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Course Handbook

BSNS 7340 Strategy

Faculty of Creative Industries and Business

Department of Management and Marketing (DoMM)

Bachelor of Business
NOTICE
Books, journals, multi-media and other
materials made available by or at Unitec
Institute of Technology are for the
student’s own studies only. Copying or use
of the materials for other purposes is an
infringement of copyright.

Authored by Peter J. Mellalieu, 2010

The copyright of student materials remains


with the authors.

Printed at The Copy Centre, Unitec Institute


of Technology, Mt Albert, Auckland, New
Zealand.

IMAGE: Portrait of Sir Julius Vogel. Vogel


was Premier of New Zealand from 1873-75
and 1876. He was also an entrepreneur,
publisher, and early science fiction writer.

Credit: Alexander Turnbull Library,


Reference: 1/2-005288, http://
www.nzhistory.net.nz/media/photo/sir-
julius-vogel

Version 0.8, 21 February 2010. This


document is subject to amendments and
improvements in the online version as the
course proceeds. Refer to back page for a
schedule of amendments.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Foreword!........................................................................................................ 1
2. Course Contacts!............................................................................................. 2
3. Course Descriptor!........................................................................................... 3
4. Topics/Content And Reading Schedule!........................................................... 6
5. Workload Overview!......................................................................................... 8
6. Learning Model!............................................................................................. 10
7. Contact Sessions: Studios And Conduct!........................................................ 13
8. Assessment Policy!........................................................................................ 14
9. Assessment Portfolio!.................................................................................... 18
10. Assignment ONE: Selected Issues In Strategic Sustainability!.......................... 20
11. Assignment TWO: Examination Of The Current Strategy Of A New Zealand
Organisation!................................................................................................. 26
12. Assignment THREE: Strategic Initiative Implementation Plan!.......................... 30
13. Assignment FOUR: Oral Presentation!............................................................ 33
14. General Information!...................................................................................... 37
15. Quick Guide To Online Enrolment!................................................................. 50
16. Course Material For Studio 1!........................................................................ 52
17. Course Agenda For Future Studios!................................................................ 62
18. Bibliography - Strategy And Sustainability!.................................................... 63
19. Course Book Readings!.................................................................................. 77
20. Amendments And Suggestions For Improvements!........................................ 78
1. Foreword
“The best way to predict your future is to create it!” - Abraham Lincoln1

Strategists create the future. More precisely, our role as a strategist is to lead our
organisation towards a position that is superior to our current position. We lead
first with our ideas, our analysis, and our judgement. Secondly, we lead through
our actions and our commitment of resources. Finally, we lead through
anticipating and responding to the actions and strategies of others ... as others
respond to our strategies.... The aim of strategy is simple. The task is complex.

This course builds on the introductions to strategic thinking that you gained in
such courses as Strategic thinking for managers (BSNS 6340) and Innovation and
Entrepreneurship (BSNS 5391). The course also complements courses focussed on
operationalising strategy in the specific domains of marketing, operations,
finance, and human resource management.

The ancient Greek civilisations defined the term strategos as the ‘art of the
general’. The general’s aim in Greek times was to prepare his military forces
against the threats of enemies, or lead in conquest of new lands and peoples. A
world away, the ancient Chinese general Sun Tzu (500 BCE) codified his
knowledge of statehood into about 50 principles, such as ‘win without fighting’
and ‘shape your opponent’s strategy’. His ‘practical philosophy’ continues to
inform both eastern and western military and more recently management
strategy.2

This course develops your skill and knowledge in strategic analysis and strategic
planning through the lense of environmental sustainability. Commencing in the
early 1980s a few multinational companies such as Volvo transportation, Sony
electronics, Interface flooring, and Assidoman forestry began to build strategic
competences that prepared those companies to deliver new products and services
using environmentally sustainable approaches. Today, increasing numbers of
large companies are dictating through their supply chains that their smaller
suppliers in New Zealand and elsewhere must engage in introducing
environmentally sustainable practices in their operations. For example the large
supermarkets in Europe that purchase apples, pears, and other horticultural
products gave New Zealand growers three years to adapt ‘green’ production
practices in order to maintain market access 3.

In this course your assignments will challenge you to explore the extent to which
the issues of sustainability are likely to rate highly for a specific organisation of
your choice. Finally, you will prepare an appropriate strategic initiative for the
organisation responding to the opportunities and/or challenges you identified.

Welcome to BSNS 7340 Strategy!

1 Also attributed to management consultant Peter Drucker and computer innovator Alan Kay
2Michaelson, G. A., & Tzu, S. (2001). Sun Tzu: The art of war for managers: 50 strategic rules.
Adams Media.
3 Hill, R., Jones, G., Hewitt, E., Banks, N., Scott, D., Mellalieu, P. J., Ferguson, I., et al. (1996). A
strategic research and development plan for the New Zealand pipfruit industry (Strategic plan) (p.
48). Hastings, New Zealand: Pipfruit R&D Strategic Planning Group.
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2. Course Contacts
Dr Peter J MELLALIEU
Department of Management and Marketing
O"ce:! 172 – 3020
Website:! http://teach.myndsurfers.org.nz
Phone:! 815 4321 Extension 8108
Mobile: ! 021 42 0118 (Preferred)
Email:!! pmellalieu@unitec.ac.nz
O"ce Hours: Tuesday 10.30 am to noon

Mihi
Ko Ruapehu te maunga

Ko Waikato te awa

Ko Huguenot te iwi

Ko Geering te rangatira

Ko Mellalieu te hap#

Ko Pukawa te marae agribusiness systems strategy. Later


Peter worked as a software
Ko Boeing te waka programmer in a new venture CAD/
CAM systems company in Belgium,
Ko Kaiako Jean-Pierre ahau close to his family’s 17th century roots
as a Protestant silk-weaver in a north-
About east French village.

Associate Professor Peter J. MELLALIEU, Returning to the Manawatu in 1987, he


PhD, BTech(Hons), MPubPol, teaches commenced a teaching career at
strategy, innovation, and new venture Massey University. In 2000, he
development at Unitec Institute of organised a conference on the theme
Technology. of strategies for sustainability and
success in which he engaged thought
Having emigrated from the United leader theologian Lloyd Geering as
Kingdom in the mid-1960s Peter grew keynote speaker.
up in the Waikato, later studying
biotechnology and industrial He spends many happy hours walking,
engineering management at Massey sailing, singing, and skiing with family,
University (Manawatu). friends, and students on Mt Ruapehu
and Pukawa, Lake Taupo.
After university graduation he worked
in Wellington as an operations
research scientist creating

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3. Course Descriptor
Course Title: ! Strategy
Course number: ! BSNS 7340! !
Level:! 7!
Credits:! 15
Main programme: ! Bachelor of Business!
Pre-requisites: ! 75 credits at Level 5, including COMM 5530
Communication for Professionals or COMM
5430 Professional Communication!
Co-requisites: ! None!
Restrictions: ! APMG 7340!
Compulsory/elective: ! Compulsory (Management and
Marketing)!

Learning time
Lecturer contact hours, 39 + Non-contact hours, 111 = Total hours 150

Course aim
To enable students to analyse, evaluate and synthesise the critical aspects of
strategy into a form that can be implemented and managed.

Learning outcomes
1. Analyse the strategic direction of an organisation

2. Synthesise the situation analysis into a new context i.e. the future with
reference to global and entrepreneurial organizations

3. Investigate the nature of change theories and practices relevant to a business


organisation

4. Apply change management principles and practices within a strategic context

Topics/Content outline
The nature of strategic management and planning, analysis of internal and
external environments, determining the mission and objectives and developing
strategies to achieve them implementation, evaluation and control of strategies
functional strategies and the significance of international factors, management of
innovation and change.

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Assessment
Weighting Nature of assessment Learning
outcomes
20% ONE: An individual literature review on a contemporary 1
strategic business issue
30% TWO: A group project examining the current strategy of a New 2
Zealand organisation using public sources of information
30% THREE: An individual assignment proposing a strategic plan 2-4
and discussion of implementation issues based on the findings
of the group project
20% FOUR: An individual oral presentation based on EITHER 1-4
Assignment ONE, TWO or THREE.
You are required to submit ALL assignments. Failure to submit an assignment will
result in failure of the course. If you fail to resubmit a failed assignment, then you
will also fail the course as a whole.

Learning and teaching approaches


Student centred discovery techniques including interactive lectures, discovery and
research, individual and group reflection, action learning/research.

A key feature of this course explores who the international and local issues of
sustainable development impact strategy formulation.

Learning resources
Prescribed texts

Wheelan, T., & Hunger, D. (2010). Concepts in Strategic Management & Business
Policy (12th ed.). Prentice Hall.

An electronic copy (at approx 1/2 price of the print edition) is available for access
from http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/product/Concepts-in-
Strategic-Management-Business-Policy-Achieving-Sustainability-CourseSmart-
eTextbook-12E/9780132138833.page

Recommended text

Manalo, E., Wong-Toi, G. & Bartlett-Tra$ord, J. (2009). The business of writing:


Written communication skills for business students (3rd ed.). North Shore,
NZ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Johnson, G., Scholes, K., & Whittington, R. (2005). Exploring corporate strategy:
Text and cases (7th ed.). Harlow, England: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Stutely, R. (2002). The definitive business plan: The fast-track to intelligent


business planning for executives and entrepreneurs (2nd ed.). London:
Financial Times Prentice Hall.

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Supplementary text:

Frederick, H., & Kuratko, D. F. (2010). Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, Practice


(Asia-Pacific Edition) (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Cengage Learning.

Turner, K., Ireland, L., Krenus, B., & Pointon, L. (2009). Essential Academic Skills
(Revised). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.

Online resources

Students are required to:

Access the Unitec Learning Management System (LMS) Blackboard/Moodle


and the internet for materials relevant to this course.
Keep a private personal journal (blog) using tumblr, as part of their
requirements for Assignment 2.
Use turnitin.com to submit written components forming parts of all
assignments
Use a citation management system such as Endnote or Zotero to manage
their database of reading.
Use Unitec Library databases online
Visit Department of Management and Marketing Blog: http://thedomm.com/
Visit Department of Management and Marketing Facebook Site: http://
www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=104981291451

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4. Topics/Content And Reading Schedule

Week/
Topic Text Assessment Due
Studio

LO 1: Analyse the strategic


direction of an organisation
The nature of strategic
1 Ch 1, (Web Ch C)
management and planning -
Basic concepts,
Strategy in not-for-profits.

Corporate governance,
2 Ch 2, 3,
Social responsibility and ethics.

Ass 1 a: Peer review of


Analysis of internal and external
3 Ch 4, 5, project plan and
environments
progress draft

Situation analysis, business ASS 4: Oral


4 Ch 12, 6
strategy and strategy formulation Presentations commence

LO 2: Synthesise the situation


analysis into a new context
Corporate strategy
5 Ch 7, 8
Functional strategy and strategic
choice

Strategic issues in
6 entrepreneurial ventures and Web Ch B ASS 1 b: submitted
small/medium businesses
LO 3: Investigate the nature of
change theories and practices
relevant to a business
7 organisation Web Ch A,
Managing technology and
innovation

Guest speaker/o$ campus field Ass 2: team project


8
trip submitted

LO 4: Apply change
management principles and
practices within a strategic
9 Ch 9
context
Strategy implementation:
organisation for action

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Week/
Topic Text Assessment Due
Studio

Strategy implementation: sta"ng


10 and directing; Ch 10, 11
Evaluation and control

Assignment 3 workshop and peer


11
review

ASS 4: Last available


12 Assignment exhibitions date for oral
presentation

13 Review and future studies ASS 3 a submitted

14 Study break Ass 3 b submitted

Chapters from course text: Wheelen & Hunger (2010).

Web chapters from publishers’ on-line resource for Wheeler & Hunger.

Assignments: Latest hand-in time: On the date specified before class


commencement.

Submit turnitin.com submissions on the EVENING before class, by 2000 h (10 pm).

Additional readings will be recommended throughout the semester

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5. Workload Overview
The following two tables suggests how you could allocate your 150 hours
required for the course across all course activities. Workload based on a B grade
point average student for whom English is their best language.

Assignment/weight Week Due Weight Out of Work-


% load/h

1 Literature review/20

1a Peer review of project Week 3 5 100 10


plan and progress draft

1b Final submission Before mid-sem 15 100 10


break

2 Group Report/30

2 Final report Immediately after 30 100 25


mid-sem break

3 Individual Report/30

3a Final submission Last class 25 100 25

3b Reflective essay Study week 5 5

4 Oral Presentation/
20

Presentations Week 4 20 100 15


commence

Last presentation Week 12

Studio and other


activities

Studio attendance 13 studios 35

Personal study 25

Team maintenance

Journal reflection

Risk contingencies

Total: 100 150

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Gannt Chart showing allocation of time per week across course activities

Studio 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Studio Pre-break activities Post-break activities
and
other
activ-
ities
Ass 1 Prep for Peer Finalize / 1 b
review / 1 a
Oral Ass 1 Ass 2 Ass 3
Presen-
tation
Ass 2 Prep for Peer Finalize
review
Ass 3 Prep for Peer Finalize /3a 3b
review

Two-week break for study between studio 6 and 7

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6. Learning Model
In this course, your learning will be driven by several concurrent and equally
important elements. Combined, they form a ‘learning adventure’.

Textbook-learning: this component of learning helps to provide some base


knowledge and a roadmap for your thinking.

Lecture-based learning: a component of knowledge development that


provides a forum for the exploration of the base knowledge and a chance to
get ‘o$-road’. This process of thinking helps you to understand the variation
in the base knowledge.
Experiential learning: where you experiment and practice applying your
knowledge in situations that simulate the ‘real world’ of practice
Assessment-based learning: this component of learning enables learning
to be focused and for ideas to be defined more clearly within a given context.
Reflective learning: where you incorporate your learning from practice and
study into your personal knowledge base, and identify future areas for
strengthening your personal and professional development.
Figure 4.1 shows the usual education practice: you accept an assignment, conduct
the assignment, and sometimes present a report. Subsequently, your tutor
assesses the quality of what you have submitted. You are dependent on their
judgement alone in assessing the quality of your learning.

In our ‘learning adventures’ as part of this course, you are required to extend on
the activities of Figure 4.1 through observing your own performance - perhaps in
relation to your team and other members of the class. Figure 4.2 illustrates how
you continue your experience of the class through recording your observations,
and reflecting on how you might improve your practice and your learning in your
future professional life - Figure 4.2

You are required to write a reflective essay as part of the requirements for your
final written assignment. Accordingly, I suggest you maintain a journal or on-line
private blog of your learning adventure with this class. See Turner et al. (2009) for
guidance on this task.

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Figure 4.1: Traditional learning process

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Figure 4.2: Learning process augmented with observation, reflection, and


generalisation of learning

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7. Contact Sessions: Studios And Conduct


All studio sessions are compulsory. Email your team and tutor in advance if you
will fail to attend.

Studio sessions will be the primary time discussions will be held about the
assessments.

Please ensure that before coming to the studio sessions that you are prepared.
Skim read the relevant chapters prior to the relevant class. Prepare questions and/
or case examples you would like to discuss drawn from recent news events.

Follow up classes by reading fully the chapters indicated in the section: Topics/
Content and reading Schedule

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8. Assessment Policy
Do not underestimate the time required to do these Assessments. All
assignments are significant. The assignments build on the work of previous
assignments and text readings. My expectations are high.
It is my expectation that for each assessment, students will spend
approximately 2 to 3 weeks elapsed time on each. As there is no exam, heavy
emphasis is placed upon the quality of course work. The section “Workload
Overview” suggests when and how much to allocate time on your
assignments.
Some assessments requires references and theory. I expect students to
access other scholarly and professional textbooks and journal articles based
upon quality research and thinking. I expect you to extend beyond the
course textbook and a simple-minded Google search. Use Google Scholar,
the Unitec on-line scholarly databases, and advice from the Unitec reference
librarians.
When referencing, please reference properly and accurately. Hint: If you use
Zotero or Endnote, you will be able to transfer data from your personal
reading database into APA referencing format instantly, directly and
automatically!
Extensions require a doctor’s certificate without question.
Group free-riders and plagiarists will be penalised heavily.

All written assessments


To be prepared in a professional report format acceptable to a managerial
audience.
All reports should be properly and professionally bound.
Style: 12 pt, 1.5 pt paragraph spacing in a web-optimised font such as
Georgia or Verdana.
Latest hand-in time: On the date specified before class commencement.
This course uses http://www.turnitin.com for all written report Assessment
work and presentations handouts. Submit by the DAY before class, by 2000 h
(10 pm).
Blended-Learning student should mail me a hard copy of their Assessment as
well as drop the assignment in the digital drop-box. Please do not email me
your Assessment.

All presentations
To be held at studio times in the week and date specified.
To be prepared in a professional format acceptable to a managerial audience.
Presented in Acrobat pdf, DVD, PowerPoint, or (by arrangement) Keynote.

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Blended-Learning students should accompany their presentation with


presentation notes but you do not have to present in person. If you are able
to come and present in person to the class then I welcome this. You are
welcome to attend lectures.
All Assessments grades will include the following grading factors and for some
Assessments these factors may account for up to 50 percent of the allocated
grades:

Argument development (the ability to think)!


Professionalism (the ability to deliver high quality standards)!

Haswell’s ‘Minimal marking’


To encourage you to seek excellence, and avoid mediocrity, your written
assignment will be marked using the principles of “Minimal Marking” (Haswell,
1983).

You will receive a Contingent Mark for the assignment that you submit on the due
date. If there are errors in the grammar, style, word choice, organisation, fluency,
or layout, a selection of these errors will be indicated to you by a “X”. The errors
will NOT be corrected by the marker.

If you fail to gain a grade of 24/30 marks for the Professional Language or
Presentation/Format components of your assignment on your first submission,
your document will be returned to you for correction. The Figure ‘Six-trait
method’ explains the criteria used to assess your writing quality. You are then
required to rewrite the document to achieve a grade of 24/30 for the Professional
Language and Presentation/Format components.

You will be credited with zero marks for this assignment UNTIL you have
corrected the errors to the satisfaction of the course marker. You will have a
maximum of two weeks to re-submit your assignment. If you achieve the required
writing standard, you will receive a grade NO HIGHER than the initial Contingent
Mark allocated by the tutor.

All resubmissions must be made before the end of the Study break period.

If you fail to resubmit your assignment to the required level, then you will receive
zero marks for the assignment.

If you fail to resubmit a failed assignment, then you will also fail the course as a
whole.

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Professional Language: Six-Trait Method for Evaluating Writing Quality

Trait High / 4 - 5 Middle /2 - 3 Low /0 - 1 Mark

Ideas and Focussed, succinct, Some really good Just beginning to


content specific. The ideas and parts. Some parts figure out what
topic keep the reader’s not there yet. you want to say
attention

Word choice Extremely succinct, Correct but not Confusing. The


visual, and accurate. striking. The reader is often
You picked the correct words get the asking “What did
words for the correct message across, you mean by this?”
places. Choice of but don’t capture
Global English word the reader’s
attention.

Grammatical Mostly correct. There About halfway Editing not under


conventions are few errors in the there. Several control yet. It
paper. Global English bothersome would take a first
applied. mistakes need reading to decode,
cleaning up. and a second
reading to get the
message.

Organisation Clear and compelling. Some really Not shaped yet.


You have chosen an smooth parts. The order of the
order that works well Other parts need paper is jumbled
and makes the reader work. The order and confused.
want to find out what makes sense most
comes next. of the time.

Voice Individual and Individuality fades Not “you” yet. You


powerful. The paper in and out. What don’t know what
has personality and you truly think and you truly think or
sounds different from feel shows up only feel yet.
the way anyone else sometimes.
writes.

Sentence Varied and natural. Routine and Paper needs work


fluency The sentences in your functional. Some because there isn’t
paper are delightful to sentences are enough sentence
read out loud. choppy and sense yet.
awkward, but most
are clear.

Total Out of 30

Out of

A mark of 24/30 or better is required to AVOID a resubmission under the policy


of Haswell’s Minimal Marking.

Source: Summarised from: Student Friendly Writing Rubric from a School using the
Six Traits of Writing, Discovered by John Norton while traveling in Alabama.
Thanks to teachers at Maryvale Elementary in Mobile! www.middleweb.com

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Writing resources
The quality of your writing is a CRUCIAL requirement for your success in this
course. Examine the following guides and examples of the writing style required
for this course.

Haswell, R. H. (1983). Minimal marking. College English, 45, pp. 600-604.

Manalo, E., Wong-Toi, G., & Bartlett-Tra$ord, J. (2009). The business of writing:
written communication skills for business students (3rd ed.). North Shore,
NZ: Pearson Education New Zealand. %

McAlpine, R. (1997). Global English for Global Business, Auckland: Longman, ISBN
0 582 73998 5.

McAlpine, EFLAW Readability Score, Retrieved 30 July 2007 12:33 PM, http://
www.webpagecontent.com/arc_archive/139/5/#score

Mellalieu, P. J. (2001, October 21). Creating the A+ assignment: A project


management approach. Retrieved July 27, 2009, from http://web.mac.com/
petermellalieu/Teacher/Blog/Entries/2007/10/21_Creating_the_A
%2B_assignment%3A_A_project_management_approach.html.

Mellalieu, P. (2007, July 3). Let’s all learn and teach Global English in our business
schools! Retrieved July 27, 2009, from http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/
Teacher/Blog/Entries/2007/7/3_Let
%E2%80%99s_all_Learn_and_Teach_Global_English_in_our_Business_School!.h
tml.

Mellalieu, P. J. (2007, October 18). Model answer: A “Five Paragraph” essay in


management. Retrieved July 27, 2009, from http://web.mac.com/
petermellalieu/Teacher/Blog/Entries/2007/10/18_Model_answer%3A_A_
%E2%80%9CFive_Paragraph%E2%80%9D_essay_in_management.html.

Mellalieu, P. J. (n.d.). The essay factory: A collaborative learning adventure.


Retrieved July 27, 2009, from http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/Teacher/
Blog/Entries/2007/6/27_The_essay_factory
%3A_A_collaborative_learning_adventure_.html.

Quality Web Content - From Plain English to Global English:, Retrieved 3 July 2007
3:32 PM, http://www.webpagecontent.com/arc_archive/139/5/

Turner, K., Ireland, L., Krenus, B., & Pointon, L. (2009). Essential Academic Skills
(Revised). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.

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9. Assessment Portfolio

Assessment
Weighting Nature of assessment Learning
outcomes
20% ONE: An individual literature review on a 1
contemporary strategic business issue
30% TWO: A group project examining the current 2
strategy of a New Zealand organisation using public
sources of information
30% THREE: An individual assignment proposing a 2-4
strategic plan and discussion of implementation
issues based on the findings of the group project
20% FOUR: An individual oral presentation based on 1-4
EITHER Assignment ONE, TWO or THREE.

You are required to submit ALL assignments. Failure to submit an assignment will
result in failure of the course. If you fail to resubmit a failed assignment, then you
will also fail the course as a whole.

During Studio 3, students will submit a draft copy of their project plan, and ‘third
draft’ of Assignment ONE. Those students who are most advanced in Assignment
ONE will be encouraged to o$er an oral presentation of their progress to the class
in the immediately forthcoming weeks. The same approach will apply for
Assignments TWO and THREE.

Approximately 1/3 of students in the class will be selected to present for each of
the three assignments. There will be ONE presentation by one member from EACH
of the groups pursuing Assignment TWO.

Fairness in marking - oral presentations


Students who present later in the course have both additional time and the
experience of observing and learning from earlier student presentations.
Accordingly, a moderating process will be used to ensure that those students who
present earlier in the course gain an equitable mark compared with those who
present later.

The following figure shows how your four assignments build on each other. The
overall aim of the assignments is to develop your skills in identifying and
proposing a strategically-appropriate initiative that enhances an organisation’s
ability to respond to the emerging challenges of sustainable development.

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Overall aim of, and relationship between assignments

Source: Mellalieu, 2008.

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10. Assignment ONE: Selected Issues In Strategic


Sustainability
An individual literature review on a contemporary strategic business issue.

Type
Individual assignment. Literature review with optional oral presentation

Scenario
Your local member of parliament has suggested that global climate change is ‘a
madness... a fraud’4. The parliamentarian is due to present a speech at a local
business association presenting her arguments. As a management graduate from
Unitec Institute of Technology, you have also been invited to the association. You
have agreed to present an authoritative and balanced view about the appropriate
stance that businesses could adopt regarding ‘strategic sustainability’. Prepare
and present an evidence-based persuasive argument based on your assessment
of the scholarly literature related to ‘strategic sustainability’.

Instructions
Use this individual investigation to explore deeply a topic that develops your
personal interest and engagement with the domain of strategic thinking
particularly regarding the theme of ‘environmental sustainability’.

During the semester, you will have the (optional) opportunity to deliver an oral
presentation of your research, in the format of the speech that you would deliver
to the business association (Assignment FOUR).

You will also publish your final artifact to the course Knowledge Base (web site) so
that current and future course learning partners will be able to enjoy the fruits of
your investigation.

Length and workload input


Length: 2750 +/- 250 words. Length limit excludes bibliography, appendices,
figures.

See Section 6 for a suggested schedule of workload input.

4 For example, in a commentary on the 2010 Parliamentary Statement by the Prime Minister, The
Hon. Rodney Hide wrote: “'Climate-gate', 'Glacier-gate', 'Africa-gate' has left the once vaunted
IPCC totally discredited and in ruins..... The entire thing is shonky, but on the basis of shonky
science, our government is whacking Fonterra with a $100 million-a-year bill, taxing the average
dairy farm $10,000 a year extra, and hiking fuel and power costs to every business and
householder in the country.... Prime Minister John Key is on record endorsing New Zealand being a
'fast follower' on a climate change response, not a leader. Let us put the ETS on hold until the rest
of the world catches up. I do not think any other country will be burdened ... [to the extent of?]
New Zealand.” (Hide, R. (2010, February 10). Speech on Prime Minister's Statement (Emissions
trading) - Rodney Hide. Retrieved from rodney.hide@parliament.govt.nz

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Definition
‘Strategic sustainability’ has been defined by Couper, Crawford and Young as:

Organising and running the business based on a set of principles,


approaches, and tools that focus the business on doing well economically,
environmentally and socially. Ideally, the business ‘does well by doing good’
- sound social and ecological performance contribute to business success
and improved economic performance. (Couper, Crawford and Young, in
Galea, 2009)5

See also the Brundtland definition of ‘sustainable development’.

Audience and language


Write your assignment using language and style appropriate for an audience such
as the following:

General manager or director of a small-medium enterprise (no qualifications,


considerable experience, interested to broaden their knowledge of strategy,
general management, and sustainability in business)
Graduates of this business strategy course, or senior students of strategy,
general management, and leadership at an esteemed tertiary institution
Intelligent laymen interested in business thinking and/or sustainable
development.
The language of your artifact must be appropriate for a multi-national, culturally
diverse audience of business readers. Imagine that the audience for your artifact
is an international manager who uses English for conducting business. However,
assume that English is NOT their first language. For an example of the appropriate
language style, see Mellalieu, 2007a,b, Quality Web Content, and McAlpine, 1997.

IMPORTANT NOTE: The Haswell minimal marking policy applies to this


assignment. See section: Assignments policy.

Assessment and grading


Your grade is assessed using the rubric presented at the lend of this specification,
including::
the persuasiveness of your arguments
the quality of your supporting research and evidence
use of formal, appropriate, academic English language

5 Couper, B., Crawford, J., & Young, C. (2009). Strategic sustainability consulting. In C. Galea (Ed.),
Consulting for business sustainability. She"eld, UK: Greenleaf. %[Available in Unitec library, call
number: 658.408 CON]

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judgment
citation and referencing of relevant literature
professional presentation
creative design, media and layout

Media format
Please submit your exhibition document in an electronic media format - so that
future students can view and/or add to your material.

pdf
Quicktime
Youtube (a video blog)
tumblr (a multi-media blog)
Microsoft Word
To assist future readers viewing your assignment: Please provide active URLs in
your document.

Creating pdf documents


There is a free download from Microsoft that makes pdfs from Word, Powerpoint
and other document formats. All Macs produce pdfs as a matter of routine.

Peer review of project plan and progress draft


During Studio 3, you will present a progress report of your work to date, and your
intentions for completing the assignment. You will have about 10 minutes to
present your report for peer critique to a small group of class members - not your
project team. The assessment criteria will be as used for the final submission.

The peer review contributes & of your total marks for this assignment.

Project management and research assistance


‘Right-size’ your topic to the time you have available for investigating and writing
this assignment.

I prefer to assess something petite, succinct, elegant, rather than gross, ugly, and
poorly presented! ‘Less is more’.

Use Mellalieu (2001) “Creating the A+ Assignment: A Project Management


Framework” to plan and guide your progress with this assignment.

Maintain a personal diary, learning log, or on-line blog record of your project
achievements on a daily basis. You will discover that you receive personal benefits
through achieving better project outcomes and personal learning.

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You are expected to schedule assistance from the Te Puna Ako (Unitec Student
Learning Centre) and the Unitec Library in advance of the final submission dates.
Seek assistance in essay writing, grammar improvement, style, proof-reading, and
referencing.

Use Zotero or Endnote to manage your citations and references.

Acknowledgments and collaboration


Acknowledge all assistance from people such as other students in the class who
assist you, and external assistance from Te Puna Ako Learning Centre.

You are invited to collaborate with other students in class to assist and encourage
each other in your writing and research task.

Getting started
Here are some suggestions on topics, and questions to guide your initial
investigation.

Review the requirements for producing an academic literature review


(Manalo, et al. (2009), ch. 2; Turner et al. (2009) - refer index)
Review the full chapter from which the introductory definition of strategic
sustainability was sourced (Galea, 2009)
Review the index in your course text for mentions of environmental
sustainability
View the movie “An Inconvenient Truth” by Al Gore.... and/or “examine the
book of the film”
View the movie “Trouble in Paradise”: 100% Impure New Zealand” by Rod
Oram
Narrow down the topic of your presentation eg:
• strategic sustainability: the challenge for New Zealand small-medium
enterprise
• strategic sustainability: the opportunities for eco-technologies
• strategic sustainability and insurance.
As an example of the quality of wring and document I expect for an A-grade, see
the following article. The main body of the article is slightly longer than the size
required for this assignment: 3750 words, excluding contents list, references, etc.

Mellalieu, P. J. (2009). Shifting frontiers, new priorities, creating pathways:


elevating the case for tertiary education for sustainable development in New
Zealand. In New Zealand Tertiary Education Summit 2009 (TES). Presented at
the New Zealand Tertiary Education Summit 2009, Wellington, New Zealand:
Bright*Star Conferences & Training Ltd. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/
petermellalieu/Teacher/Examples/Entries/
2009/5/7_Elevating_the_case_for_tertiary_education_for_sustainability.html

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A word about ‘an appropriate view’


You are NOT required to argue the case that business MUST without question
adopt sustainability practices. You are REQUIRED to investigate and form your own
conclusions based on your reasoned analysis and evaluation of the scholarly
evidence you have found.

If you are a ‘skeptical environmentalist’ I refer you to these texts to deepen your
knowledge of this position.... and develop your own INFORMED view! You could
build a most valuable Assignment ONE based around the task of comparing the
strategic cost-benefits of climate change mitigation identified by Stern (Stern
claims cost of curbing climate change has doubled - 27 Jun 2008) and Morgan &
McCrystal (2009) with the analyses of Cline et al. in Lomborg (2004).

Lomborg, B. (2001). The Skeptical Environmentalist, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge


University Press. Retrieved from http://www.cambridge.org/uk/economics/
lomborg/book.htm

Lomborg, B. (Ed.) (2004). Global crises, global solutions. Cambridge, UK:


Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.co.nz/
books?id=KQ2_zplu8mUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=lomborg+global+crises
+solutions&ei=qeP4SbHvLIzUkwTouMXQBA %

Morgan, G., & McCrystal, J. (2009). Poles Apart: The Great Climate Change Debate.
Auckland, NZ: Random House New Zealand.

Additional readings are suggested in the section: Bibliography - Strategy and


sustainability.

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Assessment rubric - Assignment 1 - Literature review

Name:! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Student ID
Criteria
and Low Middle High Wt. Mark
Qualities
The topic is introduced, and
groundwork is for the direction
of the article. Succinct
Introducing Neither implicit nor
Readers are aware of exposition and interpretation
explicit reference is
the idea: the overall problem, of the topic proposition as you
made to the topic or
challenge, or topic of understand/define it to be.
15
Problem purpose of the
statement the article Important terms defined.
article.
Preview of structure, key topic
themes, and organisation of
your review.
There is a basic flow
The review appears The review proceeds from
from one section to the
Body: to have no general ideas to specific
next, but not all
Flow of the direction, with sections or paragraphs
conclusions. Transitions tie 20
review subtopics appearing sections together, as well as
follow in a natural or
disjointed. adjacent paragraphs.
logical order.
The appropriate content is
Major sections of All major sections of the covered in depth without being
pertinent content pertinent content are redundant. Sources are cited
Body: have been omitted included, but not when specific statements are
Coverage of or greatly run-on. covered in as much made. Significance to the 25
content% The topic is of little depth, or as explicit, as course is unquestionable. At
significance to the expected. Significance least ten credible, scholarly
course. to the course is evident. references – beyond
undergraduates texts

Professional See Six-Trait method and Haswell’s Minimum Marking in the Section:
language Assignment Policy 10

There is no
The author provides
indication the
concluding remarks that The author was able to make
Conclusion: author tried to
show an analysis and succinct and precise
A synthesis synthesize the
synthesis of ideas conclusions based on the
information or make
of ideas and occurred. Some of the review. Insights into the
a conclusion based
application on the literature
conclusions, however, problem are appropriate. 20
to strategic were not supported in Conclusions and the
under review. No
sustain- the body of the report. application to strategy and
application to
ability The application to sustainability are strongly
strategy and
library media center supported in the review.
sustainability is
program is stated.
provided.
Citation for the Citation for the article
Citations/ article did not did follow APA format; Citation for the article did
References: follow APA format however; a few (2) follow APA format. Essential
and was missing errors in essential information was accurate and
5
Proper APA
format essential information were complete.
information. evident.

Professional document or
Presentation media presentation. Creativity 5
and innovation in design.

TOTAL 100

Source: Adapted slightly from a rubric by Della Curtis, O"ce of Library Information
Services, Baltimore County Public Schools http://www.bcpl.net/~dcurtis/ila

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11. Assignment TWO: Examination Of The Current


Strategy Of A New Zealand Organisation
A group project examining the current strategy of a New Zealand organisation
using public sources of information

Type
Group assignment. Executive Report with optional oral presentation as part of
Assignment FOUR.

Scenario
You have been recruited into the strategic planning team of a New Zealand
organisation. At your induction programme, several middle-management sta$
expressed their personal suspicion that the organisation was insu"ciently
prepared for challenges that would emerge from the issue of environmental
sustainability.

You have been allocated one day per week by your manager to pursue an
assignment of your own choosing - but relevant to your role in the strategic
planning team. Accordingly, you have chosen to examine the organisation’s
current strategy and its ability to deal with the many challenges and opportunities
arising from the issue of ‘sustainable development’. For example, the introduction
of the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) legislation, the revision of the
Resource Management Act, the increasing expenditures by multinational
companies on green technologies, and the entrepreneurial opportunities for
carbon trading and eco-technologies.6

You have managed to engage several other members of the organisation in your
project. Accordingly, you have agreed to work as a project team to produce a
strategic audit of organisation x’s capability for responding to the issues of
sustainability.

Length and workload input


Length: 3750 +/- 250 words. Length limit excludes bibliography, appendices,
figures.

See Section 6 for an suggested workload input.

6Everett, C. (2009, November 10). Recession provides boost to blue chip's green investment -
BusinessGreen.com. Retrieved November 10, 2009, from http://www.businessgreen.com/
business-green/news/2252807/recession-provides-boost-blue

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Selection of organisation
Select an organisation operating currently in New Zealand that

Has a plentiful supply of publically-available information


Is ideally resident in the Rosebank Business Precinct or Mount Albert
business district
Is for profit or not-for-loss
You have the option of choosing an organisation that has already made an
existing commitment to adopting sustainable practices. Naturally, you will seek to
identify and proposes advances on the position the organisation has already
adopted.

Commercial sensitivity
Apart from seeking access to publically-available information you are NOT
permitted to contact the organisation that forms the subject of your assignment.

If you wish to conduct this assignment for an organisation in which you work, you
MUST follow the Unitec Ethics Guidelines for Student Assignments.

Assignment guidelines
The following requirements for Assignment ONE apply to this assignment

Audience and language


Assessment and grading
Media format
Haswell’s ‘Minimal marking’
Project management and research assistance
Acknowledgments and collaboration
Writing resources

Getting started
Here are some suggestions on topics, and questions to guide your initial
investigation.

Review the requirements for producing a professional report and case study
analysis (Manalo, et al. (2009), ch. 4, 5 and 8; Turner et al. (2009), Ch. 7)
Review the requirements for working productively in groups (Turner et al.
(2009), Ch. 8)
Review the index in your course text for examples of environmental
sustainability practice in businesses. See also case examples in Frederick &
Kuratko (2010).

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Review the chapter section on ‘strategic audit’ in your course text, for
guidance on collecting and evaluating data for the organisation you have
chosen.

Your team learning cluster


Each group will ensure that there is at least ONE of their members presenting in
Assignment FOUR on one of the Assignment topics from Assignment ONE, TWO or
THREE.

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Assessment rubric - Assignment 2 - Report

Name: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Student ID:

Trait High Middle Low Weight Mark


Fails to identify and Identifies the Identifies not only
summarize the main strategy(ies) the basics of the
Identifies corporate strategy, and subsidiary, strategy, but
is confused or embedded, or recognizes
the organi-
sation’s
identifies a implicit aspects of nuances of the 15
di$erent or the strategy strategy,
strategy inappropriate particularly as
strategy they pertain to
sustainability

Fails to surface the Identifies most of Identifies and


assumptions that the key questions the
Key
underlie the assumptions validity of the key
assumptions strategy assumptions that 15
underlie the
strategy

Simply lists Discusses the Discusses


examples of relevance of nuances of the
actions or actions and examples in some
behaviors that behaviors detail, especially
Evidence of represent the representing the those pertaining
strategy strategy. Does not strategy(ies) to sustainability 15
discuss the
relevance of these
actions or
behaviors.

Conclusions, Fails to identify Identifies and Objectively


conclusions, discusses reflects upon own
implications,
and conse-
implications, and conclusions, analysis of the 30
consequences of implications, and corporate
quences the strategy consequences strategy

Professional See Six-Trait method and Haswell’s Minimum Marking in the


Section: Assignment Policy 10
language
Citation for the article Citation for the Citation for the
Citations/ did not follow APA article did follow article did follow
format and was APA format; APA format.
References:
missing essential however; a few (2) Essential 5
Proper APA information. errors in essential information was
format information were accurate and
evident. complete.
Incorrect report Some elements of Professional
Presentation format - eg: missing formal business document structure
and report cover letter, Exec report missing. - business report. 10
format summary, Creativity in design
recommendations

TOTAL 100
Based on: Business Strategy Analysis Rubric, from http://academic.scranton.edu/
department/assessment/ksom/

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12. Assignment THREE: Strategic Initiative


Implementation Plan
An individual assignment proposing a strategic plan and discussion of
implementation issues based on the findings of the group project.

Type
Individual assignment. Report with oral presentation, unless an oral presentation
has been submitted for and earlier assignment.

Scenario
For Assignment TWO, you produced a strategic audit of an organisation’s
response to sustainability. You are now in a position to recommend to the
organisation several proposals for addressing the specific issues that the
organisation faces regarding sustainability.

On the basis of appropriate evaluation criteria, select ONE proposal for further
development. Develop a new venture proposal for implementing the initiative.
Prepare your proposal in the form of a written report: a strategic initiative/new
venture business plan.

Your plan should explain in a succinct and lucid manner how the results of
implementation will contribute strongly towards building on existing
organisational strengths and/or overcoming existing weaknesses. Respond in
particular to those organisation features that are susceptible to your forecast of
the impacts on the organisation of external trends in sustainability issues.

Your initiative may be selected from a wide range of possibilities. For instance, the
initiative could act as a ‘pathfinding’ project to begin the organisation’s journey
towards building new strategic core competences. For example, a new product, a
re-design of an existing product line, improved company operational and/or
purchasing procedures, adaptation of company brand and communication policy,
merger/takeover of organisations with desired strategic core competences or
‘green’ brand position.

You are welcome to use and/or adapt material from your Assignment TWO in this
assignment. You may use the material in an Appendix or in the main body.

Length and workload


Length: 2750 +/- 250 words. Length limit excludes bibliography, appendices,
figures.

See Section 6 for a suggested workload input.

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Assignment guidelines
The following requirements for Assignment ONE apply to this assignment

Audience and language


Assessment and grading
Media format
Haswell’s ‘Minimal marking’
Project management and research assistance
Acknowledgments and collaboration
Writing resources

Getting started
Here are some suggestions on topics, and questions to guide your initial
investigation.

Review the requirements for producing an professional report and case study
analysis (Manalo, et al. (2009), ch. 4, 5 and 8; Turner et al. (2009), Ch. 7)
Review the index in your course text for examples of environmental
sustainability practice in businesses. See also case examples in Frederick &
Kuratko (2010).
Review the chapter section on ‘strategic audit’ in your course text, for
guidance on collecting and evaluating data for the organisation you have
chosen.
The text chapter pertaining to LO 2, 3, and 4 apply to this assignment. See
Section: “Topics/Content and reading schedule”

Reflective essay
Include a one-page five paragraph reflective essay as a supplement to your
report. Use the essay to identify the challenges and benefits that you have gained
from the pursuit of this course. For instance: What lessons have you learned that
you could/will apply in your future studies and professional life. If you had more
time and/or resources, how could you have improved your assignments and
participation in the course? What advice can you o$er future students as they
prepare to engage with this course? What features of the course should be
increased, reduced, or modified? Why?

To collect data for this essay, you are advised to maintain a personal journal or
blog throughout your participation in the course. Keep a record of your weekly
Csikszentmihalyian flow at the start and end of each class. (See Studio 1)

Refer to Turner et al. (2009) for guidance on writing reflective essays. See also the
section: Course Learning Model.

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Assessment rubric - Assignment 3 - strategic initiative implementation plan


Name: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Student ID:
Trait High Middle Low Wt Mark
Fails to identify and Identifies the Identifies not only the
summarize the organisation’s key basics of the how the
Defines the organisation’s key strategic issues that initiative contributes
organisat- strategic issues that are to be addressed to the organisation’s
ion’s key are to be addressed by the plan. Justifies strategy, but
strategic by the plan. The selection of initiative. recognizes nuances of 15
issues to be selection of initiative the strategy,
addressed is confused or particularly as they
by the plan identifies a di$erent pertain to
or inappropriate sustainability
strategy
Fails to surface the Identifies most of the Identifies and
Key assumptions that key assumptions questions the validity
assumptions underlie the proposed of the key 10
initiative assumptions that
underlie the initiative
Simply lists examples Discusses the Discusses relevance
of actions or relevance of actions and nuances of the
behaviors that and behaviors examples in some
Evidence of represent the representing the detail, especially those
strategy, strategy. Does not strategy(ies) pertaining to
change, and discuss the relevance sustainability, risk 30
innovation of these actions or management, and
behaviors. project team
personnel.

Fails to identify Identifies and Conclusions,


conclusions, discusses conclusions, implications and
Conclusions, implications, and implications, and consequences are
implications, consequences of the consequences discussed with direct
and conse- strategy reference to the 15
quences proposed
organisational issues
and proposed strategy
Professional See Six-Trait method
language 5
Citation for the article Citation for the article Citation for the article
Citations/ did not follow APA did follow APA format; did follow APA format.
References: format and was however; a few (2) Essential information
Proper APA missing essential errors in essential was accurate and 5
format information. information were complete.
evident.
Incorrect report Some elements of Professional
Presentation format - eg: missing formal business report document structure -
and report cover letter, Exec missing. business report. 5
format summary, Creativity in design
recommendations
Describes activities Some insight Holist essay of lessons
carried out. No identified and advice learned. Examples of
Reflective reflection or made. incidents that initiated
essay generalisation to new personal insights. 15
potential future Advice for future
circumstances teacher and students

TOTAL 85
Based on: Business Strategy Analysis Rubric, from http://academic.scranton.edu/
department/assessment/ksom/

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13. Assignment FOUR: Oral Presentation


An individual oral presentation based on your progress with EITHER Assignment
ONE, TWO or THREE.

Prepare your research in the form of an oral presentation to the class. (See Turner
et al, Ch 9, ‘Presentations’).

Your are ENCOURAGED to deliver your oral presentation prior to submission of


your final documents for Assignments 1, 2, 3. Through presenting part-way
through your assignment project work, you will:

Gain the experience of clarifying the most important aspects of your


investigation
Gain feedback from your audience on how to improve your final submission.
OPTION: you may pre-record your presentation and submit the recording in lieu
of a face-to-face presentation. You will be required to answer questions ‘live’ eg
in class or via telephone, electronic chat facility, video-conference.

Length
Oral: 15 minutes of which 1/2 the time should be devoted to questions and
interaction, and soliciting feedback from the audience for improvements to the
final submission.

Handout: 15 pages maximum

Compulsory requirement
Each team will ensure that there is at least ONE of their members presenting on
one of the Assignment topics from Assignment ONE, TWO or THREE.

Handouts
You are also required to submit to your audience your presentation (speech) notes
and/or visuals as you deem appropriate. One copy for each team.

As a scholar, your presentation notes should include full academic citations and
references.

You may present your visuals as:

Slide presentation
Video
Poster
Other multi-media medium as negotiated with the course tutor.

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Media format
Please submit your exhibition document and handout in an electronic media
format - so that future students can view and/or add to your material.

Acrobat pdf
Quicktime
Youtube (a video blog)
tumblr (a multi-media blog)
Microsoft Word
To assist future readers viewing your assignment: Please provide active URLs in
your document.

Assignment guidelines
The following requirements for Assignment ONE apply to this assignment

Audience and language


Assessment and grading
Media format
Haswell’s ‘Minimal marking’
Project management and research assistance
Acknowledgments and collaboration

Recording of presentation
Your presentation will be recorded for future student use, and made available on
Unitec’s learning management systems and/or YouTube.

Example: speech
Here are speech notes prepared for a graduation address to students at Te
Wananga a Aotearoa. The author had about 24 hours notice to prepare this
speech!

Mellalieu, P. J. (2009, May 14). Our graduation is a landmark in our journey


towards building our wealth and caring for our environment. Graduation address/
Korero te puawaitanga, Speech presented at the Tamaki Makaurau Graduation
2009 Te Wananga a Aotearoa, Malaeola Community Centre, Mangere, Manakau
City. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/Teacher/Examples/
Entries/2009/5/14_Graduation_speech
%3A_a_landmark_in_our_journey_towards_building_our_wealth_and_caring_for_ou
r_environment.html

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Aiming for excellence


The ‘top four’ presentations delivered during the semester program will be
o$ered the opportunity to present at the final class exhibition, studio 13. These
students will be rewarded with the opportunity to increase their grade for the Oral
Presentation.

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Assessment Rubric - Assignment FOUR: Oral Presentation


Marking Schedule – Oral Presentation
Date: Judge: Team Id: Team Name

Level
Criteria Levels Speaker 1: Level Speaker 2: Level Speaker 3
PRESENTATION
Delivery 5: Professional throughout
3: Good
1: An effort
Team work 5:Excellent
3: Evident most of time
1:Some evident
Clear speaking 5:Very clear and audible
3: All clear and audible
1: Most members mostly clear
Non-verbal 5: Exceptionally high
communication 3: Good standard
1: Mostly adequate
Visual aids 5: Very effective
3: Good standard
1: Used
Logical sequence 5: Logical
3: Logical
1: Attempted
Transitions 5: Very smooth
3: Evident
1: Attempted
Rapport & 5: Excellent
involvement 3: Gained
1: Attempted
Timing 5: Appropriate and consistent
with topic
3: Mostly appropriate and
consistent
1: Difficulties apparent
Innovation 5: Clearly evident
3: Effort made
1: Absent
Sub-Total: Mark = Level x 6
Presentation Out of 30
CONTENT
Purpose of 5: Clearly identified
presentation 3: Identified
1: Attempted
Topic Focus 5: Direct
3: Mainly
1: An effort made
Strategy, 5: Clearly identified
sustainability 3: Identified
principles 1: Attempted
Relevant 5: Highly relevant
information 3: Mostly relevant
1: Little

Sub-Total: Content Mark = Level x 6


Out of 30
QUESTION
HANDLING
Answers the 5: Completely
question 3: Present
1: Attempted
Succinct 5: To the point
3: Waffle
1: Evasive

Sub-Total: Mark = Level x 4


Questions Out of 20
HANDOUT
Lucid 5: Easy to follow; Own words;
logical
Comprehensive 5: Overview of presentation;
Supplementary detail
Layout and 5: Professional; Numbered
presentation and/or mindmap;
Headings; White space
Sub-Total: Handout Mark = Level x 4
Out of 20
Key Areas for
Improvement

Key Areas of
Strength

TOTAL Sum of Marks


Out of 100

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14. General Information

Key Sta!
Dr. Robert Davis Head of Department: Management & Marketing (DoMM), Tel.
815 4321, Ext 7418 rdavis@gw.unitec.ac.nz
Dr. Liz Rainsbury Head of Department: Accounting & Finance, Tel. 815 4321,
Ext 8803, erainsbury@gw.unitec.ac.nz
Mark Holden, Programme Director — BBus, Tel 815 4321 Ext 8833,
mholden@gw.unitec.ac.nz
Je$ Marriott Programme Director — DipMgt, Tel. 815 4321, Ext 8131.
jmarriott@gw.unitec.ac.nz
Rose Coveny Programme Director—DipProfAcc, Tel. 815 4321, Ext 8084,
rcoveny@gw.unitec.ac.nz
Soynya Stuart Programme Administrator - BBus, DipMgt, DipProfAcc, Tel.
815 4321, Ext 8282, sstuart@gw.unitec.ac.nz
Malama Solomona Lecturer/Pacific Advisor, msolomona@unitec.ac.nz, or
pacific@unitec.ac.nz
Emma Brown – Student Advisor, Tel. 815 4321, Ext. 8286,
ebrown@gw.unitec.ac.nz

Key Contacts
The Unitec Counselling Service, Tel. 815 4321, Ext 8605
Maia M'ori Development Sta$, Tel. 815 4321 Ext 8695
Unitec Campus Bookstore, Tel. 815 4321 Ext 7490 or Ext 8437
Te Puna Ako -Learning Support Centre, Tel. 815 4321 Ext 8611
Unitec Library Front Desk, Tel. 815 4185
Pasifika Student Support, Tel. 815 4321 Ext 8782
Student Loans and Allowances Administrators Jacky Brodie, Tel. 815 4321 Ext
8545
USU Students’ Association at Unitec, www.usu.co.nz

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Policies and Procedures


Please read these policies specific to the Bachelor of Business in conjunction with
the Unitec publication, “Your Guide to Unitec’s Rules and Policies”

Unitec’s Commitment and Expectations of Students:

Unitec is committed to providing you with:

Lecturers who are well prepared and organised


Display a thorough knowledge of their subject
Good communicators
Provide you with useful feedback on your performance
Responsive to your learning needs
Qualifications that are credible and portable
A quality education in a climate of continuous improvement
Accurate information about your programme
Assessment that is fair, valid and timely
The opportunity to evaluate courses and teaching in confidence
A learning environment that is safe and one that enables you to achieve your
full potential.
We expect students to:

Be punctual and reliable in attendance


Be well organised and prepared for each class
Be committed to your own learning
Participate actively in group work and other learning activities associated
with their programme.
Abide by Unitec statutes and regulations
Respect the rights of your fellow students and Unitec sta$
Provide useful feedback to courses and teaching to assist us in improving our
programmes and services.

Cellphones

Cell phones must be turned o$ during class. Students who leave cell phones on
during class time may be asked to leave for the duration of that session, or have
the phone confiscated until the end of class.

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What is a programme?

A programme leads to a qualification such as a degree, diploma or certificate and


consists of a number of courses. When you complete a course in a programme,
you achieve a certain number of credits. In the case of a BBus student you would
receive 15 credits for each course successfully passed.

What is a course?

A course is a module of study within a programme that is usually taken over a


semester. In this time you may be required to attend lectures and tutorials,
sometimes a lecture/tutorial, complete with assignments as well as exams. In
some programmes all courses, sometimes called papers, are compulsory, while in
others there may be elective courses.

Study Options

You can study full-time over three years or part-time over a longer period. You
have to complete the Bachelor of Business within TEN years. Each course is one
semester long. Selected courses are also o$ered during Unitec’s Summer School,
which is held in December and January.

Full-time classes are scheduled Monday to Friday, with a range of times during
the day for you to choose from. Typically you will spend between 12 to 16 hours
per week in the classroom and at least 20 to 24 hours per week on study,
assignments and other class work.

Learning Support

If you have any di"culty understanding information given in lectures, you should
in the first instance speak with your lecturer. Also ensure that you attend the
tutorials for the course. If you continue to have a problem with a particular
concept or skill you should make an appointment with the Te Puna Ako Learning
Centre situated in The Hub, Building 180. Te Puna Ako provides a range of
learning support services, including workshops. They can also provide help on
how to write essays, reports etc, and help you to understand the requirements of
assignments.

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Sta! Support
To Get Help with: ! Contact: ! ! ! ! !
A particular subject: ! The Course Lecturer
Your studies in general: ! Student Advisor or BBus Programme Director
Problems about assessments: ! The Course Lecturer first, then the Business
Information & Support Centre, or Programme
Administrator
Enrolling, Cross Credits, Exemptions:
! Business Information & Support Centre or
Programme Administrator
Planning Your Programme: ! Student Advisor or BBus Programme
Administrator
Personal Matters A$ecting Your Studies:
! Any of the above sta$ or Unitec Counselling
Service
Financial Matters: ! Unitec Student Financial Advisor or Unitec
Counselling Service
Scholarships: ! Unitec Student Financial Advisor, Maia sta$,
Student Advisor, or email
scholarships@unitec.ac.nz

Centre for Pacific


The Centre for Pacific was established to meet the needs of Pacific communities
and to enhance and increase the participation, completion and progression rates
of Pacific students.

The Centre currently provides the following services:

Academic support; general and content specific

Careers advice
Course and programme enquiries
Financial/Scholarship advice
Pastoral care
Mentoring
Pacific lecture series

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Pacific events: Orientation, Graduation, Pacific Leadership Fono (Secondary


Schools), student and sta$ events, Fanau evenings, KavalUP – Quarterly
newsletter.

Computer Laboratory Rules


You will be provided with a username and a directory for storing files, as well as
access to a range of software in our computer labs (your username is the same in
each lab where you work). Inform your lecturer immediately if the equipment is
faulty. Professional and ethical behaviour is expected of our students, just as it
would be in a work situation. These rules are needed to make it possible for a
large number of people to co-operate in using the laboratories. Breaches of the
rules may lead to penalties ranging from loss of access to labs to exclusion from
the programme.

Do not do anything that will interfere with the normal operation of the equipment,
other users, and networks.

Do not password protect files, otherwise virus checkers may be impeded. Do


not connect your lap top to the Unitec network.
Respect the laws of copyright. No private material is to be used on Unitec
equipment. No copying of Unitec software is permitted.
Do not copy files or applications into your directory from outside your
directory or vice versa without specific permission from a lecturer. This
applies to files in another directory, or on a removable storage device.
Do not use anyone else's username or directory, and do not let others use
yours.
Do not send unwanted or o$ensive mail. Messages should be brief and
related to your programme of studies.
Keep your own directory tidy and uncluttered. Delete unwanted files, sub-
directories, and mail.
Never eat or drink in computer labs or classrooms except for water bottles
with seals. Help keep labs tidy by looking after your own waste paper and
using the recycling bins provided.
You may not play games in Unitec labs or take furniture outside.
Cell phones must be switched o$ during all lab and classroom sessions.
Your Student ID Card must be placed in the clear plastic holder on the side of
the screen or front of the computer unit, during use of the computer.

Assessments/Assignments/Exams
During your course you will have several assessments. You will be expected to
turn in high quality work, of the same standard that will be expected of you in a
work situation. All assessment work for this programme must be each student’s
own original work unless group projects are specifically designated by the

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Lecturer. Marked assignments not collected within three months of submission


will be disposed of.

Examination dates are fixed.

An examination timetable is available prior to the commencement of a semester.


When selecting courses it is important to check again the examination dates
before semester commences. A student cannot ask for an examination date(s) to
be changed to suit his/her particular arrangements.

Special Assessment Circumstances (SAC)


Any student who is prevented from completing an assessment item by the due
time and date, or whose performance is a$ected by factors beyond their control,
may apply for a SAC under the Institute's provisions outlined in the Academic
Statute.

Students should note that such an SAC application must be lodged with the
Business Information & Support Centre, Building 180 with the appropriate medical
or other documentation within five (5) working days of the due time and date of a
test or exam, or before the deadline date and time for an assignment (refer to
“Late Assignments” below).

In the case of illness or injury, documentary evidence such as a medical certificate


must be dated within 24 hours of the assessment date and must be signed by a
New Zealand registered medical practitioner.

Only one SAC application is possible in any one course in each semester.

An SAC application will only be considered if all other assessment items have
been completed. NOTE: Students who apply for a SAC for the final examination
must take the exam in the following semester.

Where a valid SAC application has been received

For an assignment, the student will usually be granted an extension to the


due date, but the SAC application must be submitted before the deadline
date and time – refer to “Late Assignments” below;
For a test the Programme Committee may assign an assessed mark, based on
class ranking and marks achieved in other course assessments and the final
exam; or when it is known in advance of the test that special assessment
circumstances will apply, it may be arranged for the student to sit the test
prior to the test date;
For the final exam, the student will then receive a deferred grade and will be
required to sit the exam the next time the course is o$ered, usually the
following semester of Summer School. The student is not given an assessed
grade;
For impaired performance in a test or exam, the Programme Committee may
let the mark achieved stand or adjust the mark based on marks and class

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rankings achieved in other assessments in the course. In such instances the


estimated grade is marked (est.) in the student’s academic record. The
application form is available from the Business Information and Support
Centre.

What is beneficial assistance when doing assessments?

Study Groups
Discussion
Sharing reading material

What is unacceptable assistance when doing assessments

Working together on one copy of the assessment and submitting it as own


work
Giving another student your work
Copying someone else’s work. This includes work done by someone not on
the course
Changing or correcting another student’s work
Copying from books, Internet etc, and submitting it as your own work

Assistance to other students

Students themselves can be an excellent resource to assist the learning of fellow


students, but there are issues that arise in assessments that relate to the type and
amount of assistance given by one student to another. It is important to recognise
what types of assistance are beneficial to another’s learning and are acceptable in
an assessment. The Unitec Academic Statute governs the conduct of assignments
and examinations, and violations of the standards will result in disciplinary action.

Acknowledgement of sources

Referencing is an important part of all academic work. Sources of information


should be acknowledged for the following reasons:

To distinguish between your ideas and someone else’s.


To show readers the range and quality of your reading.
To direct readers to the sources used, if they want further information.
Failure to acknowledge a source of information, or using other people’s ideas as
your own, is called plagiarism. Plagiarism is a serious form of academic
dishonesty. Use APA referencing style in your assignments. For guidance, refer to

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the required textbook for all courses for the BBus degree, Manalo et al., and the
Blackboard/Moodle BBus site7.

Turnitin.com

Turnitin is a software package that identifies plagiarised content in assignments.


Lecturers will require students to submit their assignments through Turnitin.com.
A user manual for students is available for downloading at: http://turnitin.com/
static/training.html if you wish to learn more about Turnitin.com.

Use of Textbooks / Written Materials in Tests and Exams

You will be advised by each Course Co-ordinator of which statutes, text books,
notes or other written materials that may be taken into the Assessment Tests and
Final Examination. Where the use of such books or materials is permitted there
should be no pen or pencil markings of any kind, but the proper use of
highlighting with a highlighting pen is acceptable. Any unauthorised material or
marking (e.g., writing, extra pages, markers, numbering, arrows, asterisks etc),
will be treated as evidence of cheating and will be acted upon and the text book
or statute or written materials confiscated and not replaced.

Use of Dictionaries in Tests and Examinations

Unless otherwise advised, students may take into a test or examination a copy of
either Collins Pocket English Dictionary or Oxford Pocket English Dictionary. No
Dictionary taken into a test or examination may be marked in any way other than
with the student's name. This means that there should be no writing, high-
lighting or underlining in the dictionary. At the start of the test or examination
concerned dictionaries will be checked and may be confiscated from a student for
the duration of the test or examination if any marking is found. In circumstances
where marking found in a dictionary gives rise to a suspicion of cheating,
disciplinary proceedings may follow.

Restrictions on Entry to Examination Room

A student arriving late for a 3 hour test or examination will not be permitted to
enter the examination room later than 1( hours after candidates have
commenced writing the test/examination; in the case of a 2 hour test or
examination, later than 1 hour after the commencement of the test/examination;
in the case of a 1( hour test or examination, later than 45 minutes after the
commencement of the test/ examination.

Unless accompanied by a supervisor, a student is not permitted to leave the


examination room before 1( hours (for a 3 hour test or examination) has elapsed,
or 1 hour for a 2 hour test or examination. Students who continue writing after

7 Manalo, E., Wong-Toi, G., & Bartlett-Tra$ord, J. (2009). The business of writing: written
communication skills for business students (3rd ed.). North Shore, NZ: Pearson Education New
Zealand. %See also Turner, K., Ireland, L., Krenus, B., & Pointon, L. (2009). Essential Academic Skills
(Revised.). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://openlibrary.org/b/
OL10135765M/Essential-Academic-Skills %

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the “STOP WRITING” instruction will have their marks reduced by 5% of the exam
marks.

Availability of Marked Assessments

Students shall be entitled to the return of all written work (or a copy thereof)
submitted for formal assessment, and to be given access to a copy of the marking
schedule used to mark the assessment. Marked work will only be retained until 4
weeks into the following semester. Original examination scripts are available from
the Business Information and Support Centre to students free of charge after
grades are approved by the Programme Committee, or copies are available at cost
at the end of the academic year. For computer-based examinations a detailed
marking schedule only will be provided. If a student uplifts the original
examination she/he forgoes the right to apply for a recount of the script or an
appeal against the grade.

Recount of Final Examinations

A recount of a final examination will confirm that all questions have been marked
and that the marks correctly add to the total mark for that script. A recount may
lead to no change or to either a raising or lowering of the grade. The procedure
for having a particular final examination recounted shall be as follows:

A written application for recounts, together with the prescribed fee, must be
received by the Business Information and Support Centre (BISC) within 15
working days of the mailing of results and prior to the student uplifting his/
her original script;
The Programme Leader shall arrange for a recount of the marks;
The Programme Committee shall confirm the outcome of the recount and
advise the student in writing within 5 working days of the confirmation.
Appeal against a Grade
A student may appeal against the final grade or pass category awarded in any
course by applying in writing to the Dean, Faculty of Creative Industries and
Business, giving reasons to justify the appeal. Applications for appeal must
be received by the Dean 15 working days from the mailing of the results. In
exceptional circumstances the Dean may extend the time for receipt of the
application for appeal.

Late Assignments

There is a policy of No Late Assignments on this programme. An assessment item


submitted after the due time and date will not be marked or graded unless:

The student’s performance has been a$ected by factors beyond the control
of the student (as defined in the Academic Statute); and
An application for Special Assessment Circumstances (SAC) has been lodged
before the deadline and verified. Application for an SAC is to be made by the

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student to the Programme Director. Application forms are available from the
Business Information and Support Centre, Building 172.
When requesting an SAC for an assignment, the application must be submitted
(along with work completed to date) either before the deadline or within the
timeframe of the extension requested i.e. if the Doctor's Certificate is for one (1)
day, then the SAC and work completed must be submitted within one (1) day of
the deadline. Only one SAC application is possible in any one course per semester

Use of the Unitec Logo within your assignment

Use of the Unitec logo is not permitted on assignments. The Unitec logo is for
Unitec documents and only for use by Unitec sta$.

Lost Assignments

Course lecturers accept NO responsibility for lost assignments. It is the student’s


responsibility to retain copies of assignments that are submitted for marking/
grading. Copies should be retained either in hard copy or on computer disks/files.
Computer-based assignments that require submission of computer files must
have a back-up copy stored on the Unitec Student F: Drive.

Collection of Marked/Graded Assignments

It is the student’s responsibility to collect graded/marked assignments.


Assignments due in one semester will be kept no longer than four weeks into the
following semester.

Misconduct in Assessments / Assignments / Exams

Any student who has plagiarised any work or colluded with another student(s) in
any way will be referred to the Programme Leader. The student will be subject to
disciplinary action under the Institute’s Academic Statute. Definitions of dishonest
practice shall include:

“Cheating”, which is defined as any fraudulent response whatsoever by students


to any item of assessment, including any action which may otherwise defeat the
purpose of the assessment.

“Plagiarism”, which is defined as the act of taking and using another person’s
thoughts, ideas, writings, inventions or work as one’s own without proper
acknowledgement and includes:
Copying the work of another student;
(ii) directly copying any part of another’s work, including information
obtained from the internet;

(iii) summarising another’s work;

(iv) using experimental results obtained by another.

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Submitting work for summative assessment which has been jointly prepared
for presentation, in circumstances where this has not been approved by the
Programme Leader.
The submission of work for summative assessment which has previously
been submitted elsewhere, without the prior permission of the Programme
Leader.
The presentation of fraudulent material as evidence of achievement in an
educational or employment context in order to gain entry to a programme or
to gain credit within a programme.
A breach of any rules relating to summative assessment.

Penalties for Misconduct

For the first occurrence within the programme, the student will receive a zero
mark for the assessment.

For the second occurrence within the programme the student will appear before
the Discipline Committee. The Discipline Committee may impose a number of
di$erent penalties including suspension from the course, exclusion from the
programme or exclusion from UNITEC.

Exclusion from a Programme

Any student who, over the last four semesters of his or her studies, has failed to
pass courses equivalent to one half of the credits in which she/he has been
enrolled over that period, shall be deemed to be excluded from that programme
and shall not be permitted to re-enrol without the prior permission of the
Programme Committee.

Exclusion from a Course

A student who has failed the same course on two occasions shall not be enrolled
again for that course except with the permission of the Programme Committee.

Course Concerns

If you have any concerns about the way your course is progressing this semester
please contact one of the following people to discuss it: - your Course Lecturer -
the Course Coordinator or arrange an appointment with the BBus Programme
Director or Student Advisor. Anonymous complaints will not be actioned. Please
include your name and student number in any correspondence to the Programme
Director. Your identity will not be divulged to the lecturer. For o"cial complaints
procedure refer to www.unitec.ac.nz. Select The Facts/Rules and Policies and
then follow the “Quick Link” to “Students Complaint Policy”.

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Information for Students with Disabilities

At UNITEC we are attempting to remove all barriers to learning for people with
disabilities. Please make your needs known to your lecturer as soon as possible.
UNITEC o$ers the following resources to students with disabilities:

One-to-one assistance -available in the form of note-takers, readers and


writers (for tests and exams) but it is the responsibility of the student to
organise.
Separate examination rooms and extra time can be arranged.
Support networks and individual needs support: contact the Disability Co-
ordinator, Wendy Russell, on 815 4321 extension 8606 for more information
about any of these services.

Requirements to Pass a Course

Grades of 50% or higher are required to pass a course. The following grade-mark
correspondences apply:

! Grade ! Mark

! A+ ! 90 to 100! )

! A! 85 to 89! ) ! Distinction

! A-! 80 to 84! )

! B+! 75 to 79! )

! B! 70 to 74! )! Merit

! B-! 65 to 69! )!

! C+! 60 to 64! )

! C! 55 to 59! )! Pass

! C-! 50 to 54! )

! D! 40 to 49! )

! E! 0 to 39! )! Fail

! W! Withdrawn! )

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For an A Grade

Content: A comprehensive and well-planned answer where the report clearly


meets the requirements of the questions asked. Succinctly integrates a range of
relevant concepts, principles, practices and theories. All answers are fully
justified and are supported by evidence from relevant literature and current
practice. Can demonstrate the ability to analyse a comprehensive range of issues
and reach supported conclusions/recommendations; is able to identify all key
issues, processes and contexts; can apply theory to practice; answer contains no
irrelevant material.

Presentation: Report professionally presented. It is well structured, including


page numbers and a properly referenced text and bibliography. There are no
spelling or grammatical errors.

For a B Grade

Content: Answer is relatively comprehensive, and integrates many relevant


concepts, principles and theories. Answers are adequately justified and are
supported by some evidence from relevant literature and current practice; can
demonstrate the ability to analyse a range of issues and reach conclusions and
recommendations; is able to identify some key issues, processes and contexts;
can apply some theory to practice. Answer may contain some irrelevant material.

Presentation: Presentation is very good, but falls short of excellent in several


areas, particularly in terms of grammar and referencing.

For a C Grade

Content: Understands the topic and can link some concepts, principles and
theories. Answers have little justification and support from evidence or from
literature and current practice; can demonstrate the ability to analyse some
issues, processes and contexts in order to reach conclusions or
recommendations; answers are descriptive and typically lack any real critical
discussion or evaluation; applies little theory to practice, produces irrelevant
material.

Presentation: Typed, layout is generally clear, but contains spelling and


grammatical errors. Referencing errors occur.

For a C/E Grade

Content: Poor answer; shows little understanding of the theory and concepts.
Areas will be missing and mismatches may occur between the theory and practice;
may be unable to cite supporting material; answer is disjointed and fails to reach
conclusions and make relevant recommendations.

Presentation: Not acceptable, for example, not typed, untidily presented, high
level of errors, poor and confusing layout.

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15. Quick Guide To Online Enrolment


Enrolment is not automatic, you need to re-enrol by either completing a re-
enrolment form or via Unitec’s On-line system -myRecords.

www.unitec.ac.nz myUnitec portal – see below for further instructions

You can access Online Web Enrolment (myRecords) via Unitec’s website

Before you start make sure you have your:

Username and Password


Timetable for reference available on Blackboard site or in Business Info
Reception List of classes you wish to enrol in as per Timetable
Not received your results yet? You may still enrol on-line

You can amend your enrolment after results are available

Instructions:

Type in the URL http://www.myunitec.ac.nz


Click myUnitec Portal
Enter username and password (same as Unitec network username &
password)
Click myRecords
Click Enrolment
Click Enrol in class
Click Accept to accept the Pre-Enrolment checklist & Student Declaration
Choose Semester and enter the CLASS NUMBER (you will find this on the
timetable) If there is more than one class a week, you will automatically be
enrolled in all sessions.
Click Continue
Click Submit Request
The next screen will tell you if your classes have been added successfully.
Please note: If system indicates “Class not Added” you must view the VIEW
ENROLMENT REQUEST LOG where you will find an Error Message.
Click on Submit Appeal Request if, after reading the error message, you still
wish to enrol in this class.
Type a detailed message and click on Save (this gets sent to the programme
administrator via email, to investigate your enrolment query)
You will normally receive a response by email or a phone call within a few
days.

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Additional Information

After completing your enrolment on-line, it takes approximately 24 hours for the
system to calculate your fees.

You can view and pay your account via myRecords. An invoice will follow your
enrolment due 7 days before start of Semester.

In addition to viewing your own personal timetable following successful


enrolment, you can also update your address, phone numbers & preferred email
via myRecords.

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16. Course Material For Studio 1

Agenda and timetable

Item Start Dur/ End Ref


min

1 Welcome and agenda overview 0 5 5

2 Baseload measurement: 5 5 10 Course


Csikszentmihalian stressometer book

3 INTRODUCE the aim, structure, scope, 10 15 25 Course


content, and the unique teaching, book
learning and assessment processes of the
course

4 INTRODUCE the course tutor; 25 5 30

5 Review of text: Basic concepts of strategic 30 15 45 W&H Ch.


management (part 1) 1

6 COLLECT Job Application Forms 45 5 50 Course


book

7 Break 50 10 60

8 Allocation of Assignment 2 project teams 60 15 75

9 VIDEO: Trouble in Paradise - Rod Oram 75 35 110 DVD -


Oram

10 Break 110 10 120

11 Discussion VIDEO: Trouble in Paradise - 120 25 145


Rod Oram

12 PREPARE you for the next few weeks of 145 10 155 W&H Ch.
your learning adventure. 1. 2.
Mellalieu
(2009)

13 End of class measurement: 155 10 165 Course


Csikszentmihalian stressometer; book
Sugestions for class improvement

14 Conclusion 165 5 170

15 End 170
W&H = Wheelan & Hunger, 2010. Course text

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Snapshot of preparation materials available on course learning


support site
INSTRUCTIONS - Pre-Class attendance

Read the Course Handbook


Review the requirements for ALL Assignments, especially Assignment ONE
and TWO.
Complete the JOB APPLICATION form in preparation for being allocated to an
assignment Project Team.
Visit the course learning management system for further instructions - See
Course Descriptor, Section 2.
Acquire the course text book. Skim read Chapter 1.
Read the article:
Mellalieu, P. J. (2009). Shifting frontiers, new priorities, creating pathways:
elevating the case for tertiary education for sustainable development in New
Zealand. In New Zealand Tertiary Education Summit 2009 (TES). Presented at
the New Zealand Tertiary Education Summit 2009, Wellington, New Zealand:
Bright*Star Conferences & Training Ltd. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/
petermellalieu/Teacher/Examples/Entries/
2009/5/7_Elevating_the_case_for_tertiary_education_for_sustainability.html

Prepare responses for discussion in class to the questions below


The article by Mellalieu, and the first chapter of your text introduce some
basic principles of strategy, particularly as they relate to sustainable
development.

Based on your reading of either Mellalieu, and/or your text:

• How long does it take for an organisation to develop an enduring competitive


advantage? What are the implications for organisational strategy-makers?
• What technologies are likely to assist contemporary organisations to achieve
both dramatic gains in productivity AND environmental sustainability? Why?
• What are the academic and professional benefits from studying strategy and
sustainable development?

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Lecture slides
Strategy is about choosing the correct direction - and acting efficiently

Source: Mellalieu (1992, Figure 6, p. 16.)

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The basis for building a strategic orientation: Organisational and environmental


awareness

Mellalieu (1992, Figure 2, p. 13)

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A strategic thinking framework

Source: Thompson J. L (1990) in Mellalieu (1992, Fig 2, 3 p. 13.)

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Job Application for Assignment 2


Preferred Name

FAMILY NAME (Caps)

Qualification BBus
Diploma (state)
Other state
Major(s) (Circle) Management Marketing Operations
Human Resources Finance Accounting
Other: state
What I hope to learn and
achieve from this course
is ….

Best/most preferred
subjects or courses
(state up to 3)
Number of level 6 and 7
courses completed
Preferred Team role(s) Leader/Coordinator Communicator
Author/editor
Idea-creator Mover and shaker
Analyst Team worker/supporter
Languages spoken English, Maori, Mandarin, Canton, Hindi,
(State) Spanish, German, French
Countries in which dwelt NZ ( ) China ( ) India ( ) Germany ( ) etc
and/or worked (Years in
brackets)
Years worked in NZ

“The key strengths I will


bring to my team are:....”

I am absolutely, Mon Tue Wed Thur Fri Sat Sun


absolutely ABSOLUTELY
not available for team
meetings at these times

Team Allocated (O"ce


use only)

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Csikszentmihalian stressometer

We use the ‘stressometer’ to identify the extent to which the class is moving from,
say, worry and anxiety about the course to a state of high-performing flow. On
the basis of this instrument, the teacher can adapt his teaching approaches … and
the learners can adapt their learning approaches and/or support each other
through their assignment teams.

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Defining feelings

Emotion Sug- My Definition


gested value
Value

In flow
5 Performing vigorously and enthusiastically.

In
control The power to influence or direct [strongly] one’s
3
behavior or the course of events.

Aroused
Excited or provoked to a feeling of anger or strong
2
emotions

Relaxed
1 Free from tension and anxiety.

Apathy
0 Lack of interest, enthusiasm, or concern.

Boredom
Weary because one is unoccupied or lacks interest in
-1
one's current activity.

Worry
Give way to unease; allow one's mind to dwell on
-2
di"culty, uncertainty, or troubles

Anxiety
Nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent
-3
event or something with an uncertain outcome

Sources: Adapted from Apple Dictionary by Mellalieu

Note: the above list is not exhaustive. For instance, unrelieved anxiety can lead to
depression, whilst unrelieved flow can lead to mania or burnout. Add your own
definitions of other emotions you regularly face.

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My Weekly Csikszentmihalian Flow Record

Emotion My 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
value

In flow

In control

Aroused

Relaxed

Apathy

Boredom

Worry

Anxiety

Each class, mark your emotional state at the START and FINISH of each class. Note
in your journal the conditions that gave rise to your emotion, the reasons for
changes in your emotion, and actions you intend to undertake. Attach this chart
as an Appendix to your Reflective Essay.

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17. Course Agenda For Future Studios


Item Start Dur/ End Ref
min

1 Welcome and agenda overview 0 5 5

2 Baseload measurement: 5 5 10 Course


Csikszentmihalian stressometer book

3 Discussion, questions and tests arising 10 15 25 See


from previous weeks’ text and reading Reading
Schedule

4 Review of text and readings for this week 25 15 40 See


Reading
Schedule

5 Briefing for experiential exercise 40 10 50 Learning


manage
ment
systems

6 Break 50 10 60

7 Experiential exercise 60 25 85

8 Review of exercise 85 25 110

9 Break 110 10 120

10 Oral presentations 120 30 150

11 Feedback on presentations 150 10 160

12 Follow-up activities before next class 160 5 165 See


Reading
Schedule

13 End of class measurement: 165 5 170 Course


Csikszentmihalian stressometer; book
Suggestions for class improvement

14 Conclusion 170 0 170

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18. Bibliography - Strategy And Sustainability


Here is an eclectic selection of journals, books, magazines, and other web
resources about sustainability that I have read and noted in my Zotero citations
management system over the previous two years. For the latest additions to my
library of readings on sustainability, visit: http://www.zotero.org/groups/
sustainable_development.

5th World Environmental Education Congress | Earth, our common home. (n.d.). .
Retrieved November 17, 2009, from http://www.5weec.uqam.ca/EN/

About « Ecopreneur’s Guide. (n.d.). . Retrieved from http://


ecopreneursguide.com/about/

Baggaley, S. (n.d.). World's Consumers rate the Environment Number One


Corporate Priority. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from http://nz.nielsen.com/news/
CSR_Oct08.shtml

Beder, S. (2006). Environmental Principles and Policies: An inter-disciplinary


approach. Sydney, NSW: Earthscan/ University of New South Wales Press. %

Betts, R. (2010, January 11). BBC News - Science must end climate confusion.
Retrieved February 2, 2010, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/
nature/8451756.stm

Boven, R. (2000). The role of ideas in managing trade-o$s between economic and
environmental objectives. In P. J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Annual Educators
Conference of the New Zealand Strategic Management Society, 2 (Vol. 1).
Presented at the Strategies for sustainability and success: the role and impact
of strategic thinking in the development of sustainable enterprise,
Canterbury University, Christchurch: New Zealand Strategic Management
Society. Retrieved from http://web.me.com/petermellalieu/NZSMS/
Publications/Entries/
2000/2/3_Rick_BOVEN:_The_role_of_ideas_in_managing_trade-
o$s_between_economic_and_environmental_objectives.html

Boven, R. (2003, February). Choosing your future: The role of ideas in managing
trade-o$s between economic and environmental objectives (Doctor of
Philosophy in Management Science and Information Systems). University of
Auckland. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2292/291 %

Boven, R. (n.d.). Anew NZ - Choosing between positive economic and


environmental outcomes is becoming the great challenge of the age.
Retrieved November 10, 2009, from http://www.anewnz.org.nz/vision.asp?
id=77

Brash, D. F. (2009, July 30). New Zealand's economic outlook: Can we ever catch
Australia? AUT University. Retrieved from http://ow.ly/t1Bz

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Brunklaus, B., Tove Malmqvist, & Henrikke Baumann. (2009). Managing


stakeholders or the environment? The challenge of relating indicators in
practice. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management,
16(1), 27-37. doi:10.1002/csr.180 %

BusinessGreen.com Group - Brown and Sarkozy propose climate tax on banking


sector - LinkedIn. (n.d.). . Retrieved December 14, 2009, from http://
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viewArticle=&articleID=93873920&gid=1931321&articleURL=http%3A%2F
%2Fwww%2Ebusinessgreen%2Ecom%2Fbusiness-green%2Fnews
%2F2254932%2Fbrown-sarkozy-proposes-
climate&urlhash=_ROi&trk=news_discuss

Carrington, D., & Goldenberg, S. (2009, December 4). Gordon Brown attacks 'flat-
earth' climate change sceptics | Environment | The Guardian. Retrieved
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04/flat-earth-climate-change-copenhagen

Chan, Y. (2009, October 21). Nissan plans "second life" for Leaf Lithium-ion
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nissan-plans-second-life-leaf

Chynoweth, C. (n.d.). An enterprising environment for social change - Times


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climate/Climate-scientists-see-a-need-to-think-big-and

Climate science: Where next? — The Daily Climate. (n.d.). . Retrieved from http://
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where-next

Climate scientist at centre of leaked email row dismisses conspiracy claims - 25


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Davis, R., & Wong, D. (2007). Conceptualizing and Measuring the Optimal
Experience of the eLearning Environment. Decision Sciences Journal of
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Debunking pseudo-scholarship: Things a journalist should know about <I>The


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P a g e | 77

19. Course Book Readings

Reading 1
Wheelan, T., & Hunger, D. (2010). Basic concepts of strategic management -
Chapter 1 introductory vignette. In Concepts in Strategic Management &
Business Policy (12th ed., pp. 50-52). Prentice Hall.%

Reading 2
Mellalieu, P. J. (1992). Auditing the Strategic Plan. Managerial Auditing
Journal, 7(1), 11-16. doi:10.1108/EUM0000000001772

Reading 3
Mellalieu, P. J. (2009). Shifting frontiers, new priorities, creating pathways:
elevating the case for tertiary education for sustainable development in New
Zealand. In New Zealand Tertiary Education Summit 2009 (TES). Presented at
the New Zealand Tertiary Education Summit 2009, Wellington, New Zealand:
Bright*Star Conferences & Training Ltd. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/
petermellalieu/Teacher/Examples/Entries/
2009/5/7_Elevating_the_case_for_tertiary_education_for_sustainability.html

UNITEC Institute of Technology | Department of Management and Marketing


Shifting frontiers, new priorities,
creating pathways: elevating the
case for tertiary education for
sustainable development in New
Zealand1

Ko Ruapehu te maunga
Ko Waikato te awa
Ko Huguenot te iwi
Ko Geering te rangatira
Ko Mellalieu te hap!
Ko Pukawa te marae
Ko Boeing te waka
Ko Peta ahau

Peter J. Mellalieu2
Faculty of Creative Industries and Business, Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland.

The announcement for the 2009 New Zealand Tertiary Education Summit asserts that
“Tertiary education and research underpin the realisation of New Zealanders’ goals and
aspirations, and the sustainable development of New Zealand’s economy and society....
Daunting new challenges ... identify the need for tertiary education to assume new
responsibilities” (Brightstar, 2009).

This paper addresses two of New Zealand’s challenges:

• Building national capacity for long-term wealth-creating innovation, and


• Responding to business’ and society’s concerns about sustainable development.

The paper argues that education for sustainable development - appropriately implemented
- contributes strongly to establishing:

• Valuable foundations for the emerging ‘sixth wave’ of innovations that underpin the
creation of a nation’s distinctive core competencies, and
• The trans-disciplinary academic literacies required to support competitive success in the
21st century.

1A paper developed from a presentation to New Zealand Tertiary Education Summit 2009, Wellington Town
Hall, 28-29 April 2009, Wellington, New Zealand: Bright*Star Conferences & Training Ltd. http://
www.brightstar.co.nz/nz/tertiary-education-summit.html.
2Address for correspondence: Faculty of Creative Industries and Business, Unitec Institute of Technology,
Private Bag 92025, Auckland, New Zealand. Email: pmellalieu@unitec.ac.nz Phone +64 2142 0118
Web: http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu
1! Shifting frontiers..sustainable development
Contents
1. Prologue: a student’s question 3

2. Innovation and the knowledge economy 3


20. Distinct core competencies are the foundation for long-term wealth
creation 3

21. The next wave of innovation: productive sustainability 4

22. The academic literacies required to create and exploit core


competencies 5

23. Education for sustainable development builds the core


competencies required for 21st century innovation 6

3. New Zealand’s weak priorities for tertiary education for


sustainable development 7
30. The failure to translate national aims for sustainable development
into explicit strategic priorities for education 8

4. Conclusion and recommendations 10


40. Recommendations 11

5. Further questions 12
50. Independence of the educational sector 12

51. Funding 12

52. Student choice 12

53. Academic literacies 12

6. Epilogue: a father’s advice 13


60. And what shall I do? 13

The author 14

References 14

Further reading 16

Mellalieu! 2
1. Prologue: a student’s question
In the summer of 2007-8, I walked with my daughter up Mount Ruapehu to celebrate her
21st birthday. Appreciating the stark beauty of this UNESCO World Heritage Area, we
began to discuss global warming. My daughter asked a simple question, “I know there’s a
problem, but what should I do?”

Figure 1: What do I do?


Since returning from that adventure, I have
sought actively to answer my daughter’s
question.

The question is ‘fertile’. It begs questions such


as: “What, exactly, is the problem of global
warming?”, “Are there more important
questions?”, “Should I care?”, and, if so “What
can I do?...What should I do?”.

My search for answers has brought me to


stand before you today ... a teacher in strategy,
innovation, and enterprise development at a
New Zealand tertiary institute of technology. I
seek to help my daughter, my students, and
future students ask and answer questions such
as these as they plan and execute their tertiary
education studies.

2. Innovation and the knowledge economy


20. Distinct core competencies are the foundation for long-term wealth
creation
Strategic thinkers assert that the long-term wealth of a nation depends on the ability of its
business enterprise to establish long-term competitive superiority in distinct market
niches. Furthermore, an organisation’s long-term competitive superiority arises from one
of the three following foundations (Kay, 1993): a distinctive brand (e.g. Coke); an
outstanding, defensible innovation (e.g. the Xerox photocopying patents); and/or an
organisational architecture that generates a continuous stream of incremental innovations
(e.g. 3M, Apple, Hewlett Packard (HP), General Electric (GE)).

Innovation underpins two of these three foundations. Furthermore, building national


‘architectures for innovation’ lies at the heart of creating the so-called ‘knowledge
economy’ and post-industrial society (Williams, M., 2009). The products of innovation
may be rare and outstanding (super-conducting high-power electricity transmission
networks), or, more commonly, modest and incremental (office furniture incorporating
ergonomic features). In this discussion, ‘innovation’ is defined as ‘the successful
introduction of a new thing or method’ (Luecke and Katz, 2003).

To create an architecture for producing a stream of innovations, an enterprise requires one


or more distinctive core competencies. Core competencies are “things that the enterprise
can do well, that provide consumer benefits, that are not easy for competitors to imitate,
and that can be leveraged widely to many products and markets” (Wikipedia). Core

3! Shifting frontiers..sustainable development


competencies typically take a decade or more to establish - and require constant
reinforcement.

For example, Xerox extended its original ‘disruptive innovation’ of light-based image
copying (xerography or photocopying) to the broader core competency of digital imaging
(Xerox, n.d.). Apple Corporation applied its core competencies in consumer hand-held
electronic devices (used to create the iPod music player) and computing (the user-friendly
interface of the Macintosh personal computer) into an entirely new high-growth market for
the company: cellular phones (iPhone). Through association with AT&T, Apple gained
access to the complimentary core competencies in telephony required to create the iPhone
product. Although a latecomer to the cellphone market, the rapid deployment of the three
core competencies has produced great financial success for the Apple iPhone (Phillips,
2007).

21. The next wave of innovation: productive sustainability


Distinctive core competencies are underpinned by reservoir of innovations that has been
filled through a series of waves over the last 250 years (Figure 2). For instance, the rise of
mechanisation from the 1780s, the rise of the internal combustion engine from the late
1890s, electronics since the 1940s, and information technologies since the 1980s.

Figure 2: Waves of innovation

Source: ©The Natural Edge Project, 2004

According to The Natural Edge Project, “There is significant evidence that the next waves
of innovation will be driven by the twin needs to simultaneously improve productivity
whilst lightening our environmental load on the planet. We now possess both the
technological innovations and design know-how to tackle many environmental problems
Mellalieu! 4
cost-effectively and in some areas very profitably. Specifically, this involves everything
from green buildings, hybrid cars, wind power, resource processing, transport systems,
and a wide array of recycling and other enabling technologies. ... Still more innovations are
emerging from the fields of materials science, green chemistry, green nanotechnology and
from having the wisdom to learn from nature (bio-mimicry).” (TNEP).

Industries that produce long-established products - such as agriculture, forestry and


textiles - must also adopt innovations from later waves. These primary (pre-first wave)
industries are major contributors to New Zealand’s export income. For instance, in the
mid-1970s, New Zealand physicist Kevin (Karl) Noonan applied his expertise in textile
engineering, electronics (a fourth wave innovation) and information technology (a fifth
wave innovation) to produce a computer-aided design system for a European textile
manufacturing company (a company using first wave mechanisation to produce a first
wave product: cloth and carpets). By 1978 Noonan had established Sophis Systems. This
Belgium-based company produced Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and Computer
Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) software programmes for customers mainly in the
European textile industry. In later years, Sophis extended its core competencies in textile
CAD/CAM and textile printing into systems for producers of vinyl floor coverings,
laminates, and wallpapers. Furthermore, Sophis’ ‘Direct Digital Printing’ technology
enabled dye to be applied directly onto transfer paper and cloth, including velvet and flock
(Sophis3).

Market adoption of Sophis’ Systems products - embedding fourth and fifth wave
technologies - contributed significantly to rescuing the ailing European textile industry
from the intense low-cost competition from Far Eastern-based textile manufacturers. The
CAD/CAM technology enabled the European companies to design and manufacture
rapidly high-quality design products in economical, and much smaller volumes than
produced in earlier times (Noonan, n.d.).

In a similar vein, all industries - traditional and modern - will benefit from adopting the
innovations available from the new, sixth wave of innovations in productive sustainability,
bio-mimicry, industrial ecology, and so forth.

22. The academic literacies required to create and exploit core


competencies
Innovation is necessary for creating wealth in the knowledge economy. However,
introducing a new thing or method is not sufficient for creating substantial wealth. Once
an innovation in product or service has been introduced, then a new venture mechanism
must be created to make, sell, and deliver the product or service based on the innovation.
The new venture may be either a new business or a not-for-loss enterprise. More
commonly, the new venture is a launch of a new product, process, or service created within
an existing enterprise.

Consequently, successful exploitation of an innovation into valued products and services


requires personal competencies or ‘literacies’ that help people work across traditional and
new disciplines of knowledge. These trans-disciplinary literacies include: creative problem

3In 2003, Sophis assets were incorporated into NedGraphics Sophis BvBa, a subsidiary of Bluefox
Nedgraphics, http://www.bfe.nl/english/default.asp

5! Shifting frontiers..sustainable development


solving, team collaboration, enterprise4, and strategic thinking. These are the critical and
necessary literacies required of graduates for the 21st century. However, they are not
sufficient literacies: the modern graduate also requires a sense of citizenship, and the
traditional academic literacies of critical and logical thinking, numeracy, and
communication.

23. Education for sustainable development builds the core


competencies required for 21st century innovation
A key economic role for tertiary education and research is to help create the support
architectures that generate innovations. These architectures may lie within business
enterprise, or as society’s supporting infrastructure. Tertiary education achieves this
economic role through producing the competent graduates and the transferable knowledge
that contribute to the processes of innovation.

There are two complementary reasons for urging students to pursue tertiary study for
sustainable development. First, Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) contributes
directly a core competency likely to form the basis for the sixth wave of innovations that
are needed to improve productivity whilst ‘lightening our environmental load on the
planet’ (Figure 2).

Secondly, education for sustainable enterprise development - appropriately implemented -


is an outstanding means through which the key academic literacies required for the 21st
century can be developed and practised. These literacies contribute directly to forming the
basis of organisational distinctive core competencies, especially those that lead to
innovation. Considering matters of sustainable development demands the trans-
disciplinary literacies of creative problem solving, team collaboration, enterprise, and
strategic thinking, and the traditional literacies of critical and logical thinking, numeracy,
and communication.

Consequently, the Einsteinian ‘thought experiment’ of solving the ‘tough problem’ of


creating both economically productive and environmentally sustainable solutions to real-
world issues provides important pedagogical opportunities for developing and integrating
several pertinent academic literacies. An illustration from Europe’s largest forest products
company, AssiDomain, demonstrates how rethinking forest harvesting from clear-cut
felling to ecological harvesting achieved three outcomes (Rowledge et al., 1999):

• Reduced harvest and replanting costs by 50 per cent,


• Raised end-product sales value through increasing timber quality, and raising volume
• Improved ecological outcomes

The achievement of 100 per cent sustainable production in all of AssiDomain’s products
has been third-party assured according to an international sustainable production
standard, the Forestry Stewardship Council 5. This achievement raises the opportunity for
AssiDomain to advocate to the European parliament the introduction of technological
trade barrier against those competitors - such as New Zealand - following traditional
methods of clear-cut forest harvesting and production.

4 Enterprise: initiative and resourcefulness required to undertake a project, typically requiring effort in the
face of difficulty (based on Apple Dictionary)
5The FSC certification endorses that AssiDomain’s forestry operations are conducted in a sustainable
manner from an economic, ecological, and social perspective (Rowledge, p. 91)

Mellalieu! 6
AssiDomain’s achievement raises an exciting ‘problem-based’ learning scenario for New
Zealand students: Could AssiDomain’s practices be adapted from European conditions to
New Zealand conditions? What are the cost/benefit implications? How best would loggers
and wood processors learn how to apply the new methods? (Figure 3).

Figure 3: How can !sixth wave" productive sustainability innovations increase profit and ecological
values in New Zealand"s plantation forestry?

Source: author

3. New Zealand’s weak priorities for tertiary


education for sustainable development
The case for devoting appropriate levels of national resources to sustainable development
in New Zealand experiences controversy. The controversy arises as government,
businesses, and Tertiary Educational Organisations (TEOs) consider equally important,
but more urgent concerns such as:

• Recovering from the international economic depression,


• Dealing with the skill shortages that might arise from an ageing baby boomer population,
and
• Reducing the future national cost of the failing health status of the ageing and relatively
poor.

However, the consequences of failing to respond adequately to the economic and social
pressures for sustainable development lie far in the future. In contrast, the calculus of
political economy places the spotlight on those actions required to win the next election
within a three year period.
7! Shifting frontiers..sustainable development
Nevertheless, the New Zealand Tertiary Education Strategy 2007-2012 (TES) identifies the
importance of the tertiary sector towards contributing to the previous government’s ‘top
level’ aims to "Balance [economic] progress with environmental sustainability by providing
New Zealanders with the knowledge and skills to understand and work within
environmental constraints". Specifically, the TES affirmed that the New Zealand tertiary
education system needs to assist with New Zealand's need to develop sustainable use of
natural resources (MOE, 2006; Mellalieu, 2008a).

30. The failure to translate national aims for sustainable development


into explicit strategic priorities for education
The previous government’s aims - and the correspondent strategic issues identified for the
tertiary education sector - are NOT translated by the TES into explicit investment funding
priorities, or investment guidance for the sector. Furthermore, quality assurance and other
monitoring of TEOs fails to refer explicitly to the previous government’s aims for
sustainable development (Mellalieu, 2008a).

Detailed analysis of the 2007-2012 TES demonstrates that signals to TEO leadership,
decision-makers, and teachers to invest in sustainable development are very weak, if not
absent (Mellalieu, 2008a). These weak signals contributed strongly to the retreat by a large
tertiary institution from its significant and pioneering sustainable development efforts
instigated in the late 1990s. The specific details are presented in the case of Unitec
Institute of Technology (Mellalieu, 2008b).

Nevertheless, the previous Minister for Tertiary Education clarified that TEOs are charged
with meeting government’s aims through consulting with local communities on their
specific educational and training needs (Pers. com. Hodgson to Mellalieu, presented in
Mellalieu, 2008b). In general, however, TEOs fail to raise explicitly the question of
training and education for sustainability with their community of stakeholders.

Despite the weaknesses in TES regarding sustainable development, several TEOs have
announced ambitious commitments to ESD and sustainable development of their campus
operations. Otago Polytechnic and Waikato University are exemplars in this respect (For
example, see http://www.otagopolytechnic.ac.nz/sustainability, Figure 4.)

Figure 4: Tertiary environments for sustainable thinking and practice

Otago Polytechnic (2009) Waikato University (2008) Unitec Institute of Technology


(2002)

The specific case of Unitec is not an isolated example. In 2007, New Zealand’s
Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (PCE) reported that "Environment-
specific courses are available, with some [institutions] offering good opportunities for
skills and knowledge in sustainability.” However, “Learning about sustainability is not a

Mellalieu! 8
core (or even a fringe) component in most mainstream courses." Moreover, "University
students' understanding of sustainable development has not changed dramatically since
2002" (PCE 2007, p. 20; Stone & Baldoni, 2006). These findings are reinforced by a recent
doctoral thesis presenting a comprehensive assessment of sustainable development
activities in New Zealand tertiary institutions. The author found that campus sustainable
development activities rely too much on ‘lone ranger’ champions, and fail to get adequate
support from senior institutional leadership (Williams, P. M., 2008).

Furthermore, a recent OECD review of Education for Sustainable Development identifies a


similar situation in most other OECD countries, and outlined key barriers to more
successful implementation (OECD, 2008). Two of several recurring barriers to greater
adoption of ESD were the inflexibility of education systems, and problems in promoting
interdisciplinary approaches. The review also presents a general curriculum framework for
progressing education for sustainable development across the three education sectors from
primary to tertiary (Figure 5).

Figure 5: General curricula framework for education for sustainable development

Source: OECD, 2008a, Table 2

9! Shifting frontiers..sustainable development


4. Conclusion and recommendations
This paper addressed two of New Zealand’s challenges:

• Building national capacity for long-term wealth-creating innovation, and


• Responding to business’ and society’s concerns about sustainable development.

Responding to these challenges, I argue that education for sustainable development -


appropriately implemented - contributes strongly towards establishing:

• The trans-disciplinary academic literacies required for our nation’s competitive success
in the 21st century, and

• The ‘innovation architecture’ for the emerging ‘sixth wave’ of ‘productive sustainability’
innovations that will underpin the creation of required, new business distinctive core
competencies.

Sustainable development in New Zealand TEOs is likely to remain a Cinderella element in


both institutional practice and educational programmes should current educational policy
settings and practices remain.

However, the new Minister for Tertiary Education has signalled a streamlining of the
‘centrally planned’ aspects of tertiary education as represented by the 2007-2012 TES. Her
intention is that tertiary education focusses on the somewhat lacklustre (in my opinion)
national vision for ‘a prosperous, highly skilled nation’ . The topic of sustainable
development was entirely absent from the Minister’s speech presented at the New Zealand
Tertiary Education Summit (Tolley, 2009).

In my assessment, the long-term pressure on New Zealand businesses to produce


according to assured sustainable practices appears likely to grow despite the current
economic recession. Accordingly, the staff and leaders of New Zealand TEOs need to
undertake a more proactive role in helping businesses and support infrastructure progress
along the decade-long pathway to acquire the core competencies of productive
sustainability and the other sixth wave innovations illustrated in Fig 2.

Furthermore, the value of graduates developing competency in sustainable development


lies beyond the instrumental requirements for business success. Value also arises from
developing the academic literacies of the 21st century, such as citizenship, creative
problem-solving, enterprise, and trans-disciplinarity besides numeracy, reasoning, and
communication.

There is a challenge for teachers. Knowledge is advancing at a prodigious rate in the


subject domains that contribute to one’s attempts to engage in sustainable development:
science, technology, business, economics, political science, leadership.... Consequently, the
broad set of subject domains required for competent engagement by teachers and students
in Education for Sustainable Development will remain a barrier to more widespread
adoption by institutions. I believe that solving this challenge should be seen as an
opportunity by TEOs for developing important 21st century academic literacies, rather
than a problem and excuse for minimal action.

Drawing on an argument by Boven (2000), it is through the development of informed


professionals and opinion leaders that customers will change their values, and thereby
their buying decisions to take appropriate care of the natural environment. It is through

10 ! Shifting frontiers..sustainable development


informed professionals and opinion leaders that designers, architects, engineers, and
managers will develop confidence to influence strongly the sustainable practices of the
organisations in which they choose to be employed and the professional associations to
whom they give advice. It is through informed professionals and opinion leaders that the
values of voters will change so that they vote for political parties who will enact effective
legislation to protect the natural environment and introduce productive sustainability. It is
through informed professionals and opinion leaders that teachers, who comprise many of
the graduates from our tertiary educational system, will massively influence the consumers
and voters of tomorrow.

Consequently, it is primarily through tertiary education that professionals and opinion


learner will learn to develop an informed opinion about sustainable development issues.

40. Recommendations
The new Minister for Tertiary Education has signalled a streamlining of the administration
of the tertiary educational sector. This implies less commitment to ‘centrally planned’
initiatives such as the Tertiary Educational Strategy and Investment Priorities (TES/STEP
2007-2012) which, at least, recognised the importance of sustainable development issues
for our country. Accordingly, I possess a low level of confidence that most tertiary
education institutes in New Zealand will proactively adopt the required level of
commitment to sustainable development that I believe is required for both our graduates’
and our nation’s response to the rising importance of sustainable development issues.

Accordingly, I recommend that:

1. All actors (teachers, students, leaders, administrators) within the tertiary educational
sector proactively, persistently and interminably raise the question: "What are the
sustainability issues associated with this proposed policy or action?". For instance, the
question should be raised when new academic programmes are developed, new
buildings and structures are designed, new external suppliers are appointed, and new
research commissioned (including market research and stake-holder needs analysis).

2. The Auditor General, the Minister for Tertiary Education, and the Parliamentary
Commissioner promote actively the adoption of auditable quality assurance measures
for sustainable development in TEOs - in teaching, research, and operational practice.

3. Creators of future national and institutional tertiary educational strategies takes


express and explicit account of the general aims regarding sustainability as advocated
by the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (PCE, 2007, 2004) and the
previous government's aims presented in the 'contextual sections' of current and future
national tertiary education strategies (Such as TES/STEP 2007-2012). In particular,
advocate that “all students at graduate and postgraduate level should possess a core
understanding of ... environmental sustainability as a result of institutes encouraging
Education for Sustainability throughout their organisations”.

4. Curriculum developers compose an integrated approach to education for sustainable


development across primary, secondary and tertiary sectors drawing on the experience
reported by both the OECD workshop on ESD and the many reports of the United
Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNDESD) (e.g. OECD,
2008a, Table 2)

5. New Zealand’s education and research funding agencies specifically designate


appropriate levels of funding for cross-institutional capacity building in education for
11 ! Shifting frontiers..sustainable development
sustainability and eco-sustainable operations. These agencies include the Foundation
for Research Science and Technology, Te Ako Aotearoa, the Marsden Research Fund,
the Tertiary Education Commission, and the Ministry for the Environment.

6. Tertiary funders and TEOs continue and raise their support for engaging members of
tertiary institutions in cross-institutional initiatives for sustainability, such as the
Australasian Campuses Towards Sustainability network (ACTS), Sustainability
Aotearoa New Zealand (SANZ), and the NZ Sustainable Business Network.

7. A cross-government work team investigate the intended nature and operation of the
Ministry of Education/Tertiary Education Commission investment, quality assurance,
monitoring, and planning systems to identify and improve the extent to which
sustainability targets form part of these systems.

5. Further questions
This article raises several questions for further reflection. However, these questions should
not provide the excuse for caution and inaction instead of exploration, experimentation,
and action 6.

50. Independence of the educational sector


In New Zealand, there is a statutory requirement for higher educational institutions to take
the role of ‘critic and conscience’ of society and safeguard their academic freedom. To what
extent is there conflict between these values, and the recommendations that governments -
through either funding and/or regulation - guide the activities of TEOs to engage in
sustainable development and ESD?

51. Funding
TEOs will address sustainable development if they are funded to do so (e.g. through Vote
Education, PBRF, Te Ako Aotearoa). To what extent will the Chief Executives of TEO react
unpredictably if they think that Government is ‘pulling their strings’.

52. Student choice


Students invest their time, and financial resources in their higher education. Students’
investment in higher education is made with their expectation of higher incomes and/or
higher work-life satisfaction. To what extent can courses in SD contribute to students’
expectations? Should such courses be compulsory? To what extent is knowledge of SD a
prerequisite to a modern graduates’ ability to be a critic and conscience of society’?

53. Academic literacies


In general, academics prefer to concentrate on teaching their personal subject domains,
rather than teach academic literacies such as writing and critical thinking. These literacies
are developed, at best, as by-products of the tertiary education process. To what extent will
academics in the 21st century resist pressures to teach generic literacies such as creative
problem solving, enterprise, team work, citizenship, strategic thinking, trans-
disciplinarity, and sustainable development as a component of some of their courses or
programmes?

6My acknowledgements to Kerry Shepherd, University of Otago, for suggesting the elements for these
questions.

Mellalieu! 12
6. Epilogue: a father’s advice
Last year, after two years overseas work experience, my daughter resumed tertiary studies
in London to complete a BA(honours) in Fine Arts and Cultural Studies. Those studies
follow two years study at Auckland University’s Elam School of Fine Arts. Ten years ago,
Kiri participated in a 24-hour world ‘paintathon’ event in which 72 painters in three cities
around the world each had one hour to create a painting. The painting process was beamed
across the internet. Kiri’s natural talents for painting, strategy, and imagining the future
yielded Figure 6. Having observed me create this paper my daughter is now inspired to
create a realistic-utopian image of futures arising from adoption of sustainable
development, and undertake university studies in sustainable development.

The advice a professor would respond to a student’s question: “So what do I do?” in my
view depends on the student’s natural talents, their progress and ambition for developing
those talents, and the circumstances that they can create to continue their formal and
informal learning towards world-class performance. The answer is unique for us all. I
believe that educational institutions can achieve substantially more in helping students
answer this question in an enlightened - rather than EFTS-grabbing - fashion!

60. And what shall I do?


• Continue to advocate and develop the positions offered in this paper
• Develop and introduce a tertiary course in sustainable enterprise development
• Monitor and evaluate my eco-footprint ... and implement appropriate responses
• Plant vegetables, fruit and nut trees in my garden.

Figure 6: A futurist!s dystopian view of the future

Source: Kiri Mellalieu, 1999

13 ! Shifting frontiers..sustainable development


The author
Peter J. MELLALIEU, PhD, BTech(hons), MPubPol, teaches strategy, innovation, and new
venture development at Unitec Institute of Technology. Having emigrated from the United
Kingdom in the mid 1960s he grew up in the Waikato, before studying biotechnology and
industrial engineering management at Massey University (Manawatu). Following work as
an agribusiness systems applied mathematician in Wellington, he worked as a software
programmer in a new venture CAD/CAM systems company in Belgium, close to his
family’s 17th century roots as a Protestant silk-weaver in northern France. Returning to the
Manawatu in 1987, he commenced a teaching career at Massey University from where he
spent many happy hours walking, sailing, and skiing with friends, family, and students on
Mt Ruapehu and Pukawa, Lake Taupo. In 2000, he organised a conference on the theme of
strategies for sustainability and success in which he engaged thought leader Lloyd Geering
as keynote speaker.

References
AssiDoman - new-bottom-line-volume-6-13 - Natural Logic. (n.d.). Retrieved May 14,
2009, from http://www.natlogic.com/new-bottom-line/v06/19-v06/167-new-bottom-
line-volume-6-13

AssiDoman - Sustainability: the next generation (article). (n.d.). . Retrieved May 14, 2009,
from http://www.collinswood.com/MediaEvents/Resources/TheNextGeneration.html.

Boven, R. (2000). The role of ideas in managing trade-offs between economic and
environmental objectives. In P. Mellalieu (Ed.), Strategies for sustainability and success:
The role and impact of strategic thinking in the development of sustainable enterprise,
Proceedings of the Annual Educators Conference of the New Zealand Strategic
Management Society, 2 (Vol. 1). Canterbury University, Christchurch: New Zealand
Strategic Management Society. Retrieved April 28, 2009, from http://web.me.com/
petermellalieu/NZSMS/Publications/Entries/
2000/2/3_Rick_BOVEN:_The_role_of_ideas_in_managing_trade-
offs_between_economic_and_environmental_objectives.html.

Bright*Star Conferences & Training Ltd. (2009), Tertiary Education Summit. Retrieved
February 28, 2009, from http://www.brightstar.co.nz/nz/tertiary-education-summit.html.

Kay, J. A. (1993). Foundations of corporate success. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge


University Press.

Luecke, R. and Katz, R. (2003). Managing Creativity and Innovation. Boston, MA:
Harvard Business School Press. ISBN 1-59139-112-1.

Mellalieu, P. J. (2008a) Preparing to engage in education for sustainability: A critique of


the New Zealand tertiary education strategy. Paper presented at Higher Education
Research and Development Society of Australasia Engaging Communities: HERDSA
2008 conference, 1-4 July 2008, Rotorua New Zealand (Paper id. 116). Paper available
online at: http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/UBSpublications

Mellalieu, P. J. (2008b). Investing in education for eco-sustainability: A ‘fast follower’


strategic posture for Unitec Institute of Technology, Unitec Business School Working
Paper Series, New Zealand Centre for Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Auckland: Unitec

Mellalieu! 14
Institute of Technology. Version 1.2, 6 June 2008. Paper available online at:
http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/UBSpublications

Ministry of Education (MOE). (2007). Tertiary education strategy 2007-12 -


Incorporating statement of tertiary education priorities 2008-10, (TES) Wellington:
Office of the Minister for Tertiary Education, ISBN 0-478-13613-7 internet. (Retrieved 7
February 2008) http://www.minedu.govt.nz/index.cfm?
layout=document&documentid=11727&data=l

Noonan, K. (n.d.). CAD/CAM's Effect on the Jacquard Weaving Industry. Gent


University, Belgium: Textile Institute. Retrieved May 7, 2009, from http://
www.techexchange.com/thelibrary/jacquard_weave.html.

OECD (2009) OECD workshop - Education for sustainable development. (n.d.). Retrieved
April 23, 2009, from http://www.oecd.org/document/
16/0,3343,en_2649_37425_40771408_1_1_1_1,00.html.

Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (PCE). (2007). Outcome evaluation:


See Change: Learning and education for sustainability, Wellington: PCE

Phillips, J. (2007) Innovate on purpose: Competent innovation. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30,
2009, from http://innovateonpurpose.blogspot.com/2007/07/competent-
innovation.html.

Rowledge, L. R., Barton, R. S., & Brady, K. S. (1999) Mapping the journey: Case studies in
strategy and action toward sustainable development, Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf.

Sophis Systems - EXPO21XX (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2009, from http://
www.expo21xx.com/popup/3382.htm.

Stone, L. & Baldoni, M. (2006). Progress and pitfalls in the provision of tertiary
education for sustainable development in New Zealand, Wellington: Parliamentary
Commissioner for the Environment.

TNEP Next Wave of Innovation, Speaker Series. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2009, from
http://www.naturaledgeproject.net/Keynote.aspx.

Tolley, A. (2009). Ministerial address: Tertiary education policy in 2009 and beyond. In
New Zealand Tertiary Education Summit 2009. Wellington: Brightstar. Retrieved May 4,
2009, from http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/PA0905/S00003.htm.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - core competency. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2009, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Core_competency.

Williams, P. M. (2008). University leadership for sustainability: an active dendritic


framework for enabling connection and collaboration. Victoria University of Wellington.
Retrieved from http://www.futuresteps.co.nz/
PhD_University_Leadership_for_Sustainability.pdf.

Williams, M. (2009). Moving towards a knowledge-based economy: a UK Perspective.


Tertiary Education Summit, Wellington Town Hall, 28-29 April 2009, Wellington, New

15 ! Shifting frontiers..sustainable development


Zealand: Bright*Star Conferences & Training Ltd. http://www.brightstar.co.nz/nz/
tertiary-education-summit.html.

Xerox. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2009, from http://www.xerox.com/go/xrx/template/


009.jsp?view=Contact%20Xerox&cat=Research&Xcntry=USA&Xlang=en_US.

Further reading
Beder, S. (2006). Environmental principles and policies: An inter-disciplinary approach.
Sydney, NSW: Earthscan/University of New South Wales Press.

A technical references that provides a comprehensive coverage of the


factors associated with both company-based and regional decision-making
for management of environmental matters. A nuts-and-bolts approach to
sustainable development.

Lomborg, B. (2001). The skeptical environmentalist. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge


University Press.

A comprehensive (and controversial) text that examines the scientific


evidence for a variety of environmental problems. Discusses the issues
using a cost/benefit economic framework, and explores the question: what
would be the better ways to spend additional funding on raising human
welfare? For instance, the book does not deny that much of global
warming is human created. However, he explores the costs and benefits of
alternative approaches to dealing with the issue: reduction of greenhouse
gas emissions or accommodation to the consequences of global warming.
Their is considerable “internet traffic” both condemning and supporting
Lomborg’s approach and evidence, but his arguments are both persuasive
and increasingly influential. An excellent introduction to the challenge of
evaluating technical evidence, and assessing options in an economic
manner

Lomborg, B. (2004). Global crises, global solutions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge


University Press. Retrieved April 29, 2009, from http://books.google.co.nz/books?
id=KQ2_zplu8mUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=lomborg+global+crises
+solutions&ei=qeP4SbHvLIzUkwTouMXQBA.

If environmental problems are not the most important problems facing


humanity then what are the most important problems? What are the most
promising solutions? This book introduces the work of the Copenhagen
Consensus, a project that used Cost/Benefit analysis to identify where an
extra $50 billion should best be spent to improve the well-being and
welfare of humanity. Rather a small drop of money when considered
against the trillions of dollars being paid to prop up ailing corporations
and economies!

Mellalieu! 16
Tal, A. (2006). Speaking of Earth: Environmental speeches that moved the world. New
Jersey: Rutgers University Press.

Presents a collection of 20 speeches on environmental topics that have


influenced the world. The book caught my attention with the names of
people strongly familiar to me: Rachel Carson, Margaret Thatcher, Thor
Heyerdahl, the Dalai Llama, and my compatriot, David Lange. How could
these people coexist in one book? Who were these other speechmakers
from Egypt, Turkey, Kenya, and Nigeria?

This book has been a great pleasure for me to read each morning at
breakfast. Each of the 20 speeches is presented by a succinct biography of
the speechmaker, introducing the context and influence of the speech and
its speechmaker within the environmental movement.

Citation
Mellalieu, P. (2009). Shifting frontiers, new priorities, creating pathways: elevating the
case for tertiary education for sustainable development in New Zealand. Wellington, New
Zealand: Bright*Star Conferences & Training Ltd. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/
petermellalieu/Teacher/Examples/Entries/
2009/5/7_Elevating_the_case_for_tertiary_education_for_sustainability.html.

17 ! Shifting frontiers..sustainable development


20. Amendments And Suggestions For
Improvements
This is an updated course with an updated text, a new teacher, and new learning
support media such as this Course Handbook and the Learning Management
system. Improvements and amendments will be made during the semester. Please
make a record of amendments here, and include your own suggestions for
improvements. Submit your suggestions with your Reflective Essay.

Date Version and Subsection and Amendment/Suggestion


Section Pages