Instrument
Joints printed on Parafilm

Test ingSection: 1 m.
Zero toolface on
Parafilm.
Zero toolface of the
Reflex EzShot
calibrated with the
Parafilm.
Packer & Reflex in the
hole.
Adjust Goniometer
according to Reflexs
measurement.
Mark the zero Toolface
onto the rock core,
Place rock core on
Goniometer and
oriented.
Measure the oriented
joints by compass.

Packer Device with


Parafilm

Rock Core on Goniometer

Leadmine Pass Fault Gouge Collapsed into the Tunnel

78
80

Tunnelling Though Fault Zone

Leadmine Pass Fault

SEA BED

TBM

LEADMINE PASS
FAULT
ROCK

ROCK
By-pass to TBM to enable rail mounted drills and grouting operation to Leadmine Pass Fault

81

83

Tunnelling Though Fault Zone

Leadmine Pass Fault

SEA BED

TBM STALLED BY
FAULT GOUGE

TBM

LEADMINE PASS
FAULT
ROCK

ROCK
View through heading at end of Leadmine Pass fault

82

84

Tunnelling Though Fault Zone


SEA BED

Thank You
TBM STARTER
CHAMBER EXCAVATED
BY DRILL AND BLAST

LEADMINE PASS
FAULT
ROCK

ROCK

85

Tunnelling Though Fault Zone


SEA BED

TBM REINSTATED

LEADMINE PASS
FAULT
ROCK

86

ROCK