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# Essential University Physics, 3e (Wolfson)

## Chapter 15 Fluid Motion

15.1 Conceptual Questions
1) Fluid fills the container shown in the figure. At which of the indicated points is the pressure
greatest?

A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) The pressure is the same at each of the labeled points.
Var: 1

2) At a certain depth in the ocean, the absolute pressure is p. If you go to twice that depth
(treating the water as incompressible)
A) the absolute pressure will be 2p.
B) the absolute pressure will be less than 2p.
C) the absolute pressure will be greater than 2p.
D) the gauge pressure will not change.
E) the gauge pressure will increase but will not double.
Var: 1

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3) If you double the pressure on the surface of a can of water, the buoyant force on a stone placed
in that water will
A) increase, but not double.
B) double.
C) decrease, but not by one-half.
D) not change.
Var: 1

4) A cup of water containing an ice cube at 0C is filled to the brim. The tip of the ice cube sticks
out of the surface. As the ice melts, you observe that
A) the cup overflows.
B) the cup might overflow but it depends on the actual mass of the ice cube.
C) the water level remains the same.
D) the water level actually goes down.
E) There is not enough information to answer this question.
Var: 1

5) Salt water is more dense than fresh water. A ship floats in both fresh water and salt water.
Compared to the fresh water, the volume of salt water displaced by the ship is
A) greater than the volume of fresh water.
B) less than the volume of fresh water.
C) the same as the volume of fresh water.
Var: 1

6) A 50-cm3 block of wood is floating partially submerged in water, and a 50-cm3 block of iron
is totally submerged in water. Which block has the greater buoyant force on it?
A) the wood
B) the iron
C) Both have the same buoyant force.
D) The answer cannot be determined without knowing the densities of the blocks.
Var: 1

7) A rock is under water in a shallow lake. As the rock sinks deeper and deeper into water, the
buoyant force on it
A) increases.
B) decreases.
C) remains constant.
Var: 1

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8) A piece of wood is floating in a bathtub. A second piece of wood sits on top of the first piece,
and does not touch the water. If the top piece is taken off and placed in the water, what happens
to the water level in the tub?
A) It goes up.
B) It goes down.
C) It does not change.
D) This cannot be determined without knowing the volume of the top piece of wood.
Var: 1

9) Water flows through a pipe having a varying width. More water flows per second through the
wide section than through the narrow section because there is more room for it to flow.
A) True
B) False
Var: 1

10) As the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure in the fluid
A) increases.
B) remains constant.
C) decreases.
D) may increase or decrease, depending on the density of the fluid.
Var: 1

11) When you blow some air above the upper face of a paper strip, the paper rises. This occurs
because
A) the air above the upper face of the paper moves faster, which makes the pressure higher than
at the lower face.
B) the air above the upper face of the paper moves faster, which makes the pressure lower than at
the lower face.
C) the air above the upper face of the paper moves faster but the pressure remains constant.
D) the air above the upper face of the paper moves slower, which makes the pressure higher than
at the lower face.
E) the air above the upper face of the paper moves slower, which makes the pressure lower than
at the lower face.
Var: 1

12) You are driving a late model convertible car at the 65 mph speed limit with its soft flexible
roof closed up and the windows closed. You observe that the roof
A) bows inward.
B) is no different from when the car was at rest.
C) bows outward.
D) bows inward only when you are driving uphill.
E) bows inward only when you are driving downhill.
Var: 1
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15.2 Problems
1) A certain coin has a diameter of 21.21 mm, a thickness of 1.95 mm, and weighs 0.04905 N.
What is its density?
A) 29.1 103 kg/m3
B) 7.26 103 kg/m3
C) 9.25 103 kg/m3
D) 2.31 103 kg/m3
E) 71.2 103 kg/m3
Var: 1

2) What is the radius of a sphere that has a density of 5000 kg/m3 and a mass of 6.00 kg?
A) 4.98 cm
B) 1.27 cm
C) 6.59 cm
D) 1.56 cm
E) 7.22 cm
Var: 1

3) A sphere is constructed of two concentric parts. The inner part is a solid sphere of radius 10.0
cm made of a material with density 4000 kg/m3. The outer part is a spherical shell with inner
radius 10.0 cm and outer radius 20.0 cm. The material in the outer shell has a density 9000
kg/m3.
(a) What is the mass of the sphere?
(b) What is the average density of this sphere?
Answer: (a) 281 kg (b) 8.38 103 kg/m3
Var: 1

4) One of the dangers of tornados and hurricanes is the rapid drop in air pressure that is
associated with such storms. Assume that the air pressure inside of a sealed house is 1.02 atm
when a hurricane hits. The hurricane rapidly decreases the external air pressure to 0.910 atm. A
square window in an outside wall of the house measures 2.02 m on each side. What net force
(directed outwards) is exerted on this window? (1 atm = 1.01 105 Pa.)
A) 4.53 104 N
B) 5.14 104 N
C) 4.78 105 N
D) 5.37 105 N
Var: 1

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5) A cubical box, 5.00 cm on each side, is immersed in a fluid. The gauge pressure at the top
surface of the box is 594 Pa and the gauge pressure on the bottom surface is 1133 Pa. What is the
density of the fluid?
A) 1000 kg/m3
B) 1100 kg/m3
C) 1220 kg/m3
D) 2340 kg/m3
E) 12,000 kg/m3
Var: 1

6) The weight of a car of mass 1.20 103 kg is supported equally by the four tires, which are
inflated to the same gauge pressure. What gauge pressure in the tires is required so the area of
contact of each tire with the road is 1.00 102 cm2? (1 atm = 1.01 105 Pa.)
A) 11.6 105 Pa
B) 11.6 104 Pa
C) 2.94 105 Pa
D) 2.94 104 Pa
E) 2.94 103 Pa
Var: 1

7) On planet X, the absolute pressure at a depth of 2.00 m below the surface of a liquid nitrogen
lake is 5.00 105 N/m2. At a depth 5.00 m below the surface, the absolute pressure is 8.00
105 N/m2. The density of liquid nitrogen is 808 kg/m3.
(a) What is the atmospheric pressure on planet X?
(b) What is the acceleration due to gravity on planet X?
Answer: (a) 3.00 105 N/m2 (b) 124 m/s2
Var: 1

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8) As shown in the figure, a container has a vertical tube, whose inner radius is 32.00 mm,
connected to it at its side. An unknown liquid reaches level A in the container and level B in the
tubelevel A being 5.0 cm higher than level B. The liquid supports a 20.0-cm high column of
oil, between levels B and C, whose density is 460 kg/m3. What is the density of the unknown
liquid?

A) 1800 kg/m3
B) 2000 kg/m3
C) 1400 kg/m3
D) 1600 kg/m3
E) 1700 kg/m3
Var: 1

9) In the figure, an open tank contains a layer of oil floating on top of a layer of water (of density
1000 kg/m3) that is 3.0 m thick, as shown. What must be the thickness of the oil layer if the
gauge pressure at the bottom of the tank is to be
The density of the oil is 510 kg/
.

Var: 50+

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10) The small piston of a hydraulic lift has a diameter of 8.0 cm, and its large piston has a
diameter of 40 cm. The lift raises a load of 15,000 N.
(a) Determine the force that must be applied to the small piston.
(b) Determine the pressure applied to the fluid in the lift.
Answer: (a) 600 N (b) 1.2 105 Pa
Var: 1

11) A 12,000-N car is raised using a hydraulic lift, which consists of a U-tube with arms of
unequal areas, filled with incompressible oil and capped at both ends with tight-fitting pistons.
The wider arm of the U-tube has a radius of 18.0 cm and the narrower arm has a radius of 5.00
cm. The car rests on the piston on the wider arm of the U-tube. The pistons are initially at the
same level. What is the initial force that must be applied to the smaller piston in order to start
lifting the car? (For purposes of this problem, you can neglect the weight of the pistons.)
A) 727 N
B) 926 N
C) 2900 N
D) 3330 N
E) 1.20 kN
Var: 1

12) A 12,000-N car is raised using a hydraulic lift, which consists of a U-tube with arms of
unequal areas, filled with incompressible oil with a density of 800 kg/m3 and capped at both
ends with tight-fitting pistons. The wider arm of the U-tube has a radius of 18.0 cm and the
narrower arm has a radius of 5.00 cm. The car rests on the piston on the wider arm of the U-tube.
The pistons are initially at the same level. What is the force that must be applied to the smaller
piston in order to lift the car after it has been raised 1.20 m? (For purposes of this problem, you
can neglect the weight of the pistons.)
A) 0.954 kN
B) 1.88 kN
C) 1.96 kN
D) 3.67 kN
E) 1.20 kN
Var: 1

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13) The two water reservoirs shown in the figure are open to the atmosphere, and the water has
density 1000 kg/m3. The manometer contains incompressible mercury with a density of 13,600
kg/m3. What is the difference in elevation h if the manometer reading m is 25.0 cm?

A) 1.58 m
B) 4.20 m
C) 3.75 m
D) 3.40 m
E) 3.15 m
Var: 1

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14) The two water reservoirs shown in the figure are open to the atmosphere, and the water has
density 1000 kg/m3. The manometer contains incompressible oil with a density of 820 kg/m3.
What is the difference in elevation h if the manometer reading m is 25.0 cm?

A) 0.045 m
B) 0.025 m
C) 0.065 m
D) 0.115 m
E) 0.205 m
Var: 1

15) A wooden raft has a mass of 50 kg. When empty it floats in water (density
with
69% of its volume submerged. What mass of sand can be put on the raft without it sinking?
Var: 50+

16) A board that is 20.0 cm wide, 5.00 cm thick, and 3.00 m long has a density 350 kg/m3. The
board is floating partially submerged in water of density 1000 kg/m3. What fraction of the
volume of the board is above the surface of the water?
A) 0.350
B) 0.650
C) zero
D) 0.200
E) The answer depends on which edge of the board is vertical.
Var: 5

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17) A rock is suspended from a scale reads 20.0 N. A beaker of water (having a density of 1000
kg/m3) is raised up so the rock is totally submerged in the water. The scale now reads 12.5 N.
What is the density of the rock?
A) 1.60 103 kg/m3
B) 2.50 103 kg/m3
C) 2.33 103 kg/m3
D) 3.00 103 kg/m3
E) 2.67 103 kg/m3
Var: 1

18) A person who weighs 550 N empties her lungs as much as possible and is then completely
immersed in water (of density 1000 kg/m3) while suspended from a harness. Her apparent
weight is now 21.2 N. What is her density?
A) 1050 kg/m3
B) 1040 kg/m3
C) 1030 kg/m3
D) 960 kg/m3
E) 56.1 kg/m3
Var: 1

19) A barge is 15.0 m wide and 75.0 m long and has vertical sides. The bottom of the hull is 1.20
m below the water surface. What is the weight of the barge and its cargo, if it is floating in fresh
water of density 1000 kg/m3?
A) 22.6 MN
B) 13.2 MN
C) 1.35 MN
D) 1.13 MN
E) 11.3 MN
Var: 1

20) A hollow steel ball of diameter 3.0 m barely floats in water. What is the thickness of the wall
of the ball? The density of iron is 7.87 g/cm3 and that of water is 1000 kg/m3.
A) 6.6 cm
B) 37 cm
C) 131 cm
D) 79 cm
Var: 1

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21) A 7.8-kg solid sphere, made of metal whose density is 2500 kg/ , is suspended by a cord.
When the sphere is immersed in water (of density 1000 kg/m3), what is the tension in the cord?
A) 46 N
B) 61 N
C) 76 N
D) 92 N
E) 110 N
Var: 50+

22) A 6.1-kg solid sphere, made of metal whose density is 2600 kg/ , is suspended by a cord.
When the sphere is immersed in a liquid of unknown density, the tension in the cord is 26 N.
Find the density of the liquid.
A) 1500 kg/
B) 1400 kg/
C) 1300 kg/
D) 1200 kg/
E) 1100 kg/
Var: 50+

23) A circular cylinder of height 1.20 m having faces of diameter 0.620 m is immersed in water
of density 1.00 103 kg/m3 with its axis vertical so that its faces are parallel to the surface of the
water. The upper face is 2.50 m below the surface of the water. The net force on this cylinder is
observed to be 1120 N downward. Atmospheric pressure is 1.01 105 Pa. What net force does
the water exert on the lower face of the cylinder?
A) 7.40 103 N
B) 1.09 104 N
C) 3.79 104 N
D) 4.14 104 N
E) 1.37 105 N
Var: 1

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24) A circular cylinder of height 1.20 m having faces of diameter 0.620 m is immersed in water
of density 1.00 103 kg/m3 with its axis vertical so that its faces are parallel to the surface of the
water. The upper face is 2.50 m below the surface of the water. The net force on this cylinder is
observed to be 1120 N downward. Atmospheric pressure is 1.01 105 Pa. What is the weight of
the cylinder?
A) 2430 N
B) 3550 N
C) 4670 N
D) 10,900 N
E) 12,100 N
Var: 1

25) An incompressible fluid flows steadily through a pipe that has a change in diameter. The
fluid speed at a location where the pipe diameter is 8.0 cm is 1.28 m/s. What is the fluid speed at
a location where the diameter has narrowed to 4.0 cm?
A) 0.32 m/s
B) 0.64 m/s
C) 1.28 m/s
D) 2.56 m/s
E) 5.12 m/s
Var: 1

26) Water, of density 1000 kg/m3, is flowing in a drainage channel of rectangular cross-section.
The width of the channel is 15 m, the depth of the water is 8.0 m and the speed of the flow is 2.5
m/s. At what rate is water flowing in this channel?
A) 2.0 105 kg/s
B) 2.0 103 kg/s
C) 3.0 105 kg/s
D) 3.0 103 kg/s
E) 3.0 102 kg/s
Var: 1

27) Water flowing through a pipe suddenly comes to a section of pipe where the pipe diameter
decreases to 86% of its previous value. If the speed of the water in the larger section of the pipe
was
what is its speed in this smaller section?
A) 49 m/s
B) 42 m/s
C) 31 m/s
D) 27 m/s
Var: 50+

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28) Water is flowing in a horizontal pipe of diameter d. If you want to change the diameter of this
pipe so that the speed of the water would be half as great as it was, what should be the new
diameter?
A) d/4
B) d/2
C) d /
D) d
E) 2d
Var: 1

29) Incompressible water flows out of a large reservoir through a pipe that opens to the
atmosphere 5.70 m below the level of the water in the reservoir. What is the speed of the water
as it comes out of the pipe?
A) 1.72 m/s
B) 7.47 m/s
C) 55.8 m/s
D) 10.6 m/s
E) 27.9 m/s
Var: 1

## 30) A horizontal tube consists of a

pipe that narrows to a 2.0-cm-diameter
throat. In the pipe, the water pressure is twice atmospheric pressure and the water flows with a
speed of
What is the pressure in the throat, assuming that the water behaves like an
ideal fluid? The density of water is 1000 kg/m3, and atmospheric pressure is 1.01 105 Pa.
A) 1.9 atm
B) 0.12 atm
C) 2.1 atm
D) 2.0 atm
Var: 16

31) A large cylindrical water tank is mounted on a platform with its central axis vertical. The
water level is 3.75 m above the base of the tank, and base is 6.50 m above the ground. A small
hole 2.22 mm in diameter has formed in the base of the tank. Both the hole and the top of the
tank are open to the air. We can ignore air resistance and treat water as an ideal fluid with a
density of 1000 kg/m3.
(a) How many cubic meters of water per second is this tank losing?
(b) How fast is the water from the hole moving just as it reaches the ground?
Answer: (a) 3.26 10-5 m3/s (b) 14.2 m/s
Var: 1

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32) Air is flowing through a rocket nozzle. Inside the rocket the air has a density of 5.25 kg/m3
and a speed of 1.20 m/s. The interior diameter of the rocket is 15.0 cm. At the nozzle exit, the
diameter is 2.50 cm and the density is 1.29 kg/m3. What is the speed of the air when it leaves the
nozzle?
A) 123 m/s
B) 176 m/s
C) 88.0 m/s
D) 45.7 m/s
E) 29.3 m/s
Var: 1

33) A level pipe contains a nonviscous, incompressible fluid with a density 1200 kg/m3 that is
flowing steadily. At one position within the pipe, the pressure is 300 kPa and the speed of the
flow is 20.0 m/s. At another position, the pressure is 200 kPa. What is the speed of the flow at
this second position?
A) 567 m/s
B) 16.2 m/s
C) 32.9 m/s
D) 23.8 m/s
E) 186 m/s
Var: 1

34) In a section of horizontal pipe with a diameter of 3.00 cm the pressure is 5.21 kPa and water
is flowing with a speed of 1.50 m/s. The pipe narrows to 2.50 cm. What is the pressure in the
narrower region if water behaves like an ideal fluid of density 1000 kg/m3?
A) 4.00 kPa
B) 7.50 kPa
C) 5.82 kPa
D) 6.42 kPa
E) 4.61 kPa
Var: 1

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35) Water flows in the horizontal pipe shown in the figure. At point A the area is 25.0 cm2 and
the speed of the water is
At B the area is 16.0 cm2. The fluid in the manometer is
mercury, which has a density of 13,600 kg/m3. We can treat water as an ideal fluid having a
density of 1000 kg/m3. What is the manometer reading h?

A) 0.546 cm
B) 1.31 cm
C) 2.81 cm
D) 2.16 cm
E) 3.36 cm
Var: 1

36) Water flows in the horizontal pipe shown in the figure. At A the diameter is 5.00 cm and at B
the diameter is 4.00 cm The fluid in the manometer is mercury, which has a density of 13,600
kg/m3. The manometer reading h is 4.40 cm. We can treat water as an ideal fluid having a
density of 1000 kg/m3. What volume of water is flowing through the pipe per second?

A) 0.0206

/s

B) 0.0426

/s

C) 0.00560
D) 0.372

/s
/s

E) 0.186 /s
Var: 5
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## 37) Consider a very small hole in the bottom of a tank

in diameter filled with water to a
height of
Find the speed at which the water exits the tank through the hole.
A) 3.13 m/s
B) 9.80 m/s
C) 31.8 m/s
D) 34.9 m/s
Var: 50+

38) A paint sprayer pumps air through a constriction in a 2.50-cm diameter pipe, as shown in the
figure. The flow causes the pressure in the constricted area to drop and paint rises up the feed
tube and enters the air stream. The speed of the air stream in the 2.50-cm diameter sections is
5.00 m/s. The density of the air is 1.29 kg/m3, and the density of the paint is 1200 kg/m3. We can
treat the air and paint as incompressible ideal fluids. What is the maximum diameter of the
constriction that will allow the sprayer to operate?

A) 8.07 mm
B) 4.05 mm
C) 12.2 mm
D) 9.65 mm
E) 14.3 mm