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CHAPTER

11

MECHANICS OF
SOLIDS
Energy Methods

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Energy Methods
Strain Energy
Strain Energy Density
Elastic Strain Energy for Normal Stresses
Strain Energy For Shearing Stresses
Sample Problem 11.2
Strain Energy for a General State of Stress
Impact Loading
Example 11.06
Example 11.07
Design for Impact Loads
Work and Energy Under a Single Load
Deflection Under a Single Load

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Sample Problem 11.4

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Strain Energy
A uniform rod is subjected to a slowly increasing load
The elementary work done by the load P as the rod
elongates by a small dx is
dU P dx elementary work

which is equal to the area of width dx under the loaddeformation diagram.

The total work done by the load for a deformation x1,


x1

U P dx total work strain energy


0

which results in an increase of strain energy in the rod.


In the case of a linear elastic deformation,
x1

U kx dx 12 kx12 12 P1x1
0
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Strain Energy Density
To eliminate the effects of size, evaluate the strainenergy per unit volume,
U

x1

P dx
A L
0

u x d strain energy density


0

The total strain energy density resulting from the


deformation is equal to the area under the curve to 1.
As the material is unloaded, the stress returns to zero
but there is a permanent deformation. Only the strain
energy represented by the triangular area is recovered.
Remainder of the energy spent in deforming the material
is dissipated as heat.
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Strain-Energy Density
The strain energy density resulting from
setting 1 R is the modulus of toughness.
The energy per unit volume required to cause
the material to rupture is related to its ductility
as well as its ultimate strength.
If the stress remains within the proportional
limit,
1

E12 12
u E1 d x

2
2E
0

The strain energy density resulting from


setting 1 Y is the modulus of resilience.
uY
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Y2
2E

modulus of resilience
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Elastic Strain Energy for Normal Stresses
In an element with a nonuniform stress distribution,
U dU

dV
V 0 V

u lim

U u dV total strain energy

For values of u < uY , i.e., below the proportional


limit,
U

x2
2E

dV elastic strain energy

Under axial loading, x P A

dV A dx

P2
U
dx
2 AE
0

For a rod of uniform cross-section,


P2L
U
2 AE
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Elastic Strain Energy for Normal Stresses
For a beam subjected to a bending load,
U

x2
2E

dV

M 2 y2
2 EI

dV

Setting dV = dA dx,
M 2 2
U
dA dx
y dA dx
2
2

2 EI
2 EI A

0 A
0
L

My
I

M 2 y2

M2
dx
2 EI

For an end-loaded cantilever beam,


M Px
L

P2 x2
P 2 L3
U
dx
2 EI
6 EI
0

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Strain Energy For Shearing Stresses
For a material subjected to plane shearing
stresses,
xy

xy d xy
0

For values of xy within the proportional limit,


2

xy
2
u 12 G xy 12 xy xy
2G

The total strain energy is found from


U u dV

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2
xy

2G

dV

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Strain Energy For Shearing Stresses
For a shaft subjected to a torsional load,
U

2
xy

2G

dV

T 2 2
2GJ

dV

Setting dV = dA dx,
T 2 2
U
dA dx
dA dx
2
2

2GJ
2GJ A

0A
0
L

xy

T
J

T 2 2

T2

dx
2GJ
0

In the case of a uniform shaft,


T 2L
U
2GJ

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 11.2
SOLUTION:
Determine the reactions at A and B
from a free-body diagram of the
complete beam.
Develop a diagram of the bending
moment distribution.

a) Taking into account only the normal


stresses due to bending, determine the
strain energy of the beam for the
loading shown.
b) Evaluate the strain energy knowing
that the beam is a W10x45, P = 40
kips, L = 12 ft, a = 3 ft, b = 9 ft, and E
= 29x106 psi.
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Integrate over the volume of the


beam to find the strain energy.
Apply the particular given
conditions to evaluate the strain
energy.

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 11.2
SOLUTION:

Determine the reactions at A and B


from a free-body diagram of the
complete beam.
RA

Pb
L

RB

Pa
L

Develop a diagram of the bending


moment distribution.
M1

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Pb
x
L

M2

Pa
v
L

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 11.2
Integrate over the volume of the beam to find
the strain energy.
a

M12
M 22
U
dx
dv
2 EI
2 EI
a

Over the portion AD,

Pb
M1
x
L
Over the portion BD,
M2

Pa
v
L

1 Pb
1 Pa

x
dx

x dx

2 EI L
2 EI L
0

1 P 2 b 2a3 a 2b3 P 2a 2b 2
a b

2
2

2 EI L 3
3 6 EIL
P 2a 2b 2
U
6 EIL

P 45 kips

L 144 in.

a 36 in.

b 108 in.

E 29 103 ksi I 248 in 4


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40 kips 2 36 in 2 108 in 2
U
629 103 ksi 248 in 4 144 in
U 3.89 in kips
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Strain Energy for a General State of Stress
Previously found strain energy due to uniaxial stress and plane
shearing stress. For a general state of stress,

u 12 x x y y z z xy xy yz yz zx zx

With respect to the principal axes for an elastic, isotropic body,


u

1 2
a b2 c2 2 a b b c c a
2E

uv ud
uv

1 2v
a b c 2 due to volume change
6E

ud

1
a b 2 b c 2 c a 2 due to distortion
12G

Basis for the maximum distortion energy failure criteria,


ud ud Y

Y2
6G

for a tensile test specimen

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Impact Loading
To determine the maximum stress m
- Assume that the kinetic energy is
transferred entirely to the
structure,
U m 12 mv02

- Assume that the stress-strain


diagram obtained from a static test
is also valid under impact loading.
Consider a rod which is hit at its
end with a body of mass m moving
with a velocity v0.
Rod deforms under impact. Stresses
reach a maximum value m and then
disappear.
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Maximum value of the strain energy,


Um

2
m

2E

dV

For the case of a uniform rod,


2U m E
mv02 E
m

V
V
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Example 11.06
SOLUTION:
Due to the change in diameter, the
normal stress distribution is nonuniform.
Find the static load Pm which produces
the same strain energy as the impact.
Evaluate the maximum stress
resulting from the static load Pm

Body of mass m with velocity v0 hits


the end of the nonuniform rod BCD.
Knowing that the diameter of the
portion BC is twice the diameter of
portion CD, determine the maximum
value of the normal stress in the rod.

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Example 11.06
Find the static load Pm which produces
the same strain energy as the impact.
Pm2 L 2
Um

AE
Pm

SOLUTION:
Due to the change in diameter,
the normal stress distribution is
nonuniform.

2
2
m
m
V

dV

2E

2E

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16 U m AE
5 L

Evaluate the maximum stress resulting


from the static load Pm
m

U m 12 mv02

Pm2 L 2 5 Pm2 L

4 AE
16 AE

Pm
A
16 U m E
5 AL

8 mv02 E

5 AL

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Example 11.07
SOLUTION:

The normal stress varies linearly along


the length of the beam as across a
transverse section.
Find the static load Pm which produces
the same strain energy as the impact.
Evaluate the maximum stress
A block of weight W is dropped from a
resulting from the static load Pm
height h onto the free end of the
cantilever beam. Determine the
maximum value of the stresses in the
beam.

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Example 11.07
Find the static load Pm which produces
the same strain energy as the impact.
For an end-loaded cantilever beam,
Pm2 L3
Um
6 EI
Pm

SOLUTION:
The normal stress varies linearly
along the length of the beam as
across a transverse section.
U m Wh

2
m

2E

dV

2
m
V

2E

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6U m EI
L3

Evaluate the maximum stress


resulting from the static load Pm
M m c Pm Lc
m

I
I

6U m E

2
LI c

6WhE

L I c2

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Design for Impact Loads
For the case of a uniform rod,
m

2U m E
V

For the case of the nonuniform rod,


m

16 U m E
5 AL

V 4 AL / 2 AL / 2 5 AL / 2

8U m E
V

For the case of the cantilever beam

Maximum stress reduced by:


uniformity of stress
low modulus of elasticity with
high yield strength
high volume
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6U m E


L I / c 2 L 14 c 4 / c 2 14 c 2 L 14 V

L I c2

24U m E
V
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Work and Energy Under a Single Load
Strain energy may also be found from
the work of the single load P1,
x1

U P dx
0

For an elastic deformation,


Previously, we found the strain
energy by integrating the energy
density over the volume.
For a uniform rod,
U u dV
L

2E

dV

P1 A2 Adx
2E

P12 L
2 AE

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x1

x1

U P dx kx dx 12 k x12 12 P1x1

Knowing the relationship between


force and displacement,
PL
x1 1
AE
2
P
L
P
L

U 12 P1 1 1
AE 2 AE
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Work and Energy Under a Single Load
Strain energy may be found from the work of other types
of single concentrated loads.
Transverse load

y1

1Py
P
dy

2 1 1
0

P1L3 P12 L3
1

2 P1
3EI 6 EI

Bending couple

U M d 12 M11
0
2
M1L M1 L
1
2 M1

EI 2 EI

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Torsional couple

U T d 12 T11
0
2
T1L T1 L
1
2 T1

JG 2 JG

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Deflection Under a Single Load
If the strain energy of a structure due to a
single concentrated load is known, then the
equality between the work of the load and
energy may be used to find the deflection.
Strain energy of the structure,
2
2
FBC
LBC FBD
LBD
U

2 AE
2 AE

From the given geometry,


LBC 0.6 l

LBD 0.8 l

P 2l 0.63 0.83
P 2l

0.364
2 AE
AE

Equating work and strain energy,

From statics,
FBC 0.6P FBD 0.8P

P2L 1
U 0.364
P yB
AE 2
y B 0.728

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Pl
AE
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 11.4
SOLUTION:
Find the reactions at A and B from a
free-body diagram of the entire truss.
Apply the method of joints to
determine the axial force in each
member.
Members of the truss shown consist of
sections of aluminum pipe with the
cross-sectional areas indicated. Using
E = 73 GPa, determine the vertical
deflection of the point E caused by the
load P.

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Evaluate the strain energy of the


truss due to the load P.

Equate the strain energy to the work


of P and solve for the displacement.

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 11.4
SOLUTION:
Find the reactions at A and B from a free-body
diagram of the entire truss.
Ax 21 P 8

Ay P

B 21 P 8

Apply the method of joints to determine the


axial force in each member.

FDE 17
P
8

FAC 15
P
8

FDE 54 P

FCE 15
P
8

FCD 0

FCE 21
P
8

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FAB 0

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 11.4

Evaluate the strain energy of the


truss due to the load P.
Fi2 Li
1
Fi2 Li
U

Ai
2 Ai E 2 E

1
29700 P 2
2E

Equate the strain energy to the work by P


and solve for the displacement.
1 Py U
E
2

2U 2 29700 P 2
yE

P P 2 E

29.7 103 40 103


yE
9

73 10

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yE 16.27mm

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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