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Week1ADULTDEVELOPMENT

Whatisadultdevelopment?
Adult:18yrsoldorolder;20yrsold;21yrsold;25yrsold;fullydeveloped
physically;socialrole;capableofmakingowndecisions;financially
independent;nolongeradependent
Development:psychologicalandphysicalchangesoverthetime;patternsof
growth;patternsofsustainability;patternsofdecreasingability
Whystudy?
Developmentisevolvedineverypsychclass,tellaboutmyfuture&howto
bebetter,havingthisknowledgecouldtakebettercareofothers(better
nurse)
History
Forverylongtime,developmentalpsychologyisfocusonlyonchildren
1920,articlesonaging,butnotaboutdevelopmentalpsychology,limitedto
elderly
1940:gerontologyestablished,
1959:Eriksonproposedlifespantheoryofpersonalitydevelopment
Ageperiods
Prenatal
Infancy/toddlerhood03yrs
Preschool/earlychildhood36yrs
Middlechildhood712yrs
(Preadolescent:1013)
Adolescence1219
Youngadult2040
Middleadult4165
Lateadult/elderly65+
Lateadulthoodsubcategories
Chronologicalage
Youngold:6574
Oldold:7584
Oldestold:85+

Functionalage
Youngold:healthyandactive
Oldold:somedifficulty
Oldestold:needcareandfrail
Biologicalage:functionoforgansystem,nursingfocus,bp,
Psychological:functioningofpsychologicaltests:memory,IQ,EQ,reaction
time
Socialage:socialroles,workroles,retirementstatus
Terminology
Lifeexpectancy:howlongyouareexpectedtolivebasedonfactors:sex,
country,familyhistory(Canada:men:79;women:84;menarelesslikelyto
gotohospital,menaremoresuccessfulinsuicide,memaremorereckless)
Lifespan:longestpossiblespanthatthespeciescouldhave,122forhuman
beings
Longevity:btwthelifeexpectancyandlifespan

Primaryaging:typical,normalagingthatapplytoeveryone,notpreventable,
nocontroltoit
Secondaryaging:agingrelatedtoourchoices,environment,anddiseases,
wehavesomecontrol:smoking,diet,exercise,alcohol,stress,exposureto
pollution,sunexposure,riskybehaviors:unprotectivesex,injuries
Tertiaryaging:specifictofataldiseases
Influencesondevelopment
History:war,911event
Age:biologicalenvironmentaldevelopmentsimilartoparticularagegroup
Socialcultural:socialclass,ethnicity,
Nonnormativeevents:atypicalevent,personaltoparticularperson:personal
accident,injury,
Issuesindevelopmentalpsych
Naturevsnurture
Genetic:nature
Environmental:nurture
Geneenvironmenteffect:natureandnurtureinteracttoinfluence
development,eg:schizophrenia

Criticalvssensitiveperiod
Critical:specifictimewhenparticulareventhastohappeninorderto
developnormally,veryrestricted
Sensitive:timewhenparticulareventbetterhappenfordevelopnormally,
butdoesnotalwayscauseadverseeffects
Continuity:gradualdevelopment,constantandconnected
Discontinuity:unevenanddisconnecteddevelopment:growingheight
Normativevsidiographic
Normative:typicaldevelopment,commonalityinaverageperson,universal
development
Idiographic:differencesindevelopment,individualfactors,humandiversity
What is gerontology? The scientific study of the aging process. From
maturity through old age, as well as the study of o lder adults as a
special group
Types of developmental research designs involving combinations of
cross-sectional and longitudinal designs: Sequential Designs

Week 2: Adult development


5 key Features
1) Multidirectionality
2) Multidimensionality
3) Plasticity
4) History and context
5) Multiple Causality
They all interact: memory, cognitive abilities, etc how they interact and
influence each other is an important aspect of lifespan approach
Plasticity: ability to change, occurs in all stages of life however the
amount of plasticity varies per stage
To understand someone you had to understand their historical context,
the circumstances of their surroundings as their aging (family dynamic,
education system, socioeconomic status)

Multiple causality: genetics, environment, interpersonal factors all


contribute to the cause
When one looks at development you should look at the whole picture,
and you can achieve that by looking at these 5 features
Psychological perspectives:
Lifespan approach can be applied to all of these approaches
1) biological/neuroscience
2) psychodynamic (unconscious process-freudian)
3) cognitive approach computer-human comparisons) of thought
process
4) sociocultural-cultural beliefs-cultural norms shaping our
behavior/development
5) humanistic-born out of personality development (maslows
hierarchy of need) optimistic outlook believes everyone can fulfill
their potential no wonder what situation one is in
6) behavioral-learned responses (classical, operant conditioning
skinner/pavlov)
biological perspective: 2 broad categories
Genetically preprogrammed theories of aging
-something in our DNA that makes us age
-genetically preprogrammed that u can read this amount of times till
it shuts down
Wear and Tear theories of aging
-as we use our bodies, we are wearing them out e.g. car
-creates byproducts that are harmful, as they accumulate it causes
aging and eventually death
Erikson-builds off of freuds psychosexual stages
8 stages
covers lifespan minus prenatal
3 main outcomes of each stage: 2 bad outcomes and one good
outcome
worse outcome is developing a malignant weakness: only developing
the bad way of coping
good way of coping: basic weakness maladaptive: not as bad for u
but still problematic
Ideally what your aiming for is developing basic strength:
emotionally good way of coping but not to the extremeaka love,
caring trust, hope

^^^^ All u need to know about erikson is week 2 stuff


genetic principle and how this works
Cognitive perspective: Piaget vs. Vygotsky
4 stages of cognitive development
1) Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
2) Preoperational (2-7 years)
3) Concrete operations (7-11 years)
4) Formal Operations (11+ years)
-he is not a lifespan theorist
Vygotskys sociocultural theory of cognitive development
-Dynamic Transactions
-According to his theory cognitive development occurs through social
interactions, one w low cognitive dev. Interacting with a good cog dev.
-the benefits of those interactions is not limited to the younger person,
one whose older can benefit too..the better u are at explaining it
makes it more clear in ur head adults interacting with children benefit
Bronfenbrenners bioecological perspective:
-you start in the middle level the individual, personality interest, your
age sex etc
-then the next layer is the microsystem (sports team, family etc.)
immediate and direct influence
-meso system is the interaction between ur direct influences and ur
indirect influences ex. family interacting with ur school
-exosystem: external networks: educational system ur in e.g. Ryerson
-macro system: larger than ur external networks e.g. culture
nationalitysociety
-Final one: Chronosystem: changes in systems over time, changes in
the interactions, e.g. kindergarten to lecture time factor how they
change or stay the same overtime
-Different levels of context is very important diff lvls and how they
interact
Sociocultural Perspective:
Competing life course theories
What we should do in late adulthood to successfully prepare ourself to
not be here
Disengagement theory: disengaging socially, physically, emotionally,
normal way of doing it and desirable way of doing it care less e.g.
grandma who is 96 shouldnt care what is happening in the election
(sounds negative but its not its proper way of doing it)
Activity theory: stay as engaged as long as u possibly can
Continuity theory: compromise of the 2 (our individuality in aging)

Developmental research
Independent variable: the variable u have control over, and
purposefully changing somehow, manipulating
Dependent variable: the outcome you observe, the outcome variable,
the one your interested in: the changes to the independent variable
how does that effect the dependent variable
Correlational studies: determining if there is a relationship between 2
variables
Do not prove causality, do provide important info, correlation
coefficient:ranging from -1 to +1
The closer to 0 the weaker the relationship, coefficient of 0 means
completely random
Closer to one the stronger the relationship
Used frequently as a first step
Natural experiments:
Participants not assigned to a condition
Experimenters do not introduce change
Experimenters observe participants in a natural setting and measure
effects of naturally occurring changes
-no independent variable
-instead the experimenter observes and u wait in whatever ur
interested in to occur
Advantages: high ecological validity
DIS: difficult to make any causation statements, no control over the
variables or the environment, can be quite time consuming to wait for
a particular change to occur naturally
Field Experiment:
-Experimenters go to a real-world setting of the participants (e.g. longterm care facility)
-experimenter deliberately creates a change (IV)
-Measure outcome (DV) dependent variable
ADV:
-Still have to control over the IV
-Greater ecological validity
DIS:
-Less control over the environment
-Logistically harder to organize
Laboratory experiment ( one we use the must )
Because we have control over everything
-Participants are invited into a laboratory setting
-to determine cause and effect

-Groups: 1) treatment/experimental 2) control


-Variables: 1) Independent 2) Dependent
-Random subject selection and assignment
Main Advantage/ DIS:
-qual stud and case studies: more focused on interview based research
-archiv. Research
-surveys
-epidemiological studies
-AVOID meta-analysis for assignment
Age is treated as an independent variable, however it is not it is a
quasi-variable
-u can not manipulate age/no control over it
-gender sex
Issues in Developmental Research:
-Cohorts & Cohort Effects
*a group sharing a characteristic, generally its when they are born a
cohort everyone born in 1995, or more specific every1 born in 1995 in
a certain socioeconomic status or location
-Attrition & selective Attrition
-attrition refers to a decrease in ur participants
-each time you see them theres fewer and fewer there, IT WILL
HAPPEN but what u want to know is those dropping out is there a
shared characteristics between them
Measuring developmental change: 3 approaches
Longitudinal Studies
-individuals who are 20,30 cohort ur interested in then u get them to
come to ur lab AT LEAST twice, ideally more
Time required: long
Ability to control costs: low
Ability to maintain pool of participants: very problematic
Continuity of staff: medium to low
Flexibility in adapting to new tests/measures: low
Likelihood of practice effects: high (problem)
Pros:
Ability to assess research issues
-normative of early lfie events on later behavior. Excellent
-impact of early life events on later behavior: excellent
stability vs instability of behavior: excellent
historical or cohort issues: POOR
-only looking at one cohort

logistically its a nightmare, interesting but


Cross-Sectional Studies,
-The opposite of Longitudinal
-Only come to the Lab once
-Different groups of different ages
Time required: short
Ability to control costs: high
Ability to maintain pool of participants: excellent (they only need to
come once)
Continuity of staff: high
Flexibility in adapting to new tests/measures: high
Likelihood of practice effects: low
*Ability to assess research issues
-Normative development data at diff ages: excellent
-impact of early life events on later behavior: poor
-stability vs instability of behavior: poor
-historical or cohort: excellent
Sequential Studies
-the compromise of the two
-like cross-sectional there are multiple groups
-creating a staggered system
-compare ur 20 year olds from time 1 to time 2 (25 year olds)
-not the same u know there are cohort effects if they are the same no
cohort effects
Time required: moderate
Ability to control costs: Moderate
Ability to maintain pool of participants: moderate to good
Blahblah check slides
Middle ground, keep it easy as cross-sectional
Developmental functions:
What kind of patterns can we expect?
5 main functions of developmental research
step function
-discontinuous development
-peoples height, growth spurt
classic developmental story: increased ability
-how ability got to an adult level more frequently found when looking
at child development

Decreased ability: how do the abilities get worse and decrease as we


age
More the typical adult development aging function
Inverted U ability: looking at how an ability increases and increases
then peaks then decreases: more common in a life span approach,
across the life span quite a few abilities will have this shape
RARE: abilities decrease with age than go up/rebalance
U SHAPE ability
Ethical guidelines: week 2 lecture slides
Is there a possibility of Cohort effects
What kind of study cross-sectional etc
Paper ^
Specific topic
Health: Prevention and treatment ch 5 and 11
October 19th

Whatarethefirsthealthissuesyouthinkofwhenyouthinkofmiddleandlate

adulthood?BoneDensity,Jointsachesandpainsarthritis,variousoldinjuresgettingworseand
worse,cardiovascularheartissues,diabetes,vision,dementia,Alzheimers

Physicalhealth:youngadulthood

Lesssusceptibletocoldsandotherminorillnesses
Leadingcauseofdeath:Accidents>illnessanddisease
highaccidentrateswitchestoillnessanddiseaseuntilageof35switchesover

MiddleAdulthood:majorityofpeople4065agedonthaveamajorchronicillness,
feweraccidents(bcmoreresponsiblelessimpulsive,morecareful),fewerinfections
Peoplebetween4065lessallergiesinfectionscomparedtotheyoungadult
Physicalhealthdemographics:Inmiddleadult40%
Only7%havechronicillnessesfor4565

Shiftchangesin6579,thenmajorityin80plushavechronicillnesslateadulthoodis
whenchronicillnessbeginstokickin
SexDifference:
Middleadulthood:womentendtoexperiencemorenonlifethreateningillnesses,womenless
likelytodrinkandsmokeincomparisontomen
Howevermentendtoexpmoreseriousillnesses
Researchinequality:anothersexdiffinresearchisthatmostresearchershavefocusedonmens
healthwomenwerenotevenconsidered
Culturaldifferences:aboriginalpoptendstobeathigherriskforvariousdiseasesthanthenon
aboriginalpopexp75+ishigh,onlyonetheyrenotaheadiscancer
diffculturalriskfactor
2011:leadingcauseofdeathis:cancer,secondisheartdisease,strokeisnumber3big3for
Canada,UK,USA
TypesofCVD:MOSTcommononeishypertensionhighbloodpressureprettycommon
Thingsthatmakeitmorelikelyforthisdisease:smoking,lackofexercise,diethighinfatall3
contributeandincreaseourriskofgettingcardiovasculardisease,otherthingsareafamily
history,familygeneticgoodindicator
menareahigherriskforCVD,butwomenarestillatrisk
worldavgis25%ofdeathrrelatedtocvd,wetendtobeonthesame
countrywiththehighest:Russia,easternEurope,Bulgaria,RomaniaCanadaisthe26 th
highestwobesity:mexicoandusainEU:UKhighest
CVDandPersonality:
TypeAvsTypeBpersonality
CorrelationbetweentypeAandCVD
TypeAimpulsivegogetterandTypeBrelaxedeasygoingpeopleareNOTvalidpersonality
types
Alotofpeopletookthisresearchascorrelationiscausationbuttheresearchwasjustdone
makingcorrelationandcausationstatement,thereisnoresearchtosupportthatwehavethis
TYPEBTYPEApersonality
Whatthisresearchtellsusis:peoplewhoareangeredeasilyhostiletheyhaveacorrelationwith
CVD

Cancer:
Leadingcauseofdeathinmiddleadulthood
Cancerisassociatedwithgeneticandenvironmentalrisks
Earlytreatmentisrelatedtohighersurvivalrate
sometimesoccupationalhazards
2in5canadianswilldevelopcancerintheirlifetime1in4ofthosepeoplewillthendiefrom
cancer
Topcancerforwomen:breastcancersurvivalratehasincreaseddramatically
Topcancerformen:prostatecancer
Number2forfemaleandmales:lungcancer
Andnumber3forbothsexesis:coloncancer
Earlydetectionisthebestwaytosurvive,varioustreatmentoptions:
Surgerymaybeusedtoremovethetumor,chemotherapy
Theresnooverallpsychologicalprofileforcancerpatient:veryindividualdifferencesonhow
peoplerespond
Peoplewhorespondthebestarepeoplewithgoodsocialsupportnetworks,friendsandfamily
youcantalkto,theonesyouformduringothercancerpatientsetcreallyuseful,betterposition
psychologically
OsteoArthritistendstokickinatageof40
Somepeoplegetitmoreseverelythanotherscanbequiteproblematicfortheirlife,hardtohave
asociallife,painful,canbequitesevere
Tendstobeverycommonatleasthalfofthemhaveaformofarthritis
Diabetes
Biological:changesinglucosemetabolism,obesity
Psychological:sedentarylifestyle;alsoassociatedwithdepressionandstress
Sociocultural:habitualeatingpatternslackofeducationloweconomicresources
4differenttypesofdiabetes:
type1diabetes:relatedwithanearlydiagnosis(children,adolescence)

type2:diagnosedmoreinadulthood,tendstobemoreproblematictendstobediagnosedbetween
theagesof50sto60s,alsorepresentsthe90%ofpeoplewhohavediabetesmainone
type3:Gestationaldiabeteswomenwhoispregenantdevelopsdiabetesordiabetessymptoms
probswglucoselevelsetc20s30sgenerallywhenwomenhavethebabytheirglucoselevelsgo
backtonormalhowevertheyareatahigherriskfordevelopingtype2diabeteslaterintheirlife,
additionallythechilduarecarryingisatahigherriskfordevelopingtype2diabetesbothatan
increasedrisk
type4:Prediabetes:notreallyatypeofdiabetesitscalledprediabetesurlevelsrhigherthan
normalbutnotquiteatthepointwheretheydgiveuadiabetesdiagnosescanbeawakeupcall
only50percentgoontogettype2diabetes
bigriskfactorfordiabetes:family,ethnicity(peopleofaboriginaldescent,Hispanic,Asiansouth
orsoutheastAsian,andAfricanallofthoseincreaseyourriskbeingoverweightorobese
increasesyourriskquiteabit,alsolivinginlowincomeorpovertyandfinallymoreMENthan
WOMENhavediabetes
alotofhealthbenefitstoowningadog
diabetesincreaseslikelihoodofblindness,kidney,stroke,limpamputationtype1and2dont
haveasmuchfeelingintheirlegsandgetinfectedandnoticewhenitistoolate
studytool:Canadianassociationfactorsmakeupprofilesandseewhatittellsu
StressandHealth:whatistherelationshipbetweenstressandhealth:increasedstressincreased
healthproblems
Variousways:decreasesimmunesystemelevatesheartpressuredirectways
Indirectways:stressincreaseslikelihoodtodobadbehaviorssuchasstresseatingtendtoeat
harmfulbehaviors,smokemore,drinkmoredomoreofthesebehaviourswhenwearestressed
decreaseinnutritionsleep,increaseindrugsWhenyourstressedoutlesslikelytoseekmedical
carefollowmedicaladvice,showntomakeourhealthworse

TedTalkVideos:changedmindaboutstress:thestudy30,000adultsinUS
for8yearsaskeddoubelievestressisharmfulforurhealthandhowmuch
stresshaveyouexperienced,43%increasedriskindyingiftheyhadalotof
stressandbelieveditwasharmful,howeverpeoplewhohadalotofstress
yetdidntviewitasharmfuldidhavetheriskofdying
20,000deathayearbelievingstressisbadforu#15inleadingdeath
whenuchangeurmindaboutstressucanchangeurbodiesresponseto
stresssocialstresstest
participantswholearnedtoviewthisstressresponseashealthytheir
physicalstressresponsechanged
chronicstressassociatedwithCVD
butthosewhoviewedstressashealthytheirheartstillpoundedbutitwas
morerelaxed:lookedlikeaheartinconfidenceorreadyforachallenge

howuthinkaboutstressmatters
mybodypreparingforthischallenge
stressmakesyousocial,oxytocinhormonereleasedwhenuhugsomeone
finetunesurbrainssocialinstinctsprimesutodothingsthatstrengthens
socialnetworks,enhancesursympathypituitaryglandpumpsthisoutitisa
stressresponse,motivatingutoseeksupport,yourbiologicalstressresponse
isnudgingutotellsomeonehowufeelinsteadofbottlingitup
oxytocin:hearthasreceptorsforthishormones,strengthensurheart
foreverymajorlifestressincreasedriskofdyingby30%likemajor
financialproblemorrelativedeath
butpeoplewhohelpedothersshowed0response,builtinresilience
perceptionofstresshasamajoreffectononeshealth

Neurocognitivebehavior:
Dementia:IntheDSMIV4(diagnosticmanual)switchedtothe
DSMV:oneofthechangesisdementiathenamehaschangedto
MajororMinorNeurocognitivedisorderliteralwordfor
dementiais:absentmind,outofmindnegativecontationtothe
word,theotherADVishavingthemajorvsminordifferentiation
nowwehave2levels

DifferencebetweenDementiavsAlzheimersdisease:dementiais
aclusterofsymptomsofwhichthesevariousdiseaseshavebeen
associatedwithex.huntingstondisease,braininjury,Alzheimersis
mostcommon
alzheimershasdementiaasoneofitsymptoms
Alzheimersbeingthemostcommon

Symptomsrelatedtoalzprobsmemory,personalityissues,
languageissues,perception,thinkingandplanningfirstsignis
usuallyforgetfulness
Intermsofmemoryloss:recentmemoriesgofirst,olderonesstart
todisappearlaterquiteproblematic:forgettingtheyvebeenplaced
inacaresystem,whattheirspousenowlookslike
Alzheimersisaprogressivedisorder,andallofthesedisorders
somecaseswheredementiacanberaregenerallyrelatedtobrain
injuries,RAREnecessityofcarecomesintopoint
Augustefirsttobediagnosedwithalzheimers
Alzheimersdisease:progressivebraindisorder,memorylossand
confusion
Early onset Alzheimers disease: Onset before the
age of 65, 5% of people who have had alzheimers
(early onset and early stage r 2 diff things regardless
of the onset)
can be as early as 30
5% of people who have Alzheimers disease
2 types:
1) common AD same as typical late onset
Alzheimers just have it as a younger age
2) Genetic AD genetic mutation on 1 of 3 genes,
APP, PSEN1, PSEN2 actual genes related to
alzheimers there r 3 much more rare it, genetic
seems to be earlier one however more rare
-genetic mutation on 1 of 3 genes, ur choice to find
out if u have this mutation chances common AD,
however if u do u know ur gonna be getting it
if u have not had children yet yet know youd have
this mutation would u still want to bc youd be

increasing their odds of having it, however if u dont


have it no need-makes things complicated
-perception if u have early progresses faster rate
however research shows it tends to be true of THE
GENETIC vs not the common type
Late Onset Alzh. Disease: stats of 2011
5% of Canadians aged 65+ years
22% of Canadians aged 85+ years
approx. 747000 canadians have Alzheimers disease
these numbers r gonna increase in the next 20 years
because of the babyboomers
fairly even for men and women @risk
****The Biology of Alzh. Disease:
Senile Plaques: extracellular deposits of beta amyloid
dendrites and glial cells
Neurofibrillarly tangles: intracellular accumulation of
tau and ubiquitin proteins
Early neuronal loss: especially in hippocampus
Brain is shrinking more in patients of alz than healthy
ages brain
Helping someone with Alzheimers disease in slides
taking care of the caregiver is important bc they
tend to neglect their own health problematic: 80 yr
old taking care of their spouse, or spouse taking care
of parents people feel guilty about putting the
person in a facility however this is the best outcome
Mental Health: ur greatest risk is in young adult hood
opposite pattern -18-25 highest percentage for
serious psychological distress

-2 reasons: once people start getting treatment their


distress levels go down (positive) best case scenario,
worse case scenario is those in this high stress
scenarios dont make it they die-suicide
this contributes to the decrease
Psychological disorders: adolescence early 20s theres
a sensitive period for developing many psychological
disorders such as
Mood disorders- bipolar disorder, depressive disorder
Personality disorder (schizophrenia)
Part of it because of Diathesis-Stress model: people
who are more genetically predisoposed to developing
these disorders and develop a lot of stress during this
time are a lot more likely to develop these disorders,
thus if ur not predisposed and have a lot of stress
you might not have that increased risk, or low stress
low genetic you will not have that increased risk
Peers in university and college: fairly stressful to
genetic predisposition increases the likelihood
Men r more likely to get diagnosed around 18 19
whereas women its more mid 20s
Depression in young adulthood is pretty high
Slide 33: also research that shows that people who
have strong social support from home do well
Quality friendship more important than quantity