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HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE
OF

HARPER'S

FINE

ARTS

Edited

GEORGE

JOHN

study

E.

of

the

of

civilization.

the

higher

in

These

for
of

archaeology

and
to

reference

M.

selected

illustrations.

Ph.D.

Arch.,

Architecture,

of

University

GEORGE

of

Fine

HISTORY

BY

Arts.

Michigan

University

SCULPTURE

OF
GEORGE

PROF.

Ph.D.

Harvard

Preparation

In

EDGELL,

HAROLD

Professor

CHASE

HENRY

and
CHANDLER

PROF.

Harvard

HISTORY

BY

OF

PROF.

Harvard

HARPER

"

POST

RATHFON

University

PAINTING

ARTHUR

POPE

University

BROTHERS,
[ESTABLISHED

NEW

1817]

YORK

in

use

reader.

general

carefully

critical
evolution

authoritative,

and

Assistant

class

to

provide

the

the

ARCHITECTURE

OF

of

UNIVERSITY

relation

also

they

KIMBALL,

Professor

their
with

and

number

FISKB

of

in

histories

unusual

HISTORY

BY

results

prepared

learning,

interesting
an

HARVARD

and

are

of

contain

Assistant

latest

themselves

books

and
will

ARCHAEOLOGY

the

Arts

institutions

comprehensive,
volume

OF

embodying

Fine

Ph.D.

CHASE,

PROFESSOR

series

new

by

HENRY

HUDSON

SERIES

Each

FINE

HARPER

ARTS

SERIES

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE
BY

KIMBALL,

FISKE

PROFESSOR

ASSISTANT

OF

PH.D.

M.ARCH.,

ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY

OF

MICHIGAN

AND

GEORGE
ASSISTANT

HAROLD
PROFESSOR

OF

EDGELL,
FINE

ARTS

HARVARD

PH.D.

UNIVERSITY

ILLUSTRATED

HARPER

y
NEW

PUBLISHERS

BROTHERS
YORK

AND

LONDON

Classification,

Decimal

HISTORY

Copyright,
Printed

OF

1918.
in

the

Published

by
United

720.9

ARCHITECTURE

Harper
States
March.

"
of

1918

Brothers
America

AftftiMdvrt
Ufbin

"

Planning

Library

"00

CONTENTS
PAGE

CHAPTER

EDITOR'S

xvii

INTRODUCTION

AUTHORS'

PREFACE

ELEMENTS

xxi
ARCHITECTURE

I.

THE

II.

PREHISTORIC

III.

PRECLASSICAL

IV.

GREEK

ARCHITECTURE

49

V.

ROMAN

ARCHITECTURE

103

VI.

EARLY

VII.

BYZANTINE

VIII.

ROMANESQUE

IX.

GOTHIC

X.

RENAISSANCE

XI.

POST-RENAISSANCE

XII.

MODERN

XIII.

AMERICAN

XIV.

EASTERN

OF

ARCHITECTURE
ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURE

CHRISTIAN

ARCHITECTURE
ARCHITECTURE
ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURE
ARCHITECTURE

159

183
217
275

ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURE

344
401

460
524
572

GLOSSARY

589

INDEX

605

ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE

FIG.

1.

STONEHENGE.

2.

GIZEH.

3.

BENI

4.

DER-EL-BAHRI.

5.

KARNAK.

PLAN

6.

KARNAK.

CENTRAL

(RESTORED
THE

HARTMANN)

BY

PYRAMIDS

OF

KHAFRE

OF

(RESTORED

KHUFU

AND

HOLSCHER)

BY

14

HASAN.

PORTICO
MORTUARY

TOMB

17

TEMPLE

HATSHEPSUT.

OF

STORED
(RE-

BRUNET)

BY

18

PRINCIPAL

OF

TEMPLES.

(BAEDEKER)

GREAT

TEMPLE

OF

AMON.

OF

HYPOSTYLE

THE

MODEL

IN

HALL

19

AISLES

THE

OF

METROPOLITAN

THE

MUSEUM
7.

20

DUR-SHARRUKIN

(KHORSABAD).

(RESTORED
8.

DUR-SHARRUKIN.

9.

BABYLON.

THE

PALACE

SARGON

OF

PLACE)

BY

PLAN

27
PALACE

THE
OF

SARGON.

OF

TEMPLE

THE

(PLACE)

PLAN.
NINMAH.

OF

28

(AFTER

KOLDEWEY)

31

10.

PERSEPOLIS.

PLAN

it.

PERSEPOLIS.

TOMB

12.

KNOSSOS.

13.

TIRYNS.

14.

MYCEN/E.

GATE

15.

MYCENAE.

PORTAL

PLAN

OF

OF

PART

PLATFORM

OF

(JACKSON)
(EVANS)

PALACE.

THE

ACROPOLIS.

THE

34

NAKSH-I-RUSTAM.

DARIUS,

OF

OF

PLAN

PALACE

THE

35

38

(RODENWALDT)

40

...

(RESTORED

LIONS

OF

OF

41
"TREASURY

THE

ATREUS."

OF

SPIERS)

BY

16.

ATHENS.

THE

PARTHENON,

17.

ATHENS.

THE

PARTHENON.

1 8.

ATHENS.

19.

THE

20.

THE

43
FROM

NORTHWEST

THE

53

...

ROMAN

IN

(RESTORED
MODEL

TIMES.

TO

ITS

METROPOLITAN

IN

CONDITION

MUSEUM)
.

GREEK

DORIC

GREEK

(AFTER

PROFILES

OF

FROM

THE

WITH

WEST

59

ORDER,
DURM)

GREEK

RETRANSLATION

INTO

61

DORIC

ARRANGED

CAPITALS,

IN

LOGICAL
CHRONO-

ORDER
22.

IONIC

63

ENTABLATURE,

RETRANSLATED

INTO

WOOD.

(AFTER

DURM)
23.

MAGNESIA.

24.

EPIDAURUS.

25.

ATHENS.

26.

AKRAGAS.

27.

GREEK

53

54

ORDER

DORIC

WOOD.
21.

ERECHTHEUM,

THE

66

TEMPLE

ARTEMIS.

OF

CORINTHIAN

CAPITAL

MONUMENT
TEMPLE

TRYSELL,
AND

AFTER

ROMAN

OF
OF

DETAILS.
OF

THE

(HUMANN)

...

69

LYSICRATES

OLYMPIAN

ZEUS.

(RESTORED

KOLDEWEY)
MOLDINGS.

67
68

THOLOS

BY

E.

H.
70

(REYNAUD)

..,.,.

7?

viii

ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG.

PAGE

THE

28.

P.ESTUM.

29.

VARIETIES

GREAT

NEPTUNE."

"TEMPLE

SO-CALLED

OF

(CHIPIEZ)
OF

30. ATHENS.
31. MAGNESIA.

TEMPLE,

THE

PLAN

TEMPLE

THE

ACROPOLIS.

OF

THE

75

GREEK
AGORA

PLAN

77

(KAUPERT)
SURROUNDING

AND

81

....

BUILDINGS.

(HUMANN)
32.

EPHESUS.

33.

PRIENE.

88

THEATER

(RESTORED
"

R.

90
93

THE

"ARCH

BY

THE

106
108

...

116

PANTHEON

THE

(RESTORED

CONDITION

THE

AFTER

ISA-

BY

RESTORATION

THE

SEVERUS

117

ROME.

THE

FORUM

ROMANUM

44.

ROME.

THE

FORUM

ROMANUM

119
AND

SCHEMATIC

REPRESENTATION

ROMAN

THE

ROME.

PERORS.
EM-

THE
.

CONSTANTINE.

OR

THEATER.

THERMAE

123

DEVELOPMENT

THE

THE

OF

125

(RESTORED

ANDRE)

BY

CARACALLA.

OF

126

....

(RESTORED

PLAN.

BY

BLOUET)
49.

ROME.
BY

129

THERMAE

TEPIDARIUM.

(RESTORED
130

"PONT

THE

ARCH
OF
51. THE
TRIER.
PORTA
52.
53.

DIOCLETIAN.

OF

PAULIN)

50. N!MES.

ROME.

GARD"

DU

132

TITUS

134

NIGRA

MAUSOLEUM

135
OF

HADRIAN.

(RESTORED

VAUD-

BY

REMER)
HOUSE

54. POMPEII.
55. TIVOLI.

59.

(RESTORED

BY

G.

S.

CAESARS.

THE

PLAN.

(RESTORED

BY

141
OF

CORINTHIAN
OF

PLAN.

140
OF

PALACE

TEMPLE

136
138

PLAN

HADRIAN.

OF

KOYL)
PALACES
56. ROME.
DEGLANE)

THE

PANSA.

OF

VILLA

57. SPALATO.
58. ROME.

121

STORED
(RE-

(FIECHTER)

THEATER.

47. OSTIA.

OF

OF

GROMORT)

BY
(RESTORED
OF
MAXENTIUS,
D'ESPOUY)

BASILICA
BY

FORA

THE

PLAN.
45. ROME.

no
m

CARREE"

OF

97

MAISON

INTERIOR

....

VESTA"

OF

COLOSSEUM

"THE

ZIPPELIUS)
HULSEN)
BY

AUGUSTUS"

OF

"TEMPLE

N!MES.

(RESTORED
BY
(RESTORED

43.

48.

(RESTORED

96

BELLE), SHOWING

46.

94

APOLLO.

OF

VIEW.

TEMPLE.

38. PERUGIA.

OF

PRECINCT

AND

BIRD'S-EYE

42. ROME.

(WIEGAND)
TRIDENT.
(P. PARIS)

SMYTHE)

H.

39. TIVOLI.
40. ROME.

PERIOD.

XXXIII."
OF

ETRUSCAN

37. AN

HELLENISTIC

THE

FIECHTER)

TEMPLE

36. PRIENE.

41.

BY

HOUSE

HOUSE

34. DELOS.
35. DELPHI.

DURING

DIOCLETIAN.
CAPITAL

CASTOR

METROPOLITAN

AND

(RESTORED

BY

ENTABLATURE

AND

POLLUX.

(RESTORED

HEBRARD)
FROM

CAST

IN

MUSEUM)

DEVELOPMENT

IN

ROMAN

ARCHITECTURE

THE

RELATIONS

142

THE

145
OF

ARCH

AND

COLUMN

IN

147

ILLUSTRATIONS

ix

FIG.

PAGE

60.

ROMAN

CELLULAR

VAULT.

61.

ROMAN

LAMINATED

62.

MOUSMIEH.

(Cnoisv)

PRiETORIUM.

151

(CHOISY)

151

(DE VOGUE)

153

VAULT.

EARLY
CHRISTIAN
CHURCHES
OF
63. PLANS
EARLY
CHRISTIAN
CHURCHES
OF
64. ELEVATIONS
SAN
CLEMENTE.
PLAN
SHOWING
ROME.
65.
66.

ROME.

WALLS.

OUTSIDE-THE-

LORENZO

67. ROME.

SAN

ROME.

SAN

INTERIOR

FUORI-LE-MURA.

LORENZO
SANT'

69. RAVENNA.
70. ROME.
71. ROME.

ATRIUM

THE

SAN

APOLLINARE

STEFANO

INTERIOR
INTERIOR

Nuovo.

ROTONDO.

COSTANZA.

SANTA

EXTERIOR

FUORI-LE-MURA.

....

INTERIOR

SECTION

164

SEEN

ENTRANCE

THE

FROM

68.

PAUL'S

SAINT

160
162

167
167
169
169
170

SHOWING

TION
CONSTRUC-

THE

171
72. TOURMANIN.
73. KALAT-SEMAN.

THE
THE

MUSEUM.

74. BERLIN

GOWSKI)

75. RAVENNA.
OF

BASILICA
BASILICA
THE

THE

RESTORED

FRIEZE
"

172

SAINT

OF

SIMEON
MSCHATTA.

FROM

175
GALLA

OF

PLACIDIA.

DRAWING

BYZANTINE

CAPITALS

EXTERIOR

THE

VITALE.

EXAMPLES

SAINTS

OF

SERGIUS

BYZANTINE

BACCHUS.

AND

189

CHURCHES

SECTIONS

81.

CONSTANTINOPLE.

HAGIA

SOPHIA.

EXTERIOR

82.

CONSTANTINOPLE.

HAGIA

SOPHIA.

INTERIOR

190
191
LOOKING

ARD
TOW-

APSE

THE

THE

192

VATICAN.

INTERIOR

OF

MANUSCRIPT
THE

CONSTANTINOPLE.

CHURCH

ILLUMINATION
OF

HOLY

THE

SHOWING

APOSTLES

AT

(DIEHL)

84. CONSTANTINOPLE.
85. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE.
86.

THE

194

HOLY

APOSTLES.

CHARLEMAGNE'S

PLAN,

CHAPEL.

RESTORED

195

INTERIOR
.

CONSTANTINOPLE.

THE

VIEW

KILISSEDJAMI.

FROM

THE

199

-(PHOCIS).
EAST

THE

MONASTERY

SHOWING

Two

THE

SAINT

OF

LUKE.

CHURCHES.

VIEW

FROM

(SCHULTZ

AND

BARNSLEY)

200

VENICE.

SAINT

MARK.

PLAN

89. VENICE.
90. VENICE.

SAINT

MARK.

VIEW

88.

SAINT

MARK.

INTERIOR

201

FROM

PIAZZA

THE

TOWARD

LOOKING

92.

CHURCH
(LAKE
VAN). THE
SOUTHEAST.
(LYNCH)
MANASSIA
(SERBIA). (POKRYCHKIN)

93.

CONSTANTINOPLE.

91.

AKTHAMAR

PLAN

OF

THE

SACRED

SEEN

202

....

APSE

THE
FROM

203

THE

204
206

PALACE,

RESTORED.

(EBERSOLT)
94.

HAYDRA.

95.

PLAN

THE
OF

196

EAST.

(EBERSOLT)
87. STIRIS

178
185
187
188

80.

OF

PLAN

PLAN

SAINT IRENE.
78. CONSTANTINOPLE.
BYZANTINE
CHURCHES
OF
79. PLANS

THE

173

(STRYZ-

MAUSOLEUM

SAN
76. RAVENNA.
77. CONSTANTINOPLE.

83. ROME.

STYLITES

SAINT

MANUSCRIPT.

209

FORTIFICATIONS,
GALL.

REDRAWN

(PORTER)

RESTORED.
FROM

(DIEHL)
THE

NINTH

211

CENTURY
222

ILLUSTRATIONS

x
FIG.

PAGE

ONE

96.

LORSCH.

97.

EARL'S

98.

SANTA

MARIA

99.

PLANS

OF

BAY

BARTON.

OF

THE

ELEVATIONS

101.

MILAN.

102.

MILAN.

103.

MILAN.

SANT'

104.

VERONA.

SAN

105.

PISA.

SECTIONS

AND

SANT'

VAULT

224

PLAN

RIBS

DRAWING
INTERIOR

AMBROGIO.

ONE

OF

230

LOOKING

TOWARD

THE

APSE

THE

231

THE

EXTERIOR

AMBROGIO.

GENERAL

ZENO.

CATHEDRAL

232

VIEW

233

LEANING

AND

TOWER,

SEEN

FROM

SOUTHWEST

235

106.

PISA.

CATHEDRAL.

PLAN

107.

PISA.

CATHEDRAL.

VIEW

236
INTERIOR

THE

OF

LOOKING

ARD
TOW-

APSE

THE

108.

237

CATHEDRAL.

CEFALU.

VIEW

OF

WEST

THE

END

239

....

109.

MONREALE.
MONREALE.

112.

PAULINZELLE.

113.

SYSTEMS

114.

DRUBECK.

115.

SPEYER.

116.

SYSTEMS

AND

THE

241

OF

PLAN

CAPITOL.

THE

242

....

PLAN

242

GERMAN

CHURCHES
ROMANESQUE
ONE
OF
BAY, SHOWING

DRAWING

243
SYSTEM

THE

244

PLAN

245

RHENISH

OF

ri7. SPEYER.

VIEW

THE

FROM

THE

INTERIOR

LOOKING

247

CATHEDRAL.

VIEW

TROPHIME.

119.

ARLES.

120.

CLERMONT-FERRAND.

SAINT

SECTION,

246

....

OF

APSE

THE

8. MAINZ.

CATHEDRALS

ROMANESQUE

CATHEDRAL.

TOWARD

121.

122.

TOULOUSE.

THE

248
248

PORTAL
PORT.

DU

HALF-BARREL

NOTRE

NORTH

MAIN

DAME

NOTRE

SHOWING

CLERMONT-FERRAND.
THE

NAVE

THE

OF

CHOIR

MARY

SAINT

OF

LOOKING
240

THE

OF

COLOGNE.

INTERIOR

THE

SYSTEM

CATHEDRAL.

in.

OF

APSE

THE

EXTERIOR

1 1

VIEW

CATHEDRAL.

TOWARD
no.

VAULT
DAME

TRANSVERSE

OVER

DU

AISLE

THE

PORT.

VIEW

249

OF

END

EAST

250

SAINT

THE

SERNIN.

INTERIOR

SEEN

FROM

THE

WEST
123.

229

BAY, SHOWING

(MOORE)

SUPPORTS.

AND

227

CHURCHES

ROMANESQUE

OF

AMBROGIO.

SANT'

225

CHURCHES

ROMANESQUE

100.

223

TOWER

NARANCO.

DE

GATE

BASILICAN

THE

251

PERIGUEUX.

SAINT

FRONT.

GENERAL

VIEW

THE

FROM

SOUTHEAST
124.

POITIERS.

125.

VEZELAY.

252
NOTRE

DAME

LA

GRANDE.

VIEW

OF

WEST

THE

END
SEEN

253

CHURCH
FROM

MADELEINE.

THE

THE

INTERIOR

VESTIBULE

THE

254

ORNAMENT

126.

ROMANESQUE

127.

JUMIEGES.

128.

CAEN.

THE

129.

CAEN.

SAINT

130.

IFFLEY.

TOWARD

OF

ABBEY

THE

PARISH

255

CHURCH.

ABBEY

THE

CHURCHES.

ETIENNE.

VIEW

SYSTEM

SYSTEM
OF

THE

256
OF

INTERIORS

THE

INTERIOR

257

LOOKING

APSE
CHURCH.

258
VIEW

OF

THE

WEST

END
.

259

ILLUSTRATIONS

xi

FIO.

PAGE

131.

DURHAM.

CATHEDRAL.

132.

DURHAM.

133.

BEAUVAIS.

VAULTS

PARISH

136.

LEON.

GERMANY,
139.

PLANS

140.

SECTIONS

ABD

141.

AMIENS.

WEST

142. AMIENS.
INTO

143.

EXAMPLES

144.

REIMS.
CROWNS

BUILDINGS

280

CATHEDRAL

THE

OF

VIEW

OF

281
ING
LOOK-

INTERIOR,

THE

283
VAULTS

286

VIEW
IN

DEVELOPED

GOTHIC

CONOID,

VAULTS

THE

SHOWING

1914,

VIEW

AFTER
LEVEL

THE

VAULTS

287
DIRECTIONS

THE

OF

WINDOWS,

288
.

SHOWING

INTERIOR,

THE

THE

OF

(MOORE)

ABUTMENT.

THROUGH

AND,

OF

SHOWING

THEIR

AND

VAULTS

THE

GOTHIC

OF

D'ESSERENT.

LEU

FRANCE,

IN

276
278

CATHEDRAL.

THRUSTS

SAINT

....

CATHEDRALS

BOMBARDMENT

VAULTING

THE

146.

AND

MEDIEVAL

OF

145. GOTHIC

263
264
265
269

APSE

THE

THE

AISLE

ENGLAND

FRONT

FIRST

THE

THE

CATHEDRAL.

OF

262

NORTH

THE

FORTIFICATIONS

GOTHIC

SYSTEMS

THE

THE

....

BUILDINGS

GOTHIC

OF

OF

261

SYSTEM

AND

OF
OF

ITALY

OF

(MOORE)

VIEW

PLAN

VIEW
PLANS

138. COMPARATIVE

ONE

PLAN

ISIDORO.

GENERAL

137. AVILA.

CHURCH.

SOUTHEAST

THE
OF

SUPPORTS.

SANTIAGO.

SAN

FROM

DRAWING

ITS

AND

135. COMPOSTELA.

VIEW

ETIENNE.

SAINT

MORIENVAL.

260

GENERAL

CATHEDRAL.

AISLE
134.

PLAN

FLYING

THE

BUTTRESSES

289

OF
147. ARRANGEMENT
DEVELOPMENT
THE

OF

149.

PLANS

150.

PLANS

OF

OF

EAST

THE

152.

CHARTRES.

153.

SENLIS.

THE

LONDON.

161.

GLOUCESTER.

162.

ROUEN.

292

....

OF

GOTHIC

THE

PILR

293

EXAMPLES

OPENING.

294

SPIRE

296

SPIRE

297
VIEWED

CATHEDRAL
OF

NORTH

THE

BEFORE

300

1914

PLAN

CATHEDRAL,

INTERIOR

FROM

OF

THE

301

SEEN

THE

FROM

CATHEDRAL,

NORTHEAST

302

TOWARD

LOOKING

END

303

WESTMINSTER
THE
SAINT

ABBEY.

CATHEDRAL.

OUEN.

ANGEL

THE

CHOIR

304

....

CHOIR
HENRY
INTERIOR

305
VII. 's CHAPEL
OF

CLOISTERS

THE

306
307

308

SYSTEM

WEST
THE
SAINT VULFRAM.
163. ABBEVILLE.
VIEW
MACLOU.
THE
SAINT
OF
164. ROUEN.
SPIRE

CHURCHES,

TRACERY

THE
CATHEDRAL.
158. LINCOLN.
THE
SYSTEM
THE
OF
159. YORK.
160.

291
ILLUSTRATING

...

THE

157. SALISBURY.
EAST
THE

CUT

CHEVET

THE

WINDOW

THE

CATHEDRAL.

SALISBURY.

MENT
DEVELOP-

THE

GOTHIC

OF

SOUTHERN

BOMBARDMENT

155. CHARTRES.

156.

BAR

THE
THE

154. REIMS.

FIVE

OF

DEVELOPMENT

THE
OF

AND

THE

AND

TRANSVERSE

DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT
PLATE

ILLUSTRATE

TO

290

ENDS

ILLUSTRATING

OF

AND

BUTTRESS

THE

CHAPELLE.

SAINTE

THE

151. THE

DETAILS

FACADE

THE

THE

148. PARIS.

MONUMENTS

PORTALS
WEST

FRONT

309

AND

31"

ILLUSTRATIONS

xii

PAGE

PIG.

165. BAMBERG.
1 66. MUNSTER.

CATHEDRAL.

PLAN

CATHEDRAL.

SYSTEM

167. FREIBURG.
1 68. FREIBURG.

THE

MINSTER,

THE

MINSTER.

169. MARBURG.

SAINT

TOWARD
170.

172.

SOUTHEAST

THE

313

SYSTEM

314

THE

LOOKING

INTERIOR,

315

316
VIEW

OF

THE

317

CATHEDRAL

GIRALDA

AND

TOWER,

SEEN

SOUTHWEST

THE

318

PLAN
SAN
FRANCESCO.
173. ASSISI.
THE
CATHEDRAL.
174. FLORENCE.
TOWARD

LOOKING
175. ORVIETO.

INTERIOR,

THE

LOOKING

APSE

THE

FROM

FROM

ELIZABETH.

CATHEDRAL.

SEVILLE.

312

SEEN

HALLENKIRCHEN

OF

171. TOLEDO.
TOWARD

311

APSE

THE

SYSTEMS

SYSTEM

AND

THE

319

VIEW

INTERIOR,

THE

OF

APSE

THE

CATHEDRAL

320
SEEN

FRONT,

FROM

WEST
SOUTH-

THE

321

176. MILAN.

EXTERIOR

OF

177. AlGUES-MORTES.

CATHEDRAL

THE

GENERAL

VlEW

OF

322
THE

ClTY

THE

FORTIFICATIONS

AND

CATIONS
FORTIFI324

178. CARCASSONNE.
179.
1

80.

GENERAL

COUCY.
A

MEDIEVAL

THE

182.

SAINT

OF

DWELLING

GROUNDS,

CASTLE

DESTRUCTION

HOUSE.

TOWN

OF

THE

ITS

BEFORE

COUNTRY

181.

VIEW

VIEW

DONJON

THE

CITE.

LA

IN

1917

(VIOLLET-LE-DUC)

OF

MEDARD-EN-JALLE.

MEDIEVAL

SKETCH

OF

326

327

....

PEASANT.

LET-LE-DUC)
(VIOL328
LET-LE-DUC)
(VIOL-

MANOR.

THE

325

SHOWING

329

183. YPRES.

CLOTH

THE

BOMBARDMENT

184. BOURGES.
185. FLORENCE.
1 86.

SIENA.

OF

MAISON
THE

CAHORS.

THE

189. FLORENCE.

PONT

333

DUCALE

334

CATHEDRAL

igi.

FLORENCE.

PAZZI

336

FROM

SAN

OF

SOUTHEAST

THE

347

LORENZO

348

CHAPEL

349

PALAZZO

MEDICI-RICCARDI

350

PALAZZO

RUCELLAI

351

SANT'

ANDREA.

INTERIOR

CERTOSA
NEAR
PAVIA.
195. THE
PALAZZO
VENDRAMINI
196. VENICE.
197. ROME.
198. ROME.

332

PUBBLICO
VALENTRE

190.

194.

331

VECCHIO

PALAZZO

INTERIOR

MANTUA.

THE

330

PALAZZO

FLORENCE.

192. FLORENCE.
193. FLORENCE.

BEFORE

APPEARED

CCEUR

JACQUES

PALAZZO

THE

IT

AS

1914
DE

THE

187. VENICE.
1 88.

HALL

LOGGIA

OF

AT

ROME.

SAINT

PETER'S.

200.

ROME.

PALACE

OF

RAPHAEL.

201.

ROME.

LOGGIA

OF

THE

202.

ROME.

PALAZZO

203.

ROME.

MASSIMI

353
354

SAN

199.

DELL'

FACADE

CHURCH

THE

"TEMPIETTO"

352

OF

SAN

PIETRO

IN

MARCO

355

....

MONTORIO

INTERIOR
MADAMA.

AQUILA.

PALACES.

357

(RESTORED

VILLA

PLAN

356

BY

HOFFMANN)

INTERIOR

(RESTORED

BY

GEYMULLER)

358
359

360
362

xiii

ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

FIG,

MEDICI

CHAPEL

204.

FLORENCE.

205.

VENICE.

PALAZZO

GRIMANI

206.

VENICE.

LIBRARY

OF

207.

THE

DEVELOPMENT

SAN

AT

LORENZO

364
365

MARK

SAINT

RENAISSANCE

OF

TYPE

363

CHURCHES

OF

CENTRAL

367
369

"

FARNESE

208.

ROME.

PALAZZO

209.

ROME.

PALAZZO

210.

EARLY

RENAISSANCE

211.

"HIGH

RENAISSANCE"

212.

BLOIS.

213.

PARIS.

FARNESE.

(AFTER GROMORT)
DETAILS.
(AFTER GROMORT)
SHOWING
WINGS
THE
CHATEAU,

OF

(AT BACK)

XIII
COURT

214.

PARIS.

THE

215.

PARIS.

DETAIL

216.

SEVILLE.

TUILERIES.

217.

GRANADA.

218.

HEIDELBERG.

219.

NORNBERG.

220.

MONT

221.

HATFIELD

222.

ROME.

223.

ROME.

SAINT

224.

ROME.

THE

225.

VICENZA.

THE

226.

VICENZA.

VILLA

227.

MILAN.

PALAZZO

228.

VENICE.

SANTA

PALACE

CHARLES

OF

WING

OTTO

OF

PELLER
HOUSE.

V.

375

381

COURT
IN

CASTLE

THE

390

HOUSE

391

(GOTCH)

393
394

PETER'S

SAINT

OF

PETER'S

AND

DOME

VATICAN.

THE

FROM

(GROMORT)

404

EAST

THE

405

CAPITOL

SAN

383
385
387
388

389

HEINRICH

HOUSE
PLAN

373

OF

HALL

TOWN

ACUTE

TIONS
CONSTRUC-

(PLANAT)

TUILERIES.

THE

(AT LEFT)

I.

(ORIGINAL
GOUJON)
PLAN)
(DE L'ORME'S

AND

FROM

FRANCIS

AND

LOUVRE.

THE

OF

LESCOT

OF

371

DETAILS.

COURT

Louis

PLAN

406

BASILICA

407

ROTONDA

408

MARINO.
MARIA

229.

ROME.

230.

BAGNAIA.

231.

THE

ESCURIAL.

232.

THE

ESCURIAL

233.

SEVILLE.

234.

BLOIS.

WING

235.

PARIS.

COLONNADE

COURT
SALUTE

DELLA

A' CATINARI.

CARLO

410

413

CHAPEL

OF

CECILIA.

SANTA

(Ricci)

415
VILLA

LANTE.

(TRIGGS)

PLAN.

417

PLAN

420

421

ALTAR

OF

CHURCH

THE

OF

EL

SALVADOR.

BERT)
(SCHU422

236. VERSAILLES.
237. VERSAILLES.

GASTON

OF

OF

THE

D'ORLEANS

PALACE

PLAN

OF

425

LOUVRE

THE

FROM

THE

427
PLACE

PRINCIPAL

THE

D'ARMES
.

FLOOR

OF

(GROMORT)
239.

PARIS.

240.

VERSAILLES.

241.

PARIS.

242.

VERSAILLES.

243.

LONDON.

THE

244.

LONDON.

SAINT

245.

LONDON.

SAINT

246. BLENHEIM

428
429

GALERIE

THE

238. VERSAILLES.

PALACE.

THE

PLACE

DE

431
432

TRIANON

ST.

OF

PAUL'S
FROM

FRONT

437

....

THE

APARTMENTS

OF

HALL, WHITEHALL

BANQUETING
PAUL'S

433

PRINCIPAL

DENIS.

DETAIL

PALACE

GLACES

CONCORDE

LA

PETIT

PORTE

DES

CATHEDRAL.
CATHEDRAL
THE

FORE-COURT

PLAN

Louis

XV.

437
439
440
441
443

xiv

ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG.

247.

PAGE

PARK

PRIOR

248. CLIFFORD

NEAR

BATH

445

CHAMBERS

249.

LONDON.

250.

DRESDEN.

251.

DRESDEN.

252.

PARIS.

253.

BERLIN.

254.

PARIS.

255.

KEDLESTON.

446
MARY-LE-BOW

SAINT

CENTRAL

449

PAVILION

OF

ZWINGER

THE

450

....

FRAUENKIRCHE
CHURCH

451

SAINTE

OF

BRANDENBURG
ARC

THE

(THE

PANTHEON)

465
466
467
468

GATE

TRIOMPHE

DE

THE

256. LONDON.

GENEVIEVE.

L'^TOILE

DE

DOMED

SALOON

BANK

ENGLAND,

OF

LOTHBURY

ANGLE.

(RICHARDSON)
257.

468

THE

EDINBURGH.

HIGH

ROYAL

258. BERLIN.
259.
260.

LIVERPOOL.

(RICHARDSON)

470

....

THEATER

OLD

LONDON.

SCHOOL.

470

NEWGATE

PRISON.

(RICHARDSON)
(RICHARDSON)

473

....

261.

EATON

262.

LONDON.

SAINT

GEORGE'S

BEFORE

HALL,

HOUSES

ALTERATION

267.

FLETE

268.

HOARCROSS.

COURT

269. PARIS.

CHAMBERS.

CATHEDRAL

(MUTHESIUS)

OF

PARIS.

OPERA

271.

PARIS.

CHURCH

272.

BRUSSELS.

273.

ROME.

274.

PARIS.

READING-ROOM

275.

PARIS.

OPERA

HOUSE.

276. PARIS.

GRAND

BAZAR

494

495

HOUSE

496
SACRED

THE

OF

PALAIS

MONTMARTRE

HEART,

JUSTICE

DE

MONUMENT

OF

II

499
NATIONALS

BIBLIOTHEQUE

THE

PLAN
DE

BERLIN.

WERTHEIM

PLATZ.

278. GARE

DU

DE

STRUCTION
(LA CON-

RENNES.

510

STORE.

FAC.ADE
BAUFORMEN)

279.
280.

VIENNA.

STATION

281.

BERLIN.

TURBINE

282.

PALENQUE.

283.

TRANSVERSE

ON

FACTORY

(AEG).

COMPANY

LEIPZIGER

RAILWAY.
GENERAL

THE

CIVIL)
.

(Lux)

OF

PALACE

288.

WESTOVER,

289.

NEW

YORK.

OF

TYPICAL

AND

TEMPLES.

MISSION
THE

WHIPPLE

AND

FOUNTAIN

CABILDO

BUILDING.

530
531

HOUSE

535

VIRGINIA
SAINT

MAYA

526
528

CATHEDRAL

ORLEANS.

287. IPSWICH.

514

525
SECTION

(HOLMES)
CITY.
284. MEXICO
BARBARA.
SANTA
285.
NEW

513

516
THE

(HOLMES)

286.

511

ELECTRIC

(HOEBER)
PLAN

SKETCH

OF

THE

510

METROPOLITAN

THE

OF

TO

(LE GENIE
(MUTHESIUS)

INTERIOR.

WINDERMERE.

LAKE

502

508
RUE

LA

(MODERNE
QUAI D'ORSAY.

BROADLEYS

497
497

EMMANUEL

VICTOR

TO

MODERNE)
277.

491
493

....

ANGELS

GENEVIEVE

SAINTE

BIBLIOTHEQUE

270.

HOLY

THE

479

492

HOBLETON.

CHURCH

475

481
485
489

(SEMPER)
(MUTHESIUS)

THEATER.

ZEALAND
NEAR

LODGE,

PARLIAMENT

OF

WESTMINSTER

LONDON.

(EASTLAKE)

1870.

IN

CLOTILDE

SAINTE
263. PARIS.
OLD
264. DRESDEN.
NEW
265. LONDON.
266.

HALL.

537

PAUL'S

CHAPEL

539

ILLUSTRATIONS

xv

FIG.

PAGE

REDWOOD

290.

NEWPORT.

291.

RICHMOND.

292.

BOSTON.

293.

NEW

294.

PHILADELPHIA.

LIBRARY

VIRGINIA

540
ORIGINAL

CAPITOL.

MODEL

541
.

STATE

HOUSE

YORK.

CITY

543

HALL

544

BANK

OF

UNITED

THE

(CUSTOM

STATES.

HOUSE)
295.

WASHINGTON.

296.

SALEM.

297.

WASHINGTON.

298.

NEW

299.

545
UNITED

STATES

WHITE

BOSTON.

547

HOUSE

FIERCE-NICHOLS

YORK.

CAPITOL

548

HOUSE.

TRINITY

ORIGINAL

(HOBAN'S

DESIGN)

549

CHURCH

TRINITY

551

CHURCH,

ORIGINALLY

AS

BUILT.

(VAN

RENSSELAER)

553

300.

BOSTON.

PUBLIC

LIBRARY

301.

ROCKVILLE.

302.

CHICAGO

303.

ASHMONT.

CHURCH

304.

BUFFALO.

GUARANTY

305.

NEW

306.

CHICAGO

307.

OAK

308.

CTESIPHON.

GARDEN

554

"MAXWELL

OF

EXPOSITION.

COURT"

COURT

OF

ALL

OF

555

HONOR

557

SAINTS

559
.........

(PRUDENTIAL)

BUILDING

561
....

309.
310.
311.

YORK.

WOOLWORTH

BUILDING

EXPOSITION.

TRANSPORTATION

CHURCH

PARK.

OF

ROYAL

CAIRO.
GRANADA.

OF

THE

DETAIL

563
564

(DIEULAFOY)

573

MOSQUE

OF

MOSQUE

BUILDING.

UNITY

THE

PALACE.

INTERIOR

CORDOVA.

562

AMRU.

575
PLAN

576

COURT

ALHAMBRA.

LIONS

OF

577
....

312.

AGRA.

THE

313.

KHAJURAHO.

MAHAL

TAJ

578
.

TEMPLE
THE

314.

JAVA.

315.

ANGKOR

WAT.

316.

PEKIN.

THE

317.

Uji.

CHANDI

OF

VISHNU

MENDOOT.

SOUTHWEST

581
(SCHELTEMA)

ANGLE

OF

THE

582
PORTICOES

583
.

THE

TEMPLE
PHENIX-HALL.

OF

HEAVEN

(CRAM)

584
585

EDITOR'S

Fine

Harper's
and

student

histories
the

last

has

been

or

of

of

have

has

excavator

those

to

evidence

"

therefore,

which

have,

been
the

endeavor

results

of

results
than

of

by

the

points.

Most

modern

research

in

of

and

The

for

need
be

to

treatises, which

authoritativeness

by

can

unless

consider

to

all

them
of

single

have

no

are

the

they

has

It

summaries

met

some

statements

summarize

to

such

better

and

incorrect.

series

new

books,
hand-

older

respects,

proved

of

ments
monu-

light

traditional

investigation

peared,
apand

spade

to

the

in many

this

seems

elaborate

more

writers

ments
monu-

have

The

brought

repeat

by

books

important

and

and

been

of

single

to

ago.

of

possible.

as

gain

the

volumes
sating
compen-

work

of

collaborators.

many
In

weighing
them

to

seems

bibliographies,
for

further

works
some

most

the

of

rather
and

all

to
cases,

to

show

conflicting theories
the

evidence,

to

and

probable,
titles of books

study.

large number
chosen

of

case

every

after

In

of

past

generalizations

decade

known,

cases,

many

the

clearly

as

in

Hundreds

the

new

recently published

more

the

special periods

to

of date"

out

are

During

of

artists,

many

already

authoritative

monuments

modified
even

added

disputed

on

of those

or

the

increasing thoroughness

or

greatly

for

painting.

scholars.

individual

to

generation

the

constantly

of monuments,

groups

theories

of

study

well-trained

devoted

which

the

with

pursued

articles

the

but

and

sculpture,

provide

to

concise

reader

general

years

number

is intended

Series

architecture,

twenty

great

and

Arts

the

of

INTRODUCTION

They

emphasize
their

also, they

not

of

monuments

any

to

view

give,

to

will

be

given
the

emphasized

in

which

selected

helpful

found

attempted

important

relation
have

then

tried,

have

the

present

which

have

writers

the

to

period,

discuss
but

have

and

characteristic

whole

development.

certain

aspects

of

EDITOR'S

xviii

INTRODUCTION

their subjectsat the expense of others.


The development of
American
art has been discussed
at rather greater length than
has

been

in similar

customary

that American

writers

usually received
the books

at

merits

art

hands

the

books, since it
fuller treatment

of critics and

to

seems

than

the

it has

historians.

As

for Occidental

intended

readers,Eastern art, in
spiteof its historical importance and intrinsic value, is treated
in a single chapter. Throughout, the endeavor
has been to
consider
to

are

of the past in the lightof the present, to try


modern
which
to that
has preart is related
ceded

the art

show

how

it.
of the books
In the arrangement of the material the use
by
classes has been constantlykept in mind, and headings for
sections

paragraphs have

or

been

freelyintroduced

throughout

the three volumes.


One

other

show

how

times

and

the

constantly kept before

is to trace

development,

to

of any
period grew out of that of earlier
conditioned
that of later days. Too many

art

in turn

older

of the

have

office of the historian

The

them.

writers

principlethe

histories

written

uphold a particular
system of aesthetics or to glorifya particularphase of artistic
development, frequently in a particularcountry.
Many of
these books
valuable
are
as
expressionsof the judgment of a
critic

or

as

and

records

of the

taste

of

to

an

age.

But

for the

ginner
be-

often
confusing.
they are
him
unfair
and
tend
at an
to warp
disadvantage
They place
Discussions
of aesthetic principlesand statehis judgment.
ments
of the consensus
of critical opinion may
properly find
place in an elementary book, but expressionsof purely personal
and
theories
which
have
been
not
judgments
generally
accepted should be eliminated so far as possible. The aim of
in
the writers of this series has been to point out the qualities
the works of any period which have appealed most
stronglyto
of those works
and
the creators
to endeavor
to emphasize
what
has enduring value.
It is hoped that the resulting
fulness.
"objectivity"of the books will add materiallyto their useThe
years,

the

were

general reader

problem of illustration is always difficult.


histories of art

opposite tendencies,

and

the

one

similar

toward

books
a

have

In

recent

exhibited

large number

two

of illus-

XIX

trations

on

but

advantage
or

statues

of

showing

small

very

those
of

of

this

matter

the

publishers,

the

writers

number

for

others.

of

They

in

middle

full-page

hope

that

the

with

of

they

have

has

the
the

text,

the

that

works.

In

co-operation
providing
for

of

especially
of

number
hit

small

upon

HARVARD

UNIVERSITY,
1917.

H.

siderable
con-

portant
imcuts

"golden

mean."
GEORGE

the

buildings
latter

individual

course,

larger

tions,
illustra-

system

illustrations

much

few

most

of

tried,

toward

former

reader

details

have

and

monuments

the

steer

to

The

mentioned

clearly

more

other

the

before

paintings

or

size.

large

bringing

the

scale,

CHASE.

AUTHORS'

have

last

the

During

has
research

twenty
back

pushed

been

another

multitude

generalizations
still

instance,
Etruria
of

made

the

that

uniformly
of

architecture

have

agreements

questions
and

is

of

history

life

that
any

expressiveness,

styles
is

and

other

recognized
of

criterion

Roman

and,

the

misleading
that

in

of

which

Freed

Renaissance

of

of

of
of

and

art,

of
is
in

and
into

with

all, it ?"

of

branches

of

impartial

influence

is

dogmatic
baroque
can

ganic
or-

the

to

historical

of

conformity
other

way

the

it is understood

important
in

in

supposed

decay

and

by

sought

inevitable

from

styles

material

analogy

give

architecture,

of

between

as

on

fluences
in-

affirmation,

than

an

new

spiritual

forms

rather

from

attitude

formation

many

the

fact.

influence

Most

in

modern

the

of

cited, where

one-sided

forced

be

must

architecture,

the

use

feature

instances

part

abandoned,

criticism

importance.

especially,

growth

history

"

in

of

analogy.

the

development
of

idea

not

must

history, subjective
study

The

generally

now

material

the

of

d'etre

raison

necessity.

structural

The

and

evolved

application
be

for

the

orders

changes

the

writers,

The
formal

purely

balance

to

nineteenth-century
environment.

characteristic

the

creation

in

the

questions

on

interpretation.

emphasized,

now

Greece

Greek

could

been

spontaneous

and

are

Assyria

that

Similar

reached
have

of

forced,

inconsistent

an

architecture

been

been

the

constructions.

important

Equally
many

was

modern

and

mediaeval

that

given direction,

of

thrown
over-

which

have

Egypt

over

or

century

suppositions

proportions

arched

to

Scholars

velopment
de-

Minute

modified

has

nineteenth

the

the

in

orders

the

advance

any

arch,

Roman

of

its later

chapters.

new

special points

architecture

and

millennium,

of

abandon

to

origins of

by wholly

repeated.

often

too

the

years

enriched

been

on

PREFACE

receive

the

appraisal,
architecture,
the

exposi-

PREFACE

AUTHORS'

xxii
tion

to

which

The

modern

their diffusion entitle therri.

their influence and

historian,like Chesterton's modern


his subjectsnot halters and halos, but voices.
In the

apportionment of
from the tendency

stylesat great length


few

words.

and

it has

Here

No
death

date

of traditional

is followed

is

in this book

space

of older

discuss

the

modern

as

space

on

to

is

parture
de-

ancient

developments with
thought better to give progressively

suggested

art;

works

there

recent

over

pass
been

greater emphasis and

poet, gives

times

marking

as

contrary, the

are

proached
ap-

supposed
development
a

the present day, in a belief in unending creative


architect and
vitality. Thus it is hoped that the professional
to

others

already

familiar

matter

of interest to them.

accordance

In

with

with

the

the

usage of most
is confined
architecture

Renaissance

still find

subject may
recent

new

writers,the

buildingsof the
Renaissance
in its more
restricted sense
(to about 1550 or
the later developments
to cover
1600), and is not extended
of classical forms.
The
need of a generaldesignationfor all
of the works
of the followingperiod, whether
academic
or
term

in

free

character, is

scholars

strong

to

and

German

one.

Italian

attempted to include them all by an extension


of the term
baroque architecture,but such an extension is
tion
violathe originalsense
of baroque and
a
a departure from
both
and of English usage.
of French
In consequence
the

have

authors

have ventured

:
self-explanatory

attempt has been made

The

to

present each styleas

growth and change, rather than as


of some
monuments
supposed apogee,
of

the
The

later

forms

which

term
new
a
propose
post-Renaissancearchitecture.

to

have

too

general development

often
of

been
the

based

formula
with

respect

treated

style

is

as

thing

on

to

is

the

which

corrupt.

first sketched

and these are


with little descriptionof individual monuments,
discussed
then
at length in sections
illustrated and
more

development of singleforms and types.


to each
A chronologicaloutline is added
chapter, with a
extended
note, including references to more
bibliographical
guides to the literature of the subject.
illustrations have
been
The
selected,in conformity with
devoted

recent

to

the

tendencies

both

in architecture

and

in

archaeology,to

AUTHORS'

show

far

so

in

noted

B.

the

who

have

the

authors

and

Co.,

other

the

Frank

and

Academy

at

Lloyd

Rome

furnished

kindly
been

A.

(Chapters

VI
which

portion
the

the

have

well

been

by

book

which

deals

Page

the

otherwise
could

Mr.

have
not

be

not

M.

A.

American

Museum,

which

drawn

Messrs.

Charles

as

would

terial
ma-

reproduce

to

Metropolitan

plates

rights
copy-

their
to

Ferguson,

as

which

Certain

Evans,

P.

portion

The

with

and

obtainable.

and

as

Doubleday,

permission

Wright,

photographs

directly
Mr.

Cram

Messrs.

of

also

Sons,

for

Co.,

of

use

thanks;

Putnam's

P.

Macmillan

material.

Platt,

cordial

produced,
re-

sources,

owners

the

permitted

extend
G.

the

the

are

original

To

courteously

Ltd.,

photographs
the

from

but

monuments,

from

illustrations.

of

xxiii

and

not

are

possible,

as

list

Batsford,

T.

"

which

Those

ensemble.

details

isolated

merely

not

PREFACE

have

duced
repro-

Gulick

B.

and

Jr.
of

to

the

IX)

deals

chapters

has
with

on

been

written

ancient

and

Eastern

with

by

the
Mr.

modern

architecture,

the

Edgell;
times,

by

Ages

Middle

Mr.

together
Kimball.

F.

K.

G.

H.

E.

OF

ARCHITECTURE

HISTORY

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

CHAPTER

ELEMENTS

THE

the

From
threefold

problem

traits, and
to

the

problem

of

brief

the

had

once

modious,
com-

sense.

universal

historical

duction
intro-

an

solutions

factors

constant

and

human

As

constant.

Each

possibilities

own

and

varied

these

of

area,

surrounded

inclosed

practical

separating
these

rooms

light

and

of

deserve

secure

building
grouped

good
must

about

sheltered

from

intended
in

there

buildings
their
or

for various

sizes
occupy

and

kept

several

the

there

courts

of

may

be

no

roofed

elements

chimneys.
interior
and

In

the
or

strict

all

partitions,

accommodated
When

these

provision

complicated.

interior,

greater

other

stories, the

or

the

course

weather.

relationships.

relatively thin

interior

primitive buildings

uses,

becomes

light throughout

is of

certain

be

must

intercommunication

be

also

windows,

doors,

"

the

still

and

brought

existence,

into

buildings

usefulness

numerous,

of

which

by walls, requires

rooms

uses

are

of

space

simplest

the

need,

compelling

majority

need

to

the

at

artistic

its

degree

architecture

primary,

brings

but

of

study

the

to

conditions

certain

structures

offers

natural

has

discussion.

The

for

to

build

to

problem

in

architecture

history

satisfying

the

thus

its

aim:

and

difficulties, rooted

the

of

or

of

phases

the

ARCHITECTURE

OF

beginning

strong,
of

the

less

To
of

masses

must

rooms

be
In

area.

division

of

of

the

OF

of different

functions
to

HISTORY

intended

the

functions
of

number

for other

one

and

rooms

through

pass

ARCHITECTURE

In

uses.

become

be necessary
courts, and it may
intended for one
to reach
use
advanced

more

and
specialized,

communication

construction

distinct class of elements

is created.

Corridors

and

stair-

of circulation which
do not
halls provide means
disturb
The
the privacy of individual apartments.
provisions for
the

reception of strangers

and

for

are

then

service of the establishment

the
also

carrying on of
separated from

the
the

privateportionsof the building.


Like these gradations in complexity of function, there are
also gradations in geometrical organization,which
affect
convenience

well

as

as

The

appearance.

elements

of

the

be of quite irregularshape,
and courts
plan rooms
may
juxtaposed without attention to their mutual
relationships
outline.
Elsewhere
the
be
to
or
resultinggeneral
they may
made
predominantly rectangular,the outline may be brought
tween
beto some
regular geometrical form, and communications
the elements
be provided at points on
their
may
A further degree of organizationmay
several axes.
result
from
the carrying through of a general axis of symmetry
of the building,or possibly
to the principalelements
common
from the establishingof two
or
more
important axes, usually
at rightangles. In the most
highly developed buildings there
"

"

be

may

multitude

and

forming with
schemes
permit a
whole, and

of minor
them

as

is

to
a

forms

resistance
sufficient

above

force it out
over

at

which

mere

compress

axes

Such

the

labyrinth.
provisionof inclosed

measure

the

these main

of the
components
of the arrangement, without which

against the various

to

to

confused

of construction,

weight

oversight of

grasp

it might prove only


Essential even
to

related

complex but orderlysystem.

clear

mental

axes,

forces

well

of

disintegration,
of strength. In the simplest of all
solid wall, the only tendency is for
or

crush

the

material

below

remedy is to increase
given pressure acts by thickening
sides.

as

space,

The

the

or

to
face
sur-

the wall

With
foundations, where the
safetyis amply attained.
soil is compressible,it is equally essential that the pressure
shall everywhere have the same
relation to the bearing power
and
cracks
will
of the soil,otherwise
unequal settlements
until

ELEMENTS

THE

As in any

result.

OF

wall

ARCHITECTURE

pierthe

or

the bottom

at

stones

have

weight to sustain than those above, there is


manifestlymore
a
logicalsatisfaction and often a real necessityfor making a
than at the top, either by occasional
wall thicker at the bottom
increases or by a constant
slope. Ordinarily the margin of
weight of the material
safetyallowed is so great that the mere
itself,
except in very high walls, does not actually necessitate
a
slope,and other considerations,practicalor artistic,
may
render

Thus

it undesirable.
with

surfaces

of

those

as

of
as

when

only

for

story of

foundation

wall

cut

rests

stone

find vertical

concentrated

upheld. Another

occurs

when

material

a weaker
material,
upon
of rubble or
a basement

on

ordinary soil.

upon

to

where

be

floors,must

increasingthe thickness
greater compressive strength rests

occasion

usual

more

of thickness

increases

weights, such

it is

These

conditions

are

frequently responsiblefor the existence and the forms of


belt courses
horizontal
or
as
moldings
string courses
they
called
at the level of floors or at the junctionof different
are
"

"

materials
Instead

supports
columns

be a series of isolated
wall there may
With
circular columns
or
piers of other forms.

of

"

continuous

even

increase

the
the

with

than

more

of diameter

the top.

the base

toward

Here, also, it is

walls

common

or

to

it is usual

to

find

an

"diminution"

toward

find transitional

bers,
mem-

capitalsupporting the load above, the base spreading

weight

on

the substructure.

tween
spanned, either in a wall or beisolated supports, new
or
problems arise. In a beam
supported only at its ends the action of gravity produces
the
usual
those
not
crushing tendency upon
only
tions
por-

Where
lintel

at the base.

and

openings are

which

large enough
shear the beam

bear
to

to

be

be made
its supports, and which
must
resist this,but also produces a tendency to
on

pointwhere the support ceases


and a tendency to bend and finally
to break it in mid-span.
or
Against both these tendencies, stone, with its crystalline
granular structure, offers a resistance very feeble relatively
to its weight. The
more
tendency to break increases much
and cost
rapidlythan the distance spanned, and the difficulty
of getting larger blocks likewise increases beyond all proportion.
Thus
be
for
stone
but
lintels can
used
rarely
spanacross

justat

the

HISTORY

OF

ning intervals of more


twenty-four feet is the

extreme

fibrous nature

on

long

span

beams

of

small

cost.

When
any

form

case

of wood,

and

steel have

feet, and

instance.

in modern

is to be used
masonry
when
only small stones

of arch

of

ten

clear span

The

of

lightnessand

times

immensely greater strength and

must

be

horizontal
form

than

it well fitted to
the contrary, make
distances,provided the weight above be not too

Iron

great.

ARCHITECTURE

arch

is the

to
or

span

bridge wide
brick

are

employed, and a new


thrust, appears.
corbeled

made

at

at

possible
relatively

openings,or in
command,
element
A

arch, built up

some

of disintegratio

rudimentary
in horizontal

in front of the course


projecting somewhat
the center
of the opening. The
below, finallymeeting over
true
arch differs from
this in having radiatingjoints,being
composed, in principle,of wedge-shaped blocks called voussoirs.
It may
be semicircular,elliptical,
or
pointed of tall
of the arch
or
squat proportions. The weight of the crown
tends to push the two
is relasides apart with a force which
tively
ones.
greater in broad, low arches than in tall,narrow
The sides requireto be abutted by masses
of earth or masonry,
to be brought into equilibriumby the counter
thrust of other
arches, or, failingthese methods, to be connected
by a tieIn a continuous
rod.
arcade, or series of arches restingon
piers or columns, the thrusts neutralize each other and produce
merely vertical pressure on all the intermediate
supports.
the
A massive
abutment
is thus needed
at
and the
ends,
only
slender.
interveningpiersmay be more
Covering the spaces inclosed by the walls are the roofs,
of forms influenced by the climate,
which take on a multitude
the shapes below.
the materials, and
Only in a rainless
climate can
roofs be perfectlyflat and jointspenetrate them
all other conwithout
ditions
overlapping protection. Under
any
there must
be a slope of greater or less degree to
from rain or melting snow.
If there is a
carry off the water
continuous
impervious covering like clay, tar, or soldered
be almost
metal, the slope may
imperceptible,and the roof
still form
a
terrace, reasonably flat. If the covering
may
material
is of small, overlapping pieces like shingles,slate,
have a
tiles,the roof,to insure the shedding of water, must
or
courses,

each

"

'

either to make

it is necessary

great weight

before

climates

southern

the roofs

off the

steep enough to throw

or

it accumulates

deep fall of
strong enough to

is

there

Where

pronounced inclination.

5'

ARCHITECTURE

OF

ELEMENTS

THE

dangerously.
demand

To

and

port
supsnow

merely

assume

flatter roofs

snow

northern

that
ones

a
generalization.
steeper roofs is obviously too inaccurate
than the
less
factor
The climate, in most
is
a
important
cases,

The
covering material.
by the shape

of the

form
of the

to

be

also

may

covered

be

or,

fluenced
inversely,
con-

the arrangement
adopted may
govern
of the plan. A pitched or sloping roof requires
and uniform
narrow
relatively
buildingsif the ridge is not to
is not to become
rise wastefullyhigh and the form
overof building to
complex. A terraced roof permits the masses
be of any shape and size. In either case
there are
practical
well
for
where
artistic
roof
treatment
as
as
reasons
a special
the

and

wall

of roof

areas

roof

form

With

meet

once

terraced

roof

there

is need

of

parapet, breast-high; with a sloping roof there is need of a


projectingcornice, to support a gutter or to keep the drip
from

the

The

clear of the walls.

eaves

support of the roof and

its form

on

the interior raise

further

questions. If the width is small, beams


span
may
directlyfrom wall to wall, or two sets of inclined rafters,
at the ridge. With
meet
restingon the walls, may
greater

widths

there

of wood

or

of

members

metal

supporting over
must

either be intermediate

must

wide

so

span;

be vaults of arched

resistingfire,but

form
semi-cylindrical

continuous

or

masonry.

they have

suitable abutment.
or

framed

domes

or

braced

to be

as

self-

else,instead of either,there
Vaults have the advantage
horizontal

Vaults
"

and

trusses

supports,

thrusts

of continuous
or

barrel vaults

which

quire
re-

hemispherical
"

necessitate

by thick walls. Vaults composed of


intersectingsurfaces or resting on arches, however, may
have their thrusts concentrated
at a few points,where
they
be met
by walls or projectingbuttresses which are more
may
there is but a singlecovering
efficiently
disposed. Sometimes
of beams
and trusses
to the building: a roof construction
their forms
the interior,or vaults show
on
directly
appears
a

on

the

abutment

exterior.

desired to

adapt

More

often, however,

exterior and

greater freedom

interior coverings to

is

their dif-

HISTORY

6
ferent
roof

functions.

beams,

OF

ARCHITECTURE

Thus

ceilings
may
roofs
independent

or

be introduced

constructed

below

the

above

the

vaults.
with

goes
most

desire for

strength and practicalusefulness


often a conscious strivingfor artistic effect. Even
in the
utilitarian buildings,indeed, there must
always be a

Along

certain

measure

forms.

Thus

the

in the

of choice
there

selection

of materials

of

or

is

inevitablysome
expression of preferences
which
consciously or unconsciously,artistic. It
are,
is the sum
of such expressions,
partly of conscious preference,
partly of traditional usage, partly of natural conditions and
which constitutes the artisticcharacter of a
practicalnecessity,
structure.

The

artistic ideas which

expressed are of many


different sorts.
The adaptation of the buildingto its practical
and relationships
of its various parts,
functions, the purpose
be made
The
clear.
civic,
specificcharacter
religious,
may
be emphasized. The
nature
military,commemorative
may
of the environment
be mirrored
in picturesquenessor
may
formalityof design. The size or "scale" of the building may
be unmistakably declared through features the size of which
may

be thus

"

"

bears

human
may

of

relation to
necessary
figure. The treatment

the

used

materials

of the

materials

or

to

the

themselves

bring out all their characteristic possibilities


color,texture, or veining. The principlesof the structural
be such

system
made

to

as

be

may

evident.

expressed
shade.

in

Finally

the

the

there

raison
the

are

d'etre of every
ideas of pure

sizes, shapes, colors, and

mere

domain

This

and

revealed

of pure

form

is the

one

detail

form,

light and

which

tecture
archi-

painting and sculpture. In architecture,


but abstract
and
however, the forms are not representative,
which
none
geometrical,and there is,besides, one possibility
of
of the other arts possesses.
It is that of creating forms
shares

interior space,

within which

architectural

there may

with

expressions and
be

greater

and

interest.

with

others, and

buildinginvolves
creation.

the observer

or

Certain
each

the sacrifice

in
less

their

stands.
mutual

In all these

relationships

mony,
degree of consistency,har-

incompatible
expressions are even
fusion of expressionsin a single
of many
others, and is a unique

ELEMENTvS

THE

At

given

the

period

constructive

or

formation,

Even

will

be

be

the

also

in

that,

and

and

tend

same

speak

of

work

popular
Others

1907.

with

dealing
in

in

every

to

Architectural

Essentials

of Composition,

discussions
4

vols., 3d

1898-1901.
pt.

I, vol.

and

pt.

others,
2

IV,

in

styles

occur

ed.,

1909,

The
2,

3d ed.,

Handbuch

Die

vol.

J.
and

i,

1904.

and

is

J. Belcher's

more

ed.,

Guadet's
L.

about

comes

the

of

men

of

forms
in

language,

the

guage.
lan-

spoken

common

of

will

in

varying
which

every

we

mean

architecture.

NOTE

of

Essentials

architecture

in

audience

and

J. V.

1908,

191,3.
Elements

Cloquet's

der

theory

professional

Composition,
26.

thousand

vocabulary

sort,

there

instincts,

generation,

elements

English

Robinson's

it

languages,

historic

the

addressed

Thus

employ

to

the

civilizations,

neighboring

common

of

this

Often

origin.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL

Works

architectural

and
the

perpetuating

artistic

architectural

province

speak

we

have

tend

is these

and

their

of

common

they

of

directions.

geologic

isolation

restrictions

of

and

definite

few

materials

the

by

of

many

certain

the

by

or

varied

older

place

that
It

country

in

one

to

way

when

of

expression

the

time

one

influence

of

however,
of

use

custom,

methods

exercised

steadily

of

force

and

peculiarities

conditions,
are

imposed

be

may

if there

the

region,

The

constant.

climatic

by

given

systems

inhabitants.
there

in

or

remain

elements

ARCHITECTURE

OP

Architektur

Systematic
et theorie

Traite

d'

by

Architektonische

Komposition

Van

and
de

by

2d
H.

Pelt's

tal
fundamenV

similar

J. Buhlman,

J. B.

are

architecture,

architecture,

contains

Bauformenlehre

Architecture,

vols.,

material:

ed.,

Wagner

1901;

and

CHAPTER

II

PREHISTORIC

Prom

the

period
a

The

the

to

gradual

in the

time
in

in

other

of

in

of
had

and
in

It is thus

earlier

The

time,

and

stone

age.

period,
lived

men

dugouts,
age,

by
or

floors

of

these

and
over

whole

the

and
of

to

less

favored

raise

Huts

built

raised

were

hostile

Sometimes
In

above

attack,
the

the

these

Swiss

huts
and

the
as

as
even

Italian

pile dwellings,

caves

later

the

or

stone

polish

to

methods
reeds

and

the

Sometimes

ground

well
were

chipped,

in

poles

roofs.

piles,

on

against
built

lakes
remains

complete.
in-

lithic
paleo-

the

soil, new
of

much

still

learned

till the

the

are

the

iron.

trace
at

age,

had

cattle, and

thatched

and

place

In

stone

American

to

dwelt

They

they

were

peoples

still crudely

hides.

when

clay, with

able

stone

were

and

the

bronze

regions

earlier

made

the

best

are

fishing.

poles

added.

of

we

were

development

found
of

and

tools

still in the

regions, took

the

period,

water.

villages

in

this

ignorant

instruments

tents

against

vermin.

favored

hunting

in

with

protection

that

when

were

plastered

Europe

During

implements,

housing

still

more

and

were

have

ferent
difat

for

used

Egyptians

turn

peoples

which

neolithic

or

stone

in

their

time.

successive

advances

Europe

of

among

through

completed

central

in

central

which,

changes

The

same

was

advancement

were

corresponding

of

other

of

iron

there

periods

the

passed

already

Europeans

Indians

much

and

preglacial

the

history

great

over

degrees

culture.

inhabitants

and

age,

of

which

of

recorded

Men

bronze,

stone,

branches

the

their

mists

the

were

greatly.

Mesopotamia

while

lasting

although

and

weapons,

of

beginnings

varied

which

in

development

peoples,

ages

mankind

development

steps

given

of

origins

down

ARCHITECTURE

for

animals
on

there
of

piles
were

which

ARCHITECTURE

PREHISTORIC

ings
rudimentary beginnings of carpentry. The dwellever,
were
already surpassed in importance at this time, howby sepulchers of the dead and religiousmonuments.
of -stone, usually not composed of many
These
small
were
blocks which
singly
pieces,but "megalithic" of enormous

show

the

"

sufficed for

pair of

wall

such

blocks

roof.

or

with

Tomb

chambers

covering slab

made

were

of

constitutingwhat

"

'ESfjgfvaj

"^fffm

FIG.

called

are
a

mound

Other

"

dolmens.
of

(RESTORED

STONEHENGE.

Sometimes

earth, or

monuments,

were

which

BY

these

were

preceded by
may

well

HARTMANN)

have

buried
covered
had

beneath
corridor.

religious
and
singlestanding pillars,
A menhir
in Brittany had
a

the menhirs, or
are
significance,
the cromlechs, or circles of stones.
the extreme
height of seventy feet. The most famous of the
cromlechs
is at Stonehenge near
Salisburyin England (Fig.i).
It had two
concentric circles of tall standing stones, with
lintels resting on them, minor
circles of smaller stones
just
inside of each, and a great "altar stone" within.
The ages of bronze and iron.
With
the discovery of the art
of working metals began the bronze age, which
made
possible
more

advanced

works

of carpentry

and

masonry.

This

oc-

io

curred

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

in central

Europe about
pile dwellings on

of

improved

of

Italy with

their

resting on
but
they

the

conical

or

domical

in

northern

walls

roofs

of

such

moats,

introduction

of

terramare
once

first circular

earliest

climates, by

huts

rectangular

the

the

as

came

at

were

assumed

gradually

ridge.

land,

These

ground.

The

and

Following villages

B.C.

2000

huts

pitch

more
or

oval,
The

shape.
later

were

roof

iron, which

with

took

placed,
re-

tudinal
longiplace

in central

but
Europe about the seventh
century B.C., made
little change in the manner
of building. Architecture
there
remained
influenced
shoots
essentiallyprimitive until it was
by offof the highly developed styleswhich
the
grew
up about
Mediterranean.
eastern
To
study their rise will be the
object of the following chapter.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL

NOTE

work
ure
comprehensive and authoritative
prehistoricarchitecton
is lacking. Monographs
individual
sites and
monuments
on
Reference
to be listed here.
be made
must
abound, too numerous

certain

general works

covering

the

prehistoric period, such


as
Sir John Lubbock's
Prehistoric
M.
Hoernes's
Times, yth ed., 1913;
Primitive
English
Man,
translation, 1900
(Temple Primers); and
Urgeschichte der Kultur, 3 vols., 1912
(Sammlung
Goschen); or to
works
which
limited
cover
regions. Hoernes's
Urgeschichte der
bildenden
E. A. Parkyn's Prehistoric
Kunst, 2d ed., 1915, and
Art,
For the developunfortunately do not include architecture.
ment
1915,
in prehistoric Europe, principally dealt with
in this chapter,
Manuel
all, J. Dechelette's
d'archeologieprehistorique,
see, above
to
celtiqueet romaine, 2 vols., 1908 ff.(primarily devoted
France,
but with some
references
countries
to other
and full bibliographical
notes), and S. Miiller's Urgeschichte Europas: Grundzuge einer prahistorischen Archaologie,translated
from
the Danish, 1905;
French
L 'Europe prehistorique, 1907.
translation:
consult
For
England
R. Munro's
Prehistoric
(Home
Britain, 1914
University Library),
T. R. Holmes
Remains
's Ancient
B.
C.
A. Windle's
Britain, 1907, or
On
the pile dwellings see
of the Prehistoric Age in England, 1904.
R. Munro's
The Lake
Dwellings of Europe, 1890.
to

III

CHAPTER

ARCHITECTURE

PRECLASSICAL

EGYPT

in

the

third

fertile

the

not

in

them
built

workmanship
Khufu

by

2800

B.C.,

works

in

Although
laid

is not

only

bulk,

but

over

level,

it with

the

of
at

was

variety

first

the

utmost

the

residences

light and

greatest

the

almost
of

conditioned

grandeur

and

of the

dead

the

exclusive

the

adoption,

of

as

the

dominant

feet

on

from

side, it
its

excavations
its

the

its

was

gencies
diver-

uniformity

constructive

fine

and

temples,
with

sufficed
was

stone,

for

sought
which
and

abundance,
types,

This

demanded

which

permanence

in

which

summarize

to

in contrast

which

vealed
re-

thousand

three

tombs

gods,

of

has

architecture.

for

houses

furnished

execution.

reports

during

of the

employment

Valley

in

of

permanence

living.

Nile

perfect

instruments.

of

Such

following

of all architectural

religious beliefs,

and

to

Pyramid,

years

exist, yet it is possible

by

seems

and
sides, in squareness,
in measuring
probable error

art,

characteristics

ized
central-

of

course

relatively temporary

the

cliffs

The

to

the

Petrie

surveying

Egyptian

supposed

enduring

largely

was

in

own

life, quite different

active

certain

his

modern

most

fifty

that

equality

characteristics.

years

than

greater

no

General

in

in

most

and

accuracy

exactness

Great

considerable
the

great

Euphrates

The

burial-place
most

the

the

comparable

magnitude,

hundred

such

the

of

of

strong

monuments

any

of

one

earliest

under

and

Tigris

own

the

seven

with

out

the

or

his

as

from
in

of

reached

was

beginning

the

the

building

were

possessed

have

to

yet

At

Christ, when

tombs

valley

architecture

Nile.

the

before

royal

rule,

of

valley

millennium

Egyptian

of

development

first notable

The

of

the

the
even

by
the

by

the

simple

12

and

mass,

used

of the

ARCHITECTURE

column

and

the lintel. The

the earliest

from

it had

where

OF

HISTORY

ample

times, was

abutment

confined

and

members, moreover,
were
size and massiveness, although sometimes
in certain

cases

of

composition
buildings. These were
continuous

in

the open

on

its broader

With
by columns.
permitted, rooms

the
could

generally
of

The

of

great
ment
refine-

extreme

delicacy. Traditional

recurred

plan

interior colonnade

opening

room

of

even

to substructures

little in view.

was

architectural
and

ally
arch, occasion-

in

court, often

ments
ele-

types of
many
surrounded
by a

and the rectangular


peristyle,
front, with its ceilingsupported
or

flat roofs which

the

rainless climate

be

other
juxtaposed without
any
restraint than the necessityof light. Partly as a consequence
of religious
beliefs,partly doubtless from natural preference,
the architectural members
were
usuallycovered with sculpture
in relief,
color.
tecture
Archieverywhere blazing with harmonious
formed
an
equal union with sculpture and painting.
the lotus and the papyrus,
The rich flora of the Nile, especially
furnished
the principalmotives
of ornament,
and even
gested
sugof structural

the form

members.

architecture

Egypt, from its earliest


to the Christian era, shows
traces
a
continuityof character
fluence.
never
destroyed and scarcelyinterruptedby any foreign inThe
early Semitic invasion from Asia by which the
of the Egyptian language is explained must
have
structure
taken place long before our
remotest
knowledge. The varied
essentiallya native one,
development of Egyptian art was
of a
resultingfrom the interaction and successive supremacy
number
of local schools, raised to prominence by the political
importance of their centers.
Thinite period. The
earliest of these schools to attain a
that
of This, a city about
twogeneral predominence was
Development.

The

thirds of the way


from
became
the capitalof

under

one

south

about

rule

the

3400

the Delta

to the

Menes, who

earlier
B.C.

of

First Cataract.

first succeeded

kingdoms of

His

successors

the
of

in

north
the

This

bringing
and

the

First

and

Dynasties, so-called, lived here for perhaps four


The
hundred
slightremains of architecture preserved
years.
Sun-dried
from
this period indicate a primitive condition.
and
brick wa.s the principal
material, although stone masonry
Second

PRECLASSICAL
the arch

ARCHITECTURE
introduced.

13

The

rudimentary forms
of the tomb
and of the temple displaya similarity
to the form
in later times
of the house which persists
fundamentally even
and indicates a common
derivation from the simple dwellings
of the people.
With the transference
Memphite period,or "Old Kingdom"
of the seat of government
to Memphis, a littlesouth of modern
Cairo, began the first of the great floweringsof Egyptian art.
Under
the kings of the Third
ually
Dynasty the royal tombs gradtook the form of pyramids, and with the first king of the
Fourth
the culmination
of Memphite
Dynasty, Khufu, came
architecture
in the Great
Pyramid at Gizeh (Fig.2). The
of the
successors
buildings of this king and his immediate
"Old
of size and workmanship
set a standard
Kingdom"
afterward
never
equaled. The architectural forms, though
of the greatest refinement.
The
colonnade
was
simple,were
and the halls of temples, and the
employed in the courts
characteristic and beautiful "papyrus" or "lotus bud"
column
its appearance.
After a gradual decline Memphis
first made
A
lost its importance with the close of the Sixth Dynasty.
ensued, from which
period of relative barrenness
emerged
about
the
monarchs
of
the
eleventh
and
2160
B.C.
powerful
later dynasties whose
dom."
Kingreigns constitute the "Middle
Their seat was
Thebes, again in Upper Egypt, a little
even

south

were

soon

of This.

Theban

period: "Middle Kingdom" and "Empire." With


them
of Theban
nated
began the long supremacy
art, which domithe development of Egyptian architecture,directlyor
the Romans.
The
to the end of its historyunder
indirectly,
invasion
who
the country
of the Asiatic "Hyksos"
overran
caused
interim from about
an
1675 to 1575, but the empire
which
followed
picked up the thread almost at the point
where
the Middle
had dropped it. Though the
Kingdom
buildingsprevious to the invasion have been mostly swept
by subsequent rulers, they apparently furnished the
away
prototypes of the temple and other buildingsin their later
form.
On the expulsion of the invaders followed the age of
of the Eighteenth and
greatest splendor,under the monarchs
Nineteenth
Dynasties,whose monuments,
reaching from the
Fourth

Cataract

to

the

Euphrates,furnish

the usual

idea of

PRECLASSICAL
architecture.

Egyptian

following 1500
Bahri, of Abu
shrines of
and

ARCHITECTURE

B.C.

In the three
built the

were

Simbel, and

Luxor, the tombs

hundred

of the

and

fiftyyears

great temples of Der-el-

of Medinet

Elephantine,the superb

15

the

Habu,

halls and

of Karnak

courts

valleys behind

delicate

Thebes

half,

"

of

Egyptian architecture.
Columnar
architecture was
magnifiedto a scale seldom equaled.
Columns
sixty to seventy feet high in a few instances, with
lintels of a clear span
of twenty-four feet, were
the
among
structural triumphs of this relativelybrief period of world
empire and artistic magnificence. At its close the artistic
III.,
impulse had spent itself. The buildings of Ramses
heaviness
of
last of the great imperialPharaohs, already show
Under
the kaleidoscopic
design and carelessness of execution.
Tanite, Libyan, and
usurping dynastiesthat shortlyfollowed
perhaps,of

all that

has

saved

been

"

Nubian
to

only

"

attempt
Saite

revival

period.
of

as

Delta,

it had

art

policyof

these astute

the

Theban

culture,
the

Kingdom,

almost

innovations

by

Ptolemaic
upon

the

was

to

and
it

Roman

by

After

the

pulsion
ex-

and
and

Although

everywhere to restore
the style of the Old
not

of the

but

diverse

be

to

resulted.

architecture

complete destruction;
the Ptolemies

chitecture
imperial ar-

years.

modifications

in the elaborate

power

660 B.C., under the rulers


again into vigorous activity

revert

to

beautiful

had

about

monarchs

followed, and

domination

beginning.

for five hundred

even

then

decadence, however,
political

of their artists was


originality

and

new

built

was

sprang

known

not

the

and

of

Assyrian conquerors,

of Sais in the
such

In the midst

and

now

splendors of the

the

of

artistic fermentation

new

isolated monarch

an

columns

Persian

fered
period suftrace

can

we

denied,

its

of the temples

the Romans.

periods. It

the Saite builders

was

that

the

character

pressed
im-

ure
Egyptian architect-

retained

before
the advent
of
tillit finallysuccumbed
alike brought their own
Christianity. Greeks and Romans
national

forms, but

change
architecture

these

outside

were

unable

to

effect

of the cities of the Delta.

stantial
subany
The native

themselves, at
adopted by the conquerors
the
least for the temples of the traditional religion. Under
prestige of Alexandria, Egyptian dispositions,clothed in
was

16
Greek

HISTORY

OP

detail,spread beyond the boundaries


and

peristylarcourt

hall, the

elements, became
The

tombs.

well

as

it.

The

forms

teristic
charac-

international.

shelter

and

for

sustenance

the

living. Hence, in the tomb, elaborate


for the preservationof the body, and

taken
precautionswere
for the nourishingof the "ka,"
from

other

The

this

demanded

for the

as

Egypt.

portant
imlong history the most
the tombs
and the temples. Egyptian

were

religiousbeliefs

of

and
clerestory,

henceforth

Throughout

monuments

dead

ARCHITECTURE

or

of the tomb

vital
varied

force,now

dissociated

in different

districts,

ary
though they tended in every period to take the form customin the region which was
dominant
politically.In Lower
for masonry
erected on
structures
Egypt the preferencewas
the plain; in Upper
and
Egypt, for chambers
passages
excavated
in the rock
of the valley walls.
The
masonry

tombs

alike in presenting

were

rectangularin
differed in

and

The

form

Old

Kingdom

was

the

so-called

"mastaba."

varying

almost

plan
geometricalform

Mastabas.

the

one

on

the exterior

unbroken

and

of most

was

simplemass

by openings; they

in interior arrangement.
in the
frequent occurrence

employed
It

for the
a

Memphite nobles,
low, flat-topped mass,

in size with

its faces

the importance of the occupant, and having


sloped back at an angle of about seventy-five

contained
at first
degrees. The solid bulk of the mastaba
shaft to the tomb
chamber
below, and a
merely the filled-up
small chapel for offerings. Later the upper
chambers
were
ceremonial
and
for
of
the storage
multiplied for
provisions
and

household

utensils.

Pyramids. From the beginning of the Memphite dynasties


the kings adopted distinctive forms
which
approached the
pyramid. The first king of the Third Dynasty, Zoser, built
his tomb
in seven
at Sakkara
great receding steps; its last
in three steps, another
king, Snefru, erected one at Medum
in true pyramidal shape, fixingthe type for the
at Dahshur
rest of the period. The
most
strikinggroup of the pyramids
is that of the Fourth-Dynasty necropolisat Gizeh.
Here
stands
the familiar group
of three built by Khufu, Khafre,
and
Menkure
the Cheops, Chephren, and
Mycerinus of
the smaller pyramids of
classical writers. Around
them
are
In
built by the nobles.
royalty and serried lines of mastabas
"

ARCHITECTURE

PRECLASSICAL

17

pyramids, as in the mastabas, the interior arrangements


rately
elabodiffer.
They are alike in having the tomb chamber
and misleadingpassafeguardedby graniteportcullises
sages.
the
bodies
failed
to protect
These, however, uniformly
The
often only a few generations later.
against despoilers,
preceded by massive chapels for services and
pyramids were
of stone
leading up
offeringsand approached by causeways
the

FIG.

from
form

"

BENI

HASAN.

PORTICO

OF

TOMB

By size and by the very simplicityof


these greatest of Egyptian monuments
make
an
impression of grandeur and power.
the

Rock-cut
Middle

river.

tombs.

Kingdom
Upper Egypt were

Under

the

the

Theban

monarchs

existing local types

of

Middle

of

their
rivaled
un-

the
and

developed the pyramid-mastaba, a mastaba with a small pyramid on top; and the tomb
cut in the
the Empire
cliffs (Fig. 3). Under
western
this last type,
adopted by the kings, became
by far the most
employed.
Theban
had
its concealed
family
vault, preEvery wealthy
ceded
by a small rock-cut chapel. To protect their bodies,
the Pharaohs
carried passages,
gradually descending and
interruptedby small chambers, for hundreds of feet into the
cliffs. Their
funerary chapels, however, became
separated
from the tombs
themselves.
erected on the plain
They were
before the cliffs frontingthe river,and in time became
parable
comto the temples of the gods on
the oppositebank.
"

HISTORY

i8
The

ARCHITECTURE

OF

chapels,built by Queen Hatshepsut in the


of the most
originaland most
1500 to 1480, is one
all Egyptian monuments
(Fig. 4). It lies in the

first of such

years from
refined of

valley known

to

the

forms

are

terraces

architectural

FIG.

"

DER-EL-BAHRI.

sanctuaries
of

the

the effect
The

sid
the

so

in

long
as

pure,

temples.

Pharaohs

mortuary

gods, likewise

ranks

to

temples
the

"

TEMPLE
BY

but

square

OF

the

rock.
or

The

sixteen-

HATSHEPSUT.

proportionsare
in the days of

reached
finally

Nineteenth

the

naded
great colon-

BRUNET)

suggest Greece

In the form

of the

"

in

cut

simplest

MORTUARY

(RESTORED

sided columns

rises in three

Der-el-Bahri, and

as

and

under

so

just,

Pericles.

the Rames-

Twentieth

Dynasties,
temples of the
The
gods,
long evolution.

closely resembled

the

product of a
housed
like the dead, required shelter and food.
They were
with solidityand
splendor,and served by the provision of
and drink and diversion, all presented with increasing
meat
who provided the revenue
the Pharaoh
ceremonial.
As it was
for all this,so it was
the presentation.
he who in theory made
the
It was
his representatives,
made, in fact, by the priests,
people participatingonly when, on feast-days,the offering

GREAT

TEMTUE

OF

AMMON

20

HISTORY

distributed

was

the

god.
have

to

already

in the

Though

been

in

in the

OF

temple

from

after

court

of the

many

use

ARCHITECTURE

elements

the time

being presented to
of the

of the Old

temple

seem

Kingdom, and,

Middle

somewhat
Kingdom to have assumed
final relations,it is only the temples of the Empire and
times that are sufficiently
preserved to give a visual idea

their
later

of the whole.

Imperial temples. At the great national center of Amonin Thebes


worship at Karnak
(Fig.5) there are many
temples,
the product of long growth. Several of the relatively
smaller

FIG.

KARNAK.

"

GREAT

CENTRAL

TEMPLE

well

OF

AISLES

AMON.

display

OF

MODEL

THE

IN

THE

HYPOSTYLE

HALL

OF

METROPOLITAN

THE

MUSEUM

the

sities,
diveralso the minor
as
similarities,
found in the temples of the Theban
sists
period. Each conof a small sanctuary at the back, flanked by
essentially
cells for the minor divinities of the religious
triad,by chapels
and store chambers, and preceded by a colonnaded
hall,the

ones

so-called
side to
was

hall"

"hypostyle
a

square

composed

court

of

(Fig. 6)

surrounded

great doorway

which

by columns.
between

towers, their faces slopingback

together constitutinga

turned

"pylon."

from

its broad
The

two

the

Before

tall

facade

rangular
quad-

ular,
perpendicthe

pylon

PRECLASSICAL

ARCHITECTURE

obelisks,colossal

stood

of the

statues

21

king

the

or

divinity,

carrying long streamers; before these,


of approach, lined with sculpoften long avenues
again,were
tured
As
inward
from the sunone
rams
or
sphinxes.
passed
lit
court, through halls successivelysmaller and lower, the
till the sanctuary was
in almost
total darkness,
lightdiminished
admirably calculated to heighten the effect of religious
and

wooden

mystery

masts

and

awe.

Specialtypes. At
of Amon

Karnak

at

multiplyingthe
halls and

pylon

their favorite

by
island

They

built

under

Karnak,

at

construction.

shrine,the Ptolemies

earlier
the
In

and

the

associated

those
in

largerhypostyle

Ptolemies,
similar

way

the Roman

in the
seventh

at

Philae,

monarchs

the accessory
late religious
cults.
Here
the

site forced

removed
with

as

vied

pylons, until

manded
buildingsdeof
irregularity
the usual formality,
ingeniousadaptation

departures from
but, as elsewhere in Egypt in such cases,
produced a composition of the greatest
stillfurther

monarchs

and

new

and
courts, pavilions,

built many
the

Luxor, successive

in front of the

under

was

and

elements.

courts

great temple

important temples, such

the most

from

Egyptian

the heaviness
architecture

and

charm.

An

effect

solemnityusually

is found

in the smallest

temples. One of these, built by Amenhotep III. at Elephantine,


is
famous
for
now
beauty of prodestroyed, especially
portion
and dignified
grace.
for
Dwellings. The Theban
palace is still too little known
cafe generalization.The
Pharaohs
to have
seem
preferred
the practice
not
to live in dwellingspreviouslyoccupied,and
of abandoning old palaces for new
hastilyimprovised,
ones,
which
led to the employment of a construction
has left but
The
few remains.
villa of Amenhotep
III. at Thebes
has a
rectangularouter wall inclosinga labyrinth of small courts,
columned

rooms,

and

dark

cells,all built of sun-dried

brick,

plasteredand richlypainted. Wall paintingselsewhere show


of the wealthy, surrounded
the houses
by shaded
gardens.
The quarters of the poorer
classes were
closelybuilt in blocks,
often on
a
regular plan. Their houses, reduced to lowest
of
terms, comprised a small, square
court, along the back
which
its broad
with the entrance
on
lay a rectangularroom
side.

22

The

HISTORY

column:

architecture

origins.

with

treated

the

were

Dynasty

development of the column,


first to employ, and
which

division

or

ornament

its lowest

skill and

find

square

of any

kind

we

in the details of Egyptian

Interest

great mechanical

Fourth

lintel

in the

centers

Egyptians

the

ARCHITECTURE

OF

"

The

artistic taste.

which

they
In the

monolithic

piers,without

the system
so-called

of support and

Temple of the
Sphinx, a waiting-hallat the foot of the causeway
leading to
the pyramid of Khafre, thus constructed, is effective by its
proportions and by the perfectionof its workmanship. By
find the first circular columns, of
the Fifth
Dynasty we
throughout later Egyptian architecture.
types common
The
taken from the palm and
motives of their designs were
from
the lotus,palm leaves being carved upthe papyrus
or
right
about the top of the shaft,bending gracefully
under the
in the
weight of the abacus, or the shaft itself being made
form
bound
of several lotus or papyrus
stems
together,the
buds swelling at the top to form the capital.
Later forms. Under
the Middle
the most
Kingdom
lar
popuform was
a column
abstractlygeometrical polygonal in
vertical flutings. In either case
it was
plan, or with concave
crowned
Such
by a simple square abacus.
columns, as at
Beni Hasan
and later Der-el-Bahri,have a rough resemblance
at

terms.

"

to

the

Doric

have

been

these

types

form

of

columns

Greece, which, however,

derived
were

leading in

independently. Under
still employed, the papyrus
popularity,but a new
type

place of honor

in the tall central

(Fig.6). This

was

the column

used
cow-goddess, Hathor, was
piers fronted by standing colossi were
the

great Ramessids.

elaborated

applying
flora

"

to

the

the

The

surfaces

lotus-bud

given the
hypostyle halls
was

in her

Saite and

motives

shrines, and

frequent, especially

capitals,especiallythe

smooth

or

all

the

under

Empire

to

capitallike an inverted
A capitalwith heads
lotus.

with

bell,imitative of the flower of the


of

aisles of the

the

seem

Ptolemaic
bell

drawn

leaves, flowers,buds, in gracefullyordered

tects
archi-

capital,by
from

native

profusion.

colonnade,
They even employed different varieties in the same
though always in pairs,placed at equal distances on either
side of the axis. No attempt was
made to develop a separate
each type of column.
The
system of forms to accompany

PRECLASSICAL

ARCHITECTURE

type of cornice is found

same

with

23

all, a quarter-hollow,or

cavetto, making transition from the vertical members


horizontal
projectingline of the roof.

to

the

divided
subEgyptian halls were
peristyle.Although many
of columns
extending the full depth of
by ranges
the room,
that
an
equally characteristic arrangement was
of an
interior peristyle,
continuous
surrounding file of
or
The

columns.

This

which

arrangement,

preferredin

was

the

position
typicallyoriental disand
also in Mesopotamia
out
throughbeing found
of
the East.
Owing perhaps to the guarded nature
Egyptian life and Egyptian cults, a similar surrounding
A single instance was
the exterior.
rare
on
peristylewas
the littletemple of Elephantine.
of open

case

The

arch.

and

notably
Abydos, but

The

courses.

True

any
the

in

cut

extensive

temple of

in subterranean

was

in

tomb

in
Seti

tombs
I. at

merely
chambers

Dynasty, apparently as early as


of the

chambers

temple of Rameses

II. at

Ramesseum,
Thebes, present an

vaults

restingon

seems

The

parallelbarrel
For

use

to have

horizontal

store

walls.

The

abound

of the Third

series of

the true arch

of the

sometimes

important works it
of projecting stones

out

arches

used

was

sanctuaries

Mesopotamia.

mortuary

form

in all such

arch,

the time

arch

in the

corbeled

from

courts, is

colonnaded

in
been

the

termedi
lightin-

superstructure, however,

thought

too

insecure.

clerestory.A device first invented by the Egyptians,


destined to play an important r61e in later architecture,is the
introduced under the Empire. To lightthe wide
clerestory,
at the outside,
hypostyle halls,unprovided with windows
the roof was
the three central aisles,admitting
raised over
the lower roofs at the
lightthrough grated openings over
sides (Fig.6).
Methods
The
flat,as
of construction.
Egyptian roofs were
the rainless climate permitted. Those
of the temples were
constructed of slabs of stone
resting directlyon the lintels,
soil rendered
The compact
dispensingwith all wood.
deep
foundations
Piers and
columns,
originally
unnecessary.
monolithic, were
perforce,in the largest examples, built up
like towers
with rough filling,
solid. The
often none
too
graduallylost the precisionof the earliest monumasonry

24

in the vast

ments

the

HISTORY

constructive

OF

ARCHITECTURE

and hasty erections


methods

of the later

Empire, but

remained

nearly constant.
The elements
of decorative expressionlikewise
Decoration.
in different periods. They
remained
substantiallythe same
based
natural forms, like the lotus and palm, or on
on
were
conventional
geometric lines,such as the spiral. The god's
house, conceived as the world, had its walls painted with conventional
its
with
The
stars.
landscapes,
ceilingspangled
legends of the gods and the exploitsof the kings filled every
the glories
available space,
proclaiming in no modest
way
of the builders,of the restorers, and of usurping monarchs
who
wished
to shine by reflected light.
The architect.
During the whole of Egyptian history the
of importance, as might be expected when
architect was
a man
building formed so large a part of the monarch's
activity.
Inscriptionsin tombs of the Fifth Dynasty show that in two
at least,the functions of prime minister, chief judge,
cases,
and royal architect were
combined.
The
tion
inscripmortuary
of the prime minister of Thothmes
III.,in recountinghis
under conduties, includes personal inspectionof monuments
struction.
Whoever
the real designerswere,
far
they were
from
of them, like
slaves of tradition,and some
being mere
the

Sen-Mut,

architect

of

Der-el-Bahri, showed

themselves

of the

men

It is to

highest genius.
its strength and dignity,above

architecture
in many

owes

of its

its effect.

forms,

Less

it nevertheless

all,that Egyptian

structural
has

than

breadth

sculptural
and

mental
monu-

ing
quality. At its best pure and subtle,it is seldom lackin some
touch of sublimity,which
in magnificence or even
is universallyrecognizedin its major creations.

MESOPOTAMIA

Tigrisand the Euphrates supported a civilization perhaps


It is impossible
ancient than that of Egypt.
even
more
of either country acto date the most
curately
primitivemonuments
tion
enough to decide priorityof origins. In the formaof
of monuments
of a developed style and the execution
the first magnitude, however, the peoples of the Mesopocenturies behind the Egyptians.
tamian
valley lagged many
The

PRECLASSICAL
Natural

in

were

of wood

abundance

modes

25

of construction.

The

natural

respects less favorable

many

absence

The

Egypt.

and

conditions

conditions

ARCHITECTURE

in

than

of any
good native building-stoneor
left sun-dried
mud
brick the best material

in

available

rains and
large quantities. Torrential
constructions
relativelyimpermanent,
frequent floods rendered
faced with burnt brick and
even
though the walls were
raised on huge platforms. In Babylonia
the buildingswere
in early times stone
almost
Even
was
impossible to secure.
in Assyria the difficulty
of bringingit from the mountains
was
for lintels.
so
even
great as to prevent its being used ordinarily
itself hard

Wood,

to

obtain, had

for ceilingbeams, to
materials

the

furnished
above

was

from

beams

support the thick

vaults, in gateways
of

abutment.

Egypt,

by barrel vaults, the


long, rectangular form.

that

the

entrance

the

of

and
With

clay.

than

be

to

rooms

without

Thus,

and

narrow

as

in

doors, where

Tradition

dictated,
should

rooms

rooms

broad

were

deep.

massed

there

spanned by wooden
were
given by preference

rooms

such

to

longer side; in other words, the


rather

roofs

and

Whether

or
a

for columns

could
have
only device which
covering of voids with great weight
permanent
the arch.
Its principlewas
known
in Mesopotamia
the earliest times, and was
employed frequently

lack

no

used

available, the

in subterranean
was

to be

in

Terraced
any

be

in

as

on

and

the
low,
shal-

roofs

mitted
per-

convenient

complicating the disposal of


Egypt, great aggregations of

rangement,
ar-

water.
rainrooms

and

the rule.
The
courts, rather than isolated blocks, were
like the construction,had to be
ornamentation
of buildings,

largelyof clay.
Prevailingtypes. As with most early peoples,the temples
of great importance. A rather gloomy view of a future
were
life,on

the other

of elaborate
were

more

hand,
tombs.

massive

gave

The

no

to

encouragement

palaces of

in construction

than

the

ing
the build-

Assyrian kings
of Egypt, as

those

befitted the greater relative importance of the life on earth.


Constant
to invasion gave
military architecture a
exposure

development for which there was no occasion in Egypt.


Development. In the historyof Mesopotamian architecture
four principalperiodsof activitymay
be distinguished,
sue-

26

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

cessivelyin Chaldea, in the "Old Babylonian" kingdom, in


Assyria,and in reincarnated
Babylon.
earliest
The
to have
Origins.
Mesopotamian culture seems
the
mouths
of
in
the rivers, Chaldea, spreading
developed near
the lower half of the valley to embrace
what
later became
over
the primitive city
Babylonia. The struggle between
states
lasted much
longer in this region than in Egypt, and
unification was
after Menes
postponed till a full millennium
had brought about the union of the Two
Lands of the Nile.
A difference of language in the cuneiform
scripthas lent color
tradition of a native Sumerian
to ancient
population,gradually
before
Semitic
which
an
giving way
invading
people
borrowed

its civilization and

side in the formative

by

branches

of

Chaldea.

The

two

existed

side

period and possiblymay

be but

two

singlestem.

Remains

at

Tello, include

modern

its arts.

oldest structure

yet found

the Sumerian

of

center

building of the king


in Mesopotamia which

Lagash,

Ur-Nina
can

the
the

"

be dated

before Christ.
There
is also a
perhaps 3000
years
fragment of the staged tower built by Gudea about 2450 B.C.
incorporated in a later palace. The early Semitic religious
the ruins of the temple precinct
at Nippur, where
center
was
of several staged towers, dating
include superposed remains
from the very earliest times.
The general similarity
of these
tablishes
buildingsto the later buildingsof Assyria and Babylon esthe essential continuity of Mesopotamian
tecture.
archi"

built

Old
the

Babylonian Kingdom.
Semitic
kings of Agade

Although
had

as

extended

Mediterranean, the internal consolidation

early as
their
of

2650

rule to

B.C.

the
itself

Babylonia

accomplished till about 2100, under the great king


of Babylon.
His city,hitherto relativelyunKhammurabi
important,
of a powerful state, the sothe center
became
now
Plans
called Old Babylonian Kingdom.
of dwelling-houses
from this period show
already the characteristic Babylonian
scheme
of a square
with the principalroom
court
along its
was

not

southern

side.

The

streets

and

unchanged throughout
kingdom

by

flourished

till about

Kassite invaders.

blocks
the

1750

then

history of
B.C.,

when

established
the
it

mained
re-

city.
was

The

run
over-

PRECLASSICAL

Assyriansupremacy.
the northern
the
an

Semites

independent

to

which

strong enough

FIG.

The

to

successors

Asiatic conquests of Thothmes


in the fifteenth and fourteenth

with
Assyria and Babylon in contact
their kings sent gifts. By noo
Assyria was
ejectthe Kassites from the south and for a
both

(KHORSABAD)

DUR-SHARRUKIN

"

leadershipnext fell to Assyria,


valley,which had been colonized by
about
and which
now
began
2000,

career.

centuries brought

Egypt,

south

his great

III. and

The

half of the
of the

ARCHITECTURE

(RESTORED

brief

rule

period to

over

centuries

BY

united

THE

SARGON.

OF

PALACE

PLACE)

After

interruption
her aggressivepolicy,
conquered all western

country.

again assumed
series of strong kings had
and under
a
Asia by 700.
The capital,
later more
firstat Ashur, was
ally
usuoften maintained
at Calah, though royal residences
were
in both places and
in Nineveh
well. Sargon II., who
as
ruled from
for his capitala new
city,
722 to 705, founded
of two

the modern

Dur-Sharrukin,
raised
the

downfall

she

an

Nineveh

Khorsabad.

successor,

nacherib,
Sen-

the primacy, which it retained to


He was
of the Empire.
driven to destroy rebellious
to

Babylon, which, however,


Esarhaddon.

His

Under

Esarhaddon

was

restored

even

Egypt

by
was

his son,

brought

Assyrian yoke for a brief period. The culmination


followed
in the peacefuldays of Ashurbanipal (668-626). His
palace at Nineveh, inferior only to that of Sennacherib, was
beneath

FIG.

adorned

the

"

DUR-SHARRUKIN.

with

OF

bas-reliefs of remarkable

Dur-Sharrukin.
monuments,

PALACE

THE

the

The
one

best

which

SARGON.

animation

preserved of
gives the most

(PLACE)

PLAN.

and

alness.
natur-

Mesopotamian
vivid idea of Assyall

PRECLASSICAL

ARCHITECTURE

maturity, is

in its

rian architecture

palace of Sargon

at

The

(Figs.7 and 8).

Khorsabad

the modern

Dur-Sharrukin,

the

13

integralpart, formed a rectanglea little


and
hundred
each side,inclosed by a wall one
a mile
on
over
fiftyfeet wide and sixtyfeet high, with battlements, towers,
Like most
and outworks.
Mesopotamian structures, it had
its corners
toward the points of the compass,
contrary to the
practicein Egypt, where the sides faced the cardinal points.
The palace of Sargon. The
form
palace itself,on a huge platcity,of

in the
of

it was

which

an

middle

of the
The

twenty-fiveacres.

of limestone, here

blocks
used

as

plinth for

towered

and

to

gateways,

divisions

main

of the

accessible,and

led up

staircase

monumental

faced

platform was
crude

the

wall, covered

northwest

from

two

palace

brick
the

and

city,through arched

grouped.

in the center, and the khan, or


be identified with
can
corner,

also

was

ramp

The

the

which

great courts, about

were

massive

with

limestone

walls.

area

an

state

service,division

ments
apartat

the

certainty. The walls


thick, one
were
story high, and at right angles. The
very
rooms
were
relativelysmall and dark, opening through one
another
to minor
courts, irregularlyplaced. Although the
kept
complex, and its chief quarters were
plan was
very
of
munications
comseparated, it lacked any highly organized system
and any extended symmetry
or
expressionof the
eastern

internal arrangements.
The temples. On the

platform with the palace stood


of temples, in close assoblock of buildings,
ciation
a group
a second
with the ziggurat,
or
lofty staged tower, "the link of
heaven
the most
and earth," which
was
strikingfeature of
In the temple block are three
Mesopotamian religious
groups.
distinct suites, dedicated
evidently to different divinities,
of a square
each suite consistingessentially
court, a broad
vestibule, and a long hall with a cell at the end, apparently
the sanctuary proper.
In these suites trie household of the god
established, here

was

most

The

valuable

"the

which

house

was

sacrifices

offered, and

were

of the kings were


votive offerings

ziggurat. The

his consort

same

the

specialresidence
chamber

of the mountain."

supportedthis

was

formed

which
At
of

the

deposited.

god himself and


crowned
the ziggurat,
of the

Dur-Sharrukin
a

here

the

singlecontinuous

tower

ramp,

30
square
walls

OP

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

with seven
in plan, risinglike a screw
The
turns.
enameled
were
successivelywhite, black, purple, blue,

vermilion, silver,and
The

mass

and

rose

gold,symbolizing the heavenly bodies.


hundred
and forty feet square at the base
was
one
Some
Assyrian ziggurats
twenty feet at each turn.

seem

to

have

these

was

The

plans

New
death

had

three

connected

level terrace

were

now

five stages; sometimes

or

the others

stairs.

by

Babylonian Kingdom. Within twenty years


of Ashurbanipal his empire had
succumbed

Medes.

which

Babylon,
and

entered

had

of

rectangular.

now

square,

with

each

assisted

them,

of

the

to

the

depende
left in-

was

In the
splendid renaissance.
reign of her great king, Nebuchadnezzar, especially,from
built the magnificentwalls, the temples, the
604 to 561, were
which
excited the
palaces, the so-called "Hanging Gardens"
admiration

burn

The

and

brick

fundamental

wealth
to

the

Babylonian kings enabled

bring

stone

from

them

distance, yet the

unchanged. The
than
regular disposition

more

recurring suites of similar form

living-apartmentsand

great

system remained

somewhat

those of Assyria,with

travelers,and

other

of the

constructive

palace plans show

and

of Herodotus

ziggurat.
to

on

for the

by corridors. The
temples, which are square or nearly square in plan, have a
central court, with
the sanctuary
and
its vestibule
lying
in
southern
side
much
the
the
as
plan
usuallyalong
(Fig.9),
of the Babylonian dwelling. The
zigguratof Babylon, like
the one
in a vast walled inclosure,preat Nippur, stands
ceded
In the palace of the citadel is a
by minor courts.
with two
massive substructure
series of parallel
which
rooms,
retain unmistakable
of having been vaulted in brick.
traces
The
have
excavators
sought to recognize in this unfamiliar
the foundation
of the Hanging Gardens, which
arrangement
would
their sobriquet through
accordingly have obtained
astonishment
The

at

access

method

facilitated

of support

revival of Babylonian glory was

fell before

the

so

novel

brief.

to its observers.

In

538 the city

all-conqueringPersian, Cyrus, and

of its native

art

came

to

the

premacy
su-

close.

Roofs and vaulting. Throughout ancient times, as now, the


normal
method
of roofing in Mesopotamia was
by wooden
beams
supporting a mat of reeds, and then a thick bed of

PRECLASSICAL

ARCHITECTURE

slightinclination to permit water to run


of cedar, pine,
off. Inscriptions
tell of the bringingof beams
the ceilingsof
and Lebanon
to form
and oak from Amanus
the
temples and palaces. The earliest investigatorsmade
clay graded with

unwarranted

sumption
as-

that
vaults

barrel

in most

employed
of the

were

of the

rooms

Assyrian

palaces,

inference

an

from

their

generally
elongated shape
and thick walls,and
from

the absence

any

vestigeof

ing

beams.

at

ceilA

bas

famous

of

relief

more,
Nineveh, furthershows

houses

covered

externally
egg-shaped

with

similar

domes,

to

those

of the

nian

buildings

Persia

many
later.
of

one

been

Sassa-

at

such dome

turies
cen-

mains
Releast

have

found which

thought
from

times.

to

of

is

date

Sumerian
It

is

FIG.

"

BABYLON.
NINMAH.

PLAN

OF

THE

TEMPLE

OF

(AFTER KOLDEWEY)

now

generallyadmitted,
however, that

in Mesopotamian
singlevaulted rooms
and that the group of free-standing
buildingswere exceptional,
vaults in the palace at Babylon is,as far as we
know, unique
in the

even

country.

On

ground abound
These, which are

in

the other
both

hand, vaulted

drains

below-

Assyrian and Babylonian times.


sometimes
sometimes
semicircular,
pointed

32
in

HISTORY

section, are

which

over

being built in successive rings,


of this inclinati
inclined. By means

vertical,but

the builders
the

ARCHITECTURE

in

remarkable

not

are

OF

enabled

were

void, without

to

necessityfor wooden

any

adhered

course
centering. Each
was
supported by it. It was
arch to start against.
or

Columns.
for
a

They

used

were

painted

columns

stone

with

covered

or

have

been

shows

scrolls

similar

exercised

Ornament.
used

were

decorate

to

the

of

another.

These

capitalof

the

carved

stone

of arched

jambs

capitals
Nineveh

relief from

pairs

two
are

very

Greeks, and

it.

on

Friezes in low

of towers.

bases

bulls

Winged

carved

having capitalswith

influence

an

form.

above

one

wall

fragments of

Assyria with

of the later Ionic

those

to

doubtless

volutes,

or

sparingly,as supports
porticos along the sides of

plates. Some

shrine

columned

small

and

one

to have

or

part, apparently, of wood,

in

bases, usually of cushion

and

in

metal
found

preceding

necessary

along

false-work

but

for the most

were,

the

to

merely

light,isolated structures, and

court.

of

Columns

their vault

carry

relief

in

relief

high

and .the

gateways

representinghistorical

the state apartments


ornamented
subjects or hunting scenes
in colors was
of the palaces. Brick enameled
also a favorite
mode

of surface

At

decoration.

placed around

broad

bands

ing
Babylon a frieze of stalkthe processionalstreet and representations
lions followed
lined the walls of the palace.
of columns
The
assumption of all credit for Mesopotamian buildings
has kept in obscurity the men
who
built
by the monarch

were

Their

them.

character.
with

masses

work
the

By

the

Dur-Sharrukin

arches;

is indeed
very

less individual

repetitionof

their endless

powerful expressionof

at

the

towers

and

size and

the

official in

than

great rectangular

battlements

grandeur

it

of the

gives a

Oriental

monarchies.
PERSIA

The
the

architecture

domination

of

Achaemenian

of the
western

Persians, who
Asia

under

next

succeeded

Cyrus

and

to

other

certain forms
the confrom
quered
kings, borrowed
theless,
regions Mesopotamia, Ionia, and Egypt. Neverof a.
it retained a largenative element, suggestive
"

PRECLASSICAL

primitive columnar

forms

Lycia, but it seems


merely imitative

were

descended
similar
on

from

more

conditions.

less

or

Wood

be traced in Ionia

less

probable that the Persian

of

these

and

and

framing remained of
making possiblethe

stone

thick

The
and

other

of
the

bulls and

all

both

were

of Asia

Minor;

after the

and

drew
source

bas-reliefs

are

were

some

growth of

the wide

roof

period,
spacing

the roof itself

clinati
very slightindecorative
forms
a

for them
but

wood

and

early Greece,

clay,terraced, with
Persians

pecially
es-

obtainable

entablatures

slenderness

countries,their chief

winged

that

throughout the Achaemenian

unusual

mass

Though
from

wood

the

Persia

As in Assyria and

of the columns.
was

In

power.

than

and

type, the product of

common

plateau of Iran, as on the coast


naturallyused in early days, stone

wealth

cences
Similar reminis-

can

the

was

33

of wood.

architecture
construction

of wooden
in

ARCHITECTURE

Assyria.
clumsily imitated;
was

the

brick from Susa,


polychrome friezes of enameled
the masterpieces of Persian
art, are relativelycrude beside
their prototypes at Babylon.
art follows
Development. The development of Achaemenian
the dramatic
historyof the dynasty. It appeared suddenly
with
and
Cyrus about
550 B.C., absorbing Mesopotamaan
Ionian elements
as he conquered those countries,and
Egyptian
It disappeared as
motives after the conquests of Cambyses.
suddenly before Greek civilization on the collapseof the vast
empire in its struggle with Alexander.
Types of buildings. Zoroastrianism, the ancient religionof
Persia, had no images and required neither true temples nor
serve
sepulchers. The Achaemenian
kings, however, did not obthe custom
of exposing their bodies after death, as prescribed
the
their
and
monumental
tombs
Avesta,
are
by
even

among

the chief remains

of Persian

architecture.

Still

more

palaces,which reflect the proud absolutism


of the Great King.
Palaces.
The
Persian palacesat Pasargadae and Persepolis
stood on
great platforms like those of Assyria. Here these
built of stone and served at once
to givemilitarysecurity
were
and monumental
double
a vast
setting(Fig.10). At Persepolis
staircase leads up from the plain,
to the platform
givingaccess
through a tall columnar
porch flanked with winged bulls.
important

are

the

f"

/
-"

-nr-

35
On

the

platformsrestingon

low

largerone

stand

three

palaces,

Xerxes, and Artaxerxes III. They are similar


in general arrangement, with a large,square, columned
hall,
by minor rooms.
preceded by a deep portico and surrounded
those of Darius,

Audience-halls.

Independent
of Darius

audience-halls

of the

and

of

Xerxes, each

Copyright, by Macmillan
FIG.

II

ing

more

central

"

PERSEPOLIS.

than
feature

hall of Darius

TOMB

an

acre.

of the
has ten

OF

DARIUS,

the

palaces are

NAKSH-I-RUSTAM.

"

nificent
magcover-

Co.

(JACKSON)

In

dispositionthey reproduce the


palaces,but on a greater scale. The

columns

each way,

inclosed by massive

36
A

walls.

wide

porticoeight columns
by colossal winged bulls. The

deep

two

of Xerxes

is flanked

has

but

in the central portion, but has


way
of this on three sides.
With
its columns

each

columns

hall

and

the full width


feet apart and
with the
rank

six

porticos

thirty
building takes
Egypt and of

seventy feet high, this


buildingsof
greatest columnar
almost

Greece.
Tombs.

The

earliest

royal tomb, supposed to be that of


on
seven
Cyrus a small gable-roofedcella mounted
great
Those
steps is obviously imitative of Ionian architecture.
been inspiredby the rock-cut
of later monarchs
to have
seem
of Egypt.
tombs
They are found in the cliff at the back of
and near
the palace platform at Persepolis,
by in the rock now
Naksh-i-Rustam
known
as
(Fig. n). All are substantially
carved about
similar,with a porticoof four engaged columns
the door, a great bas-relief above, and a blank space of equal
"

"

size below.
the Persian

Their

chief interest lies in their


of wood.

entablature

With

representation of

its architrave of three

superposed bands, its projecting beam-ends


clearlyrelated in its originto the forms of the

above, this is
Ionic entablature

in Greece.

Religiousbuildings. Though the ancient Persians had no


true
temples, their sacred fire needed a small inclosed shrine
where
it could be kept continuallyburning, and altars in the
air where
it could be occasionallykindled
for sacrifice.
open
These may
be recognized,perhaps, in the small square towers
with
blank
windows, still preserved near
Pasargadae and
and in the altars of uncertain date at the rock of
Persepolis,
Naksh-i-Rustam
Columns.
with

of two

and

elsewhere.

Persian

The

columns

peculiarcapitalin which
bulls

architrave.

are

united

Beneath

back

to

these

multiplied pairs of

volutes

in
on

slender,and

were

the
back

heads
in the

and

end, and

forequarters

direction

examples

some

crowned

then

and

of the

placed
bells,upright
the
capital
were

Thus
inverted, in incoherent
sequence.
became
long out of all usual proportionto the shaft below.
In its problems of the column
was

related

to

the

lintel Persian

classic architecture

roughly contemporary
much

and

with

further in technical

it,and

of

which

and
facility

architecture

Greece, which

was

carried its solutions

refinement.

37
THE

The

direct

forerunners

civilization and
the

islands

with

coasts

classic
the

belief,it

remains

now

have

been

found

with

less advanced

in artistic character.

which

in Crete

of

civilization

and

of

principalperiods

Two

that

the eastern

the earliest monuments

considerable

show

earlyinhabitants

clear

seems

contemporary

Development.

Greece, in

the later tribes


^Egean, whom
trary
deprived of their birthright. Con-

developed almost simultaneouslyall about


and

of

races

of the

iron swords

earlier

to

of the

in architecture, were

and

their

AEGEAN

Asia

Minor

Egypt, though
be

may

ranean,
Mediter-

recognized

tecture.
differences in their types of archi-

earlier,during which
Crete, in close touch
the leader, has been
called the
Egypt and Syria, was
The

with
Minoan

The
period, from the legendary sea king, Minos.
later period,the so-called Mycenaean, was
that in which the
inhabitants of the mainland
cities,Mycenae, Tiryns, Argos,
and others
probably the Achaeans of the Homeric
poems
continued the culture of Crete after overthrowing its political
The long development of Minoan
art, following
supremacy.
"

"

the introduction
the destruction

of bronze
of Knossos

about
about

B.C.,

3000

cut

was

Costumes

1400.

off with

sewed

and

fitted,plumbing scarcelyrivaled again tillthe last half of the


nineteenth

century,

civilization.

Its

are

continuation

less refined in life and


the Dorian

evidences
on

of

the

surprisinglyluxurious
mainland,

art, lasted tillthe dark

invasion, about

ages

somewhat

following

noo.

the
of the time
patriarchalmonarchies
palaces were
naturallythe chief buildings. In Crete, where
dominion
rested on
these were
sea
quite unfortified;
power,
at Mycenae, Tiryns, and
walled* stronglyand
Troy they were
ingeniously against land attacks. Religious ceremonies do
to have
not seem
tions.
required any highly specializedconstructhe
but
Interment
was
ordinary funeral custom,
certain tombs
in the hillsides were
excavated
mental
given a monucharacter.
and
climate placed
Building materials

Types.

In

the

little restriction
and

the corbeled

Oriental and

on

the choice of forms


arch

; the column

and

lintel

employed exclusively.
Besides many
European elements.
peculiarnawere

38

HISTORY

tive elements, among

which

adjacent sides is

two

architecture shows

FIG.

12

"

KNOSSOS.

ARCHITECTURE

OP

of

one

number

PLAN

the

OF

of features of Oriental

include the flat roof,with

rooms

which

permits,and

OF

PART

These

it

entrance-porticoopening on
the
most
striking,Cretan

the

THE

PALACE.

character.

(EVANS)

of
complex juxtaposition
court surrounded
by a con-

the

39

tinuous peristyle.The

of the mainland,
dispositions
the other hand, show
signs of a European origin;
be traced without a break from the primitivehut common
northern
The
isolated positionof the prinraces.
cipal

on

they can
to

rooms,

with

architectural

only

entrances

on

one

end, suggests that

with gable roofs.


covered
The
court, instead of
they were
of the
resultant
a
forming a homogeneous ensemble, was
surrounding units,with walls or porticosindependent of one
in the two
another.
Although the dispositions
regions thus
differ markedly, the decorative
forms
are
largelythe same,
borrowed
by the mainland, with the minor arts, from Crete.
Crete. The palace at Knossos, the greatest of the Cretan
centers
(a portion of which is shown in Fig. 12), is in very
truth a "labyrinth" which
might well have given rise to the
classic legend. About
a
are
long rectangular paved court
in the greatest conand
tortuous
fusion.
grouped rooms
passages
On
the eastern
side they were
superposed in two
stories,at least,the lower ones
taking what lightthey have
of the parts
from narrow
-wells. The functions of many
light
stilluncertain, but they seem
to have been logically
never
are
were
preceded by the
grouped. The more
important rooms
The
characteristic corner-wise porticosalready mentioned.
with its ramping
great staircase running through three stories,
Another
is the "theatral
colonnade, is a notable feature.
area," a paved space with banks of steps on two adjoining
sides,evidentlyintended for spectators. One of these is also
found at the similar palace of Phaistos, which has its own
them
features of special interest,among
the monumental
At
flightof sixteen broad steps before the main entrance.
Gournia a whole
unearthed, with simple houses of
city was
and baked brick, narrow,
stone
winding streets, and a small
central

The

palace and

altar.

mainland.

The

citadel-palacesat Mycenae, Tiryns


(Fig.13),and other cities of later importance are irregularin
which
plan, like the fortified summits
they crown, but they
show
of similar form.
certain recurring elements
Chief of
these

hearth

was

the megaron,

in the center

men's

or

and

hall,a square

vestibule and

room

colonnaded

with

portico

in front,opening on the main court.


Access to this court, as
obtained through
to the forecourt which might precede it,was
3

40
monumental
which

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

propylaea. Each of these had a door


protected,inside and out, by small porticosbetween
gateways

was

or

flankingwalls, or antae.
Walls, openings,and vaults.
the finest cut

FIG.

used

13

"

stone, sometimes

TIRYNS.

PLAN

OF

walls

sometimes

were

of sun-dried brick.

THE

Stone

of
was

(RODENWALDf)

ACROPOLIS.

for fortress and

of the walls
brick

The

bonded

for the
built of

of

and for the base, at least,


retaining-walls,
dwellings. In the palace at Tiryns sun-dried

with

wooden

superstructure.

beams
The

seems

fortress

to

walls

have
were

been

used

sometimes

blocks,the huge size of which gained them the


irregular
of Cyclopean. Sometimes
of dressed stone, with
name
they were
either polygonal or rectangularblocks, as the natural cleavage
of the stone
suggested. Though they often used them, the
evidently doubtful of the strength
Mycenaean builders were
of large stone
lintels,
and, not knowing the true arch, they
led to give an unparalleleddevelopment to the corbeled
were
another
arch and vault, built of flat stones projectingover
one
at
lintel of the "Gate
of Lions"
The
till they finallymet.
Mycenae, for instance,is relieved of any considerable weight by

PRECLASSICAL

ARCHITECTURE

41

the
used over
(Fig.14). Corbeled vaults were
the
narrow
galleriesin the walls of Tiryns and they were
favorite means
of covering the chambers
of important tombs.
At Isopata in Crete the chambers
are
rectangular, and the
a

corbeled arch

FIG.

14

long sides curve


superiorstrengthof
later

"beehive"
Column
Crete

and

tombs

vaults

and

GATE

OF

together above

two

of the

MYCENAE.

"

circular form

of

Mycenae
nearly fiftyfeet

lintel.

The

elsewhere, were

part disappeared. The

columns
of

form

to

the vault.

realized,and in

was

and

LIONS

Orchomenos

The
some

there

are

in diameter.
and

wood, and
of the

architraves,both
have

for the

in

most

"Treasury of Atreus"
show
that stone
sometimes
was
employed as well as wood;
and that, in addition
and columns
columns
of
to cylindrical
the usual type, largerat the base than at the top, there were
columns

42
also

HISTORY

columns

contradict

ARCHITECTURE

OF

larger at

the structural

the

than

top

the

at

tendency, yet

base.

These

the

enlargement is so
slightthat they do not lack grace and piquancy. The stone
capitalspreserved have a square abacus
supported by a
circular cushion or torus, sometimes
with
a
quarter-hollow
beneath.
The
stone
entablatures
are
evidently imitative of
wooden

above

the

architrave.

apparently used

was

ends

of walls, or

Decoration.
the

for

With

mud-brick

are

sented
repre-

walls, wood

facing the openings, as

The

fundamental
and

well

as

the

of decoration

were

rosette, employed in bands


characteristic type of frieze was
one

Another

rectangular space

elements

the

consistingof pairs of palmetto


a

beams

antae.

spiral,the chevron,
friezes.

or

of round

construction,for the ends

between.

the lintel of the "Gate

back

ornaments

In the

of Lions"

to

back

triangular space

with
above

sculpturedrelief representing
flanked
two
lions
a
column, or altar,
by
(Fig. 14).
Similar reliefs are thought to have occupied the corresponding
in other gateways and doorways, such as that of the
spaces
Treasury of Atreus
(Fig.15).
Relation to Doric
architecture.
of the Mycenasan
Many
forms recur
in the architecture
of historic Greece, especially
in the buildingsof the Doric style,
which was
developed by the
of the Peloponnesus. The
plan of the propylaea
conquerors
"

was

"

is the same;

the

Mycenaean

megaron,

The

capital,the antae, the high wall base

Doric

stones, all show

plan of the temple preserves


with

its arrangement

reminiscences

of the

the form

of columns

earlier forms

of the

in antis.
of

upright

which

dicate
in-

imitation, if not actual continuity. As in so


instances,the arts of the conquered took captive the
many
ing
existneeds modified
though new
vigor and new
conquerors,
close

types and

The prehistoric
ure
architectones.
produced new
of the ^Egean is not, however, to be considered merely as
barbarous
tecture.
stage in the development of Greek classic archiIt was
itself complete, adapted to the needs of

with its structural and decorative


civilization,
contemporary
If it was
pressivenes
surpassed in exsystems thoroughly established.
and

period,it was

not

organizationby architecture of the classic


the less superiorto the clumsy experiments

of the dark ages which

intervened.

'

"

"

"

"
"

:
.

'
"

:it

"

:'y
:"

FIG.

.,"

15

"

MYCEN^;.

PORTAL

OF

(RESTORED

THE
uv

"TREASURY

SPIERS)

OF

ATREUS."

44

ARCHITECTURE

OF

HISTORY

preclassical
styleswhich had their seats in the Levant
and western
Asia developed in three main
currents
largely
native and independent of one
another.
In their continuous
The

life of two

thousand

three

or

periods to which

we

owe

it is a few brief
years and more,
the vast
proportion of enduring
and

Fourth

The

Eighteenth Dynasties in
sance,
Egypt, the Assyrian culmination and the Babylonian renaisthe palace-buildingperiods of Knossos
and Mycenas,
of the moments
for which
are
some
long centuries of political
upheaval and artistic groping had prepared. In the first

monuments.

millennium
where

evolved

was

their influence

Christ

before

style destined

to

focussed

stamp

on

Greece,

indeliblythe

later architecture of Europe.

PERIODS

EGYPTIAN

OF

ARCHITECTURE
Centers

I.

Prehistoric

II.

Thinite

III.

Old

period,to

B.C.1

3400

period,3400-2980.

Kingdom, about

Dynasties I.-I I.

This

Dynasties

2980-2475.

III.-VI.
The

pyramids

Khufu, Khafre,

"

Memphis

Men-

kure.
First transitional

decline of the

period
"

dom.
king-

DynastiesVII. -X.
IV.

Middle

Kingdom, about

ties
2160-1788. DynasThebes

XI.-XII.

Early halls

at

Hasan.

Second
V.

transitional

Empire,about

Karnak.

Tombs

Pyramids

at

at

period Hyksos
"

Fayum

Beni

Lisht.
invasion.

580-1090. DynastiesXVIII.-

XX.
III. and
period,to Thothmes
Hatshepsut (1501-1447).
Mortuary temple at Der-el-Bahri.

Formative

' '

Processional

Court

and

Temple
1 In the
earlier
Berlin
system,
"

at

periods,where
the

"

at Karnak

Thebes
.

period, culminating under


Amenhotep III. (1411-1375).

Central

"

Hall

one

most

Hypostyle Hall
Elephantine.
there

is still

some

widely accepted.

at Luxor.

uncertainty, the dating follows the

PRECLASSICAL
PERIODS

OF

ARCHITECTURE

45

ARCHITECTURE"

EGYPTIAN

Continued
Centers

Revolution

(Amenhotep

Ikhnaton

under

\ El

iv.) (1375-1358).

Amarna

Seti
Dynasty XIX.
II. (1313-1225).
I.,Ramses
Great Hall at Karnak.
Temple at

Restoration

under

Abu-Simbel.

Thebes

Ramessid

period. Dynasty XX. Ramses


III. (about 1198-1167).
Mortuary temple at Medinet-Habu.

Third

transitional

period. Decadence
perors.
emLibyan and Nubian
Assyrian conquest and

under

about

supremcy,

VI.

Renaissance,about 663-525. Dynasty XXVI.


transitional period.
Psamthik.
Fourth
Persian

VII.

670-660.

Sais

conquest.

period,after 332 B.C.


Ptolemaic
period,to 30 B.C.
Temples at Denderah, Edfou, and

Graeco-Roman

Alexandria

Phite.

imperialdomination, to

Roman

Later

MESOPOTAMIAN

OF

PERIODS

395

A.D.

buildingsat Philae.

AND

PERSIAN

ARCHITECTURE
I.

Prehistoric

II.

Primitive

period,to

about

period development
"

struggleof city states


about
Palace

of

in

and

lonia,
BabySumerian:

3000-1900.

Gudea

about

at

Lagash (Tello)

B.C.

3000

Lagash,

Lagash
Semitic: Agade, Nippur

2450.

Ziggurats at Nippur.
HI.

Old

Babylonian Kingdom,

about

2100-1750.

Khammurabi.
Main

lines of

Mesopotamian

ure
architect-

Babylon

established.

Kassite

domination
1750-1100,

in

Babylonia,

about

HISTORY

PERIODS

OF

OF

ARCHITECTURE

MESOPOTAMIAN

AND

ARCHITECTURE"

PERSIAN

Continued
Centers

IV.

Rise of

Assyria,about

Assyria overrun

ing
1650-1100, culminat-

in first conquest of Babylonia.


by Aramean
nomads, about

Ashur

1050-900.

V.

Assyrian Empire, about 885-607.


Asia completed by
Conquest of western
700.

Palace

of

Sargon

Dur-Sharrukin,

at

722-705.

rebuildingof Babylon.
Conquest of Lower Egypt. Sennacherib,
Destruction

and

Nineveh

Esarhaddon.
Palaces

at

Culmination

Nineveh.

Ashurbanipal,668-

under
626.

Palaces

at Nineveh.

Destruction

by Medes
Babylonians, about 607.

VI.

New

of Nineveh

Babylonian Kingdom,
Nebuchadnezzar

about

607-538.

II.

Conquest of Babylon by Cyrus, King of


538.
VII.

Persian

of Ionian

and

sia,
Per-

Babylon

Achaeme-

Empire, about 550-330.


nian Dynasty.

Period

and

Mesopotamian

fluence.
in-

Cyrus.
Tomb
of Cyrus at Pasargadae.
Period of Mesopotamian
and Egyptian

Persepolis

Darius,Xerxes.
tombs
at Persepolis.

influence.
Palaces

I.

Conquest of

Persia

PERIODS

OF

Prehistoric

by Alexander.

Early Minoan,

ARCHITECTURE

AEGEAN

period, Stone

3000

II.

and

Age,

to

about

B.C.

about

3000-2200.

Beginnings
Crete

of Bronze.
.

Second

or

burnt

cityon site of Troy.

PRECLASSICAL
PERIODS

ARCHITECTURE

^GEAN

OF

47

ARCHITECTURE"

Continued
Centers

Middle

Minoan

I.,about 2200-2000.
and Phaistos.
Earlier palacesat Knossos
Middle
Minoan
II.,about 2000-1850.
First culmination, ending with first destruction
of Knossos.

Middle

Minoan

III.,about

1850-1600.
palace at Knossos built.
Late Minoan
I. and II.,about 1600-1400.
Later palace at Phaistos built,palace at
Later

Knossos

remodeled.

Mycenae,
mainland

Tiryns, and

of

other

cities. Fall of Knossos,

about

III.

Rise

Crete

1400.

Mycenaean period,about 1400-1100.


Megaron-palaces at Mycenae, Tiryns,
Troy (sixth,or Homeric, city),
Greek
etc.

Dorian

invasion

of

settlement

of Asia
to

Minor.

and

C.

mainland

tion
Transi-

iron.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL

Of G. Perrot

Ionian

Peloponnesus.

NOTE

Chipiez'smonumental

Histoire de I'art dans

the first six volumes, 1882-1894, deal with preclassical


I'antiquite,
architecture
(English translation by W. Armstrong, 1883-1894).
these
volumes
still
are
Though superseded in many
particulars,
for
in
their*
restorations
valuable, especially
graphic
perspective.
of
is
The
excavations
summarized
in
H.
V.
history
Hilprecht's
Excavations
in Bible Lands, 1903, which
covers
Egypt as well as
and
A
Palestine.
Mesopotamia
specialstudy of the columnar
building,based on the latest researches,is G. Leroux's Les origines
del'ediftcehypostyleen Grece, en Orient et chez les Romains, 1913.
in English wholly devoted
to
Egypt. The only general work
Egyptian architecture is E. Bell's The Architecture of Ancient Egypt:
a

historical

outline"

1915.
Art in

Another

authoritative

account

pears
ap-

Maspero's
Egypt, 1912, arranged chronologically,
and including concise bibliographies
of the individual periods and
The
author's Manual
monuments.
same
of Egyptian Archccology,
architecture
translated
A.
B. Edwards, 6th ed., 1913,
treats
by
systematically,by types of monuments.
J.Capart'sL'art egyptien,
in G.

48

vols.,

HISTORY

is

1909-1911,

historical

setting
for

1909;

Upper

is A.

methods

Handcock's

the

neighboring

B.

work
the

Excavations

in

translated

see

A.

by

S.

The

Persia.-

and

H.

to

with
its

2nd
of

Tolman

is

the

excavations

the

Excavations,
G.

C.

also

Antiquities,

section

of

Hil-

and

the

The

as

complementary
at

Babylon,

1914,

background

Assyria,
A.

by

cially
espe-

reprinted

cultural

supplanted

sEgean
the

M.

C.

1916,

and

is

V.

Archeology,

1915,

special

studies

many

Burrows'

1908),

J. Baikie's

ed.,

Schliemann's

of Babylonia

Hall's

addenda,

date;

the

see

1915.

W.

Jackson's

1906.

R.

exposition.

popular

1915.

Manual

R.

For

P.

brief

Mesopotamia,

Excavations

For

S.

including

been

1904.

Koldewey's

Among

monuments,

(reprinted

with

P.

gives

also

The

has

The

in

Oriental

1906.

deals

Babylonia,

Johns,

Present,

Mgean.

ed.,

which

Civilization

view.

Age,

R.

of

Manual

constructive

is

which

the

to

1904.

handbook,

of1 Nippur,
and

Babelon's

Past

Cretan

cited

egyptiens,

ed.,

Baedeker,

Guide

of

study

1912,

new

treatment

earlier

Babelon's

Evetts,

Assyria

Jastrow's

An

monuments

Babylon

at

les

general

recent

is E.
A.

T.

chez

of

their

26.

Egypt,

Weigail's

special

Archeology,

already

with

bdtir

excavations.

by

precht's

The

most

countries,

translated

Persia

de

Mesopotamian
of

history

M.

L'art

The

1910.

of

guides

the

P.

panied
accom-

in

monuments

History

see

E.

illustrations,

the

A.

as

Egypt,

Choisy's

Mesopotamia.

work

Breasted's

well

of

For

treatment

as

1911,

of

Antiquities

H.

topographical

Cook,

or

collection

references.

J.

see

ARCHITECTURE

excellent

an

bibliographical

by

1914,

OP

The

The
be

may

Sea

standard

aside

Scoggin's

J. I.

work

from

translated

Mycencean

named

its

Crete

by

Manatt's

on

E.

as

Sellers,

Troy,

1903.

Crete,

1907
mary,
sum-

as

1910,

The

C.

to

scholarly

period.

see

prehensive
com-

devoted
in

of Crete,

Kings

and

Tsountas

Discoveries

gives

good

Mycencean
For

mary
sum-

Schuchhardt's

1891,

and

H.

C.

CHAPTER

ARCHITECTURE

GREEK

The

of

problems
life

air

the

Western

later

the

of

branches
be

to

distinct,

Corinthian,

conditions

and

wood

The

the

West,

and

on

the
of

in

the

materials
forms.

Greek

limestone.

porous

use

the

and
fifth

choice

of

century.

everywhere

of

the
in

it

Athens
Even

left

materials

customary;
conditions

wide

fluenced
in-

were

stone

available.

early days, it

freedom

into

came

early days,

was

tively
rela-

marble,

was

marble
in

subtle

more

members

Ionia

At

climatic

where

in

was

architectural

were

but

mainland

strong.

the

there

building

structural

In

but

order,

Natural

fineness

came

mingled,

the

floods

course,

the

and

strength

fine-grained

choice

felt, of
of

of

nor

cipal
prin-

forms

Greece

available.

both

were

the

the

the

two

third

Babylonia,

or

drought

proportions

coarse,

general

Egypt

Neither

In

formation

the

and

creation.

artistic

late

and

themselves

by
In

in

tunity
oppor-

expression.

the

not

were

materials.
in

extreme

stone

still made
way.

and

was

were

details

fined
con-

essential

Doric

these

"orders."

relatively

compulsion

restricted.

was

their

Greek
spaces

gave

by

When

race.

recognized
a

there

than

development

long

the

of

the

forms,

open-

of

large

problems

columnar

Greek

conditions

external

style

and

in

the

as

was

Natural
less

constant,

property,

common

kept

relatively

delicate

no

remained

arch

kept

of

perfected

were

the

tradition

more

The

of

the

to

which

simplicity

for

the

systems

separate

Ionic,

of

forms

covering

and

meet,

Respect

types

study

for

the

for

all

forgotten.
the

invited,

not

uses.

certain

of

Two

could

lintel

minor

to

form

no

wholly

ever

demands

above

lintel, creating

climate

the

made

which

has

people

themselves

and

column

which

ideals,

devoted

architects

Greek

IV

ever,
how-

in

the

50

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

Personalityand ideals of Greek architects. It is in Greece


that the personality
of individual architects firstbecomes
clear,
in spiteof the limitations laid on
them
by tradition. They
knew
and discussed what they were
about, as the titles of a
Their underlying
long series of technical writings attest.
theory was a formal one, which hoped to have exhausted the
of beauty in the phrase "unity in variety." The
significance
of beauty was
favorite instance
musical harmony with its
This found its closest analogy, among
all the
physicallaws.
It is not surprising,
therefore,that the
arts, in architecture.
all others was
in a broad
quality sought among
symmetry,
The

sense.

Greek

from

of the

Roman

writer,Vitruvius, who

sources,

defines
members

same

symmetry
of

drew

"the

as

work, and

his material
proper

the

ment
agree-

proportional

correspondence of the several parts to the form of the whole


tinct,
disobject." The Greeks kept units for different purposes
and could impress on each a homogeneous
form, symmetrical
also in the modern
of having correrestricted sense
sponding
halves.
not
They studied proportions to secure
slenor
only a general harmony in the relative massiveness
derness

of all the parts, but


their dimensions
an

however,

The
was

mechanical.

not

introduced

of
for the purpose
of organization,and sometimes

were

of too

mathematical

Subtle

tween
be-

for the

modifications
still higher degree

securinga

uniformity.
Development. The
development of
Greece was
from uncertaintyto extreme
to

relation

equality of ratios,or a common


applicationof these unifying principles

"

dividing module.

also

sheer

avoidance

monotonous

less restrained

monuments

until

the

magnificence.

The

the

refinement, and
elements

gradually co-ordinated

were

central

moment

was

architecture

reached

and

in

of
then

of the

early
harmonized,

Periclean

Athens

fifth century B.C.


ensued
Then
a diffusion of energy
in elaboration and variation of the accepted themes, a search
in the

for novel

motives, accompanied by the solution of the

problems created by wealth


Periods.
about
The

noo

archaic

chief

The
B.C.,
or

began roughly

on

races

the ruins of the older

formative
with

and luxury.
of historic Greece

the

^gean

new

first appear

civilization.

period of their characteristic styles


beginning of the Olympic games, in

GREEK

ARCHITECTURE

51

776, the first expressionof national unity. It closed with the


final

repulseof

479,

which

left the

stimulated

the

period of

The

the Persian

conscious

of

inheritance
until the

known

and
powers
works
of art.

direction to Greek

and

were

at

and

different fortunes.

At

century

B.C.,

energies.

Ionic architecture.

Doric

styles,and

obscure

not

The

the
art, in which
tinued
by Asiatic influences,con-

first distinct

interminglingshould

till the

Asia, 338-323.

conquest, in the second

Roman

of Doric

roughly

Hellenistic

as

modified

was

gave a new
Relation

and

in 480-

their

production of their maturer


native development extended

splendid expansion

Ionic

Greeks

Carthaginian attacks

conquest of Greece

Macedonian
Greek

and

their

architecture

their subsequent

separate origin and

the opening of the historic period the

Dorians

ing
occupied the Peloponnesus and central Greece, havrepressedcertain of the earlier tribes and forced others to
eastward
an
migration. The lonians occupied Attica, the
central islands of the ^Egean, and the coast of Asia Minor
the Asiatic
Ionia; the ^olians
opposite, called specifically
coast

the north.

to

under

the

Ionic had
islands

It

in Ionia

was

and

influence of Asiatic models,


its

rise,and

it remained

this

to

^olian

that

the

territoryand

the

confined

almost

the

until

late

towns,

style called
neighboring
in

the

fifth

was

All the rest of Hellas, includingAttica,meanwhile,


engaged in developing another style,called by contrast

the

Doric, which

century.

native

from

but

was

not

the

art.

Ionia then
She

held

singleDoric temple

Ionic
stood

is to

be

shores
to

into

more

penetrate continental
be influenced

might
her

found
naval

intimate

national
have

in the lead in

firmly to

until after the Athenian

two

began

not

in the

its roots

civilization. The

provincialhad
wealth, and

had

own
on

been

called

civilization,

style,so

that

Asiatic soil.

It

confederacy brought

relations

Greece

inheritance

to

that

Ionic forms

considerable
any
architecture.

by those of Doric
Archaic period,776-479. The leaders in artistic productiveness
the Ionian
during the formative period in Greece were
and the newly founded
cities of Asia Minor
colonies,mostly
Dorian, of southern Italyand Sicily. Their lands were more
than
those of
fertile,their inhabitants more
enterprising,
Greece itself,
that they early attained a wealth and culture
so

extent

or

to

52

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

cities.
quite beyond the general simplicityof the mainland
Among the more
important centers in Ionia may be mentioned
Ephesus and Samos, with their gigantic early temples; in
the west, Selinus,Akragas, Syracuse,Tarentum, and Paestum.
On

the mainland
brief

tratus, gave
from

Athens

buildingsof

fountain

alone, under

the wise

promise of taking rank with these. Aside


practicalutilitysuch as fortifications and
the

houses, almost

only public monuments

in

impressivelygrouped on
sacred inclosure,they dominated
the
city. In harmony with the materials

of the
Ionic

forms

delicate,slender, and

were

generally heavy

"

both

with

full and

the

were

the

acropolis

modest

houses

temples. Singly,or
or

rule of Pisis-

available,the
graceful, the Doric

sweeping

in the

curves

still subject
adjustment of various details was
in the Doric
to great uncertainty,especially
order, with its
unconquered difficulties and its local varieties in colonies
under
Achaean
^Eolian influence.
or
Only in the last years
of the sixth century was
a final solution
approached.
The
Central period: fifthcentury.
awakening of national
consciousness
after the Persian
and the fiftyyears
of
wars,
that
has
followed, inaugurated what
comparative peace
The
usually been considered the great period of Greek art.
of northern
and central
rebuildingof the ruined monuments
stimulated
Greece
a
rapid development to maturity during
slow in recovering,
the fifth century.
Ionia, to be sure, was

capital.

and
the

built

elsewhere

little;but

greatest activity. Though

their
art

The

prosperity,the

and

culture.

development
Olympia, and

mainland

throughout Hellas
the
now

spoilsof

The

there

colonies

western

was

retained

rapidly took the


victory contributed

lead
to

in
the

of the great national sanctuaries,such as Delphi,


Delos, with their temples, their propylaea,and

their treasuries

(Fig. 35). The

first added

theater

the

forms

of

the

which

imposed

Doric

to

order

themselves

the

evolution

of the

architectural

assumed
wherever

problems.

their normal
the

drama

now

The

relations,

used.
style was
Athens, where

the
Pericles,461-430. At
had
been
most
destruction
complete and the subsequent
of circumstances
fruitful,a happy combination
victory most
At preciselythe
produced buildings of unique refinement.
Athens

moment

under

when

naval

supremacy

and

Asiatic

conquests

were

FIG.

FIG.

17

"

"

ATHENS.
ROMAN

THE

ATHENS.

THE
TIMES.

PARTHENON,

(RESTORED

PARTHENON.
MODEL

FROM

IN

METROPOLITAN

THE

TO

NORTHWEST

ITS

CONDITION

MUSEUM)

IN

54

HISTORY

placingAthens

all of

kinsmen,
marble
a

in

ARCHITECTURE

OP
close touch

her

with the rich art of her Ionian

sanctuaries

rebuilt.

be

to

were

The

of Mount

first appreciated,furnished
Pentelicus,now
slender forms.
Ionic
medium,
permitting more

worthy

fervor infused the statelyforms of Doric architecture with


The
Ionic forms themselves were
new
spiritof grace.
even

employed, although radicallymodified


The full advantage of the moment
would

FIG.

had

not

18

the

ATHENS.

"

Athenian

the adornment

His diversion

of Athens

THE

been

seized

WEST

dominated

by

of the Delian

for him

won

traditions.

have

not

FROM

been

democracy

of the insightof Pericles.


to

ERECHTHEUM,

THE

by Doric

man

treasure

the denunciation

of

contemporaries,but made his citythe admiration of the world.


The Parthenon
(Figs.16 and 17),the Propylaeaof the Acropolis,
and
the
Erechtheum
the temple of Athena
Nike",
(Fig 18),
show
a

The

the extreme

few

years

refinement

before

which

seeking

collaboration of Phidias

other

and

had

almost

free

less

art

At

maintained

subtle

his school

appropriate sculptured decoration.


Pericles

Greek

gave

the

for

expressions.
a

noble

and

Piraeus, where

hand, he brought the whole

city

ARCHITECTURE

GREEK

55

composition, according to a rectangular


street plan made
by Hippodamus of Miletus.
Central period:fourth century. The fourth century found
exhausted
the mainland
by civil war, which continued with
into

architectural

till the

brief intervals

encouragement

conquest, and

Macedonian

building. At defeated
lacking for anything but
to

gave

little

Athens, especially,
immediate

practical
vations,
It was
from Athens, however, with her daring innoneeds.
of the preceding period,
her wonderful
monuments
cities took
their inspiration.Sparta and
that the other
of events
the turn
successivelybrought to
Thebes, which
power,
gave signs of entering on the patronage of art, although
The
did not
to accomplish much.
time
new
permit them
cities of the
Peloponnesus, Mantinea, Megalopolis, and
ginian
Messene, are typicalof the period. In the west, the Carthalowed
foldestruction of Greek
cities in Sicilyin 409-406 was
by a long paralysis,during which the palace of the
almost the only important
tyrant Dionysius at Syracuse was
production. With the civic revival there toward the end of
the fourth century some
more
began.
temple-buildingonce
in the cities of Asia Minor, though they were
It was
again
were

means

Persian

partly under

monuments

of the
more

than

at

of

the

temples,many

time

and

Priene

were

invasion, 334; the


Miletus, the greatest of all,was

most

erected.

had

acteristic
char-

The

building
re-

lain in ruins

commenced
on
years, was
everything in the mother country.

Ephesus

of Alexander's

were

of which

hundred

overshadowed

temples

rule, that the greatest and

for

scale that
The

Ionic

completed by the time


temple at Didyma, near
begun immediately after.

half-independentrulers of Caria, Greek artists laid


built there the colossal
the city of Halicarnassus, and
out
of Mausolus
which
has given its name
tomb
permanently
to funerary architecture.
Types of buildingsin the central period. The temple still
retained first place in importance, though not in the same
degree as formerly. In Greece as well as in Asia, at the
portant
national
religiouscenters, notably Olympia and Delos, immonuments
added, and Epidaurus took rank
were
with these through a group
of new
buildingsdesigned by the
In Asia the early native
sculptor Polyclitus the younger.
For

the

56

of the

forms

Ionic

were

order

the exterior.

on

matured

were

The

in

and

atticized Ionic and

In

most

the Corinthian

all,in the beautiful

the
popular. In the west
with
traditional Doric
still used exclusively,
but
little
was
modification.
Greater
in the
new
independence appears
requirements. Every cityand every
types, responding to new
aspired to have its theater in stone, a
great sanctuary now
of
monumental
new
problem typical of rising standards
the
By the time of Alexander
luxury and convenience.
stadion
lined with stone.
At Megalopolis a great
also was
built
covered
assembly-hall was
by the Arcadians, with
circular

temples

terraced

for

seats

architecture
citizens

which

developed.

proportion,remained

also,in interiors,
and, above

used

now

ARCHITECTURE

Doric, Athenian

Greece, the
usual

OP

HISTORY

became

six thousand

entered

vying

with

service

of

princes of

the

the

the

the erection of elaborate


Hellenistic

art

than

and

years

without

circumstances

in the

new

to

opened

were

empires

hand,

individuals, wealthy
monarchical

certain reaction

other

states

in

tombs.

334

conquests, which

Outer

itself.

The

period.

brilliant
not

houses

the

On

men.

323

witnessed

the east
on

the

of his successors,

Greek

to

fluence
in-

of Greece

art

favorable

more

never

der's
Alexan-

where

all

to
was

The new
at hand.
created, yet where every means
was
capitals,Alexandria, Antioch, and, later, Pergamon, became
and the Ionian
the centers
of artistic activity,
though Rhodes
cities pressedthem closely. In Greece itself the great heritage
to be

of earlier monuments
unfavorable

were

and
to

the

building.

prevailingfinancial

exhaustion

aspect of Athens, Delphi,

The

practicallyunchanged.
Olympia, for instance, remained
first raised to importance, such as ^Etolia
Only in regionsnow
erected.
and
considerable monuments
Epirus, were
many
the later
In Sicilyofficial art had its last after-glowunder
and

tyrants of Syracuse.

Changes

in

problems. Everywhere

itself with

architecture

problems in the design of whole

cities.

precedents earlier set by Hippodamus


adoption of a rectangular plan. Traffic

the

were

two
sswers

considered, as
chief streets
and

well

had

water-mains

as

At

appearance.

'breadth
beneath.

of

over

The

had

to

It followed

spread
in the wideand

hygiene

Alexandria

the

feet, with

hundred

city took

cern
con-

on

some

of

GREEK

ARCHITECTURE

57

metropolis,with its museum


aspects of a modern
its great park, its vast harbor with the mole, and
library,

the

many

and

of
The embellishment
the great lighthousecalled the Pharos.
the architects employed
these cities gave opportunitieswhich
in

strivingto

splendor and magnificence.


execution of the great temples at Miletus and
giganticaltars of Pergamon and of Syracuse,

outdo

The

Magnesia, the
the Serapeion at
all fell in

this

all

in

previous works

within its vast

Alexandria

period.

Still

colonnaded

characteristic

more

court,
the

were

of private citizens,
palaces of the rulers and even
the public buildingsof every
kind, council-houses,and gymnasia.
sometimes
tion,
direcarchitecture
new
a
Philanthropy
gave
and
established
to keep
when
as
gymnasia were
parks
of the city in grateful remembrance,
the
benefactor
some
commemorative
monument
tomb
or
a
being a central but
The market-placeswere
surrounded
subordinate feature.
by
nades.
colonlined with
were
porticosand the chief streets even

sumptuous

Changes in detail.
inevitablylost. The

refinements

extreme

succeeded

were

curves,

all this lavishness

Amid

by

richer

something

was

form, the subtle

of

and

ornament

bolder

facile,more
technicallymore
membering. The result was
fitted
easilyappreciated,and by these very qualitiesit was
and complex civilization. The
to the needs of a sophisticated
influences from
Athens
into
Ionic order, changed by return
its final shape, was
now
the.favorite;the Corinthian order
As
the interchange of
and more
became
common.
more
increased, the form

ideas

on

racial tradition.

by which
objects of

were

character.

and

with

abutment

arch

and

the

barrel

greater boldness, but

by solid

masses

of

all, that

time, above

and

mathematical

her most

Gr"co-Roman

there

barbarian

vault

pendent
longer de-

no

grew

ciple
prin-

up

theoretical

It

at

was

writings multiplied,

made

the

Beyond

imitated

oftener

irreproachable

earth.

or

masonry

world.

used

were

without

never

formulation

of Hellenistic Greece, Parthia


became

Instead

was

traditional forms, though kept distinct,


free choice according to appropriatenessof

The

in the

column

the

this

imitable

of the

her

Greek

the

system

borders

clumsilyand

even

Rome

faithful pupil.

period.

Under

the

domination

of

the

Ro-

58

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

lost

Empire, the architecture of old Greek lands never


wholly
its individuality,although Roman
and connoisseurs
emperors
with new
monuments.
delighted to adorn Athens

The

transformations

and

Asia Minor

man

domesticated
A

continued

after the

years

place in Greece

developments, copied and


importations from the capital.

than

Rome,

take

to

native

rather

were

at

thousand

which

age

of Pericles

shall

we

that

see

the
genius, rejuvenated by fresh influences from
to produce a new
architecture on the
Orient, had still vitality
shores
of the Bosphorus, after Rome
itself had fallen in
decay.
architecture great attention
Forms
of detail. In Greek
Greek

directed

was

to

the columnar
their

the

form

of

individual

all,and

systems, above

relations

details,to

knowledge

those

of

of these and

is

correspondingly necessary for intelligent


study of buildings.
Doric forms. The Doric forms show a fixityin their main
lines that is not
less surprisingthan the incrediblypainful
experimentation by which the precise canonical relations were
elements
which
tinguish
disfinallyevolved (Fig.19). The constant
with its cushion or echinus,
the style are the capital,
its heavy, square
projecting abacus; the frieze,interposed
between

cornice

metopes

and
and

architrave, with
fluted

its alternation

triglyphs;and

the

muiules

cornice.

hanging plates on the under


of the column
tapered from

side of the

fifth to

diameter, usually with

third

of its lower

bottom

to

of

The

cessed
reor

shaft

top, diminishing a
a

slight

swelling,called the entasis. The line of the shaft


was
emphasized by vertical flutings,normally twenty in
number
during the central period,meeting on a sharp edge
curve

or

or

arris.

Until after the Periclean

comparatively stout, ranging


times its lower

directlyon
and

diameter.

in

Such

platform without

separate molded

base

was,

age

the

column

height between
a

massive

remained

four

and

support could

six
rest

seeming to need a transition,


in fact,added
only in a very
base, or stylobate,was

A common
exceptionalcases.
always furnished, however, by raisingany Doric portico at
least one
step above its surroundings.
Formal
in the Doric order.
Critics have been
relationships
in recognizing in the mature
unanimous
Doric system an
few

FIG.

IQ

"

THE

GREEK

DORIC

ORDER

HISTORY

60

organic

whole

of the

tendencies

horizontal

the

expressivecharacter.

most

all,in the masterly balance

consists,above
and

ARCHITECTURE

OF

established

arrested, and the horizontal


is foreshadowed, by the

is

column

entablature

is itself

This

The

them.

between

prepared

encirclingbands
neck

once

numerous;

in the

thought
They

the

more

of

movement

horizontal

the transition
beneath

again taken

are

is

completed.

as

finally
a

tinuous
con-

Even

the

triglyphs and mutules


ing
frampins in primitivewooden

function

"

in

the

mediating elements

ultimate

are

twice

the

of

equally their

the

abacus.

by their little cap, and


doubled
to form
almost

mutules,

low

fluted

spreading echinus with its


by the incision creatinga

base, and

be descendants

to

have

"

of

arrested

"drops"

or

columns

of the transition

vertical lines of the columns

line,in which
guttcB

the

by

the

triglyphs,less stronglyemphasized, but

the

echoed

for

the

at

The

below.

by

up

in the management
vertical
"movement"

ciple
prin-

of the vertical

by

the entablature, and

and

Its

entablature.

stone

between

horizontal

vertical.

and

expressionsin the Doric order. Coupled


are
equally subtle
purely spatialrelationships

Structural
these

functions.

structural

of

The

echinus

seems

with

all

sions
expresto

give

to act as a series of posts bearing


elastic support ; the triglyphs
between.
In
the cornice, with the metopes
as
filling-plates

many

only

often

The
mature

which

problem of

which

was

the column

members

fulfilled these functions

The

was

the

valued.

angle.

The

inherent

of
difficulty

the

appeared when it was used in a


turning at rightangles,such as the temple peristyle
its principalapplication. Since the thickness of

Greek

colonnade

such

lieved
reprojectionof the capitalwas
load by a slightlyraised surface over
Triglyphs and metopes, instead of being articulate,
It was
the visual emphasis
cut on
a singleblock.

structure

on

be sure,

in appearance.
actual
of any

the shaft.
were

to

cases,

and

Doric

system

the architrave

was

greater than

the width

of

to bring the
adjustment was
triglyph,some
necessary
felt to be
of the frieze,where
it was
triglyphat the corner
structural
both
needed
a
as
expression and as a musical
The
cadence.
problem was
variously solved: by widening
the corner;
the metopes near
by spacingthe triglyphsequally

the

Doric

Entablature
the

from

Doric

Parthenon

Entablature

Retranslated

FIG.

2O

"

THE

GREEi:

into

DORIC

WOOD.

wood

construction

ORDER,

(AFTER

WITH

DURM)

RETRANSLATION

INTO

62
from

HISTORY

OP

of the

ARCHITECTURE

frieze to

the

other

and

abandoning
and triglyphs
exactitude of axial relation of columns
tracting
; by conthe spacing of the corner
columns; and by various
one

corner

combinations

of

these

methods.

The

adjustments

sary
neces-

cause

it may
been from this
well have
were
so
complex
that noted
architects of the fourth
century, familiar

with

the Athenian

that

solutions,but preferring
a simplerarrangement,

stigmatizedthe Doric styleas


temples.
Doric origins. The originof many
in

wooden

construction

Elements

stone.

beams
absence

of any

the

leads

wood, sometimes

the

incased

in

writers

mention

also

wooden

been

of the ends

terra-cotta,

were

in

complete
ruins

of

entablatures
indeed

casionally
oc-

period. Classic

the classical
columns

of

one

of wooden

the

that

sought

the

The

among

conclusion

preserved throughout

buildingof

superseded by

of entablature

to

has

(Fig. 20).

entablature

fragments

certain monuments
of

was

forms

apparently imitative

in

occur

which

unfit for the

buildings,
testimony

some

notably the temple of Hera at Olympia. Here the


is 'confirmed
of every
by the remains, which show columns
period in the same
building,presumably inserted one by one
the wooden
of wood, however,
columns
as
decayed. Columns
Doric
can
scarcelyhave suggested the form of the massive
column.
have
The wooden
supports which it replaced must
been of some
uncertain.
different proportionsand detail,now
For the capital,at least,Mycenaean forms furnished the prototype
(cf.Figs. 15 and 21), as they did for the plan of the
of construction.
temple and its early mode
Only certain
minor

motives

outside

of

meander,
may

ornament

Greece, and

these

invented

arrangement

did

not

which

preceded
this moment

was

were

have

at

has

produce
already been

past.

This

which

of stone
the

once

the central

like the

forms

substitution

derived

been

primitive art,
independently.

development. The

terra-cotta

can

in most

current

well have

Doric

of

and

fret, or
Greeks

for wood

consistent

described.

moment,

the

from

and

normal

velopmen
long de-

continued

after

development proceeded steadily

the
as
higher organizationin such technical matters
jointingof the stones, such problems as those presented by
the membering
the corner
of the capital,
triglyph,the profiling
toward

63
of the

entablature, and
divisor

common

in the

freedom

the

dimensions;

of the

of

carryingthrough

module

it left great local

but

choice

Such
of proportions.
matters
to height in the column, of diameter

ratio of diameter

diameter

columination, of lower

to

or

the

as

to inter-

diameter, which

upper

formerly thought to have evolved uniformly in the


direction of increasingslenderness,openness,
and vertically,
to vary
far more
are
now
seen
according to local traditions
which
remained
relativelystable, influenced in part by the
The
idea of a universal
trend
building material available.
in matters
of proportion was.
one
arisingfrom the greater
of earlymonuments
number
preserved from regionsand cities
where heavy proportionsprevailed,
and from the number
and
from regionslike Attica, with
prominence of later monuments
their slender columns
of marble.
The
later temples of the
of their columns
west, however, kept the massiveness
along
were

with

their

material; those

coarser

of the east

likewise

show

positivetendency.
Archaic
period. During the archaic period the capital
retained
the wide
and
bulging echinus of its Mycenaean
beneath
ancestor, as well as the hollow
(Fig. 21). The

no

architrave

was

T of Demeter

at Paeatum

FIG.

21

"

flush with

narrow,

T
Drawn

PROFILES

with

GREEK

OF

upper

Parthenon

^Egina

at

the

upper

DORIC

diameters

CAPITALS,

face

at

of

the

Nemea

equal

ARRANGED

IN

LOGICAL
CHRONO-

ORDER

column
with

the
were

the result that


axes

of the

scanty,

less broad
was

set

even

or

paid

to be sure,

so

from

corner

columns.

it; the triglyphswere

covered

over

the

over

them

had

often

to

be

triglyphs. Little attention


ordering of the stone joints,which
were,
of
the
used
with
coating stucco always
by

those

the

broad,

triglyphscould still be nearly on


The
resultingmetopes, however,

that the mutules

than
to

back

64

OF

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

then
search
for a
limestone
employed. The
porous
module
began certainlyby the middle of the period,although
the

it

Architects

still tentative.

was

diameter

lower

and

the

diameter

mean

between

hesitated

the
for its

of the columns

employed an independent system for the frieze.


Central period. With the central period the hollow of the
capitaldisappeared and the echinus took on a steeper, hyperbolic
profileof the utmost
subtlety. The architrave lost the
reminiscent
of wooden
narrowness
origins,but, in widening,
made
the problem of a corner
In the
triglypha serious one.
solution adopted, a contraction
in the spacing of the columns
unit, and

at

universal.

became

corners

The

took

entablature

marble

form, and the stone-jointing,


exposed when

normal

was

the
regular,bearing an organic
A
the mean
architectural
forms.
based on
single module
diameter
of the column
to have been appliedthroughout
seems
the columnar
system, includingthe entablature.
Late period. The
forms thus fullyestablished in the fifth
century suffered but little subsequent change. Except in the
almost abandoned
by the
west, to be sure, the Doric stylewas
middle
of the fourth century.
It is perhaps due to influence
became

used,

from

relation

its

on

Ionic forms

that

late Doric

example

on

the

to

mainland,

in the

temple at Nemea, shows such slender proportions


one-half
times its lower
the height of the column
six and
diameter.
Late capitalsgenerally lack the subtlety of line
of the mature
form; their echinus is either almost straight
rounded
into a quadrant.
or
"

Ionic

The

forms.

columnar

characteristic

features

system, the enduring elements

of

the

of contrast

Ionic

with

the

the volute capital,the molded


base, and
Doric, are especially
the Doric
the cornice, with
its blocks
dentils. Unlike
or
the Ionic projectson two
sides only, in the direction
capital,
A pair of spiralscrolls or volutes forms a
of the architrave.
In
shaft and load.
between
seemingly resilient intermediate
the

customary

more

volutes

united

were

circle of leaves which


with
narrow

"egg

molded

always received

and

band.
an

form
across

which
the

later took

top by

The

The

slender

individual

the form

dart."

universal, these

became

band, resting on
of

abacus

an

rated
deco-

consisted only of

shaft of the

base.

echinus

Among

Ionic column

many

forms,

ARCHITECTURE

GREEK

65

widely adopted in later times was the Attic base


tween.
two
convex
moldings or toruses, with a hollow or scotia beThe
shaft itself ranged from
and one-half to
seven
in height,with a slightentasis,and with
ten lower diameters
twenty-four flutes,normally separated by small, flat fillets.
divided into three faces, each projecting
The
architrave was
the one
below.
The
tinguish
distypical cornice was
slightlyover
by a row of small projectingblocks,which took the
of dentils from
When
their suggestion of teeth.
name
a
the most

frieze
no

"

introduced

was

subdivision

between

architrave

and

cornice

into isolated panels like the metopes,


band

of

usuallydecorated with a continuous


Formal
in the Ionic
relationships
especiallyin the examples without

order.

the artisticfunctions

capitalis in

it had

and

was

sculpture.

The

Ionic

system,

monizatio
frieze,presents a harof horizontals and verticals analogous to that of the
Doric order, though not carried into such fine detail.
The
dentils correspond both to triglyphsand mutules, and serve
better

even

of both.

fitted than

the

The

for the

Doric

task

respects

some

of

carrying a

lintel,for its projectionsare limited to the sides


where support appears
The difference between
to be needed.
is to be
its faces creates
a
however, when a corner
difficulty,
transverse

less real than that created in the Doric


no
difficulty
order by the triglyphs. The
usual solution adopted was
to
ing
placepairsof scrolls on the two adjacent exterior faces,makthe corner
which
on
they met
project diagonally,and
lettingthe rear faces intersect in the interior angle.
Ionic structural
forms
to have
Ionic origins. The
seem
followed wooden
closelythan the Doric,
prototypes stillmore
in the column
and the capital(Fig.22). The
columns
even
are
relatively
very slender; their capitalssuggest the saddlepiecestillfound in heavy wooden
framing. Indeed the oldest
at the lower
capitalsshow a simple block, rounded
corners,
in
with scrolls merely painted on the faces.
The
beam-ends
turned

the
among

"

entablature
which

are

the

unmistakable.

scrolls of the

The

capitalare

decorative

the most

forms,
worthy,
note-

originsin the interior of Asia.


Ionic development, like the Doric,
Ionic development. The
less a change of proportionsin a definite direction than a
was
change of character. The exuberance of the early examples
can

be traced to

66

HISTORY
into

transformed

was

OF

ARCHITECTURE

sleekness,coherence,

and

elegance,

The
simultaneouslywith the taking up of Doric elements.
volutes of the early capitalwere
widely projecting,leaving
the echinus below
exposed for its full circumference; later
drawn
in and
reduced
in relative importance.
they were
The frieze was
first introduced
into the entablature
by the
Athenian architects of the time of Pericles,as a result partly
of their desire for richer sculptureddecoration,partly of their

Ionic entablature

FIG.

22

"

translated

conslruction

INTO

RETRANSLATED

ENTABLATURE,

IONIC

tnio wood

WOOD.

(AFTER

DURM)

Doric

as

when
come

crush

appreciationof structural expressions


artistic suitability
they suppressedthe dentils

training. With
well

as

of

The

fine

they used the frieze,since these would have no longer


opposite the ceilingbeams, and would have seemed to
Later
tects
archithe delicate figure sculpture employed.
planted
not
were
so
scrupulous,and Hermogenes, who transheavy

dentils

over

final harmonization

Didyma,

where

in the third century,


frieze of small figures (Fig. 23).

innovations

the Athenian
used

reached

was

the frieze

to Asia

was

in the

great temple

brought into scale with

at

the

GREEK

ARCHITECTURE

67

dentils

of large Medusa-heads
by a repeating decoration
between.
with garlands festooned
Corinthian
forms did not compose
Corinthian forms. The
in Greece a system completelydistinct. They were
essentially
which
another
of the
one
or
independent inventions,by

traditional

Doric

Ionic

or

forms

could be
and

replaced,

which

their

tendency

common

richness

to

for

in

use

fitted
bination.
com-

Earliest
and

acteristic
char-

most
was

the

capital,consisting
essentiallyof an
inverted

bell,surrounded

by rows
acanthus
with
or

of

leaves,

pairsof scrolls

volutes ing
supportthe corners
of

the

abacus.

The

from
example
Epidaurus
(Fig.
24)shows the type
which

later

came
be-

normal, with
of

eight
ARTEMIS.
TEMPLE
OF
leaves each,placed
FIG.
MAGNESIA.
23
(HUMANN)
DETAILS.
cuted
alternately, exewith a sharpness
and delicacyin which Greek
carving is seen at its best.
Further elements
contributed to
which, through association,
the development of a new
the curved frieze,and
order, were
the cornice with supporting brackets
consoles,or modillions,
called.
The ripenedproduct of this development
as they are
had a harmonious
luxuriance and an adaptabilityto varied
which gave
the Doric and Ionic
it the advantage over
uses
two

rows

"

"

68

HISTORY

forms.

Here

OP

there

ARCHITECTURE

neither

the

of

problem
angle capital.

was

corner

triglyph nor that of an


Formal
in the Corinthian
order.
As in the
relationships
Ionic examples in which a plainfrieze reinforced the tendency
of the architrave, vertical and horizontal
lines were
strongly
opposed rather than blended, but the capital,by its bell and

FIG.

24

EPIDAURUS.

"

silhouette, carried
in

Corinthian

way

beneath

capitalof

in close touch
the

Corinthian

side with

the

the

shaft

name

famous

THE

over

the less

none

The

OF

into

the

tablature
en-

adequate.

Corinthian

myth

THOLOS

of the

comes

from

invention

of

Corinth, on a suggestionfrom
leaves growing about a basket, with tendrils curling
it. As a matter
tile laid over
of fact,the earliest
a

Bassae,about

form

was

Callimachus

example preserved is
at

CAPITAL

line of

which

relates

capitalby

acanthus

the

development.

Vitruvius, who
the

CORINTHIAN

the

at

singlecapitalemployed by Iktinos
possiblyby the later loti420, inspiredvery
the Egyptians, with whom
the Athenians
were

in the
column

the

At Bassae
of the fifth century.
is simply a variant employed side by

middle

Ionic,under

the

same

entablature

of Attic-Ionic

GREEK

ARCHITECTURE

69

At

form.

Epidaurus and elsewhere, in the fourth century,


often employed independentlyfor an interior colonnade,

it was

in 334 it was
used on
exterior
an
of
know, in the delicate Monument
and

for the

first time

we

Lysicrates' in Athens
(Fig. 25). The earliest building still preserved in which
Corinthian
ordonnance
was
employed throughout on large
scale is again at
Athens, the gigantic
temple of
Zeus, carried
in the second
B.C.

up
tury
cen-

the

on

foundations

laid

before

by

Pisistratus.

As

long
the

work

done

was

the

at

charge

of

the

Seleucid

peror,
em-

Antiochus

IV., it
be

well

may

questioned

whether

the

of

monuments

Antioch
have

not

may

afforded still

earlier
of

lost

examples

monumental
of Corinthian

use

forms.

FIG.

25

"

ATHENS.

MONUMENT

OF

LYSICRATES

These

reached
such

their greatest vogue


and highest development under
the Romans.
Hellenistic sovereignsand their successors

Figure supports.
women

were

called

are

"

in the

so

of
or
figuresof men
used as supports
Atlantes or caryatids,as they
with rich and gracefulresults. This was
notably
In

exceptionalcases
"

"Porch

of the

Maidens"

of the

Erechtheum

at

Athens

(Fig. 18).
Size and
proportionof members

The
much

size of members

of

the columnar

in all the orders varied

affectingtheir form.

Examples

orders.

greatly without

of all three

occur

in

HISTORY

70
which

the

others

in which

columns

they

fiftyfeet

over

are

axis of the

axis to

ARCHITECTURE

OF

less than

are

columns

in

height, as

fifteen.
from

ranged

The

well

distance

five feet two

as

from
inches

Nike
feet nine inches
to twenty-one
temple of Athena
The
relation between
in the temple of Apollo at Selinus.
for the most
height and spacing was
part an arbitraryand

in the

FIG.

26

"

TEMPLE

AKRAGAS.

OF

formal

rather

one,

ultimate

bearing

spacing of Doric
height, that of
If structural

Ionic

have

strictlydependent

have

columns

on

any

the

early

of the mature

height of

about

In

E.

H.

about

vary

one-half

one-third

been

height.

the

length

fixed,and

nearly

inverselyas
architraves

their

their

dominant

more

by the

temples, the

general about

proportionsof

late architraves

than

in

had

to

determined

one

materials.

remained

have
tended

The

the columns.

architraves

was

considerations

ratios would

thinner

of the

power

BY

KOLDEWEY)

variable

columns

of the lintels would

and

than

(RESTORED

ZEUS.

OLYMPIAN
AFTER

TRYSELL,

the

are

the

height

of

likewise not

statical law,

traves,
though marble archisomewhat
generally,are relatively

ones

of

coarse

period,whether

limestone.
of stone

or

Doric

marble,

one-third of their length; Ionic

archi-

traves

of

the

GREEK

ARCHITECTURE

Hellenistic

period,about

the other factors involved

there would

of constructive
of

proportionsin

forms

the

same

however, of

one-quarter.
seem

The

increasingstructural boldness.

an

71

thus to have

wide

at

been

varietyin

the tions
proporthe identity

of different
order

Among

orders,
different scales,are

margin

of

dication
in-

safety,a habitual

generosityof strength.
employment of the column with its
rich apparatus, Greek buildings
were
simplealmost to bareness.
relief ornament
to walls,
The Greeks ordinarilyapplied no
but gained their effect by the regular jointingof finelycoursed
Walls.

Aside from

the

Smooth-faced
blocks were
used for the best
rnasonry.
but in heavy walls blocks dressed only at the edges, or

work;
with

were
employed,
jointsemphasized by marginal draftings,
In cases
where
a wall
practiceincreasingas time went on.

the
a

and

colonnade

were

fused, with

the

columns

attached

or

engaged to the wall, as in the west fagade of the Erechtheum


(Fig.1 8) or the "Temple of the Giants" at Akragas (Fig.26),
which
this was
balanced
overusually due to exceptional causes,
the Greek
tendency toward simplicityof structural
the end of a wall had to support an
expression. Where
architrave it was
treated as a specialmember, the anta, with
its own
from those of the column.
capitaland base, differing
of the wall,the transition
Moldings. The base and the crown
between
horizontal
and vertical,were
emphasized and
rendered
less abrupt by specialmembers,
ranging from a
simple vertical plinthor fascia to an elaborate suite of carved
have
moldings. These moldings (Fig. 27), of which we
already seen examples in the Doric echinus and the Ionic base,
the most
are
enduring of Greek creations. Based
among
the simple and universal forms
of the convex,
on
concave,
attained
distinction
subtle
and reverse
they
by
variety
curves,
obvious
circular
of contour, never
and
followingan
by
arc,
selection
different
functions
for the
of crowning,
judicious
ployment
support, and footing. A characteristic instance is the emof the
in which

the

reverse

thin

curve,

or

cyma.

The

cyma

recta,

portion projects,was
ordinarily
in
the
whereas
curve
crowning feature;
only as a
its other position,
the cyma
used when
was
strength
reversa,
was
a
required. For the base of the wall in Doric buildings,

used

free

concave

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

of stones
with a projecting
high course
standing vertically,
bases
used; in Ionic buildings,molded
plinth below, was
analogous to those of the antae, having as their most frequent
constituents
and a plinth. For
a torus
or
a reversed
cyma,
the support of projectingbeams
cornices the Doric builders
or
used

characteristic

hooked

beak-molding,

the Ionic builders the

ovolo

like

"

echinus
the

in

profile
"

cyma

Richer
show

combinations
studied

punctuated by
flat fillets

line,

narrow

or

half-

beads.

Ornament.

sis
Empha-

the

structural

on

CYMA

flow

of

contrast

round

or

reversa.

and

the

REC"

anatomy

jgyggj_,;

gainedby carvingand
painting. These were
confined

usually
TORU5

also

was

restricted
the

to

in
as
fields,

Doric

and

Ionic

friezes,contrasting
FASCIA

with

the

of
simplicity

the

wall

surfaces.

Moldings
FIG.

27

GREEK

"

AND

ROMAN

MOLDINGS.

were

(REYNAUD)

by color,in
was

exercised
to

enriched by

painting in the Doric


order, by carving,reinforced
Ionic marble.

the
in

thus

themselves

the

selection

rather

accentuate

than

The
of

ment
greatest judg-

motives

disguisethe

of

mentation
orna-

form

of

applied. Thus the fret,with its


they were
Curved
reserved for flat bands.
was
severe
rectangularity,
decorated
with motives
having lines which
moldings were
were
parallelor perpendicularto elements of the surface, or
which repeated its profile the egg and dart for the ovolo, a
surface

to

which

"

ARCHITECTURE

GREEK

heart-shapedleaf

the

for

reversa

cyma

every point of view.


Doors.
and
Doors
windows

73

harmonizing

thus

"

from

always square-headed
times.
when
Greek
used monumentally in mature
They had
their jambs sometimes
what
vertical,but frequentlyinclined someinward, a device recognizedby Hellenistic architects as
phasized
emincreasingthe apparent height. Important openings were
by a casing of bronze, or by projectingmoldings
similar
not

merely

in the

of

those

to

Ionic

an

top, but down the sides


of windows, completely around.
the lintel

by making

of

characteristic instance
such

and
town

as

later,true

In

vaults.
walls

arches

and

projectbeyond

In the fourth

certain

subterranean

among

arched
the

bridge of

arch, which

the

was

The

tomb

used.
do

The
not

chambers.

of vaults
bold

even,

ear,

the

oldest

date

duced
pro-

was

span

scarcelyan

at

In

arched

before

century the barrel vault

number

well,or

as

substructures,corbelled arches
often

were

carried

were

a
jambs,
Greek
structural emphasis.
less highly finished constructions,

preserved,in Acarnania,
century.

These

architrave.

the

across

case

Arches

were

the

was

ways
gatefifth

used for

second

Pergamon,

of twenty-seven
of Greek
element

the

and,

occurs

feet.

tury,
cenan

Thus

architecture

in Hellenistic times
with
handled
prime, was
steadilyincreasingtechnical mastery.
ings
buildacroteria.
The roofs of Greek
Ceilings,
roofs,
gables,
of tile,supported by wooden
were
beams, which usually
rested on
intermediate
walls or columns.
A knowledge of
the truss is not proved. In most
have
the beams
must
cases
remained
visible from below, though in some
examples wooden
with panels or coffers are possible. Where
marble was
ceilings
its strengthmade
the temple
at command
stone ceilings
over
porticostechnicallypossible. In the north porch of the
there are marble
beams
Erechtheum
twenty feet in length.
The gable roof, traditional from
Mycenaean days, was usual;
with
angular
trifour
The gables formed
were
rare.
hip-roofs,
slopes,
pediments, with the cornice carried up the slope,and
its members, except the crowning cyma,
or
gutter, running
often filledwith
also.
The pediments were
across
horizontally
of the gable
sculpturein relief or in the round, and the corners
accentuated by sculpturedornaments
called acroteria.
were

in

its first

74

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE
the

Larger elements of composition. In


composition Greek architecture showed
the

megaron,

Greek

house

remained

which
after

the

essential

three

forms

element

lay

of the

invasion, as it had been in


hall,either with a single
long,narrow

the

Dorian

Mycenaean times. The


divided by longitudinalranges
or
nave
or

of

conservatism

same

At the basis of the chief national

in the details.

as

the

larger elements

aisles,remained

the

of columns

into two

characteristic

most

element

of

Greek

ployed
emplans, capable of varied applications. It was
for the temple, for the stoa, the
most
typical of
Greek
secular buildings,and
commonly for any buildings
which might be required for extraordinarypurposes,
such as
the Athenian
arsenal at the Piraeus.
During the periods of
native development the model
was
scarcelyabandoned
except
under
when
it would
have
had
vantages
disadcompulsion, in cases

too

when

serious to be

overlooked.

Such

occurred

cases

in certo assist at a spectacle,


as
were
tain
large company
halls of mysteries,the theater,and the odeion, the forms
of which
were
suggested directlyby the practicalrequirements.
The exterior peristyle,
nade
a continuous
enveloping colonfirst adopted in the temples (Fig.28), was
the most
of exterior effect,finding later applications
striking element
in tombs
and
The
monuments.
peristylarcourt and the
hall with
interior peristyle essentially
Oriental
an
square
a

"

motives

"

became

acclimated

Types of build-ings.As
institutions, intellectual
Greeks

first met

and

in Greece

in Hellenistic

the

people

first

freedom,

solved

and

of

democratic

athletic

the architectural

times.

life, the

problems

which

these

involve, creating the council-house, the theater, the


stadium, and other persistent European types. Private
life

and
relativelysubordinate
simple. Sepulchral monuments,

domestic

was

was

time,

were

of the

state

modest

during

works
its

of

in

sculpture.

prime

were

architecture
best

the
All

lavished

the
on

Greek

resources

the

public

of civic
buildings, above
all, on the temples, the centers
life. Rising perhaps on the very site of a Mycenaean palace,
the
to
citizen, symbolized the new
temple, open
every
social

order

with

its rich consequences


for art.
Religiousbuildings. The forms of the religiousbuildings
'

were

in part conditioned

by

the

nature

of the

Greek

cults,

GREEK
in

ARCHITECTURE

part by traditions

of

primitive origin. In the worship


as Zeus, Apollo, Athena, and
Artemis,
sacrifice performed, not in a
a
was

of the chief
the

gods, such
principal ceremony

closed

room,

but

on

great altar in the open

of

relativelysmall size
giving shelter to an image

FIG.

28

"

P^ESTUM.

THE

GREAT

NEPTUNE."

valuable

75

air.

sufficed for the house


and

to

TEMPLE,

the

more

SO-CALLED

tuary
sanc-

of the

god,
perishable or

"TEMPLE

OF

(CHIPIEZ)

offerings. Though

almost

always open to
the people, it was
intended
for the assemblage of devotees.
not
In the worship of certain infernal gods the ceremonies
of these
closed doors, but in most
were
performed behind
of the initiated was
small.
mystery-cults the number
The
Under
these
stances
circumtemple: essential elements.
in adopting the form
there was
usually no difficulty

more

76
of the
the
or

house, the deep and

fundamental
naos

of the

into

the

cella

central

was

nave

as
rectangular megaron,
temple
namely, the cella
normally either undivided
"

and

narrow

side

aisles.

preceded by a vestibule or pronaos,


with
in antis (Fig. 29 [3],[6],etc.); less often it
columns
had a closed vestibule
at all.
(Fig. 29 [i],[2],[5])or none
The temple: normal form.
Though this simple form alone
sufficed for temples of minor
importance, the type which
became
elaborated
normal
(Fig. 28) was
by the addition
of two
The
other
elements.
opisthodomos (Fig. 29 [6],[8])
addition
the
at
but
rear
an
corresponding to the pronaos,
ordinarilynot communicating with the cella was obviously
in the interest of formal balance.
The peristyle,
introduced
colonnade
far
a
so
completely surrounding the ensemble
had
described
ficiently
sufno
(Fig. 29 [s]-[8]),
practicalfunction
for its origin. The
important to account
origin
in
should
an
perhaps be sought
supported by
open
canopy
Usually

"

element

narrow

(Fig. 29 [i]). This

divided

or

ARCHITECTURE

OP

HISTORY

was

"

"

columns,

like that
sufficed

the

over

early Christian

first to

shelter

altar.

This

may

image, and then


have
been
an
magnified to cover
inclosingcell. Certain it
is that in the temples of Doric style,in which
the arrangement
to have
seems
originated,the peristylehad an almost
connection
with the cella. Although in front it
accidental
to correspond to each
had generally one
column
of the supports
in
these
columns
stood
exact
no
behind,
relationship
of position either to the walls or
of the
to the columns
well

have

at

the

pronaos.

occasionally
temple: other features. Other elements
appeared in the temple, not limited to any specialregion
of specialsancor
tity,
period. There might be an inner room
the adyton,housing the image and opening toward
the
cella (Fig. 29 [i],[2],[5]). A room
similarlyplaced, but
introduced
in several
temples,
opening to the rear, was
the proas
a treasury under
notably the Parthenon, to serve
tection
of the god.
Intermediate
between
the simple cella
and
the peristylartemple were
the prostyle temple, with
columns
the front, and
the amphiprostyle
running across
These
form, where they were
repeated at the rear as well.
The

were

sometimes

used

as

the best substitute

for the

peristylar

78

HISTORY
when

arrangement

on

the

wall

outer

most

number

common

the

to

colonnade

or

desired

was

Nike

of the

(Fig. 28).

size of the

temple,

the

narrow

Acropolis
supported

was

of steps, three being


These
steps, proportioned
often

high

too

to

be

specialflightof practicable
opposite the entrance
(Fig. 26). Cella
steps or a ramp
covered
and peristyletogether were
by a simple gable roof,
the gables or
pediments serving as appropriate fields for
(Fig. 17). The temple was
sculptured decoration
usually
lighted only through its great door at the east, although a
few
Ionic temples, like the Erechtheum,
certainly had
others are
known
windows
well (Fig. 18). Some
to have
as
roof over
been
the cella, but
a
"hypagthral," or without
this is now
thought to have been due to incompleteness or
and

climbed,

this necessitated

were

in

on

temple

substructure, in the form

massive

rich effect

precinct of Athena
(Fig. 29 [4]).

at Athens

The

ARCHITECTURE

in the

as

space,

OF

difficulties in the construction.

to

temple: size, proportions. In frontage few temples


exceeded
feet,although a half-dozen
eighty to one hundred
with
dimensions
giants form a class by themselves
nearly
and sixty by three hundred
and
equal, about one hundred
as
fortyfiftyfeet. Some peristylartemples are as narrow
while
the
without
five or even
a
temples
thirty-fivefeet,
of
Athena
sometimes
like
the
Nike, are
peristyle,
temple
normal
feet or less.
The
but twenty
"hexastyle" Doric
the most
surprising
fagade, of six columns, itself showed
with
width
of thirty-four feet,
a
elasticity;the Metroon
and the temple of Zeus, with ninety-one feet, stand side by
side at Olympia
a
disregard for relations of scale which
characteristic
of Greek
architecture.
was
Beyond one
very
The

"

feet the

hundred

reaching eight
Selinus, and
Even
the
The
more
no

the
front

in the

ten

late

account

on

of the

twice

the

of columns

Parthenon
Ionic

in the

smaller

length
than

number

Ionic

had

and

temple of Apollo

temples

of the

width

have

to

ratio

between

the

little less than

number

of

Didyma.
on

corridors.

outer

peristylar temples varied


width

at

eight columns

of their

chronological tendency being traceable


The

be

multiplied,
in the great temple of
to

from
three

little

times,

in .this tion.
proporthe
columns
on

GREEK
flank and

on

the

ARCHITECTURE

front also varied

79

according

to

no

general

law, though such

high ratios as 6 : 17 and 6 : 16 occur


only
in the oldest Doric
and
the
ratio
low
of
6
: n
temples,
in
the
The
of
the
most
recent.
only
height
temple fagade
for the temples
more
usually ranged about half its width
"

six

with

columns, and

in any

more

case

less for those

with

Ionic than

for the

for the

than

more

six

"

Doric.

Development of the temple: archaic period. In the early


much
stages of the development of the temple there was
local variety,not only in the columnar
system, but in the
In Greece proper
the oldest temples
general arrangement.
of which the plans can
be studied
the Heraion
at Olympia
from before 700 B.C., the temple at Corinth from
before 600
already show the opisthodomos and the triple division
"

"

of the
the

interior,as well

Doric
less

many

as

contraction

the

peristyle. In other
sophisticatedforms

time, which

of

corners

parts of Hellas, however,


occur

at

even

much

later

primitive stage of
to through provincial conservatism.
development adhered
the
Early temples in Ionic regions frequently lacked
have
been
to
seems
peristyle,which
developed in the
mother
country after the Ionian emigration, and to have
been

may

carried

at

elaboration

represent

afterward

over

the archaic

as

of Hera

well

of the

into

Artemision

Samos, both

more

Asia.
at

Such

Ephesus

built in the sixth

and

great
the

ments
monu-

temple

century, show

the

received on
Ionic soil.
peristylesoon
In the colonies of the West, though they were
founded
later,
the single-ended cella prevailed till the fifth century, and
the problems of the peristyle
solved somewhat
were
clumsily.
A sharp difference in the diameter
and in the spacing of the
columns

which

the

of the front and

of the flank, sometimes

found

in the

during the archaic period;


and the normal
solution with sides and front spaced alike,
and a contraction
due to the triglyphs,does
at the corners
in until its close.
In several
not
come
outlying regions
into
aisles by a
two
with the cella divided
temples occur
singleline of columns
(Fig. 29 [2],[7]) obviously a more
than
a wide
primitivedevice to support the ridge over
span
the division by two
commended
lines (Fig. 29 [6],[8])which
itself to more
as
leaving an axial place
expert constructors

mother

country,

was

here

the rule

"

So

HISTORY

for the image.


in the

West,

Local

OF

This

latter arrangement
appears
very
of the cellas there being undivided.

most

traditions in

adherence

of Greece

An

temple design.

local traditions

to

ARCHITECTURE

be

can

seen

extreme
at

rarely

instance

Selinus,the

of

post
out-

in western

two
Sicily. Here were
primitive
closed megarons,
each with its adyton; and
less than
no
seven
peristylartemples in which the adyton is preserved,
in three of them
after they had otherwise
become
even
pletely
com-

assimilated
retained

the

archaic

to

closed
had

ones

the

normal

vestibule
an

as

elaboration

of the seven
Two
type.
well, and all of the four
of

the

front,

entrance

either

line of columns
or
by a second transverse
by a
of
the
few
which
has
cella,
prostyle development
examples
elsewhere.
Partly as a result of this multiplication of
all beyond the average
features, the temples were
tion
proporin length. Excepting one
of the megaron-cellas which
had a single division, only the gigantic temple of Apollo
had

interior

colonnades.

the
Temples of the central period. The fifth century saw
Doric
for all peristylar
victory of the normal
arrangement
and an
opisthodomos in antis, a cella
temples. A pronaos
undivided
with
three aisles,were
or
everywhere adopted.
The
plans of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, the great
temple at Paestum in southern Italy,and the little temple at
guishable
^Egina off the coast of Attica, all three-aisled,are distindetails.
The
holds
same
even
only by minor
such as
more
strongly for the temples with a singlenave,
the later temples at Akragas and the so-called Theseum
at
is well enough preThe
Athens.
great temple at Paestum
served
its
reconstruction
of
all
to permit a
substantially
temporary
parts (Fig. 28). The interior colonnades, as in other conmade
temples, were
by superposing two ranges
united
of small
columns.
lower
The
was
merely
range
with

an

architrave, and the columns


the

taper of those

Athens.
the

The

century

which, after
of the

range

tinued
con-

below.

architects

of the

second

half

of

innovations
began a series of unexampled
raisingthe Doric temple to its greatest richness,

ultimately set
leader

Athenian

of the upper

the

Ionic

democracy,

place. With Pericles as the


the great sculptor Phidias in

in its
and

FIG.

(i)
(9)
(10)

Theater
Stoa
Odeion

of

30
of

"

Dionysus

Eumenes
of Herodes

PLAN

ATHENS.
'

Atticus

(19)

(20)
(28)

OF

THE

of Athena
Temple
Propylaea
Parthenon

(KAUPERT)

ACROPOLIS.
Nike

f39) Old
(40)

Temple

Erechtheum

of

Athena

82

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

minister of public works, the most


cosmopolitan
life into the temple form
city in Greece infused new
just
the r61e of

it

as

stiffeninginto

was

directly

reminiscent

expedition
essentiallynew.
Parthenon.
a

to

"

the

Persian

wars,

and

erected

Parthenon

(Figs.16 and 17),which


temple projected before

conventional

more

duced
intro-

"

The

superseded

elements

only. They include features


the fruit perhaps of the
Egypt
well as
others
as
Egypt in 454

of

Athenian

The

The

Ionia

from

not

were

formula.

Iktinos

designed by

was

between

and

447

and

It had

432.

Kallikrates,

exceptionally

an

(Fig.30 [28])to give space for the colossal statue


of Athena
The
interior colonnades
of the cella
by Phidias.
turned
behind
the
across
were
image, making the first
In the rear
chamber
the superperistylarhall in Greece.
posed
Doric
Ionic
the
columns,
were
replaced by
ranges
a
single support
greater relative height of which enabled
wide

to

cella

reach

the

the

roof

without
order

Doric

of six columns

the

and

vestibules

columns.

elaborate

outer

The

The
in the

upward
columns

the

cella, those
walls themselves
effect of the

unknown.
subtle

upward

in the

Heraion

used
as

in the

the

at

the

than

The
'the

as

Theseum,

part of
and
also

were

in

inward

as

and

horizontal

toward

backward

as

entablature

well

Olympia

at

the

plan.

walls

of

sloping diagonally. The


sympathy with the pyramidal

corner

inclined,in

whole.

slightlythicker

center,

of

curvature

Parthenon

in the

lines of the

inclined

were

of marble

use

stone, instead of wood,


corridors, and a richness of

series of modifications

vertical members.
curved

The

coffered

hitherto
sculptured decoration
Architectural refinements. A
the stylobate,early employed
and the temple at Corinth, was
in the smaller
temple known
an

terior
ex-

prostyleporticoes
opisthodomos, and a peristyle

and

for pronaos

eight by seventeen
possible a ceilingof

over

the

retained, with

was

of

made

On

great diameter.

too

corner

columns

others, giving

were,
a

moreover,

definite end

to

although very slight,


delicate
like the entasis
sufficed to recognize in the most
possibilityof finer organization, and to give
every
way
of a livingthing.
of art something of the character
the work
the

All these

colonnade.

"

variations

"

GREEK

ARCHITECTURE
Nike.

Temple of Athena
Acropolis the Doric
Ionic, which

the
of

these

called

order

had

the

Kallikrates

by
435
shallow

temples of
completely

abandoned

was

familiar.

become

newly

of

"Temple

later

the

of Athena

little temple

the

was

In

83

The

the

southwest

bastion.

cella with

for
first

Nike, the

Wingless Victory," built

on

the

It

so-

about

has

prostyle porticoes
(Fig. 30 [19]). Although it is the smallest of
all Greek
temples, its magnificent situation, its harmony
of proportion with
the substructure, its perfection of detail,
it to
hold
its own
enable
worthily with its great
neighbors.
The
Ionic
Erechtheum.
Another
to
temple, dedicated
Athena
and
Erechtheus
built at intervals
(Fig. 18), was
from 435 to 404 to take the place of the old temple north
of the Parthenon.
It was
irregularin plan, corresponding
it sheltered and the unevenness
to the variety of cults which
it stood
of the ground on
which
(Fig. 30 [40]). It had a
cella with
the east,
on
a
prostyle portico of six columns
minor
porches to north and south, and a wall with engaged
four

columns

at

end

each

columns
to

of

the west.

on

the

south, the

In the famous

Porch

of the

show

sculptured supports

Maidens

masterly

functions.
six
The
adaptation to their architectural
figures,four in front, stand all with their backs to the
building. They rest easilyon one foot, with the supporting
the outside, enveloped in vertical
on
leg, always the one
folds of drapery which
the same
artistic function
serve
as
the

flutes of

of all Ionic

of

rosettes

is another

of the

and

east

sacred

strikingfeature.

south.

the

corner

inclosure

junctions show some


combine
a variety of
The
was
a novelty.
attempt,

such

architrave

rise from

west

beyond
the

its molded

with

and

North

the

capitals,having a double
honeysuckle, or anthemion.

necking
doorway
north

In

column.

as

the

north

of the

The

of the

columns
from

the

features

portico,moreover,

cella, and

includes

jects
pro-

door

to

building. Although the


lack of facility,
the very
attempt to
forms in a building for complex uses

west

of

richest

spiral,and a carved
The
superb north
enriched
by carved

levels different
The

is the

Porch

features

the

evolved

portico or

porch

in the
used

course

of the

independently

84

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

main

of the

favorite
devices
in the subsequent
facade, became
development of architecture.
The
Beyond the borders of Attica,
temple at Basses.
Iktinos was
employed about 420 to design the temple of
It surpassed
mountains.
Apollo at Bassas in the Arcadian
the buildings of his native city in the novelty of its
even
and
the
both
the
Doric
Not
only were
arrangements.
Ionic

orders

used, but

rich Corinthian
used

for

appeared

the

first time

for the

interior

as

of

third.

the

that

Ionic

order

columns

the

The

cella, with

the

know

we

was

full

the room,
been used in the treasury of the
as it had
A change from
Parthenon.
to engaged
free-standing columns

height of

in the

columns
the

columns

the

to

capitalsthemselves
They have volutes
colonnade
a

be

to

interior
wall

of their volutes

form

models

the

The

tian
Egyptian scrolls. Egypsuggested the singleCorinthian

have

crowns

column

the

at

with

entablature

same

prototypes for the

nearest

in certain

are

also

may

capital,which
under

across

capital.

Ionic

any

all three

on

The

walls.

cross

previouslyseen in Greece.
exposed faces,permitting the
the cella without
requiring

unlike

are

turned

special corner

short

by

begun, by attaching

also

was

the

end

Ionic

the

of

cella

columns.

temple design. The


set new
precedents in
richness of sculptural features and in modes
of introducing
Hitherto
decoration
them.
by figuresculpture had scarcely
been
employed, in Doric temples, except in the triangular
fields of the two
pediments, and in the series of metopes on

Sculptured decoration in Athenian


fifth-centuryAthenian
temples also

the

ends.

The

characteristic

been
buildings had
by
around
figures,running
its substructure.
the

metopes

Now,

of the

sculpture, and

continuous
the

Ionic

or

the

order
frieze

was

friezes

of the

wall

design of
Doric

external

continuous

bands

external

in the

for Ionic

of decoration

mode

cella

Parthenon,

of
or

all

filled with

were

added

around

the ceilingof the peristyle. In the


just below
Ionic temple of Athena
Nike with its prostyle arrangement,
united
whereby cella and portico were
by a single cornice,
Kallikrates
did not
confine
the sculptured frieze to the

the

cella

cella, but

carried

porticoes. This

it

along above

first

use

of

the

architraves

sculptured frieze

of the two
in the

en-

GREEK
of

tablature
similar

use

temple

at

ARCHITECTURE

Ionic

the
in the

order, immediately followed

Erechtheum

reformation

in the

remained

West
in the

and

the

In

and

in the

The

analogous
order

Tegea, followed

both

the

Doric.

Ionic
The

circular

new

and

the

the

lead

after 430, curvatures


of the Parthenon

favor,

ceilingsfor

general proportions similar


buildings. The sculptor Skopas, in
at

Segesta, and

universal

of

Alea

soon

no

the

of stone

use

At

those

to

found

Greece

temples of the

them.

by

Paestum, built

continental

resulted

marble

Ionic

interior of the

all current

temple elsewhere.

inclinations

but

occur,

did not

at

practice.
revolutionarydesigns of the
produce an instant or complete

little affected

great temple

in the

by

The

Fourth-centurytemples.
architects

and

influenced

Bassae, soon

Athenian

85

of

the

Attic

the

temple of Athena
Iktinos by employing

of

Corinthian

teriors.
in-

adoption of
the peristyle,

those

to

for

even

columns

as

well

as

in
principal use of these, however, was
at Epidaurus, Olympia,
temples, or tholoi
"

the
the
and

Delphi.
Late temples in Ionia.
The
great temples of the Ionian
renaissance
naturally reverted to the early national types
and
the Arterepresented by the temple of Hera at Samos
mision
With
at Ephesus.
ten columns
eight and sometimes
the front,they had two
on
rows
along the sides or else a
width
of corridor which
would
have sufficed for two
(Fig.29
with
The
columns
the
both
front
antae
were
[8]).
on
aligned
and sides,making possiblea regularityin the ceilingbeams
been
attained
in Doric
had
which
never
temples. The
taken
of the stylobate was
from
Doric
curvature
over
buildings in the Ionic temples of Priene and
Pergamon;
the

use

of half columns

of Corinthian

order

for the

interior

adopted in the temple of Apollo at Didyma.


An
the podium
element
or
pedestal
increasinglyused was
for the whole
structure, with base and crowning moldings,
tended
which
to take the place of the stylobate.
Mystery temples. The hall-temples of cults which included
initiation into certain mysterieswere
multipliedchieflyduring
from
down
the late period,though a few examples have come
of the cella

much

was

earlier time.

For

some

of

these, the conventional

megaron-cella sufficed,either undivided

or

with

longitudinal

HISTORY

86

colonnades

OP

ARCHITECTURE

Samothrace.

The

peristylecould also be
walls
appropriated to mystic uses by the building of screen
the columns
for a part of the height,as in one
between
of the
From
but
this it was
a
step to the
temples at Selinus.
of the Olympieum
at Akragas, in which
these
arrangement
carried the full height,and the cella thus extended
were
screens
to the outer
engaged colonnade (Fig.26). The huge size of
as

at

desire

temple and the consequent


by colossal
support, furnished

this

for

an

intermediate

the
figures between
have been responsible
for this complete closingof
columns, may
the peristyle. For the great hall of mysteries at Eleusis,the
traditional temple scheme
in the time
was
already abandoned
of Pisistratus for one
which
a
greater capacity and a
gave
view

by

from

of the ceremonies

of columns

rows

seven

all sides.

in each

the walls, served to house

about

though the
glimpses of
Altars.

forest
the

of columns

central

male

room

divided

direction,with tiers of
a

seats

largenumber

of spectators,
of them
but scant

left most

space.

sacrificial altars before

The

square

the

great temples, at
first of relativelysmall
size,became, in Hellenistic times,
monumental
selves
constructions, surpassing the temples themin

area

and

magnificence.

platform for the


for the burning of
a

the altars at
almost

sacrificants and
the

Parion,
the

same

In
a

they comprised

essence

raised hearth

above

offering. Especiallynoteworthy

over

six hundred

distance

in

feet

on

this
were

side, at Syracuse,

length,and at Pergamon,
U-shaped Ionic colonnade

sculptured podium and a


surrounding the platform of sacrifice.
the
the
Treasuries.
In
pan-Hellenic religious centers
temple cellas could not hold a tithe of the offeringsshowered
of erecting
the practiceearly grew
the gods, and
up
upon
individual treasuries in which
the giftsof each citymight be
deposited. These took the form of small temples, usually
in antis, although occasionallyprostyle.
with
columns
two
Each
bore the stylistic
impress of its city and of its time of
origin. Ranged on their terrace at Olympia, or picturesquely
disposed along the winding sacred way at Delphi (Fig.35),
features of the national
the most
they were
interesting
among
with

sanctuaries.

Temple enclosures,propyl"a. Monumental

gateways,

or

ARCHITECTURE

GREEK

porticoesinside and

propylaea,with

temple inclosures, and

along the inner


unprecedented

87
out, gave

for the

stoas

face of the walls.


in its unified

shelter

of

pilgrms

of these

fusion

to

access

the
ran

elements,

attempted by
in the propylaea of the Athenian
Mnesicles
acropolis (437conservatism
432). Though religious
prevented the complete
realization of his design, the part still standing shows
its
monumental
qualities (Fig. 30 [20]). The
greater temple
temples and altars,with groves
precincts,often with many
of olive and

ilex,with

complexity, was

forest of statues

and

ex-votos, formed

grandioseeffect (Fig.35).
Civil buildings. Specialbuildings for civil purposes
were
in
the
in
where
evolved
Greece,
relativelylate
assemblage
air was
feasible,and where the temples served many
open
The
universal
of the forms
civic functions.
most
employed
hall like the megaron
the
the stoa, a long narrow
or
was
temple cella,but, unlike the cella,having an open colonnade
ensembles

of

of the stoa
In the varied uses
place of one of the side walls.
as
shelter,market, and exchange, subdivision
by a single
did not present the same
artistic and practical
range of columns
in

in the

disadvantagesas

interior arrangement.

stories, however,

order

of the

beams

placed

was

with

not

were

taller and

columns

wooden

Stoas

architraves

carryingstone
Ionic

temple, and

the most

tripledivision,or
Doric

uncommon.

usual
in two

columns

usuallyformed the outer colonnade ;


less closelyspaced supported the

roof.

above

it remained

the

In

two-storied

Doric, each

stoas

the

Ionic

having its

full

entablature.

Agorae.

The

market-place,originally
serving political
of
fixed
dered
borno
an
form,
place
open
sides by stoas.
It was
frequentlyplaced
principalstreets, which passed through it

agora,

or

functions also,was
on

in the

one

or

more

angle of

two

along the sides.

The

several

stoas

were

thus

at

first independent.

closed area
of
a
Only in later days, in Ionia, was
surrounding colonnades
adopted,
regularplan with continuous
the
Oriental
of
The
court.
a peristylar
following
type
agoras
at Megalopolis,at Priene
(Fig.36),and at Magnesia (Fig.31)
show
of higher organization.
successive steps in this process
Frequent adjuncts to the agora were
shops at the back of the
porticoes,and a temple or fountain in the central space;

GREEK
it

near

ARCHITECTURE

the bouleuterion

were

89

council-house

or

and

the

other

for the sale


buildings. Often subsidiary markets
specialclasses of goods supplemented the principalagora.
civic

The

Council-houses.

bouleuterion, like

so

of

other

many

in origin a megaron.
In the one
at
buildings,was
conserved
the primitiveform
Olympia the older portion even
of house, with
an
apsidal end and a single longitudinal
Later examples, such as the Phokikon
at Daulis,
colonnade.
of columns.
like the mature
cella in having two
rows
were
Greek

Banks

of

seats

added

were

between

them

and

the

lateral

essentiallysimilar to that of the


problem was
ment
mystery temples and led ultimately,as in them, to abandonand adoption of a concentric
of a longitudinalscheme
arrangement of seats facinga speaker'splatform. At Priene,
third century B.C., the seats paralleledthree
in the second
or
interior peristyle a
the roof was
carried by an
walls and
solution unified and technicallysatisfactory.At Miletus the
walls.

The

"

seats

made

were

though

the

building itself was

supports bore
and

court

semicircular,
relation to the

no

than

more

few

model

of

rectangular and
seatingplan. A
None

added.

propylaea were

accommodated

the

on

hundred

the

interior

monumental

of these
at

theater,

buildings
A

most.

special

at
presented by the hall of the Arcadians
problem was
The
to be housed.
Megalopolis where several thousand were
architect adopted a series of concentric
colonnades
and seats
about three sides,but avoided obstructingthe view as badly
in the hall of mysteries at Eleusis by placing the columns
as
roof was
in lines radiatingfrom
the central point. The
of
of wood, and
the solution, though practicallysatisfactory,
course
was

neither

to

of

the

Dionysus.

drama

took

Greek

The

Theaters.

permanent

The

was

of the drama

choral

songs

natural
from

and

the

dances

sponding
growth, correprimitivecult

from

which

the

departure preserved their place in the later


and
were
responsiblefor the importance of

its

development,
the originalelement
of the

theater

growth

monumental.

nor

of the

dance, in the

other ultimate

elements

center
were

theater

"

the

of which

stood

the scats

risingin

the

skene, opposite them, containing the

the

and
participants,

the

orchestra, or
the

altar.

concave

circle
The

tiers,

dressing-rooms for

proskenion,a platform

before

the

go

HISTORY

skene, on which

wood.

early stage of development

convenient

first without
In

Sophocles

substituted, and

32

of the fourth

EPHESUS.

"

of wood

long,however,
the

elements

century, which

THEATER

(RESTORED

in

features, later with

it still remained

Before

painted canvas.

FIG.

auditorium,

fifth century, coincident


with
the
introduced.
^Eschylus, the skene was

time

theater

for the

DURING

THE

BY

FIECHTER)

much

HELLENISTIC

of

dramatic
In

the

of

walls

materials

elaborated

remained

at

seats

with

monumental

were

their

be surmised

may

the

of

were

hillside served

architectural

any

reforms
of

ARCHITECTURE

certain of the actors, or all of them, made

An

appearance.
in which
a

OP

into the
the

same

PERIOD.

but
then
the components
were
days. Even
Greek
into a single unit.
loosely juxtaposed, not welded
of parts
modes
of design were
to seek the union
too
naive
having forms and functions so distinct.
theater
A
at
Ephesus
typical Hellenistic theater. The
(Fig.32) shows the form which became
customary in the later
still laid out so as to
Hellenistic period. The orchestra was
Hellenistic

include

complete circle,although the circle itself

longermarked
it

were

the

with
stone

curbing,as in earlier examples.


more
seats, occupying somewhat
a

was

no

Around
than

GREEK

ARCHITECTURE

91

restingdirectlyon the hillside. They were


divided concentrically
at half their height by a passage,
as
of steps, and were
well as radiallyby flights
stopped at the
sides by oblique walls.
Between
these and the buildingsof
semicircle,and

the stage were


for the chorus

when

Tangent to the
proskenion,about
three

doors

for the entrance

passages

it

of the

spectators and

from a distance.
supposed to come
the
orchestra, opposite the auditorium, was
ten feet high, with small engaged columns,

for the

was

entrance

and

exit of the

chorus, and

the

skene
remaining openings closed by wooden
panels. The
itself was
a
long narrow
building,two stories high, with a
series of large openings in the side toward
the proskenion,
three of them
The
large openings, which
containing doors.
in earlier days had framed
naturalistic stage settings,
somewhat
conventional
of slender columns,
were
now
given a more
filling
the ancestors
of the grouped decorative columns
of the Roman
stage backgrounds (cf.Fig. 47).
Variety in theater designs. In other examples there was
abundant
variety. The site available did not always permit
the auditorium
to be regularly geometrical as
at Ephesus;
it was
times
frequentlyirregularin its outer boundary and somein the layout of the seats themselves.
The conformation
of the ground often permitted subordinate
to the
entrances
intermediate
circular
Seats
of honor
might be
passage.
provided about the orchestra,like the beautiful marble thrones
A stoa in which
of the theater of Dionysus at Athens.
people
could seek shelter, or promenade, might also be added
where
somein the neighborhood of the skene.
Size of theaters.
In accommodation
these open-airtheaters
far exceeded
was

for 30,000
the rear

room

Those

the theaters

in

At Athens

times.

of modern

spectators, at Megalopolis for


rows

were

also

much

farther

there
44,000.

actors, but, in
than

those

auditorium
Odeions.

them
from
lower
a
compensation, saw
in our
diameter
galleries.The
upper
to five hundred
ranged from two hundred
Related

to

the

in purpose
the
auditorium
was

theater

the
a

step-likearrangement of the
covered
buildingfor musical and

first of the
seems

to

sort

have

the

was

had

one

built

both

oratorical

by

conical roof, with

Pericles

the

from

angle
of

the

feet.
and

in

odeion,

contests.

in Athens.

interior supports.

The
It
In

HISTORY

92

times

Graeco-Roman

buildings for

cities of any

customary

in

ones

rectangular, with

were

modern

lecture

covered
built

Roman

the second

its share

The

was

It

furlong.

was

sometimes

parallel banks
Where

marble

or

were

The

times.

with
in

these

division

wide

of earth, the

like

essentially

famous

odeion

the

Athens

in

fail to create

did not

architecture.

smaller

seats

were

For

seats

foot-races

either by
artificially,
Seats of stone
Olympia.

built up

were

of

earth, as at
late addition, at Athens

turn.

monumental
in the

largerones

of the Greeks

capacity varied
Hippodromes were

thousand.
but

the

mounds

by

or

The

from
the Greek
evolved, taking its name
laid out where
the topography favored, with
in a singlebank, but preferably in two
long
close
together, connected
by a semicircle.

necessary

walls

size.

being
against the Acropolis at
Christ (Fig.30 [10]).

athleticism

became

purposes

curving stepped

of their monumental

stadion

seats

Atticus

such

considerable

recital hall ; the


theaters,the most

century after

Stadions.

the

or

Herodes

by

ARCHITECTURE

OF

center

from

thousand
on

Roman
to

similar

fifty
plan

scarcely sufficed for executing

materials

startingbarriers

twelve

also laid out

Means

of the

until

not

Greek

during

remained

course

times.

The

simple bank

of wood.

buildings. The gymnasium and the palaestra


served for general exercise and preparationfor the great games.
the place for
Originally,and in strictness,the palaestrawas
Other

boxing
later
rooms.

athletic

changeably
wrestling,but the two terms are often used interIn primitivedays a simple inclosure sufficed;
added along one
stoa was
side; then others,backed by
The
simplifiedin Hellenistic times
arrangement was
and

by the substitution of a homogeneous


Olympia and Epidaurus. The side
south was
usually doubled in depth.
furnished

places for instruction, or

colonnaded
of the

court, as

court

at

facing the

The

surrounding

for

the

rooms

assemblage

of

of them
In one
the
was
readings or conversation.
or
a
bath, with
trough. Separate bathing
simple tank
establishments
not
were
frequent or extensive until late
friends for

luxurious elaboration
ensued
Hellenistic times, when
a
therms.
furnished the prototypes for the great Roman

Domestic
remained

the megaron
architecture;
of

house.

secondary importance until

The

which

privatehouse

well into the central

ARCHITECTURE

GREEK

period, as a
public life of

result

the

of the
It

men.

modest

hall,the descendant

toward

the street, besides

in the

fourth

exclusivelypoliticaland

almost

normally

seems

of the megaron,

minor

to

have

and
The

rooms.

still show

century

93

included
court

houses

closed

of Priene

ever-recurringtype

an

of

ing
megaron-house, with a porticoin antis before the hall,dominatthe court
in Mycenaean times (Fig.33). The entrance
as

FIG.

from

of

the

rooms,

at

was

xxxn".

(WIEGAND)

one

however,

the open
house with

through

"HOUSE

PRIENE.

"

corridor
side,opening into a narrow
Most
along the side of the court by a colonnade.

the street

continued

33

could

only

be

reached

by passing

court.

In the third century this


court.
peristylar
type began to be superseded by one in which the court had a
The megaroncontinuous peristyle,
the Oriental arrangement.
hall was
given up for a broad hall lying along one side,as is
the
seen
especiallyat Delos (Fig.34). The peristylewas
characteristic central feature of the kingly residences of the
Hellenistic period like those of the Acropolis at Pergamon.
All these dwellingsalike turned
a
simple wall to the exterior,
the door.
with few windows
and rarelya porticoover
or none,
A second story over
Wall
some
portionswas not uncommon.
The

painting is

interior,as

burial

The

outside

house

for the

Interment

architecture.

city gates. Democratic


the marking of the grave,

in

FIG.

few

34

of

to

be found

"

DELOS.

traditional

decoration

HOUSE

OF

heroes, the

outside of Greece

of the

period.
was

not

was

on

the usual
unknown.
the

feelingdemanded

the

so

THE

plicity
sim-

(P. PARIS)

elaborate

proper,

plain

that, except for those

TRIDENT.

most

is

until he decorated

part in cemeteries

for the most

was

Alcibiades, who

of the dead

Greece, although incineration

in

custom

usual

of

in the Graeco-Roman

Pompeii

at

Funerary

painterin his

it became

Later

walls.

ARCHITECTURE

in the time

first mentioned

confined

said to have
the

OF

HISTORY

94

monuments

in the late

are

period when

foreignersappreciated and employed Greek architects. At


Athens
an
unpretentiousslab, or stele,was the favorite type,
often
and
carved
with
ornament,
honeysuckle or acanthus
the end
decorated
with symbolic sculpturedreliefs.
Toward
of the fourth century the stone
sarcophagus,already used in
the Orient, appeared in Greece.
The most
famous
examples
are

those

which

of the

the

setting for

group

for the

details of the
relief

house

Hellenized
or

temple

Sidon, in
imitated, as a

rulers of
are

was
sculpture. The
temple form
employed at a largerscale for actual sepulchralchambers
from
of a hero.
These multiplied,
chapels to the memory

also
or

the

GREEK
end

ARCHITECTURE

of the fifth century, in Asia

95

Minor, culminating about

350

of the Carian
gigantic monument
King Mausolus.
This had a peristylar
cella supported on
a
loftypodium, or
basement, and crowned
by a pyramid of twenty-four steps
bearing a quadriga, or four-horse chariot. Pliny gives the
hundred
and forty feet and the perimeter
total height as one
and forty. Speciallyfamous
the richness
was
as four hundred
of its sculptureddecoration,with no less than three friezes in
free standing figures. The
besides many
relief,
arrangement
notable
of a peristyleon a podium, made
by this building,
for later monuments.
became
a typicalform
in the

Commemorative

Similar

monuments.

forms

as in the monument
monuments,
at Athens, erected in 335~334(Fig.
25). Here

of

commemorative

placed for the first time over


larger votive offeringsat the national
was

The

monuments

of

variety of

forms.

used

were

in

Lysicrates

circular superstructure

base.
square
sanctuaries
braced
ema

column

and monumental
often used as the support for a figure,
in hemicycles
of statues
created for groups
were

was

settings
or

exedrcB.

Delphi (Fig.35).
The
such
Ensembles.
as
Delphi
pan-Hellenic centers
included
not
and
Delos
merely religious
(Fig.35), Olympia,
buildings. Like the cities,they show Greek architecture in
its ensemble.
At Delphi the theater and the stadion were
adjuncts of the sacred inclosure of Apollo; at Olympia a vast
complex of athletic buildingsgrew up, with a council-house for
the officials,
lodgings for distinguishedguests, fountains,
a
private residences. Delos was
port
stoas, and later even
well as a sanctuary, and had, besides its'temples,its warehouses,
as
commercial
clubs, and exchanges. On such ancient
above
all at a site like Delphi,which
and sanctified ground
fissure
owed its choice to a mountain
no
great formality of
skill was
shown,
arrangement could be expected. Great
however, in adapting new
buildingsto the irregulardisposition
to the topography
of the old, and there was
a responsiveness
which resulted in great picturesqueness.
The cities. The same
qualitiesdistinguishthe older cities,
where the sites were
chosen for militarystrength,and changes
cities
difficult by inherited restrictions. These
made
were
the image of their
of time; their plans were
the work
were
All these

are

seen

in rich array

at

"

"

GREEK

ARCHITECTURE

97

history. Although their domestic quarters remained poorly


and closelybuilt,the centers of civic life were
enriched until
they rivaled or surpassed the national places of pilgrimage.
above all at Athens, where
the Acropolisgave
This was
true
unrivaled
of superb works, rich in
an
settingto a group
Citadel
of Athena
Temple

Lower
FIG.

36

PRIENE.

"

Theater

Upper

Agora
Gymnasium

Gymnasium

Stadium

BIRD'S-EYE

VIEW.

(RESTORED

BY

material, unique in perfectionof workmanship

ZIPPELIUS)

and

subtlety
rising
approach was
steeply on the other sides, with the theaters clingingto its
flank (Fig.30). In classic times a winding road led
southern
Nike",to the Propylasa. Passing
up, past the bastion of Athena
its porticoesand its central wall with the five huge gates, one
The

of form.

came

out

of Athena

on

the summit

from

the

west, the

rock

of the rock, before the colossal statue

the Parthenon; to
right was
the left,differently
turned to the light,the Erechtheum
and richness servingas mutual foils. Winding
their simplicity

Promachos.

To

the

"

OF

HISTORY

98
between

them

hundreds

of statues

was

the
and

ARCHITECTURE

processionalroadway, decked
of the highestartistic
offerings

with
merit.

planning. The later cities show the influence of the


Greek
tendency to rationalize all things,to reduce them to
universal and geometricaltypes. After the success
of Hippodamus
with the regular plan of the Piraeus,he was
employed
least
for the
at Thurii
at
and Rhodes.
Rectangular plans,
Hellenistic
cities.
principal streets, were
adopted in most
main
there were
Sometimes
two
times
intersectingarteries,someseveral
in each
direction. No
general rectangular
outline of the whole
to have been sought. Though
cityseems
made
Aristotle
that
notes
Hippodamus
provision for the
that
this
grouping of dwelling-houses,it seems
proper
Town

consideration

subordinate, in Greek

remained

cities,to the

spectacular grouping of public buildings. In the application


not
formulas
the architects were
newly discovered
always scrupulous in regarding topographical conditions.
At Priene
forcibly
(Fig.36) the rectangular street plan was
streets
imposed on a steep hillside site,where the transverse
tiously
veritable
became
stairways. Well preserved and conscienof
best evidence
excavated, however, it gives us our
the aspect of a late Greek
city,distantlysuggestingthe lost
magnificence of Antioch and Alexandria.
Greek
architecture
rested on the
Like the Greek
city-state,
first by a simple
synthesisof a few elements only. Animated
adaptation to nature, later by self-confident reason, it sought
and attained supreme
clarityof expressionwithin the restricted
field which modest
needs had suggested,

of

the

PERIODS

MagnaGrada
Sicily
I.
II.

PRIMITIVE
ARCHAIC

peristylar
temple at Selic.

GREEK

ARCHITECTURE

and

Earliest

nus,

OF

575.

^
PERIOD,
PERIOD,

about
about

1100-776

776-479

an

B.C.

B.C.

Predominance
at
of Ionia,
Temple of Hera
to
c. 550.
Olympia, eighth
at
Temple of Hera
century.
600.
c.
Samos,
Temple at Corinth,
temis
Older temple of Arbefore 600.
at
PisisiraAthens
under
Ephetus.

sus,

c.

560.

GREEK
Gratia

Magna

ARCHITECTURE

and
Greece

"Basilica"

ARCHAIC

at

turn,

c.

776-479

PERIOD,

Pass-

of

Temple

Predominance

ofwestern
colonies,
c. 550-480.
Great
of
temple
nus,
Seliat
Apollo
begun after

540.
Canonical

temples at
Selinus, c. 500-

B.C.

"

Olympian
begun, c.

Zeus

560.

Ionia

proper

Sicily
II.

99

530.
Earlier Hall
at

of

Persian

Eleusis.

of
temple
phi,
DelApollo at

Persian

wars,

ing
awaken-

of

continental

Greece, 400-470.

480.

Carthaginian

war,

480.

Older

Parthenon

Athens,

c.

at

490-

480.

Temple of Aphaia at
JEgina, c. 490480.

in.

CENTRAL

about

PERIOD,

479-330

Prosperity in Sicily, National Unity, c. 470460.


480-465.
Temple of Olympian Embellishment
of OlymZeus
at
Akrapia, Delphi, and
gas,

Temple

after 480.
of

Apollo

Selinus

Delos.
at

pleted.
com-

at
Temple of Zeus
Olympia, c. 468-

56.
Civil

and

war

war

with

Steels,465-444.

Trophy of Plataea
Delphi.
Athenian

at

supremacy,

age of Pericles,c.
461-430.

The

Parthenon, 447432.

Renewed

prosperity in
Sicily,c. 444-400.
Great temple at Paestum,

Temple

c.

at

430.

Segesta,c.

430-420.
Temple of
at

The

Propylaea, 437432.

of
Temple
Nike\ c.
"Theseum,"
Later

Akragas.

at

Laying

435.
c.

of

Hall

Concord

Athena

out

Piraeus.

430.

teries
Mys-

Eleusis.
of

the

conquest of lo-

nia, 546.

Earlier

530-514.

Asia

Continued

teries
Mys-

c.

and

B.C.

HISTORY

too

Magna Gratia and


Sicily

Q
PERIOD,

CENTRAL

in.

ARCHITECTURE

OF

about

B.C.

479-330

Continued

"

Peloponnesian war; political


downfall of
Athens, 431-404.
The

Erechtheum,

c.

435-404.

Spread of Athenian
Fall

fore
of western SicilybeCarthage,409406.

of

Temple

Apollo

Bassae, c.

Temple
Alea

fluence.
in-

at

420.

of

Athena

at

Tegea,

Ionian
c.

renaissance,

from

39"-

Temple, tholos, and


theater
at Epidaurus,

c.

Messene, 370 ff.


Pollux

Macedonian

Ak-

at

after 338.

ragas,

IV.

Philippeionat Olympia, c. 336.

HELLENISTIC

about

PERIOD,

A dministration

temis
temple of Arat Ephe-

334.

Conquest of the Persian


ander,
Empire by Alex334-330B.C.

fluence.
Spread of Greek inAlexandria

338-322.
lined

Theater

356-334-

sus,

Athens,

at

curgus

after

Temple of Athena at
ed
Priene, dedicat-

330-146

of Ly-

Hali-

353-

conquest of

Greece, 357~338.

at

carnassus,

Later

350.
Man-

Rebuilding of
tinea;buildingof
Megalopolis and
Temple of Castor and

350.

c.

Mausoleum

with

founded,

332.

stone.

Stadion
Arsenal

built,c. 330.
of Philon, c.

Ephesus

330of

Altar

Hieron

Syracuse,

at

276-

215Roman

conquest of Magna

Grcecia

by 272,

of Sicily by 241.
Temple of Asklepios
fore
at Akragas, be-

of

Portico

Asiatic

Zeus

Stoa

174.
of

Temple

Seli-

by

and

of Corinth
the
Romans, 146.
by

Eumenes,

I97-I59of Zeus, c. 1 80.


Council-house
Priat ene,
c.

and

200.

at

tus,
Mile-

between

175

Bouleuterion

138.
Destruction

241-138.
of

Altar

tween
Attalos, be59

flourished

esp.

Palace

Olympian
rebegun,

at

290.

Pergamon,

rulers.

of

210.

"B"

Philon,

Eleusis, 311.
Adornment
of Athens
Temple

founded, 301.
refounded,

Antioch

164.

ARCHITECTURE

GREEK
Grtzcia and

Magna

"

Greece

GR^CO-ROMAN

Corinthian-

temple
second

at

Ionia

proper

Sicily
v.

101

after

PERIOD,

about

Doric

146

Roman

Paestum,
''Tower

century

of

Winds"

B.C.

and

Asia

B.C.

provinceof Asia
organized,133 B.C.

the
ens,
Ath-

at

first

tury
cen-

B.C.

Adornment

of Athens

Roman

by
and
Arch

emperors

citizens.
of

135

Hadrian,

c.

A.D.

Buildings of Herodes
Atticus:
of

140 A.D.,
c.

Seats

Stadion,

c.

Odeion,

160.

of

Exedra
at

Herodes

Olympia, 156

A.D.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL

W.

J. Anderson

and

R.

P.

NOTE

Spiers's The Architecture of Greece and

Rome, 2d ed., 1907, gives a consecutive historical account; A. Martechnical analysis. More
tailed
dea
quand's Greek Architecture,
1909,
with
and
full bibliographicalreferences,
is
authoritative,
der
dcr
Dunn's
Baukunst
ArchiGricchcn,3d ed.,1910 (Ilandbuch
J.
vol.
Perrot
and Chipiez's Histoire de I'art dans
i).
tectur, pt. II,
Vanliquite,vol. 8, 1903, which includes the archaic architecture of
R. Koldewey and O. PuchGreece, with illuminatingrestorations.
stein's Die griechischen
Unteritalien und Sicilien,
2 vols.,
Tcmpel wn
remains
final
for
of
the
the temples
the West.
H.
authority
1899,
vol.
Monuments
and
d'architecture
d'Espouy's
antiques,
Fragments
i, 1910,
vol.
vol.
antique,
i, 1896, pis.1-25,
2, 1905, pis.1-30, contain
of Greek architecture
a choice of the superbly presented restorations
made
by pensionersof the French Academy at Rome, ensembles and
details,respectively.Many of these drawings, however, involve a
of conjecture and embody architectural theories now
largemeasure
abandoned.
F. Noack's
Die Baukunst
des Altertums,1910, includes
very

fine

embodying

photographs
the

results

of the

Greek

of the

latest researches.

monuments,

with
A

brief text

topographical

HISTORY

102

is

treatment

by
of

lists
K.

Frazer,

der

Archaologie

tums-Wissenschaft,
be

may

roux's
Rider's
.R.

Theaters,
Ancient

noted
Les

Town

edifice
Its

House:

Fiechter's

1914.

I'

de

Greek

Planning,

reprinted

sites

and

's

hypostyle

the

planning
1913,

chapters

Grece,

en

cities,
3

and

see

4.

LeB.

des
F.

C.
and

1916;

Entwicklung
of

1913;

Development,

and

topics
G.

1912;

etc.,

in

klassischen

special

Refinements,

Greek

History

of

mentary
com-

given

are

der

studies

Among

Detailed

1913.

regions

(Handbuch

baugeschichtliche

Die
On

1898,

1895

6).

Goodyear

H.

origines

The

Kunst,

vol.

W.

vols..

individual

covering

works

Sittl's

Alter

E.

J.

with

translated

of Greece,

Description

Pausanias's
G.

ARCHITECTURE

OF

antiken

Haverfield's

CHAPTER

ARCHITECTURE

ROMAN

Greek

Between
is

such

no

distinction

of

its

influence,

independent

beginning.
especially

moreover,

dominant,

was

field

arts.

of the

practical

sense,

science

luxurious,

their
the

material

became,

life

as

initiative

in

than

the

common-

to

in

create

first Spartanly

world,

the

of

rich
of

organization

admirable

derived

the

developments
At

conquerors

on

culture

receive

construction.

and

became

of remarkable

capable

superposing

much

peoples,

who

political,war-like,
to

another

Italian

Romans,

promise

to

the

sphere

the

permit

to

of the

the

From

and

Greece

from

from

Orient.

Relation
the

Greek

to

Greeks,

the

of

their

and

arch,

they

of

sculpture,

and
In

sophisticated

days

used

as

where

they

had

both

to

their

cultivation

of

rhythmical

subdivision

of

no

of

this
to

Greece

adaptation

be

lost,

itself.

adjuncts

structural

and

of surface.

as

make

First

of

as

its

in

later

to
a

wall

the

tablatures
en-

to

or

where

but

classical

majestic

accepting

and

and

Columns
a

to

original

the

to

Greek

forms

the

functions,

expression
to

realized

Romans

adapt

to

and

Italy

architecture,

sought

with

contact

Southern

Asia, the

Greek

give visible
builders

in direct

came

first

decorative

were

served

they

western

significance tended

structural
more

and

Greece

monuments.

own

As

conquest

advancement

superior

literature

forms.
the

by

Sicily, then

an

of

adapted

planning

Romans

character

in

independently

fell within

potent

primarily

was

better

"

of

ascetic, the
and

It

The

as

aesthetic, though

matters

in the

such

not

Italy

too

preclassical

another.

one

was

that

various

part

with

civilization

which

the

most

little in contact

of Greek

beginning

the

for

there

architecture

Roman

between

as

developed

regions relatively
very

and

architecture

sharp

which

styles,

the

and
forms

HISTORY

A
of

the

orders

columnar

ARCHITECTURE

OP

Greece, the Romans

they
proceeded to

ornamentation

in

and

accentuation
members

with

as

scale.

found

them

enrich

them

The

moldings,

arch

received

were

with

formal

the

other

Romans,

ever,
how-

of the system.

Importance of types of buildings. Among


it

Hellenistic

still further in

harmonize

to

in

not

was

much

so

as
significant

the

the

varied

the

the individual forms


many

needs

functional
of their

of detail which

types developed in

tion,
complex civilizawith a logical
and in accordance
analysisof its problems.
First came
an
extraordinaryexpansion of engineeringworks,
civil and military roads, bridges,drains,aqueducts,harborworks, fortifications frankly adapted to their utilitarian
in expressionof structure,
functions, yet artistically
satisfactory
in broad
handling of materials, in proportion. In the
train of an
active political
and
commercial
life came
more
extended
and
magnificent solutions of the problems of the
the forum
and the basilica.
assembly-placeand the market
For military and monarchical
the monumental
glorification
seized on and
were
types already employed by the Greeks
arch, was
magnified, and a new
type, the commemorative
added
To
to them.
setting for
provide an architectural
favorite amusements
combats, races
comedy, gladiatorial
the Greek
in
form of auditorium
received diverse applications
theaters, amphitheaters, circuses,often built regardlessof
whether
the topography favored or no.
To minister
expense,
its
to increasing wealth, domestic
architecture abandoned
earlyrepublicanausterityfor an Oriental luxury and splendor,
Their
culminating in the palaces and villas of the emperors.
lishments
lay in the public bathing-estabcounterpart for the masses
response

to

more

"

"

"

"

"

or

recreation

thermae, in which

was

Construction.
methods

with

made
In

every

form

of refreshment

and

accessible to thousands.
construction

the

great ingenuity and

Romans
skill to

adapted their
operations on a

under
problem of placinggreat numbers
from the weather.
cover
Taking up the arch and vault in a
condition
still rudimentary and
cumbersome, they followed
its form
out
through the elementary geometric possibilities
from
and combinations, at the same
time freeingthemselves
work.
Building in
bondage to the difficultiesof cut-stone

largescale

and

to the

ROMAN

deploy
never

them

enabled

concrete

ARCHITECTURE

surfaces

upon

the

have

been

extend

to

of walls

obtained

105

their

undertakings

rich materials

in sufficient

and

which

quantity

for

to

could
structive
con-

permitted them to vault great spans


interior supports, securing a new
of interior
without
range
Roman.
spatialeffects,specifically
units which manifold
Planning. In disposingthe numerous
progressed from a
requirements called into being,the Romans
like that of the early Greeks, through pronaive
irregularity,
gressively
higher degrees of organization. Ultimately they
who
far surpassed in this respect the Hellenistic Greeks
were
uses.

their

teachers.

It also

functions

The

of

different

rooms

were

their sequence
carefullyconsidered both from the
specialized,
the
standpoint of spatial
practical standpoint and from
Not
with establishingformal
content
diversityand climax.
verse
symmetry on a singleaxis, the architects introduced transand a variety of minor axial lines parallelto both
axes
the major ones, producing a highly complex unity of subordinated
complished
parts, with the greatest variety of effect. They acthis not merely on level ground, but also on
the
most
irregularsites,making a merit of difficult topographic
conditions
which reor
sulted
artfullyconcealing the irregularities
from

them.

architecture became, like the Roman


Universality.Roman
and
climate
Race
not
were
Empire, something universal.
diverse, yet the official
greatly determining, for these were
art, in spiteof minor differences conditioned by local traditions
Itself
and
building materials, was
surprisingly uniform.
ject
largelyadopted from the Greeks, it was imposed on other subracial stocks,
peoples,and practisedby artists of many
themselves
contributed
to
its general development.
who
Forms
much
the same
of incongruity,
were
repeated,without sense
in the sands of Africa, fhe foothills of the Alps, the
In this, as in so many
other points,
forests of Germany.
Roman

architecture

was

like modern

architecture

"

material

imagination in
detail,while preoccupied with largerquestions of planning,
and

urbane, frequentlylackingin delicacyand

construction, and
Periods

mass.

of development.
three

periodsmay

In the

development of Roman
chitecture
arbe distinguished,
in which, side

HISTORY

with

native

io6

by side

felt in three
shared

with

the western

FIG.

From

hundred

two

37

"

AN

arch.

From
more

the
and

monuments

have

most
to 300

of Rome

furnished

of the

must

fortification walls with


to the material

with

mingled

republic,
absorbing from

BY

HULSEN)

of the

problem

new

empire

to its fall

Hellenism

of

they
Asia,

important contributions.
B.C.

The

character

are

prototypes.

polygonal or

of the earliest

from
principally

be deduced

works, which

their

the Romans

itself the grammar

the Orientalized

on

own

the

itself

of the

were

(RESTORED

strugglingwith

more

Etruscan

the end

Greece

TEMPLE.

establishment

while making their


Earliest monuments

Hellenism

till near

from

B.C.

300

fiftyyears, they

ETRUSCAN

orders, and

influence made

about

diluted

colonies and

of the
drew

Until

then

and

Greek

ARCHITECTURE

developments, Greek

different ways.
the Etruscans

Italic elements.
about

OF

known

The

traditionallyto

principaltypes

ashlar

temporary
con-

masonry,

are

ing
accord-

available; gates, drains,and bridges,with

ROMAN

simplearches

ARCHITECTURE

between

houses

(Fig.37) ;
The

house.

tombs

these

types

house

of classic times.

but

the

was

After

vestigesof houses
primitive forerunners

characteristic
Oriental

form

origin
"

opening in

and

dwelling, the

few

the

of

individual

most

the

contemporary

seventh

the

influential

most

of

ancestor

northern

of

the

of

Roman

century there

are

character, similar
in

megaron

Greece.

to

The

distinct from

one

was

the

of

in

as

porticoesand lintels of wood


forms.
a varietyof native

columnar

and

The

abutments,

generous

Greece; temples with

107

house

with

an

these, seemingly of
atrium, having a central

the roof

(cf.Fig. 54 [A]). The temple,on the other


hand, was
stronglyinfluenced from Greece in at least two of
its three forms.
The
first of these, the circular temple, has
evident traditional relations with the circular hut, although it
later received a peristylein the manner
of Greek
examples.
The second
form, with a singlerectangularcella,reproduced
the typicalGreek
arrangement with few changes: the portico
in front was
made
was
deeper and the colonnade
frequently
omitted
from the sides and always from the rear.
The third
cellas (Fig.37),may
be looked on less
form, with three parallel
creation than an adaptation of the Greek
scheme to
as
a new
the exigenciesof a new
cult.
To constitute it,it sufficed to
place prostylecellas side by side, and to give their porticoes
somewhat
more
depth.
Arched
as

the

in Rome
Roman
are

construction.

The

arches

and

vaulted

drains, such

Perugia (Fig.38),and the Cloaca Maxima


formerly thought to descend from the legendary
kings and to antedate Greek examples of the arch
placed in the fourth century at earliest. They represent

gateways

at

"

"

now

no

constructive

advance

on

the

Greek

arches, but show

effort to

give architectural expressionto the functions of


the parts by a decorative
emphasis on the keystone and
below
the springspringingstones, or by projectingmembers
ing
and around
the voussoirs
the impost and label molding.
an

"

Columnar

system.

The

architectural

forms

of the columnar

system reflected those of Greece, all three orders findingcrude


Most
the derivative of the
important was
counterparts.
had
dominant
in western
Doric, which
always remained
Greece.
of
profile

It

recurs

the

in both

echinus

of its later Greek

reduced

to

forms:

straightline

and

with

with

the

it

108

rounded

into

HISTORY

quadrant ;
the
base simplifiedfrom
these two
to

be

Ionic

forms, with rounded

in the

varietyof

time

ied, though
were

base

order.
echinus

and

It

and

often

cased

38

The

triglyphfrieze

"ARCH

PERUGIA.

"

OF

usually the order


widely projectingeaves

steep gable

molded
latter

of

richly decorated
imitated

the

no

formed

cop-

frieze.

by

the

Instead
wooden

themselves,

were

plates (Fig. 37).


with figure

terra-cotta

pediment,

sometimes

was

AUGUSTUS"

had

more

in

the

was

and

rafters,which, like the architraves

beams

with

bases, which came


ing
Tuscan, though Vitruvius, writspecifically
of Augustus, recognized that it was
but a

the Doric.

FIG.

without

regarded as

there

ARCHITECTURE

OF

sometimes

sculpture.

Republican developments,to
In

the

later

and

and

more

about

50

formal

In the
in

bridge of ^mih'us

series of arches

was

Greek

influence.

structive
powerful days of the republic,con-

developments went
first aqueduct, built by Appius

the

B.C.

the

on

simultaneously.

Claudius

in 312

B.C.,

Tiber, 179-142
B.C., a
built side by side,their thrusts balancing
across

ARCHITECTURE

ROMAN
the

on

long before

in

the

and

in

the

Thebes
of

prove

the

Romans.

spoilsof
Greece

destruction

Greek
and

of

captives,and other
opportunity,furnished

of

Forms

to

was

architecture.

taken

became

under

Roman

province in

of the

the

second

133.

desire

most

wealth

by

requisiteknowledge
B.C.

the

for imitation.

artists attracted

century

to

skill.

and

of the

tects
archi-

Greeks.

were

detail.

authentic

Greek

of the Romans

eyes

awakened

and

art

active in Rome
in

Minor

at

Babylon,

at

was

Corinth, opened the

the middle

By

Ramesseum

in 209, of continental
Syracuse in 212, of Tarentum
in 196 and 167, and above
all in 146, after the

of Hellenic

riches

the

cessible
becoming directly acGrascia was
conquered by

Greece

protectorate in 196; Asia


The

were

Magna

241;

principle,
applied

in later Roman

monuments

Sicilyby

B.C.,

of

great substructure
fruitfulness

Greek

to

272

store-chambers

uncommon

Meanwhile

revival of this

The

supportingpiers.

109

Their

influence

of detail and

forms

itself visible

made

soon

in

sophisticated
applicationof the orders generally. As early as 250 B.C.
Greek
details,individuallycorrect, and effective in spite of
in the sarcophagus of
their uncanonical
combinations, appear
ventional
Scipio Barbatus.
By the first century B.C. the use of conmore

detail

naturalized, so

universal, the forms

was

that

conformity

with

more

of the

Greek

of

Fortuna

Tivoli

(Fig.39),all

temples of Rome
the first century B.C., may

from

for characteristics

Roman.
specifically

lie first in the freedom


of which
significance
be sure, always the

of
was

need

membering, as
so-called temple

circular

Virilis, the

were

standards

longer be taken as their criterion. The


in Rome, in the
exemplifiedin the Tabularium

no

orders

and
be

of

ined
exam-

The

peculiarities
of parts, the original
combination
now
long forgotten. There is, to

canonical

subdivision

of the

entablature

into architrave, frieze,


and

cornice,even the Ionic order having


uniformly a frieze. In general, the triglyphsare confined to
the Doric
order and its derivatives,though in certain cases

they

occur

with

the

Ionic

capitaland

even

the

Corinthian.

Less
at

strikingforms, such as dentils,however, were


transposed
will.
If arbitrary canons
tinction
diswere
violated, reasonable
not
were
ignored,and the wealth of detailed forms

liberated from

inherited

was
prescriptions

appliedwith

un-

no

HISTORY

failingrespect

for

OF

ARCHITFCTURE

appropriatenessto positionand

expressive

functions.

lay in the freedom


of the

columns

with

with

combined

was

the orders.

Applicationsof

which

the columnar

the wall.

The

39

of the cella,to give the effect of


A

similar

unstructural

unknown

been

effect

The
the

"Roman

piersof
Roman

arch

of

columnar

wish

to

had

forms

secure

of the Roman

so

not

columnar

cella,was

wide

wall

still further
with

arches,

extension
or

rather

lay
on

in

the

arcade, usually in several stories,a scheme

common

arch order.

order."
on

continuous

became

peristyle(seeFig.41).

use.

of columns

use

which

of its

the walls

of the fifth century and had


Its adoption as the normal
treatment

frequent.
temple, the outcome
in spite of the breadth

extension

free-standing

in the Greece

even

since become
of the

whole

VESTA"

OF

full

of the

use

of the

as

repeated along

"TEMPLE

TIVOLI.

"

system

forms

temple porticowere

FIG.

characteristic feature

more

The

as

to

receive

Tabularium, the

the
specialname,
archive buildingof

ROMAN
the

ARCHITECTURE

Capitol (78 B.C.),furnishes

scheme, which
in the Colosseum

with

piersof the arcade


floors,of the columns
superposed orders.

FIG.

arches
orders

was

with

noted

(Figs.40, 59) consisted

to the

the

the first dated

later to find its most

was

in

40

"

and

to the horizontal

and
The

entablatures

THE

if not

of

Greek

superpositionof

mere

ROME.

itself almost

of

example. This
exemplification
the application,
bands opposite
stoa

ranges

of

COLOSSEUM

quite

as

novel

as

the

use

of

the
to look on
reallybetter justified
arrangement as the strengtheningof a Greek stoa to support
vaulting, thickening the supports and building up arches
between
the columns
the
similar to that by which
a process
first engaged columns
in Greece
were
sity
produced. The necesfor greater strength lay in the desire to span the passage
behind
the
the facade by a more
than
means
permanent
wooden
ceilingsand roofs of the Greeks, usually by a barrel
them.

It is

"

vault, which
arches

across

sprang

from

above

to the inner wall.

the
This

crowns
was

of the

indeed

external

notable

step

in construction, for the


abutment
Orient

as

ends

had

of the
contradiction
Domestic
fourth

the

thrust

the

had

no

subterranean

character

of the

of the

vaults

the Etruscan

model
At

rooms.

were

the

The

built wall
in

having

rear

in

of the

structural

architecture.

century

arcades

peachable
unim-

such

aqueducts and bridges.


The
experiment succeeded, nevertheless; the resistance of the
than
sufficient.
the
From
heavy outer wall proved more
ful,
purely formal standpoint the arch order was
equally successin spite of certain
difficulties.
The
longitudinal vaults,
being semicircular, rose
higher than the top of
perforce even
the entablature
in front of them, but this was
overcome
by
the insertion
of an
attic with
the stories.
pedestals between
The
and verticals,
calm and dignifiedrepetitionof horizontals
mastering and co-ordinating the freer lines of the arches, the
consistent
molded
of entablature, impost, and
treatment
dependen
form
to
a
pedestal, combine
system of powerful effect, inthe

or

of

outward

was

individual

details

expressions of
private houses,
wall

to
a

central

small

in close
atrium

garden.

of the

or

lintel and
which

from

arch.
the

blocks, followed
with

ing
surround-

Later

more

portion, built about a court with a colonnade,


added
Greek
influence
the so-called peristylium,was
under
(Fig. 54 [C]). By the second century B.C. this composite type
the model
for the ordinary dwellings of the well-to-do;
was
from early in the first century the wealthy began to elaborate
and
them
into veritable
columns
palaces, with marble
ments.
paveof metropolitan life
On the other hand, the pressure
elaborate

now
or

inner

forced

the

four

stories.

Other

types.

erection

of tenements

for the

poor,

in three

mental
period the principal monuCivil buildings, in Italy
the temple.
type remained
in Greece, were
late in developing. Political assembly and
as
commercial
intercourse alike took place at first in the open
out
air.
The
in the beginning met
senate, to be sure, which
of doors or in some
at an
housed
temple, was
early date in a
followed the
to have
specialbuilding,the Curia, which seems
scheme
of the temple cella.
B.C.
200
began the
By about
which
construction
of basilicas,exchanges for the merchants,
other
became
the seat of tribunals and gradually accumulated
first of which
The
know
built by Cato the Cenuses.
we
was

Throughout

this

ROMAN

ARCHITECTURE

113

in 184 B.C., and others quickly followed.


Regarding the
originalform of these and, indeed, of all the basilicas of Rome
sor,

priorto the days of Caesar,we have no certain knowledge.


Grouping: town planning. The grouping of publicbuildings,
such
the

temples and

the

as

principalopen

accidental
Greece.
there

was

of the

space

like that

one,

Only

basilicas which

in

town

the

forum,

irregularand
of the great sanctuaries
of early
like Pompeii,
Hellenistic,
essentially

uniform

more

fronted

city,was

such

treatment

an

as

that of the

Ionian

fore
resultingfrom the inclosingof the forum, shortlybe100
porticoesforming a long rectangle.
B.C., by columnar
formed
Although the city of Rome, with its unexpected growth, conagoras,

regularplan, many

to no

characteristics

towns

showed

derived

from

in their

general

secrated
principleconin Italyfrom the earliest times, division by two axes
which
crossed at right angles. Parallel to the principal
which marked
these axes
minor
streets
streets delimiting
were
of the angles was
the house
blocks; in one
frequently the
forum, as at Pompeii.
Imperial architecture,c. 50 B.C. to 350 A.D.
Development.
transformation
of Roman
architecture
The
to its imperial
scale and splendorbegan with the buildingsof Pompey and of
Pompey
JuliusCaesar,in the middle of the first century B.C.
erected in 55 the earliest stone theater,built up from the plain

layout common

on

an

arched

adding

new

basilica

quarters for the


the custom

; Caesar

substructure

of

senate

adding an
buildingswhich

did not

content

himself

with

forum, and providing better


and
other assemblies, but initiated
forum, beyond the timeentirelynew

to

the

prevented any enlargement of the old


Romanum.
The buildingsand rebuildingsof AugusForum
tus
his
boast
that
he
found
to
were
so
numerous
as
justify
Rome
of brick and left it of marble.
Most
noteworthy, perhaps,
the forum
which
bears his name
was
(Fig.44 [C]),with
its octastyleCorinthian
temple of Mars.
Agrippa, his ablest
minister,gave great attention to the aqueducts, and built the
first of the great thermae.
In Augustus's reign also the
architect Vitruvius
compiled, largelyfrom Greek sources, his
fusion
compendium of rules and maxims, designed to assist in the difof correct principles.Under
Nero the destruction of
crowded quarters by fire gave opportunity for rebuilding
them
honored

ii4
on

HISTORY

regular plan, with

wider

tendencies

toward

better

the

emperors,

regal luxury of accommodations

hill with

Palatine

houses, and
69-96 A.D., the

materials, lower

Flavian

of detail reached

elaboration
the

With

streets.

ARCHITECTURE

OF

its

and

toward

their

height. Their palace on


halls, their
magnificent vaulted

of which
there was'
temples and fora, in the entablatures
left undecorated, the "Composite" capital,
scarcelya member
in which
attest

of the Ionic and

elements

their

Hadrian,

strivingfor

and

enrichment

Antonines,

the

in favor

of Hellenic

the

still

forms.

combined,

were

of form.

while

increased

undertakings
reaction

Corinthian

Under

magnitude

Trajan,
of

further, there

was

of
giganticForum
Oriental principles

"

"

earlier
and
which
cases

"

At

constructive

science

time, however, Roman


quering
proceeding with rapid stride,con-

was

successivelythe

vaulting semicircular
rectangular rooms
requiringlateral

Hadrian, the halls of the


of Trajan, Caracalla, and Diocletian, these

imperial thermae
elements

attained

unattainable.

achieved

some

great scale.
to extend

or

vast

In

the

of

size and

monumental

thermas

also

even

Roman

effects hitherto
architecture

of its greatest triumphs of logical


planning at a
The
towns
laying out of new
opportunity
gave

its principles,
in Hellenistic
as

Prevalent
sole

same

difficulties of

circular rooms,
and
openings. In the Pantheon

apses,

the

In the

Trajan (Fig. 44 [F]) itself composed on


the great basilica dispenseswith the vaulted arcades of
works, and employs a purely Greek
system of column
lintel. The
in
temples of the time bear entablatures
is much
in some
the multiplicity
of ornament
reduced
to the point of austerity.
even
Constructive advances.

structive
con-

types.
as

the

The

temples

no

chief monuments.

and

Asia, to the whole

city.

longer appeared as the


In spite of vast
size
secondary in importance,

costlymaterials they had become


which was
administrative,
as an
expressionof the national life,
and
Besides
luxurious
commercial, pleasure-loving,
egoistic.
the emperors
erected
temples for self-deification,
and
arches, mausolea
triumphal columns
surpassing the
dulged
in size and magnificence, and inoriginalat Halicarnassus
the populace with buildings for their favorite amusements.

palaces and

Late

imperial architecture.

In the

later monuments

new

ARCHITECTURE

ROMAN

itself in the relations of arch and

logicgraduallyshows
coincident
over

with

construction

thermae

the

fresh

and

arches

115

of Oriental

wave

detail alike.

are

not

framed

influences

In the
in

column,

sweeping

Pantheon

and

and

entablatures

by

the

frankly on them; in the second century


of Syria and
the palace of Diocletian
the
monuments
on
Adriatic,at the beginning of the fourth century, further steps
and the bringing
taken in the elimination of the entablature
are
down
of the arch directlyon the head of the column
(Fig.58).
architecture
end of its development Roman
Thus
at the very
of its formal
the
attained, by the abandonment
canons,
solution of the difficulties of expressionwhich confronted
it,
laying the foundation for the development of the Middle
Ages.
Artistic centers.
Throughout this long historythe center of
the
artistic activity had
remained
city of Rome, which
columns,

but

rest

"

focussed

the influences of Greece

days

of the

more

to

empire

the east, and

administration
on

was

the

balance

and

the Orient.

of power

inclined

In the last

and

more

Constantine, 306-337, the seat of


stantinopl
removed
thither,to Byzantium or Conunder

the shores

of the

Bosphorus.

The

wealth

and

The
adoption of
population of Rome
rapidly fell away.
Christianityas the state religionin 330 caused the temples to
fall gradually into disuse, and temples and public buildings
alike were
plundered for materials to build the great Christian
basilicas,the only important fresh undertakings of the time.
With the sack of Rome
by the Goths in 410 and the Vandals
in 455 the last vestigesof its imperial power
broken,
were
and the abdication
of Romulus
of the
Augustulus on demand
barbarian

nominal

in

476 marked

existence of the Roman

Empire

chieftain Odoacer

Character

the end

even

of the

in the west.

in Greece it is the
of important types. Whereas
development of the forms of detail,to which the Greeks gave
the most
scrupulous attention,which is of primary importance,
in Rome
it is rather the development of the great functional
intensive study.
an
types which demands
the temple was
intended than
more
no
Temples. In Rome
in Greece for congregationalworship, and
the great size to
rather the result of a desire for
which it ultimatelygrew was
imposing effect. The ritual,influenced by that of the Greeks,

n6

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

left considerable

libertyin form and orientation,though the


In matters
of disposition
image was preferablyat the east.
the development was
toward
a
steadilycloser approximation
scheme
with
continuous
exterior peristyle.
to the Greek
a
The
Etruscan
at the rear, the
a colonnade
temples had never
Roman
cellas,as early as republican times, were
provided
with a decorative
of
columns
the rear
disguise engaged
on
as
well as on the sides,and this was
retained in early imperial

FIG.

times.

The

best

so-called Maison
a

41

preserved and

and

were

behind

subtlety of

and

surface

of

light and

which
shade

example is the
France
(Fig.41),

order, which

that

in mastery of proportions
of line
delicate curvatures

The
the

in Greek

regularityand varied
monuments

the

play
in its plan.

recur

temples, like that of Mars in the Forum


in Etruscan
perpetuate a type already found
Other

shows

the Greeks

form.

relieved

famous

in southern

of rich Corinthian

not

CARREE"

MAISON

most

Carree at Nimes

hexastyletemple

the Romans

"THE

NIMES.

"

of

Augustus,

times, and
nearly having

approaching the peristylararrangement more


colonnade
a free-standing
along the sides as well as the front,
and more
the rear.'
but not across
The
more
tendency was
toward a complete peristyle,
stillin use in half-Greek Pompeii
"

FIG.

42

"

SHOWING

ROME.

INTERIOR
THE

CONDITION

OF

THE

PANTHEON

AFTER

THE

(RESTORED
RESTORATION

BY
OF

ISABELl.E),
3EVERUS

n8

HISTORY

second

in the

OF

century

ARCHITECTURE
before

B.C.

the

colony there, and appearing in


completed by Augustus in the Forum

Rome

Roman

notable

most

examples

built by Hadrian

Rome

columns,

ten

which

were

and

the

was

cella with

for the first time

magnificent decoration

of the

the

temple

One

of the

temple of Venus

Forum.

It had

two

chambers

vaulted

with

of half

with

of Caesar.

double

the

near

establishment

columns

fronts

back
barrel

and

to

of

back,

vaults.

statued

along the interior walls is the lineal descendant

and

niches

of the interior

early Greek cellas,through the temple at


A few temples,
Bassas and the temple of Apollo at Didyma.
though rectangular,varied from the traditional arrangement
in having the porticobuilt against the long side,but this was
stylobate and podium
only from specialexigencies. Both
used
were
as
substructures; the roof remained
steadily a
gabled one, fronted by a pediment. In a few instances only,
colonnades

of the

temples left roofless.


Circular temples. A class of considerable importance was
that of the round
temples. The two well-known
republican
and Tivoli (Fig.39), do not differ greatly
examples, in Rome
Both are of the Corinthian
from similar buildings in Greece.
cellas. The
first Pantheon
in Rome,
order, with unvaulted
have been similar in principle,
built by Agrippa, must
though
The
Pantheon
which
stands
far larger scale.
on
a
to-day,
were

rebuilt

(202

A.

(120-124A.D.)and

by Hadrian
D.),shows,

Roman
dome

restored

the circular interior of

forty feet diameter, its crown


the pavement.
Light comes
rain may
through which
thanks

to

Severus

the contrary, an applicationof the new


methods
(Fig.42). A singlehemispherical

on

constructive
spans

under

the

area

one

over

hundred

and

just an

equal height above


through a singleeye at the top,
fall without
venience,
causing any inconat

and

of the interior.

volume

The

piercedby eight niches, alternatelysquare


of
and
semicircular, originallyarched across, with screens
Corinthian columns; the vault is deeply recessed with coffers
decorated
with bronze
diminishing as they ascend, and once

massive

rosettes.

brickwork

walls

are

A rich
of the

veneer

walls

of marble

slabs

complements

unity of the generalform.


Temple Enclosures. Although

many

over

the

the constructive

unrivaled

earlytemples

abstract

in

Rome,

i2o

and

their

HISTORY

OF
the

ARCHITECTURE
sites,stood

directlyon the
borders of the Forum, it was
preferredin later days to follow
the practiceof Hellenistic Greece
and place the temple in a
colonnaded
inclosure, serving both to give shelter to the
the sacrifice and to heighten the
worshippers who watched
architectural
effect. At Pompeii, in the precinctof Apollo,
this arrangement
was
a
legacy from the Greek days of the
it came
in, with the peripteraltemple, in the
town; in Rome
of

Forum

Caesar, which

same

the

at

was

the

time

same

(Fig.44 [B]). Later architects


simple rectangularplan. In the

inclosure
with

on

successors

contented

not

were

Forum

temple

of

Augustus

great segmental exedras to

introduced

right and left;


in Syria they added
in the temple of Jupiter at Baalbek
a
of
in
front
the principalone.
second, hexagonal court
Size oftemples. In size the temples varied as much
as those
they

Greece, and

of

temple,however,
and

Fora.
well

as

much

rivaled

the

of its

extent

space

within

thousand
The
for

by

forum

at

which

In

the

volume

of trade

various

classes of

and

general business

forced

Greek

complexity

it covered

in all

feet.

first for all forms

political
assembly, and

towns.

No

in the

at Baalbek

one

four hundred
served

limits.

same

accessories,with

smaller

for

the

cities,and

this remained

of subordinate

goods,leavingthe forum civilefor


About

it

as

in the

true

especiallyin Rome,

the institution

intercourse.

of trade

the

fora for

the bankers

were

grouped

the

principalpublic buildings(Fig.43). Thamugadi (Timgad), a colony planted by Trajan in Africa, shows the form
which
might be selected for the forum in imperialtimes, in a
where
all was
case
planned from the beginning a square
surrounded
court
peristyle. In Rome, the
by an unbroken
culminated
supplementary fora civilia built by the emperors
in that of Trajan, designed by Apollodorus of Damascus,
which
included a vast complex of buildingsfor varied uses
has been recogas
(Fig.44 [F]). It followed in disposition,
nized,
the Egyptian temple scheme.
First came
a broad
court,
sides
the forum
surrounded
three
on
by a colonnade,
proper,
"

on

the

flanks

of which

were

enormous

exedras

bordered

with

shops. Across the further side of the court, like the hypostyle
hall of the Egyptian temple, lay a basilica of unequaled
the temple
extent ; beyond it,like the Egyptian sanctuary, was

"""""

"

"

^;//4/^-%
L^

..-"SV/^ /" 7

FIG.

44

"

ROME.
EMPKRORS.

(A)
(B)
(O
(D)
(E)
(F)

Forum
Forum
Forum
Forum
Forum
Forum

Romanum
of Julius Caesar
of AiiKur.tun
of Vrapasian
Transitorium
of Trajan

THE

,ae

FORUM

ROMANUM

PLAN.

(RESTORED

(G) Area ("apitolina


(M) Comitiutn
(1) Tabularium
(2) Curia
(j) Basilica Julia
(4) Basilica /Emilia

AND
BY

THE

FORA

OF

THE

GROMORT)
of
Maxcntiiu
(5) Basilica
(Constantino)
(6) Temple of Venus Gfnetrix
of
Mars
the
(7) Temple
Avenger
(8) Basilica Ulpia

122

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

Trajan, surrounded by a second, oblong inclosure.


the pylon and the obelisk had their counterparts in the
of

arch

which

the

to

access

gave

first court

Even
mental
monu-

and

the

to the second.
triumphal column which stood at the entrance
There
was
a
variety and technical dexterity of planning
which the Egyptian prototypes had lacked.
Romanum,
Adjunctsof the forum. As adjunctsto the Forum
which
remained
the political
the
Curia
senate
or
center, were
the
Comitium
for the meeting of the assembly, and the
house,
Rostrum
from
which
addressed
the populace. This
orators
platform, which stood at the end of the principalspace toward
the Capitol, was
with
sculptured parapets
richly decorated
and small commemorative
well
the ships'
as with
columns, as

which

prows

itself

gave

columns

as

temples and

the pavement
of the forum
such triumphal arches and

as

rich

as

with

the

of

facades

of the national

those

of Greece.

Basilicas.

The

basilicas,which

of intercourse
in

were

effect

basilicas,
an

sanctuaries

but

On

forest of statues, and


could
find place, making,

was

it its name.

under

general

supports,

cover,

buildingsof

not

served
not

were

varied

uniform

sities
neces-

in

plan,

spacious interior,with

and

narrow

the

on

open

side

one

umnar
col-

like

galleryor stoa, but broad and inclosed,like a hall. In Greece


fall under
there were
this
already a few buildings which
not designatedby the same
name.
definition,
though they were
They belonged both to the Greek type of plan, a deep hall
with
longitudinal colonnades, and an
opposite the
apse
entrance,

and

to

the

Oriental

type,

broad

hall

with

an

interior

the
also
existingmonuments
peristyle. In Rome
include examples of both types, to neither of which
can
a
chronologicalprioritybe assigned. The Oriental type counted
its representatives
ings,
of the most
two
conspicuous buildamong
and the Basilica
the Basilica Juliain the Forum
Romanum
of Trajan (seeFig.44 [3]and [8]).The
Ulpia in the Forum
Basilica Julia turned
its long,principalfagade to the Forum
and was
lined on the rear
was
by a range of shops. Between
dors
an
by two concentric vaulted corrioblong hall surrounded

in two
Tabularium.
the

central

stories,of

ordonnance

similar

to

that

of the

of securing sufficient lightin


impossibility
through the lateral openings gives rise to the

The
hall

an

ROMAN

its ceilingwas

123

raised

clerestorywith
windows
above
the flat roofs of the aisles,as in the Egyptian
show
buildings which
temples and in certain late Greek
Egyptian influence. The buildingwas
exceptionalin having
of the exterior,arisingpartly,doubtless,
such an open
treatment
from a desire for a rich effect suitable to its conspicuous
position. Similar in its general plan to the Basilica Juliawas
stead
the Basilica Ulpia,in spiteof its having columns
and lintels inof piersand an arch order.
The central space, although
over
eighty feet in span, was doubtless covered by a wooden
assumption

FIG.

45

that

ARCHITECTURE

ROME.

"

BASILICA

OF

roof.

unique

addition

either end.

The

the

Juliaby

Basilica

existingform
plan of
and

to much
a

was

that

narrow

positionin

the
and

(RESTORED

D'ESPOUY)

of the

Basilica Emilia, which


its

CONSTANTINE.

OR

MAXENTIUS,
BY

on

the

great

forms

Forum,

apses

pendant

and

owes

at
to

its

the conto show


trary
time, seems
deep hall,turning its flank to the

same

having its galleries


along two sides only. The
same
varietycould be traced through the provincialexamples.
The basilica ofMaxentius.
the
Unique in its structure among
Forum,

A
basilicas

was

ARCHITECTURE

in the Sacred

one

Constant

completed by
substituted

OP

HISTORY

for the

ine

wooden

and
Way begun by Maxentius
(Figs.44 [5]and 45). A vault was
roof over
the nave,
the vaulting

almost
intact from its earliest represystem being taken over
sentatives,
the great halls of the baths
in which
shall
we

study

it.

There

are

but three

bays

in

length of nearly two

feet,and

hundred
five feet.

in the form

the clear span of the nave


is over
In spiteof the considerable
modifications

seventynecessary

points of support and of the clerestory,the


essential scheme
of the basilica is recognizable. It belonged
to the Greek
originally
type, with aisles along two sides only,
of the narrow
the entrance
one
on
ends, and an apse opposite.
As completed by Constantine
it had
second
in
entrance
a
the center

of the

of the broad

side toward

the

Forum, and a second


hybrid plan. In the adoption

opposite this,producing a
and permanent methods
of coveringwhich had
of the fire-proof
been
developed in other classes of buildings the Basilica of
Maxentius
marks a notable progress, propheticin many
ways
of the development of the Christian basilica into the mediaeval
apse

vaulted

church.

Theaters.
Roman
to

The

preconditions of

the

theater, in its differences from

be found

in the native

development
the Greek

Italic drama

and

of

the

theater, are

the method

of its

As the audience at first stood on


presentationin earlyRome.
level ground during the performance, the stage had to be of a
chorus
there was
moderate
no
no
height. As there was
necessity for an open space or orchestra before the stage.
first inclosed

The

theaters

were

of

wood, doubtless

rectangular,

ing
parallelto the stage and soon arranged in ascendtiers (Fig.46). Stage and auditorium
were
easilybrought
roof.
No
and
under
into architectural
a
great
unity
single
within
the
the
involved
in
substitution,
change in principlewas
rectangular building,of segmental or circular seats, as seen
after 80 B.C., under
in the small theater at Pompeii, built soon
of the
close by.
the influence
existing Hellenistic theater
with

As

seats

the dimensions

substituted for

increased,an awning or velarium had to be


wooden
mained
roof,but the walls of the building re-

equal height,and the one at


the sc"naz
frons,decorated with columns
background of the Greek stage, had to
of

of the stage,
in imitation
of the

the

be

rear

treated

in two

or

ROMAN
stories.

three

ARCHITECTURE

This

was

when, just before the end


established

Stone

theaters in Rome.
in

the model

46

"

Rome,

for

(S) Senatorial

of

theater

OF

THE

first
lowed
fol-

rived
features debeen

DEVELOPMENT

merely

OF

THE

(FIECHTER)

(C) Cavea

seats

have

can

have

to

The

Mitylene.

at

the

Pompey,

built in 55 B.C., is stated

THEATER.

With

auditorium.

however,
Roman

was

reduced
element

(T) Tribunalia

(P) Passages

as

this
much

retained

the

came
as

was

orchestra, which,

possible,to
the

semicircle.

close structural

union

the stage, the walls of which


doubtless
A necessary
to the full height of the seats.
prerequisite

of the auditorium
rose

Roman

court
generalidea of the building,with a vast colonnaded
the dominating circular form
promenading, and, especially,

of the

The

the

republic,a singlebuilding

theater

REPRESENTATION
ROMAN

the

The

of the theater

SCHEMATIC

(B) Stage

of the

this prototype, however,

from

FIG.

of

state

the final form.

theater

stone

the

125

for the execution

with

of the auditorium

in stone,

plain,was
the development of the Roman
technique of vaulting,by
which the seats were
supported far above the ground, and by
left for passages
which
radial openings were
and
stairs to
For the fagade the scheme
of the Tabulathe upper
ranges.
rium, with arches and columnar
decoration,was
adopted, as
later in the Colosseum
in Greece
(Fig.40). Thus whereas
the primitiveejements and
orchestra and circle of seats were
on

126

HISTORY

OF

the stage with its accessory


in Rome
the stage was
orchestra
from

and

buildingswas a later development,


the original component,
and
the

auditorium

circular
The

Greece.

ARCHITECTURE

additions

were

taken

over

of the

synthesis,as exemplifiedin
the three great theaters of the cityof Rome
those of Pompey,
in the theater at Ostia (Fig.47),
or
Marcellus, and Balbus
had its own
was
a creation which
merits,not only in adaptation
product

"

"

FIG.

47

"

OSTIA.

THE

(RESTORED

THEATER.

BY

ANDRE)

the

drama, but in unity of


requirements of the Roman
design and splendor of external and internal effect.
Theaters in the provinces. In the provincesthe same
scheme
was
repeated,although less ample means
usually resulted in
to

the

use

auditorium,
of the

hillsides to support at least a part of the


In most
at Verona, and at Orange in France.

of convenient
as

eastern

examples the looseness

of connection

in

plan

persistedin spiteof the adoption of a high stage background.


At Aspendos in Asia Minor, however, the interior shows
the
full Roman
sconce

type, with

frons. In

one

contrast

stage backgrounds, which

of the richest

Augustan

to most

show

developments

an

ever

and

of the

later western

greater elaboration of

ROMAN

ARCHITECTURE

127

great niches enframing the doors, this shows

three

of the

multiply openings and


retainingthe flat wall surface.
east

while

jrons was

scana

longer a resultant, a

itself,resulting only remotely from


treated

drama,

columnar

to

no

in accordance

rather

the

In both

means,

but

visions
subdi-

the

the

cases

end

an

suggestions from
with

dency
ten-

in
the

tive
general decora-

conceptionsof imperialarchitecture.
the drama
ary
secondwas
Amphitheaters. Among the Romans
of gladiatorialcomto the more
exciting amusement
bats,
from
introduced
Campania in the third century and
the circus. In the provision of
held at first in the forum
or
specialarchitectural arrangements for such contests Rome was
also behind
with
arena
Campania, for in Pompeii an elliptical
it
stepped seats was begun soon after 80 B.C., whereas in Rome
theater auditoria of wood, facing
not until 58 B.C. that two
was
built to form
the first amphitheater of the
each other, were
of Caesar
still celebrated
within
were
city. The
games
not
wooden
until the time of Augustus,
stands, and it was
had its amphitheater in stone.
Although
29 B.C., that Rome
in Pompeii, however, the arena
was
largely excavated in the
seats
earth, and the rear
were
supported on solid masonry,
in Rome
the amphitheater was
built up from
the plain like
the theaters, with a richlyarcaded exterior.
The
Flavian
The Colosseum.
the
as
amphitheater, known
Colosseum, which succeeded that of Augustus in the years
70-82

shows

A.D.,

this arrangement

most

three
rose
arena
elliptical
successive tiers of seats
separated by high parapets, and
On the
crowned, very probably,by an encirclingcolonnade.

splendidform

(Fig.40).

About

in its final and

the

arcades
first,three stories of open
the arch order, Doric, Ionic,and Corinthian.

exterior
with

were,

story wall, perhaps originallyof wood,


Corinthian
which

masts

formed
orders

pilasters.Corbels near
probably supported the

the necessary
below.
The

visual

crown

and

about

such

dignity,which

with the power

fourth-

treated

with

top carried wooden

the

immense

velarium, and

for the uniformly repeated

regular spacing of the tiers,diminishing

rhythmically in perspective,and
cornices

was

decorated

vast

surface, gave

the
justified

of Rome

the

unbroken
an

sweep

of the

unequaled majesty

identification of the Colosseum

itself.

the triumphwas
Structurally

128

HISTORY

OF

less remarkable.

no

The

ARCHITECTURE

elliptical
plan required every

of

one

the radial passages


and every foot of the concentric vaults
differ from
its neighbors,yet much
executed
in stone,
was
cut

third

had
the

in the

done

the vault
previousstories,

same

the

which

thrusts

as

the

arches

was

ing
carry-

facade,
dropped

tions
penetrated by continuaThe
of them.
resultingform, the groined vault, here
appearing for the first time in Italy,had general advantages
which
were
soon
manifest, in that it required for its support,
massive
continuous
not
a
abutment, but isolated piers on
to

level

of the

the arches

curately
ac-

In the

geometricalshapes.
practicalnecessities prevented the

barrelVault above

concentric

been

difficult

the most

arcade, where

of
as

to

to

and

After the form

concentrated.

were

of the

erected in the Italian


amphitheater in the capital,others were
and
existingat Verona,
provincial cities,notable remains
other places. These
had
seats for
Nimes, Aries, and many
spectators, while the greatest,
twenty to twenty-fivethousand
in Rome
and Campania, had a capacity of twice that number.
the circuses for chariot-racing,
Circuses.
Mightier stillwere
the

oldest

of Roman

the

between

Palatine

and

the

Aventine

the

Circus

built
of years
was
ultimatelyfor two hundred
course

long

was

and

first held

amusements,

with

narrow,

thousand
a

sharp

spina, separating

barrier, or

the

The

course

like that of the Greek

turn

of which

the center

Down

valley

in the
hills,where
Maximus, with seats

spectators.

stadion, to the seating arrangements


circus also conformed.

in the

of the

those

of the

course

stretches, adorned

with

at the end opposite the turn


monuments;
with
individual
cells for
the starting arrangements,
chariot, in a segment
focussing on the first corner.

and

obelisks

exterior

was

on

and

Baths

system like that of the theaters and


The

thernuz.

Roman

bathing

exercise,but
club.

for the

Examples
Pompeii show, at

rooms

and
was

from
a

the

small

of

were

each
The

theaters.
amphi-

establishments

progressedfrom the simplestutilitarian structures


facilities not only for bathing
institutions,
offering
social intercourse

the

was

to luxurious

and

modern

physical
cafe

or

days of the republic


scale, the typical complement
later

their arrangement.

accompanied by

court,

series of

or

rooms

palaestra,for
in which

at

of

ercise
ex-

dif-

ROMAN

ARCHITECTURE

129

the frigidarium,the
ferent temperatures were
maintained:
The
the
tepidarium,the caldarium.
frigidariumcontained

cold plunge bath, the caldarium


served

to lessen the shock

in

the hot

passingfrom

baths, the tepidarium


one

to the other

and

ifHT

r-

LTJ:

ci

.idin

h"

/-

"
-.
.

FIG.

48

"

THERMS

ROME.

(A)
Entrance
(B. B) Porticoes
(C, C) Private baths?
(D, D) Vestibules

also
too

bath

OF

PLAN.

CARACALLA.

(RESTORED

BY

BLOUET)

(E, E)
(F, F)
(G)

Apodyteria

(I)

Frigidarium

Peristyles

(L, L)

Tepidarium

(M)

(H)

Caldarium

(N)

Halls (or exercise


Stadium
and
Reservoirs
aqueduct

might contain basins for those who found the cold bath
A dressing-room the apodyterium and a steam
severe.
"

"

baths

the

laconicum

intended

"

for both

were
men

"

further
and

women

desirable
two

features.

In

suites of these

provided,their caldaria abutting near the furnace,


with the other rooms
distant from it.
successivelymore
In the thermae of imThe thermcB of Caracalla, 217 A.D.
rooms

were

i3o

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

penal times, initiated by Agrippa, all these features were


scale and combined
with those of the
magnified to enormous
Greek
The bathing establishments
were
gymnasium.
proper
surrounded
vast
inclosures
with
shaded
walks, exedras,and
by
for various games.
areas
Among the dozen thermae in which
successive

tried

emperors

outdo

to

another, those

-one

of

The

distinguishedboth by their fair preservation


by the logicand the formal interest of their plan (Fig.48).
three principalelements, each unique, were
placed on the

FIG.

49

Caracalla
and

"

are

ROME.

THERMS

OF

main

axis in

ceilingor
the

an

to

open

PAULIN)

ascending series,the frigidariumwith flat


the sky, the tepidarium with groined vaults,

with

caldarium

(RESTORED

TEPIDARIUM.

DIOCLETIAN.
BY

dome

and

niches

like those

of the

theon.
Pan-

vestibules and dressing-rooms,


rightwere
with
two
by minor
great peristylarpalsestrassurrounded
still of large size. The
of
tepidarium, as the room
rooms,
medium
seized on as the key to the circulation
temperature, was
of people, and its axis was
taken as the principaltransverse
line of the plan, prolonged through the peristyles
and
their exedrae.
to the courts
Separate access
was
provided from
To

both

front

freelyto
themselves

left and

and

the

side, and

gardens by

had their

axes

the
means

rooms

of the

rear

of colonnades.

emphasizedby

were

The

the stands

opened
gardens

opposite

ROMAN

ARCHITECTURE

131

The
exedrse.
projectingcaldarium, and by subordinate
varietyof form of the units and the rich interplayof the axes
for the complex and elaborate
have been an inspiration
plans
the

t'.mes.

of modern

tepidarium. Most fruitful for later developments was


of the tepidarium,repeated in the baths of
the typicalform
Diocletian
(Fig.49) for the caldarium as well. Its length was
divided
into three bays marked
columns, each
by enormous
with a fragment of entablature
served
which
as
impost for
These
had
the form
of a longitudinal
the groined vaults.
cylinders,spaced a
cylinder intersected by three transverse
short distance apart and projectingslightly
sections.
beyond the interThe
of masonry
between
the diagomass
nally
square
umns.
descending groins rested on the entablatures of the colThe

entire outward

The
these

on

above

the

windows
buttress
which

roofs

walls

up

as

vaults,concentrated

deep

walls

transverse

visible buttresses

high

of the

Pantheon

filled with

were

carried

were

emphasized
with

the

by

carried

were

of the

These
struck in
neighboring rooms.
circular
height of the spring of the vaults, leaving the semibeneath
the crown
free for great clerestory
spaces
in each bay and at the ends.
The spaces between
the

the

at

sustained

points,was

them, which

behind

thrust

the

of

screens

barrel-vaulted

smaller
relatively

great scale of the

the vaults

main

columns

order.

richlycoffered,the

were

niches, across

walls

As

which
in

the

incrusted

marble.

Aqueducts. Bridges. The aqueducts which furnished the


for the baths and for the general use
water
supply necessary
of a Roman
for the most
citywere
part not on a pressure system,
but were
carried into the city at a high level after being
For a city
brought with a gradual fall from elevated sources.
in the midst of a plain,like the metropolis,this necessitated
the support of a great length of the water
channel
at a considerable
of
height above the ground. The uniform
ranges
arches on
tall piers,by which
this necessitywas
met, show
construction

ornament,
and
are
a

the

in stone

devoid

concrete

or

yet impressiveby the

of every extraneous
ruggedness of the material

straightforwardness with which

confessed.

Where

deep valleythere

was

the
an

aqueduct

added

constructive

had

to

interest due

methods

be carried
to the

across

varied size

there

(Fig. 50),where

another, the whole


and

fiftyfeet

voussoired
over

the

The

arches

imposts
to

and

the

the

as

same

in the two

"

NIMES.

THE

are

placed freelyat

"

range

upper

between
in the

with

the

PONT

above

one
a

Nimes

hundred

the

ranges,

heavy
the pair

aqueducts

CARD"

DU

whatever

of uniform

of the

columns

division
low

of arches

lower

footing.

at

long and over


in the valley. Of

50

rivers with

Gard

mile

stream

of stone

quiet cadence

intermediate

problems

sixth of

du

ranges

FIG.

The

the

three

are

Pont

of the best

distinguishedby a visiblygreater width than


the slopesby a correspondingreduction.
next

are

others,those

demanded.
up

above

the river

is the

instance

famous

most

ARCHITECTURE

franklytook advantage

which

of the arches
The

OF

HISTORY

132

heights the
smaller

sky-line,like
and

cornice.
in the

recur

of types recurs.
have a uniform

The

arches

spans

leads

Doric

triglyphs

Much

the

same

highway bridges,
bridgesover wide

series of arches, sometimes


piers lightened by minor arches supporting

banks

the

those over
at Rome;
roadway, as in the Pons Mulvius
deep ravines have a singlearch or several of sharply graded
The ends of the principalpier might be
size,as at Narni.

decorated

with

monumental

arch

or

small

shrine.

ROMAN
Monuments:

commemorate

column

decorated

column,

it

as

the

column;

Greek

appropriate the
To

133

trophy. The desire of the


them
to
military glorification
early caused
the

for

Romans

ARCHITECTURE

votive

naval
with

use.

The

greatest of the

columnar

Aurelius and
Trajan and of Marcus
Faustina, each consistingof a marble Doric shaft on a square
one
sculpturedpedestal. They carried, at a height of over
of
their
hundred
feet, gilded statues
founders, and were
with
continuous
decorated
spiral reliefs celebrating their
the custom
of erecting
campaigns. From the Greeks also came
and
the battlefield a trophy of victory,composed of armor
on
them
in stone.
imitated
from
The
or
possibility
weapons,
of a further monumental
development of the trophy lay in its
pedestal,which was elaborated to an even
greater extent than
in the Hellenistic examples. In the trophy of Augustus, near
stories on
circular peristylein two
tall square
a
Monaco,
a
basement, and with a steep conical roof, supports the trophy
at a great height.
proper
A more
native monumental
The arch.
characteristically
the commemorative
or
"triumphal" arch, originally
type was
and perishablematerials, erected to
of temporary
character
in
welcome
a
returning victor as he passed through Rome
triumphal procession. In the imperial period such arches,
monuments

made

those

for monumental

victory,Duilius,in 260 B.C., erected


the prows
of captured ships,a rostral

called.

was

column

were

in stone,

permanent
purposes,

examples, from

of

in

parts of

all

the time

of

and

in the

an

entablature, perhaps with

Soon

pedestalor
a

second

the

of

arch framed,

two

columns

pediment. In any
attic above, servingas a support

column

was

added

on

Titus

in

Rome

earliest

the

"

Arch

show

tive
commemora-

The

empire.

theaters,by

the

pair,inclosinga rectangularfield
the

for various

Augustus,

as

was

Tabularium

used

were

case

and
there

for statues.

either side of the original


the classic instance being

(Fig. 51).

The

columnar

apparatus, here franklydecorative,is handled with the greatest


Emphasis is given the central opening by
mastery of form.
and
projecting architrave, uniting the inner columns
castinga deep shadow over the relief sculpturein the triangular
The silhouette is enriched
by the breaking
spandrelsbelow.
of the entablature about the corner
columns, while they are

the

134

HISTORY

united with their

OF

ARCHITECTURE

simplepedestalwhich quiets
As the
the variety above
and
rests
firmly on the earth.
completion above, one must
imagine the quadriga,
necessary
chariot with four horses and sculpturedfigures. A
a bronze
further development of the monumental
arch was
the widening
of the side bays and the insertion of subordinate
arches in
them,

neighborsby

in the Arch

as

of

Domitian,

appropriatedby Constantine.

FIG.

51

the

"

ARCH

Colosseum, later

pedestaland entablature

Here

THE

the

near

OF

TITUS

columns, and the unity depends on the


of the
arches.
in the
Later, and
rhythmical symmetry
provinces, the designers of arches sought to exhaust the
break

all four

about

of combination
possibilities
Gates.
over

Porta

the

to

Roman
Even

The

peace
a

of the

city gates,
rather

gate which

Nigra

monumental

motives

'of the arch and

triumphal arch

which

had

often

symbolicalthan
on

the

expression by

were

also carried

in the

days of the
militarysignificance.

its fortified character, like the

retained

in Trier-

column.

German

columnar

frontier,was
adornment

given a
(Fig. 52).

ARCHITECTURE

ROMAN
The

main
enframed

are

and

in the

as

Colosseum,

and

of towers

but

with

galleries

greater sternness

sobriety.

Grave

The

monuments.

commemorative

monuments,

which

greater than

52

same

and

columns

FIG.

even

the windows

openings and

"

TRIER.

instinct that

arches

PORTA

shows

created

the

itselfin the grave

NIGRA

in imperialtimes took
in Hellenistic Greece.

on

Both

magnificence
burial and

and
practised,and richly decorated urns
but
sarcophagi were
employed. These were
secondary in
however, to large constructions containingthe
cases,
many
tomb
varied forms.
Patrons
chamber, and taking the most
and artists drew their suggestionsfrom the tombs
of every
the Romans
the
had come
in contact
people with whom
Asiatic and Etruscan
tumulus, the Egyptian pyramid, the
Greek
and
peristylarmonument
exedra, the temple, both
incineration

were

"

36

rectangular and
the

lining
the

of

those

appeared in rich array


led across
the
from
which
Campagna
city. Only in special cases, such as
All

circular.

streets

gates of

the

the

ARCHITECTURE

OF

HISTORY

these

interment

was

emperors,

within

the

walls

permitted.
The

tumulus

of earth,

FIG.

was

53

"

the tumulus, the

was

girtat the base by

MAUSOLEUM

ROME.

selected

Campus

It

type.

OF

in

circular wall of stone, which

(RESTORED

HADRIAN.

BY

28-26

In

B.C.

this and

is

principalmember,
pedestal after the manner
The
three
with

cypress

emperor.

feet
trees

Even

(Fig.53), which

more

itself raised

of the

and

of

crowned

with

splendidwas

on

had
cone

massive

square

still subsists in the

ments.
monu-

drum

marble
of earth

colossal statue

the mausoleum

the

developed

Hellenistic circular

Augustus
diameter, bearing a

mausoleum

hundred

and

on

Roman

other

substructure
examples, however, the cylindrical
into the

VAUDREMER)

erected

for his mausoleum,

by Augustus

Martius

primitivemound

of

planted
of the

of Hadrian

Castle of Sant'

Angelo.

ARCHITECTURE

ROMAN
Its wall

steps surmounted
The
the

order,its
quadriga.

decorated

was

with

by

rectangular type

The

elaborate

most

an

In the erection

temple type.

137

less

was

the

was

cone

of tombs

of

than

employed

of marble

was

the

circular.

of Diocletian

mausoleum

form

temple

in his

interior richly
Spalato, about 300 A.D., the domed
with superposed columns, the octagonal exterior
membered
with a peristyle
and a projectingportico. As in other tombs

palace

at

of this

class,the cella

sarcophagus
notable

step

of Constantine

which

deposited in

was

was

used

was

second

in the tomb

taken
the

for memorial

of

Great, who

services,the

chamber

below.

Constantia, the daughter

died

in 354.

is broken

The

wall

and

on

instead
through,
arched
niches there are
deep arches supported on pairs of
columns
united in the thickness of the wall by an entablature.
central space
The
is surrounded
aisle,the
by a continuous
into a circular building,
of the basilica is carried over
clerestory
creatingnew
spatialeffects of which Christian architecture
to make
was
great use (Fig.71).
the

dome

Domestic

rests

architecture.

The

Roman

of the

house

town

best

may

Pompeii, where the debris of the eruption of


Vesuvius, 79 A.D., has preserved almost intact a great number
of dwellings of every
a
class,ranging over
period of three
hundred
The
already essentially
type of plan was
years.

be

studied

at

fixed in the second


with
The

the

tenements,
a

small

middle

of the

means

poorer

century B.C., and varied less with time than

atrium

and

class had

which

their

couple

republic an atrium
walled garden at the

for the
and
rear.

exigenciesof
were

site.

the

crowded

in

high

the street, or had


of their own.
The

shops along
of

still to content

served

"

over

the

in Rome

of whom

folk,many
here lived

and

owner

rooms

themselves

best

in the

surrounding
The

entrance

with

the ments
arrangeearlier days of the

with

rooms
was

by

small
narrow

atrium
was
a
large
shops. The
with a roof slopinginward
to a central opening,
oblong room
from wall
type, supported on beams
generallyof the Tuscan
to wall.
Primitivelythis had been the principalliving-room,
containingthe hearth, the smoke of which escaped through a
small
opening in the roof. With the transition to urban
increased to lightthe
conditions the size of the opening was

passage

between

rented

138

ARCHITECTURE

with the result that

surrounding rooms,
had

OF

HISTORY

sheltered livingright of the atrium

more

provided. To left and


small sleeping-rooms,
were
cubiculce,
opening from it. Behind
of the atrium, were
two
these, forming lateral extensions
rooms

alcoves

or

be

to

ales,put

to

various

survivals

uses,

when

day

perhaps of the
the

isolated,and
introduced
At the

the

house

light could
the

from

rear

stood

the

was

sides.

tablinum,
used

reception-room,
in smaller

also

family

houses

added.

houses.

of

In

the

wealthier

class

the atrium

only was
but

the

of

larged,
en-

entire

paratus
ap-

Hellenistic

the Delian

on

minor

sometimes

was

house

as

story, with

Larger
not

houses

living-room.

second
rooms,

be

model,

with

exedras, and
peristyle,
triclinium, or
dining-room

with

three

added

to

columns
the

at

couches,
the

Four

rear.

often

were

was

added

of the atrium

corners

opening,creatingthe

tetra-

styletype of which Vitruvius


than
more
speaks, or even
like
four, making the room
a
FIG.

54

POMPEII.

"

HOUSE

OF

PANSA.

{A)
B) Impluvium

(C) Peristyle
(D) (Ecus

clients and

and
visitors,
which
peristyle,

the
second

atrium, beside

apartments
an

entire

were

in

the

court,

the

grouped.

block, with

more

Corinthian

applied

it.

to

more
family came
leave the originalatrium

to the

to

to

ing
surround-

rooms

supplemented perhaps by
which

first,about
The

appears

The

to withdraw
were

as

name,

atrium, then

PLAN
Atrium

Greek

most

elaborate

extensive

the

domestic

houses

garden behind

filled
the

ROMAN

peristyle. Such
Pompeian house
of privacy,is the
Decoration

ARCHITECTURE

high development of the


in differentiation of functions
and guarding
so-called House
of Pansa
(Fig.54).

showing

one,

of houses.

To

door

where

frame.

they

could

at first in imitation

in

few

suggested in

walls,

the

on

architectural

the first instance

more

villas

outskirts

the

windows,

turned

perhaps

other

hand,

richlypainted,
costlymarbles, were
of these, later with mythological scenes,

of the stage.
Villas. In
on

houses

be of

setting of attenuated

the

small

interior

The

not

exterior

the

blank, plastered wall, with


richer

139

by

forms

which

the architectural decorations

intimate relation to the landscape were


of the

were

city,with

terraced

the

courtyards,

Others, less formal, served as retreats


in the country or by the seaside.
The larger villas went
far
beyond the satisfaction of practicalneeds, with luxurious
amusement.
provision for dining, bathing, exercise, and
Especiallywas this true of the imperial villas,of which the

gardens,and

orchards.

villa of Hadrian

Tivoli

at

gives the

best

included, besides the livingquarters and festal


of the most

famous

capriciouslystrewn
two

were

over

buildingsof Greece and of the Orient,


a
picturesque topography. There'

a
theaters,libraries,
stadium, thermae,

academy,

and

terminated

by

of Alexandria.

a
a

long canal, bordered

great niche, in imitation


The

imitations

than

suggestive,however, as
technique of brick and concrete
in the
which

(Fig. 55). It
suites,reproductions

idea

combination

of vaults

was

and

and

so-called

by porticoes and
Canopus, a suburb

to have

seem

all

of

been

executed

less literal

in Roman

designed with a facility


the composition of plans

is purely Roman.

in
palaces of the emperors
less to
Rome, established on the Palatine Hill (Fig.56), owe
the Roman
house than to the palaces of eastern
capitalssuch
as Alexandria, Antioch, and
Pergamon. Begun by Augustus,
extended
later emperors,
they were
by Tiberius and many
ments
especiallyDomitian, who built the great series of state apartin the center.
the
Palatine
to
connect
Caligulasought
to the
with the Capitol by a bridge,to secure
easier access
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus; Nero united the imperial
gardens on the Esquilinewith the Palatine by building in the

The

palacesof the

C"sars.

The

ARCHITECTURE

ROMAN

intervening valley, where


with

House

Golden

not

were

the

141

Colosseum

its luxurious

stood, his

later

park. Though

these
covered

permanent, the Palatine itselfwas

magnificentbuildings,includingseveral temples.

FIG.

56

"

PALACES

ROME.

OF

THE

CAESARS.

sions
exten-

with

The

state

(RESTORED

PLAN.

BY

DEGLANE)

apartments
colonnade
was

the

formed
toward

an

the central

richlyadorned

barrel vault
with

basilica

columns

of the
hundred
and

long
fagade

feet

niches.

imperial tribunal,the
this suite lay a square
lararium or private chapel. Behind
at the rear
a triclinium,
peristyle,
opening into supplementary
were

the

with

fronted

In the center

area.

audience-room, having

in span, the walls


To right and left

block

oblong

or

HISTORY

42

of the

private apartments

The

rooms.

ARCHITECTURE

OF

occupied

emperor

the soblock centering on a court ; beyond them was


inclosed garden surrounded
called Stadium, an
by porticoes
and dominated
by a great vaulted exedra.
another

The

palace of

Diocletian

is that

arrangement

of the

Spalato in Dalmatia,

retired in 305

the emperor

Palace

the

on

at

potato. A

of Diocletian

shores

(Fig.57)

at

Adriatic, to which

of the

layingdown

on

different

very

his

authority.

r'

""'

The

'

J^-

57

FIG.

SPALATO.

"

securityof
the

PALACE

the

lines of

OF

empire was

(RESTORED

DIOCLETIAN.

no

BY

HEBRARD)

longercertain,the palacefollowed

fortified camp.
It forms
a
rectangular walled
inclosure quartered by two colonnaded
streets
at right angles,
with

gates and

sides.

Along

which

are

monumental

towers

at

the seaward

the

the
face

middle
runs

imperial apartments,

vestibule at the head

points of the landward


long colonnade behind
also

of the

reached

from

longitudinalstreet.
Next them, frontingeach other in balancing inclosures which
filled the remainder
of this half of the palace,are a temple,
for the
serving as the imperial chapel, and the mausoleum
streets
are
Beyond the transverse
emperor.
quarters for
service and for the guards; around the outer walls are store-

ROMAN
chambers, reached

from

most

appear

Ensembles,

town

clearly(Fig.59).
planning. The Romans

satisfied

not

which

symmetry

with

even

had

they

relations to
Rome

plan.

as

Thus
the

circuit.

individual

to

sought

give the
too

was

imperialtimes
and
complex
units

to

citya

and

as

organize their

whole

vast

such

coherent

consecrated

too

effected.
portions a unification was
a splendidfacade, ingeniously
planned, was built before
irregularbuildingsof the Palatine, to give them a symmetrical

aspect from
the

was

the

in certain

this, but

for

whole

to

of

extended

fora, but

and

another

one

the

given

palaces,thermae, and

the

makes

influeiice is seen, and the developments


architecture in new
relations of arch and

of late Roman

were

which

passage

143

of detail eastern

In the forms

column

ARCHITECTURE

suggest

Maximus.
of the

consistent treatment
a

galley,with

vast

about

disposed

were

the Circus

devised to mask

greater scale

series of

the actual

of the

and

Tiber, of which

to

Its

buildings
courts, artfully
plan. On a far

connected

works

Tiber,

in the

stern.

of
irregularity

the harbor

were

the

warehouses

of

Ostia,

the

hexagonal Port of
the most
by uniform
Trajan surrounded
buildings was
towns,
systematic. Newly founded
especiallythose of a
semi -militarycharacter like Augusta Praetoria (Aosta),in the
foothills of the Alps, and Thamugadi (Timgad) in Africa were
laid out in rectangularform bisected by the principalstreets
with others parallel
to them.
a formal
They marked
progress
of their outline as well
in the regularity
Hellenistic towns
over
at

as

the mouth

island

and

prow

fundamental

More

of their minor
Individual

architecture
behind

by

the

no

forms. Although
fall behind
forms

means

further

subdivisions.

of

slavish

the

imitations.

formal

without

in

Greeks

in

new

interest,as
originality,
they were

In

took

many

place,
or

of Roman

in

their combinations

development
structural functions produced
For purely utilitarian purposes,
used

the individual forms

in

modified

post, lintel,and

instances

others,

new

expressions.
arch

were

simple and as
effective as the primitive system of the waiting-hallof the
in Egypt.
In Roman
Africa and
pyramid of Khafre
Syria
of
instances
monolithic
with
are
piers
many
square
square
lintels,
repeatedperhaps in several stories,which, like the
ornament

manner

as

i44
arches

HISTORY

of the

constructive

ARCHITECTURE

OF

aqueducts, have
membering.

Walls, doors,windows.

other

no

The

of

problems

for the wall and


in

for the post and lintel had


exemplary way by the Greeks, whose

an

accessible

and

of stone.

elaborated

by

authoritative

than

treatment

richer

the

expression

already been
solutions

solved

were

too

be

ignored. In these
features the innovations
of the Romans
minor.
were
relatively
They made more
frequentemployment of grooved or rusticated
joints,of cap and base moldings, followingthe Hellenistic
The
tendencies.
of their moldings were
less studied
profiles
and subtle, conforming more
closelyto arcs of circles than to
and other conic sections.
Doors
and windows
arcs
elliptical
followed
late Greek
architrave
examples in having a molded

of

too

frieze and
the

pediment.
was

with

an

best

seen

The

cornice

addition

For

windows

in the

Doric

and

and

of two

added, sometimes

brackets
an

or

even

free

consoles, or
richer treatment

standing columns

triangularor segmental
Pantheon
(Fig.42).
"

"

in its Greek
or
order, whether
its Tuscan
in
the
form, v/as littleused in imperialtimes, except
lower stories of buildingswith superposed orders, where
its
relative massiveness

The

often

niches

pediment

interior of the

order.

were

of curved

devised, the tabernacle


entablature

to

Doric

preference. An occasional
with
example shows the echinus of the capitalornamented
multipliedand enriched.
egg and dart and the other members
The difficultiescreated by the corner
overcome
triglyphwere
in imperial times by placing it on
in
the axis of the column
spite of its leaving a fragment of metope
beyond, thus
functional
sacrificing
expressionto formal regularity. In the
unbroken
this
amphitheaters, with their continuous
sweep,
problem did not arise.
The Ionic order.
Ionic order followed
The
the precedents
of Hermogenes
in having always a frieze,and a capitalwith
relativelysmall volutes and a low connecting band, which in
lost all its curvature.
Roman
The Attic base
examples finally
was
preferred. The angular capitaloriginated by Iktinos,
volutes
with
all four sides projecting diagonally,was
on
the colonnade
had
to
corners
frequently employed where
stillgave

it the

turn.

The

Corinthian

order.

The

Corinthian

order

was

the

one

ARCHITECTURE

ROMAN

with

comported best
imperial Romans

which
the

the

shared

love

with

of

the

magnificence which

Hellenistic

exclusivelyin the later


of capitalgenerallypreferred was
scheme
The
example from Epidaurus,
with
two
alternating
of eightleaves each,
rows
but the spiritof the execution
and

almost

used

was

monarchs,

monuments.

that

of the

bolder, the

was

luxuriant.
leafage more
nished
Each
building still furself
a problem for itits

showed

and

own

designof capital.Among
the
amples,
superb exmany
of

that

temple

of

Castor

Pollux

in

the

Romanum

the

and
Forum

given
as
representative(Fig.
58). A second common
type

that

was

the

of

Vesta

of

Temple

Tivoli, with
leaves

be

may

the

close down

at
upper

the

on

with
and
a
lower,
crinkled, parsley -like

serration.
the

Corinthian

was

the

Composite

so-called

capital in
echinus

which

and

scrolls

of

variant

of

an

the

diagonal

FIG.

58

AND

ENTABLATURE

OF
CAST

"

ROME.

CASTOR
IN

CORINTHIAN
FROM

AND
THE

POLLUX.

METROPOLITAN

CAPITAL
THE

TEMPLE

(RESTORED
MUSEUM)

angular

Ionic capitalwere
placed above
This attempt to
Arch of Titus.

the

rows

of leaves,as

in the

stillgreater richness involved

secure

of scrollsand leafsacrifice of the organicconnection


age
in the original. In the Corinthian
entablature the dentils
a

became

secondary to great

or

modillions,sometimes

with
blocks,sometimes
as scrolls decorated
of Castor and Pollux.
In the temples
as in the Temple
leafage,

treated

as

molded

brackets

HISTORY

46

at Baalbek

there

ARCHITECTURE

OF

consoles in the frieze

are

well. Entablature

as

developments of
capital alike took part in the stylistic
the imperialperiod the passionfor decoration of the Flavians,
the puristicreaction under Hadrian
and the Antonines.
The
and

"

Antoninus

of

temple

modillions

Faustina,

has

A.D.,

141

neither

dentils.

nor

Pilasters.

and

The

which,
pilaster,

Roman

counterpart of the

instead

anta

the

was

of

being studiouslydistinguishedfrom
the column
in width of side and profile
of capital,
imitated
was
directlyfrom it. Late Hellenistic and republican buildings
show the pilaster
used not only to respond to the columns
of a
at the rear
temple portico but to form a similar termination
of the cella,and to continue the rhythm of the spacing
corners
between
in the same
that engaged columns
used.
manner
were
Pilasters were
used also,instead of engaged columns, in various
buildingsof the empire where lack of means
or a desire for less
accentuation
suggested the substitution.
In

arch.
i.The.

the

combination

with

the solution

of

times
added

in

at the

molded

were

like that

impost

the column

the Romans

which,

as

have

we

of the
had

arch

occupied

seen,

outside

Pantheon

and
Roman

an

to

function

the
as

like

form

In

capitalor

bed

lintel,although characteristic

the entablature

the
of

whole

can
republi-

stone

was

similar way

of support, and
The enframement

console.

art,

its

voussoirs,the voussoirs themselves


archivolt,a ring having a section
architrave.

columnar

given a

often treated

period of

form

to

suited

column

of the

and

problems,

new

history. After the simple treatment


which
of
a
course
projectingmolded

of the

was

members

by

elaboration

of their

course

was

formal

not

was

the

itself was

molding, with
the keystone
of the arch
of the

final scheme.

used

as

the

central
In

the impost of

the
an

spanning the
wide
a portico. In the thermae
a fragment
of entablature
and give a larger
served to lengthen the column
bearing for the springingof a vault; in Syria and at Spalato
and
this fragment was
reduced
molded
to a mere
stilt-block,
down
finallyomitted
altogether, so that the arches came
directlyon the heads of the columns
(Fig.59). The column
thus gradually attained a relation with the arch as structural
its original
relation with the lintel.
as
arch;

Palmyra it was
central opening of
at

bent

into

an

archivolt

ROMAN

ARCHITECTURE

Wall

form to
membering. The relation of the columnar
wall membering proceeded in the opposite direction from the
the contradiction
of expressionswas
common
starting-point;
reconciled
structural
by removing every
suggestion and
leaving the decoration undisguised. In the arch of Domitian
Transitorium, begun by
(Constantine) and in the Forum

Colosseum
arch

noinan

Pa.n1hepn
order

cTOAJ).

FIG.

59

DEVELOPMENT

"

Thermo?

Cen1r"vl niche
C.125AJ).

Spalato

of Caracal/a.

Cenlral

Spalato

arch

Porla

C.M5A.D.

IN

THE

ROMAN

ajjrea

Spaloto
Slreel

c.MOAD

RELATIONS

OF

ARCH

AND

COLUMN

IN

ARCHITECTURE

Domitian, the columns, instead of being engaged againstthe


wall, stand free in front of it,supporting merely an end of
entablature

and

an

attic

or

statue

over

it.

In

the

free

still
the stage backgrounds this tendency went
and tabernacles
whole
apparatus of colonnettes

composition of
further; the

application. Tabernacle
work
of this sort came
and more
to supersede,for the
more
enrichment
with engaged columns
of facades, the treatment
of the full height of the wall.
In the north
gate at Spalato,
the niches and colonnettes
no
are
finally,
longer carried down
to the ground, but are
supportedmerely on projectingbrackets
obviously

was

or

corbels.

fondness
of any

decorative

mere

Meanwhile

for Greek

columnar

other

art in the

subdivision

temple of Antoninus

and

pilasters
only at the corners
concrete, plastered over

forces had

been

at

work.

The

second century led to the omission


The
of the wall in certain cases.

Faustina, although prostyle,has


of the cella.
with

The

use

stucco, in vast

of brick and

constructions

148
such

as

HISTORY

the thermae

limitation

of

OF
and

membering

ARCHITECTURE

the Villa of
to

the

Hadrian, encouraged the

openings,where

columns

and

fulfilled their originalfunctions.


The
pilasters
tendency was
pression,
thus, by various paths, toward frankness of constructive exin spiteof conditions far more
complex than those in
which the Greeks had achieved their earlystructural purism.
For elements
Elements of plan and space.
of plan and space
drew both on Greece and on the Orient ; they later
the Romans
made
of their own.
The
important contributions
temple
cella and
the basilica with
longitudinal colonnades, the
exterior peristyle,
of Greek origin;the peristylar
hall and
were
of Oriental origin. On the other hand,
court, the clerestory,
the forms suggestedby vault construction,the apse, the circle,
or
polygon, with abutting niches, the groin-vaulted rectangle
with
side compartments,
Roman
in development. In
were
two
or
a dome
one
was
cases
placed over a square room, in the
form of a circumscribed
hemisphere intersected by the planes
of the four walls in the manner
later familiar in the Byzantine
domical
vaults.
The
forms
of vaults
were
ordinarilykept
rigidlygeometrical,and, in consequence,
they often determined
the
with
below.
Thus
precise proportions of the rooms
surfaces
were
groined vaults, in which cylindrical
employed,
in
the line of intersection
fell
the two
a
plane only when
of equal diameter.
As a result the Romans
cylinderswere
employed them by preferenceonly over
bays. The
square
vaults first made
possiblea plastichandling of interior space,
in which
wall and ceilingblend in coherent unity,and adjacent
elements
It was
characteristic
freelyinto one another.
open
of the Romans
to emphasize strongly the predominance of
the central element
of a group,
the surrounding units being
rather shallow
but
bays than long arms, having themselves
minor

subdivisions.

alternately
square

and

Architectural

treatment

involved
well

as

received

new

favorite

semicircular

problems
impost

in detail

which

in

The

was

with

niches

plan.

vaults.

of

in construction.
an

treatment

The

and

interior

vaulted

exterior

treatment

as

vault, like the

arch, usually
either a full entablature,
was
enriched the wall below, or else

supported by an order which


a
stringcourse
composed somewhat
The vaulting surfaces themselves

on
were

the lines of

cornice.

generally unbroken

by

ARCHITECTURE

ROMAN

149

projecting ribs, having merely a recessed pattern of


coffers (Fig. 42). Externally, barrel vaults were
generally
covered
by gable roofs. Groined vaults at large scale, as in
the tepidaria,had lateral gables over
each bay, intersecting
the main
longitudinalroof and producing valleys by which
the rain was
each pier. The
dischargedover
tendency was
the massive
to rest the tiles of the roofs directly
on
increasingly
shell of the vaults, fashioned in inclined planesto receive them.
any

In the
form

largedomes, like that of the Pantheon, the curved


retained on the exterior,the upper
portion being a
of

case
was

saucer-like

girded by

zone

several

monumental

steps, which

carried the visual support to the high exterior wall.


For
the vast
Construction in brick and concrete.

takings
under-

capital,and in other parts of the empire where


rendered
stone
not
was
by natural conditions the inevitable
of construction
were
building material, methods
developed
which
lent themselves
admirably to the scale of operations
and to the character
of the labor supply. A building of the
of the thermae of Caracalla could not be erected wholly
extent
had been,
the Parthenon
by skilled craftsmen
as, relatively,
could it be built wholly of marble.
used in
The methods
nor
the mass
of the construction
had to be adapted to large forces
of slaves and unskilled
directed
tendents.
by trained superinmen,
These
conditions
were
happily fulfilled by the
often so thick as to produce
employment of brick,with mortar
in which
the cement
practicallya concrete, or of concrete
the

at

itself was
and

the essential element,

small materials

furnished
and

secure

about

better

walls the bricks

veneer

of marble

left to form

covered

slabs.

pozzolana
in strength

that

They

temporary
as

much
were

as

forms

Walls

face and

large,
triangular,

very

were

side, but

often

backing.

In

some

the final exterior surface, but


with

coating of

of concrete

stucco

or

constructed

were

mixture, in a semi-liquidstate,
devised
built of wood, which
were
so

by depositingor pouring
into

on

between

were

bricks

Roman

foot

bond

were

usually they

more

The

construction.

usually square,

volcanic

left nothing to be desired

which

cement

The

monolith.

aggregate of loose

an

quickness of setting.

Wall

to

into

binding

possibleof

usuallyfaced

the

the lumber
with

could be used

brick

or

stone

repeatedly.
fragments in

HISTORY

ISO

form, and

some
manner

reticulatum

opus

the

to

or

veneered

in the

same

facing received special


pattern produced on the surface
kinds

The

walls.

according

names

generallycoated

then

brick

as

ARCHITECTURE

OF

of

"

for small

of stone

squares

standing

on

their

diagonal lines, opus spicatum for kernel-shaped


of
fragments in herringbone pattern while the general name
in

corners

"

opus

incertum

of

regularform.

no

at intervals to

and
the

Bonding

tie the

with

treatment

of brick

courses

facingsfirmly to

the

fragments
often

were

body

laid

of the wall,

reinforced with
brick or stone in
sometimes
angles were
form
of quoins, or blocks of alternatinglength toothed

into the

mass.

Vault
of

for

reserved

was

construction.

In

in

materials

small

advantages greater

thick
than

even

of vaults

construction

the

the

use

presents constructive

mortar

in the construction

of walls, for

it obviates

greater difficulties in the individual shaping of the

elements.

of

vault

lacks

alone, however,

concrete

any

arching action until it has set, and bears with its full weight
the temporary wooden
form or centering,which has to be
on

correspondingly
worked

to avoid

cumbersome

and

The

wasteful.

Romans

this

by constructing first,over lightcentering,


of brick arches,with projections
cells to secure
a framework
or
with the concrete, a great part of the weight of
a good bond
thus removed
from the wooden
which was
supports (Fig.60).
In groined vaults of this sort ribs of brick reinforced the chief
constructive lines; in domes
they followed principallythe
elements

of the

hardened, of
purpose

and

was

in the

any

of

had

concrete

brick

had

thoroughly

fulfilled their

specialstructural function,

of the vault.

mass

without

the

ribs

longer served

no

sometimes

unbroken

such

course,

being merged
through them

Once

surface.

Coffers

were

affectingstability.A second

followed

which

did

not

demand

even

cut

principle
even

an

centering,but requiredmerely a light


laid a layer of
form of slats spaced openly. Over these was
flat tiles,
touching each other only at their edges yet strongly
these another
and perhaps another, forming
cemented; over
a skin of no
strength (Fig.61).
great thickness but of surprising
it until it had
This
supported the concrete
placed upon
interior facing to the
a
hardened, and formed
permanent
surface

in the

vault.

ARCHITECTURE

ROMAN
Ornament.
the

In their enrichment

Romans

followed,

tendencies

initiated

decorative
dart

and

forms

so

other

many

Asiatic Greeks.

Ionic

forms

their

made

recur,

60

ROMAN

"

CELLULAR

VAULT.

FIG.

6l

(CHOISY)

in accordance

with
of

polychromy

the

In

taste.

Greeks

came

sumptuous

columns,

and

had

the

pavements

advantage

and

walls,

and

rounder

LAMINATED

(CHOISY)

place of the painted


polychromy of richly

marbles, especiallyin interiors,which

colored

with

luxuriant

more

ROMAN

VAULT.

Roman

egg

fuller and

"

the

moldings,

in marble

profiles.The

in harmony with the moldings themselves, and

FIG.

surfaces

matters,

The

carved

order,were

suggested by

familiar

other

the

by

like those of the Greek

in

as

moldings and

of

was

more

of permanence.
Shafts of
exhibited
variegated and

employed not only with mastery of pattern


and
of structural
color, but with discriminatingavoidance
left unfluted to
pretense. Dark and richlyveined shafts were
exhibit the beauty of their material.
POT the veneering of
preciousmaterials

brick

or

walls marble

concrete

the most

of limited

blocks

were

sawn

material,and large slabs

were

thin to make

appliedwith

jointingand an absence of bond that gave no


false suggestionof ashlar masonry.
Local variety.Although the official art of the capitalwas
the same
diffused through the empire in much
the
as
way
official Latin tongue, this did not preclude the existence of
in the more
provincialvarieties or dialects,or the maintenance
a

freedom

of

civilized East
Roman
The

of

Greek

tradition which

held its

own

with

developments.
West.

Provence.

Germany.

In the West

it was

less

152
any

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OP

survival of pre-existingstylesthan

available

materials

in certain

and these
localities,

of construction

which

of fine limestone

and

at Aries

barrel

vaults

supported

barrel

in Provence,

Thus

France,

rise to

clay gave

arcade

of the

beams

vaults, in this and

for the

usual

radial

spanning

barrel

corridor.

the

instances, do

other

many

amphitheater

arcade

upper

abundance

an

slabs is substituted

stone

on

of

of

lower

vault; in the

concentric
are

of form.

absence

an

specialcharacteristics
naturallyrather in matters
in

the south

expedients. In the
of long
a flat ceiling

technical

were

in matters

than

valleyregion in

the Rhone

The

resulted

influence of the

the

have

not

bonded

togetherlengthwise,but are made up of


independent rings of voussoirs side by side, which could be
erected one
by one on a movable
centeringused over and over.
In the so-called Baths of Diana
the ringsare not kept
at Nimes
in a singlecylindrical
rest on
surface,but the alternate ones
their stones

those

and

between,

without

thus

centering of their

any

climate

severe

could

led to

laid

be

In

own.

them

on

the

Germany
inclosure

greater degree of

afterward
more

and

the

adoption of devices for artificial heating. The thermae and


the palace of Constantine
at Trier are
lacking in colonnaded
openings to the exterior,and have double outer walls with
air in the cavities.
warm
exceptionalfacilities for circulating
Although late constructive
developments in general were
tending to requiremassive outer walls as a support for vaults,
it is not

climate

fanciful to suppose
also.

East.

The

originalsfor

Syria.

contribute
hand

many

theater

with

eastward.

Greek

was

new

forms

and

influence from

itself furnished

types, and

of seats

and

buildingspurely Greek, like


like the Odeion
purely Roman,

ancient

degree of mixture

native

in Hellenistic

Syria,in

Roman

the other

with

the

was

of the

many

of

Herodes
as

in the

added.

In

still

days.

touch

artistic fermentation

art

were

closed

the

appears,

stages

to

their way

stage, found

Besides

the

continued

during the imperialperiod. On


origin,like
arrangements of Roman

in Athens, every
theaters
which
to

Egypt the
as
buildings,

had

East

Roman

its union

temples, and
Atticus

The

an

them

to

certain

in these instances

persisted for religious


hotbed of eastern
ments
developinterior of Asia

beginning.

where

Of the citieswhich

FIG.

62"

MOUSMIEH.

PR^TORIUM.

(DE VOGUE)

154
reflected

HISTORY
Hellenistic

caravan

station

vivid

picture.

end

with

of the
The

oasis

of

flourishing

the

Syrian desert,

streets

columns,

details

The

in the

principal

richly profiled

termini.

ARCHITECTURE

architecture, Palmyra,

tall Corinthian

with

side

OF

lined

are

still

from

gives
end

forming porticoes on

arches

to

either

intersections

the

at

and

the

temples there and at Baalbek


the
show
the
Orient
and
new
spirit that, coming from
broke
spreading westward,
through the classical canons.
At
arch
the
Palmyra the entablature
springs as an
over
wide
central
the carving
opening of the portico; at Baalbek
loses the
and
acteristic
projection
always charplay of surface
of
to

be

Greek

incised

and

below

the

the

background
buildings, especially
"

from

departures
marked.

The

(Fig. 62)
instead
at

Graeco-Roman

has

of

as

face
surrounding surdisappears. In other
Syrian

woodless

Hauran

style of the capital


house
guard
prastorium or
vaults
with
resting on columns
entablature,

devoid

above

entirely with

of

stone

architecture, its magnificent

in meeting
flexibility
easy

to

the

wide

and

block,
basilica

resting on
as
freely

and

wide

those

of

the

diffusion

of

associations, and

its

makes

it

problems

complex

influence

the

which

it exercised, both

the
Roman
to
immediately succeeded
centuries
later,
possessions and on those who
sought, many
revive
Roman
Under
culture.
the
to
Byzantine rulers of
the
its architecture
the East
empire still lived on, and
had
direct
a
were
continuance,
rapidly
though its forms
West
modified
In the
there.
by forces already at work
on

the
the

the

understand

new

only

as

more

Mousmieh

at

slabs

adornment

extraneous

still

are

them;

functions
adapted to their constructive
bridges and aqueducts.
architecture.
The
Infiueticeof Roman
Roman

district, the

is roofed

Chaqqua

arches

the

tends

the

the

classic

of

plane

plane
in

and

ornament

peoples who

Christian

point

of

of

monuments

departure

invaders, the

by the

for

indebtedness
name

the

of

the

last

architecture
which

Romanesque.

to

furnished

emperors
of

Rome

the

Teutonic

is well

gested
sug-

ARCHITECTURE

ROMAN

OF

PERIODS

All

I.

in the

buildingsare

ARCHITECTURE

city of Rome

unless

stated.

otherwise

influenceEtruscan
Early republicanperiod,to about 300 B.C.
First temple of Jupiter Capitolinus,dedication
ascribed to
B.C.

510

Sack

of Rome

"Wall
Cloaca
"Arch

II.

ROMAN

155

by the Gauls, 390

B.C.

of Servius."
Maxima.

Fourth

of

Augustus"
Perugia.
of
Appius Claudius, 312
Aqueduct
Later
republican period, about 300

B.C.?

centurv

at

B.C.
B.C.

to

50

B.C.

Greek

influence.

Conquest of Magna Graecia by 272, Sicilyby 241; destruction


of Corinth, 146; Province
of Asia organized, 133 B.C.
Rostral column
of Duilius,260 B.C.
Basilica of Cato the Censor, 184 B.C.
B.C.
Bridge of ^milius, 179-142
Pons
B.C.
Mulvius, rebuilt no
Porticoes of Forum
at Pompeii, before 100
B.C.
after 100 B.C.
Temple of Hercules at Cori, soon
Basilica at Pompeii, before 80 B.C.
Small theater at Pompeii, 80 B.C.
Amphitheater at Pompeii, after 80 B.C.
Tabularium, 78 B.C.
Virilis." 1 Toward
middle
of the first
Temple of "Fortuna
Circular temple at Tivoli.
century B.C.
First amphitheater in Rome
(of wood), 58 B.C.
Theater
of Pompey, 55 B.C.
III. Imperial period, about
Oriental influence.
to 350 A.D.
50 B.C.
Basilica Julia and
Forum
of Julius,dedicated
(unfinished)
46

B.C.

Amphitheater of Statilius Taurus,

Augustus, 27
Mausoleum

B.C.-I4

30-29

B.C.

A.D.

of

Augustus, 28-26 B.C.


"Baths
of Diana," Mimes, 25 B.C.
Theater
of Marcellus, dedicated
n
B.C.
of Augustus and
Forum
Temple of Mars
dedicated
"Maison

B.C.

Carrie," Nimes,

Thermae

of

Pont

Card, Nimes.

du

Agrippa.

4 A.D.

the

Avenger,

i56

HISTORY

Nero, 54-68

Burning
Flavian

ARCHITECTURE

A.D.

of

"Golden

OF

Rome,

A.D.

of

Nero, 64 /.
(Vespasian, Titus, Domitian), 69-96

House"
emperors

Greatest

64

richness

of detail.

Colosseum, 70-82 A.D.


of Pompeii and Herculaneum,
Destruction
Temple of Vespasian, 80 A.D.
Arch
of Titus, dedicated
81 A.D.
of the

Palace
Arch

A.D.

Flavians

the

on

79 A.D.

Palatine.

Domitian.

of

Transitorium, completed by Nerva, 98 A.D.


"Good
emperors."
Nerva, 96-98 A.D.
Trajan, 98-117 A.D.
Thamugadi (Timgad) founded 100 A.D.
of Trajan and Basilica Ulpia, dedicated
Forum
113 A.D.
of Trajan, 113-117
Column
A.D.
of Trajan.
Thermas
Port of Trajan at Ostia.
in details.
Return
to Hellenism
Hadrian, 117-138 A.D.
Forum

Pantheon,
Mausoleum

A.D., modified
of Hadrian.

120-124

Villa of Hadrian

Temple
Temple
Antoninus

and

of Castor

A.D.

Tivoli.

at

of Venus

202

and

Pius, 138-61

Rome.
Pollux.
A.D.

and Faustina, 141 A.D.


Temple of Antoninus
Atticus
in Greece, c. 140-160
of
Herodes
Buildings
Principalgroup at Baalbek.

Aurelius,161-80

Marcus
Column

Septimius Severus,
Arch

A.D.

Aurelius.

of Marcus

A.D.

193-211

of Severus.

Caracalla,211-17
Thermae

A-D-

of Caracalla.

A.D.
Gallienus,260-68
Porta Nigra, Trier,c. 260.
Aurelian, 270-75 A.D.

Wall

of Aurelian.

Diocletian,284-305
Thermae
Palace

A.D.

of Diocletian.
of Diocletian

at

Spalato.

A.D.

ARCHITECTURE

ROMAN

Maxentius, 306-312

A.D.

(Constantine).

Basilica of Maxentius

Constantine, 306-337
Arch

157

A.D.

of Domitian

rebuilt,312 A.D.
A.D.
Christianitymade the state religion,
330
to Constantinople (Byzantium).
Capital removed
of Constantia
Tomb
(died 354 A.D.).

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL

The

most

is J. Durm's

authoritative

NOTE

general

der Etrusker

account

of Roman

architecture

Romer, 2d ed., 1905 (Handbuck der Architektur,pt. II, vol. i),which also suppliesreferences to
discussions of individual questions and monuments.
Anderson
and
's Architecture
F.
of Greece and
Rome, 26. ed., 1907, and
Spiers
Baukunst
des
Noack's
both
Altertums, 1910, are richlyillustrated,
classes
of
works
General
buildings.
arranged primarilyby
containing
measured
drawings of Roman
buildings are A. Desgodetz's Les
antiquesde Rome, first published 1682 and several times reissued;
edifices
G. L. Taylor and E. Cresy's The Architectural Antiquitiesof
antiques,8 vols.,
Rome, 2 vols.,1821-22; Restaurations des monuments
1877-90; H. d'Espouy's Fragments d'architecture antique, 2 vols.,
antiques,vols. 2 and 3, 1910-12.
1896-1905; Monuments
be mentioned
Among studies of specialtypes or problems may
G. Leroux's Les originesde V edifice
hypostyle,1913 (forthe basilicas);
E. R. Fiechter's Die baugeschichtliche
ters,
Entwicklung des antiken TheaA. Choisy's L'art de bdtir chez les Romains, 1873 (for
1914;
L'art decoratif
de Rome, 1908;
constructive
methods); P. Gusman's
A.
Town
Mau's
F. Haverfield's
Ancient
Planning, 1913.
Pompeii,
translated by F. W. Kelsey, 2d ed.,1902, is especially
important for
Roman
The

Baukunst

domestic

architecture

and

und

interior decoration.

unique importance of the city of Rome


distribution

of Roman

architecture

and
makes

the

wide

graphical
geo-

topographical
works of specialimportance. Detailed listsof those published down
in K. Sittl's Archdologieder Kunst, 1895
contained
to its date
are
vol. 6). Recent
(Handbuch der klassischen Altertums-Wissenschaft,
H.
works
the
of
Rome
and
Chr. Htilsen's
are
Jordan
covering
city
thoritative
auTopographic der Stadt Rom, 2 vols. in 4, 1871-1907 (the most
for the sections covered
work
by the latest volume);
and S. B. Platner's Topography and Monuments
of Ancient Rome,
2d ed., 1911.
The
and
published by J. Buhlmann
panorama
H. Wagner, Das alte Rom, 1892, givesa graphicidea of the cityin the
For the other principalregions see
time of Constantine.
A. L.

HISTORY

158

Frothingham's
Cook's
und

Old

Provence,

Pisidiens,

Syria

Africa,

1902;

vols.,
Of

the

most

Books

explanatory

vols.,

vols.,

in

the

and

S.

and

Italy

H.

C.

Les

Pamphyliens
in

Architecture
A.

1903;

Northern
Roman

Graham's
de

antiques

monuments

A.

T.

1910;

Stadte

Butler's

Djebel-Hauran,
GselTs

Dalmatia,

Lancoronski's

1905;

1890-92;

and

ARCHITECTURE

VAlgerie,

1901.

the

treatises

Roman

in

translated

on

the

English
M.

by

Supply

Water

chapters,

architecture

on

editions

useful

Architecture,
Two

Cities

Roman

Central

OF

by

C.

H.

of

preserved
Vitruvius's

are

Morgan,
the

Herschel,

from

City

1914;

of Rome,

1899.

Ten

and

antiquity
Books

on

Frontinus's

translated,

with

CHAPTER

VI

CHRISTIAN

EARLY

ARCHITECTURE

As we
approach the study of
point of view.
indeed
of all medieval
architecture, and
early Christian
note
at the outset
a change in the point
architecture,we must
of the designer and builder which
of view
strongly impresses
Medieval
finished work.
the
architecture, compared with
earlier and later styles,represents the spontaneous
expression
rather than
the genius
of the artistic ideals of a community
The

of

an

medieval

individual

or

that the individual


varied

more,

and

number

of architects.

lost all importance, but


was

never

so

great

as

This
that

does

not

mean

his importance

in earlier

and

later

ecclesiastical architecture
is of strongly
periods. Moreover
that
predominant importance. Again, this does not mean
be neglected,for at certain
medieval
secular architecture
may
times and in certain placesit rival* contemporary ecclesiastical
in interest,but on the whole
the main
interest of
architecture
is in the ecclesiastical work, and
architecture
medieval
the
is justified
in devoting the major part of his time to
student
the study of the churchly rather than the secular buildings of
the Middle
Ages.
Classification.Early Christian and Byzantine architecture.
The
earliest of what
are
generally classed as the medieval
stylesare the early Christian and the Byzantine, the former
have
Historians
perhaps slightly antedating the latter.
tended
the two, and to treat
to make
a sharp division between
distinct and
them
The
as
independent movements.
early
called
the
Christian, frequently also
Christian-Roman, is
regarded as the typical style of the early Christian Church;
the Byzantine is considered
different organic style,
a
very
classic architecture
and
the flexible
forming a link between
vaulted styles
of the Romanesque period. This classification,

5.

Stefeno

Rptondo

5. Pietro

ViacoH

FIG.

63

"

PLANS

OF

EARLY

CHRISTIAN

CHURCHES

in

Rpme

ARCHITECTURE

CHRISTIAN

EARLY

161

clearness,often engenders a profounder


superficial
is apt to forget that early
On account
of it one
confusion.
Byzantine is ipso facto early Christian architecture,that its
to obtain

roots

back

go

indeed

and

Rome

far

as

those

as

coincide

of the architecture

with

of Christian

them, in short that the

two

and
stylesare roughly contemporary, frequentlyinteracting,
of the same
artistic
variegatedmanifestations
reallysomewhat
These

movement.

facts

classification of the

togetherthe
and

Rome

architecture

of

the East.

self-consciousness

of

absence

marked

more

was

be called the medieval

might

two

in the early Christian style.


of self-consciousness

Lack

never

two

understood, however, the separate


Taken
styles will be found useful.

ever

more

than

in

in the

medieval

architecture

early Christian

direct result

During the period of gestation,so

was

style. No

environment

of

The

and

art

need.

speak, of Christian art


the Roman
Empire was hastening toward disintegration.In
other words, classical authoritywas
weakening. At the same
time the old Latin stock was
being transformed
by fresh blood
into a race
the East and West
from
barbaric, perhaps, but
ideas and
ideals.
From
the West
came
susceptibleto new
East
from
the
far
the
most
thought. By
significant
;
energy
importation from the East was Christianityitself. At home
it was
in the East, at Rome
of the weaker
at first only one
Eastern
The
sects.
beginnings of its art, therefore,like the
beginnings of its ritual,are wrapped in a bafflingobscurity.
and it learned to be not
To conquer, it had to strugglefiercely,
adaptable. These characteristics,
only ruthless but infinitely
the early religion,
marked
in the
became
impressed upon
architecture,and
one

never

more

so

to

than

religionemerged triumphant.
might expect, the struggle was
was

therefore

at

once

more

after 330 when


In the East,
less

the Christian

however,

as

tecture
violent,and the archi-

spontaneous

and

more

suited for

subsequent development.
Weakening of classical authority. From the very beginning,
both in East and West, the weakening of classical authority
of the highest importance. The
was
Romans, in combining
the trabeated

architecture

both

accordingto

canons.

elements

With

of Greece

with

the

empire

these

arch, had used


consciouslyformulated, if varying,

the decline of the

canons

became

IhH

"Tg^sa

EARLY

CHRISTIAN

ARCHITECTURE

163

first ignored,then

from
forgotten. The result was decadence
of infinite developpoint of view, but possibility
ment

the Roman
from

the Christian.

combination

of the

One

of the first results

and

the free

was

arch, anticipatedin late


Set rules once
Roman
removed, these elements
imperialwork.
could not only be subjected to many
combinations, for example
column

the

the
springing of an arch direct from a capitalwithout
intervening entablature, but could also be varied in scale,
of use.
From
this the invention
of new
shape, and manner
forms was
the keynote of medieval
a logical
step, and flexibility,
The inevitability
of this tendency
architecture,was obtained.
in Christian architecture
is proved by the same
tendency in
the

late classical work.


and

Basilican

central

types.

The

way

being paved by

classical

buildingof this sort, Christianitysoon evolved a new


architecture
adapted to its needs and incidentallyexpressive
In general the buildingsthus produced may
of its ideals.
be
divided
into two
classes, according to whether
they were
designed with reference to a longitudinalor a central vertical
axis.

former

The

we

call the

may

basilican,the latter the

central type.
The basilica,
with its long lines centeringattention
the apsidal end of the church, the altar,the pulpits,
on
the

bishop'schair, and the chancel reserved for the clergy,is


perfectlyadapted for the ordinary ritual of the Christian
church.
or
Every detail of such a building, invented
ing
Receivborrowed, is a direct result of the needs of the service.
its first development in Rome, the basilican ideal persisted
in the West, and it is significant
that from the liturgical
point
of view
the
cathedral
finished Gothic
is but
a
vastly

complicated and
The

central

East.

of

In

organized ramification

type

plan

it

with

cross

concentrated

of the basilican type.


its greatest development in the

received
be

might
equal

attention

circular,polygonal,or in the form

arms.
on

the

Buildings
central

of

such

character

vertical axis and

were

best adapted for tombs, baptistries,


and inclosures of sacred
well suited for the needs
of the
so
spots. Although not
Christian

the

this type was


basilicari,
frequently
with
in
and
at times,
a
only
designed
liturgical
view,
purpose
in the East, the two
combined
in a manner
especially
types were

which

liturgy as

makes

classification difficult. Thus

the

domed

64

HISTORY

basilicas of Anatolia
and

Hagia Sophia

under

both

and

Western

material

construction.

aisles

cotta

was

well.

the

exterior

and

Eastern

than

the

The

heavy

Roman.

walls of the latter made

unsightly.

of

use

In

construction

The

the

the

to

East

the

roof often

apse.

vaulting
terra

drab

brick

and

other

hand,

as

appears

pretentiouson

the exteriors unobtrusive

interiors,on

the usual

was

stone, brick, and

cut

though the timber


more
buildingswere

common,

The

wooden-roofed.

were

the rule, and

was

material

In

the lighter. Brick


buildingswere
confined
Rome, and vaulting was

in

and

Nave

at

of both
schemes,
partake of elements
Constantinopleitself might be classified

heads.

Material
the

ARCHITECTURE

OF

the

the

plain

if not

actually

were

lavishly

decorated.
Conservatism

possibilities
of development. The Roman
early,and givesthe impressionof
type of buildingcrystallized
The Eastern
a finished product.
type, perpetuallychanging,

FIG.

on

the

65

and

SAN

ROME.

"

PLAN

THE

SHOWING

ATRIUM

represents a step in the development

whole

The

value

to

to

thing
some-

style the Byzantine could


limited
Western, though offeringsuggestionsof unand Gothic styles,
remained
the Romanesque

From

new.

develop.

CLEMENTE.

the

Eastern

for centuries self-sufficient.


The

Christian-Roman
let

us

examine

Christian-Roman

basilica.
first the

basilica

is

Turning
buildingsin
easy

to

to

concrete

Rome.

describe.

ples,
exam-

The
In

ideal

plan

oblong rectangle,divided into three or five aisles,


In the
and provided at the end with a semicircular
apse.
finished examples, such as old Saint Peter's and Saint Paul's
it

was

an

CHRISTIAN

EARLY

Outside-the-Walls,
salient at the

ARCHITECTURE

rudimentary transept,

introduced

sides,was

buildingand

the apse,
that of the Latin cross.

between

giving the plan


In front of the

be

may

at San

seen

penitentsand the unbaptized, and


dignifiedseclusion to the church.
the

The

narthex.
or

placesin

of the

rear

neophytes, while

the side aisles.

approximating
buildingwas a covered
"atrium,"
a peristylar

reserved

The

Clemente

atrium,

ample
ex-

an

(Fig.65),was

for

it gave at the same


time a
Penitents might also enter

nave

chumens,
reserved for the cate-

was

the faithful

The

bema, slightly
the rectangular

form

vestibule,or "narthex," and before that


open to the sky, with a font in the center.
of which

or

165

generallytook

bema, and often the

apse,

for the

their
upper

This

officiating
clergy.
space was
inclosed by a railing,
the "chancel," which
frequentlyran far
into the nave.
At the very back of the apse, facingthe
down
the bishop's
congregation and on the longitudinalaxis, was
Before it,usuallyat the intersection of the
chair, or cathedra.
nave

were

apse

and

simple

the

bema,

marble

two

pulpits,or

read

and

the

all this church

the

canopy,

were

the

was

altar of

ciborium.

preached.

furniture

was

The

been

Elevation.

In elevation

the

with

chancel

gospels were
material

common

for

marble, inlaid with mosaic, which

given the suggestivename


Occasionallytwo rooms, the diaconicon
placed on either side of the apse.
has

the

Flanking
which

ambones, from

sermons

marble, covered

the

nave

of opus Alexandrtnum.
and the prothesis,
were

of the basilica

was

much

higher than the side aisles,permitting a broad clerestory


admitted
through which light was
by windows, fitted with
oiled
wooden
thin, perforated,marble screens, or even
grilles,
cloth.
The
aisles were
covered with slantingroofs, usually
hidden
from the floor by flat ceilings.The
triangularspace
thus obtained between
the aisle ceiling
and roof constituted the
At times the triforia were
"triforium."
to
sufficiently
roomy
the aisles,
and these
on
permit the superimpositionof galleries
for the catechumens
reserved
for the segregationof
were
or
carried on
women
(gynacaa). The clerestorywalls were
from the
columns, generallyantique,which separatedthe nave
aisles. Sometimes
in old Saint

walls

were

the system
Peter's,the columns

set.

Nave

and bema

was

trabeated; sometimes,

bore
were

archivolts

on

covered with

which

as

the

gableroofs,

HISTORY

66

reinforced

with

ARCHITECTURE

trusses, and generally,


though frequentlyat

period later than


by richlycoffered
alone

OF

the
and

originalbuilding,hidden from the


gildedceilings.The semicircular

floor
apse

vaulted.

was

Decoration.

the basilica

Ample
made

compensation
by the gorgeous

dull exterior of

for the

tion
polychromatic decoraof the interior.
The pavement
consisted of marble
flags
and tesserae, in divers brilliant colors and ingeniouslycomplicated
The
columns
of
were
geometric designs.
precious
in scale accordingto
marbles, fluted or unfluted,varying even
whether
not the builders could steal,for the greater glory of
or
God, a homogeneous set from some
building. In like
pagan
the capitalsvaried, frequently not even
manner
fittingthe
was

that

columns

bore

them, and the entablature

above

was

often

classical fragments. That such


composed of unrelated pilfered
form
an
an
apparently accidental
hodge-podge should
and decorative
whole
testifies strongly
extremely harmonious
builder.
to the underlyinggood taste of the Christian
Finally
the wall spaces,
and especiallythe concave
surfaces of the
covered
with glass mosaic, goldapsidal semi-domes, were
backed
Sacred personages,
and flashingwith brilliant color.
thus portrayed, and eventually
especiallythe Saviour, were
whole
of
cycles of biblical history were
taught by means
This mosaic, like the opus Alexandrinum,
pictured mosaic.
in originessentially
Eastern.
was
basilica. The
originof the
Origin of the Christian-Roman
Christian
basilica is somewhat
obscure.
Superficiallythe
into completed being with the reign
to have sprung
type seems
of Constantine, but this merely proves
that the preliminary
steps in its development have been lost. The most obvious
theory of the creation,dating back to Leon Battista Alberti,is
and copied the
that the Christian architects merely took over

ancient Roman
however

"

Western,

of two

were
or

Hellenic.

the Christian
later

classical basilica.

sorts,one
The

The

Eastern

plan of

ancient
in

buildingwas

derived from

originand

the latter

basilica,and it is reasonable
the Greek

civil

basilicas,
the other

strongly suggests

to suppose

that the

civil basilica of the

been
to have
building seems
of the
modified
in detail,however, by the imitation of some
forms of the Roman
house, wherein the early Christians were
classic times.

The

Christian

FIG.

66

"

ROME.

SAINT

PAUL'S
FROM

FIG.

67

"

ROME.

SAN

OUTSIDE-THE-WALLS.
THE

LORENZO

INTERIOR

ENTRANCE

FUORI-LE-MURA.

EXTERIOR

SEEN

68

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OP

worship, and by the invention


fulfilment of liturgical
needs.
wont

Within

Variations.
there

was

the

fixed

for considerable

room

Some,

like Santa

forms

new

limits of the

for better

type thus

individual deviation.

basilicas in Rome
of the many
are
like old Saint Peter's (Fig.63),had

two

no

of

to

set

Indeed

preciselythe

same.

five

aisles;others,
At times, as in

Maria

Maggiore, had but three.


Santa Maria
times the
at
Maggiore, the architrave appears;
archivolt takes its place,as in Saint Paul's Outside-the- Walls
(Figs.64 and 66). In general as time went on the archivolt
and

more

of

the

of

Santa

took

more

smaller
Maria

the

place of the

buildings,like
in

remarkable
where

the

the

Cosmedin,

deviation

the

In

and

omitted.

was

in

many

church

eighth century
bema

appears

is broken

colonnade

architrave.

the

other
An-

building,

same

inserted

piers are

at

regular intervals.
with

smaller

influence.
Vincoli
of

finished
Occasionallythe side aisles were
salient apses
suggesting Syriac or Egyptian

Such

Galleries

(Fig.63).

the

Orient

t'Agnese

arrangement

an

the

than

fuori-le-mura

above

Occident,

the

aisles,more
to

are

Pietro

be

in

typical

found

in San-

(Fig.64).
Christian

interesting,if
in San Lorenzo
fuori-le-mura (Figs.
freakish,variation occurs
63, 67, and 68). Here two churches, an earlyone and a later,
oriented in opposite directions and juxtaposed apse to apse,
have
been
joined into a singlebuilding. In early times,
the influence
of
under
especiallyin buildings constructed
Constant ine (Saint Peter's, Saint Paul's, the Lateran, San
Lorenzo), the facade and not the apse was placed to face the
Orientation

face

east, and

the

possiblethroughout
The

church.

Soon, however, the orientation

east.
to

of

the

in San

appears

the

Christian-Roman

this

Middle
basilica

basilica

Christian-Roman

scheme

was

was

An

fixed with
followed

the apse
whenever

Ages.
in Italyoutside of Rome.

is best

studied

Rome,

at

The
but

is

the

empire frequently alongside of, and


contemporaneous with, buildingsof a different style. Only
in Rome, however, did it show so completely the conservatism

found

which
for
nare

throughout

is one

example,
Nuovo

of its most
we

marked

find- the sixth

(Fig. 69)

characteristics.

century church

basilican
essentially

In Ravenna,
of Sant'

in

Apolli-

form, yet

so

FIG.

68

FIG.

"

ROME.

69

"

SAN

RAVENNA.

LORENZO

SANT*

FUORI-LE-MAURA.

APOLLINARE

NUOVO.

INTERIOR

INTERIOR

170

Byzantine

OF

HISTORY
in detail that

the

ARCHITECTURE
work

might be classified under

either head.
The

Roman

buildingof the central type. In Rome


buildings
of the central type, though they are to be found, never
attained
anything like the importance of the basilicas. The most
characteristic example of the type in Rome
is the church
of
San Stefano Rotondo
(Figs.63, 64, and 70). This structure,

FIG.

consecrated
aisles

7O

"

ROME.

SAN

in 468, had

STEFANO

ROTONDO.

the
originally
inclosinga cylinderraised above
The

whole

was

form
them

wooden-roofed, and

INTERIOR

of two
to

concentric

form

story.
clere-

in cross-section

of a basilica. Designed
preciselythe appearance
of buildingfrom the
as
a church, the ineptitudeof this -form
ritualistic point of view is eloquentlyvoiced by its centuries
of almost
That
buildings of the central
complete disuse.
in Rome
is proved
constructed
type, vaulted throughout,were
by the church of Santa Costanza
(Fig.71). Outside of Rome
the buildingsof the central type are generallyso obviously
would

have

EARLY

CHRISTIAN

ARCHITECTURE

Oriental in inspirationthat they


the diffusion of Eastern influence.
The

71

"

ROME.

Geographicaldivisions.

best

discussed

under

study of Eastern
different problem. In the nearer
architecture
offers a very
Orient one finds no conservative,well-developedstyleawaiting
ure
definition. Generally speaking,the early Christian architectof Rome
was
static,that of the East dynamic. In the
East architecture was in a state of flux,or rather progression,
a
stylechanging almost as one seeks to fix its type. Moreover,

FIG.

East.

are

171

SANTA

local variations
involves

were
a

COSTANZA.

SECTION

The

SHOWING

THE

CONSTRUCTION

the first step toward


ness
clearthe East into three distinct

and
striking,

subdivision

of

in the north,
regions;Anatolia, Syria,and Egypt. The first,
correspondsto Asia Minor, and its artistic center was Ephesus.
The
and
second, farther south
including Palestine, was
Alexandria
controlled the
guided artistically
by Antioch.
of northern
third. A fourth broad division might be made
Africa, not so important historically,
yet affording many
examples of early Christian art.
first
The Syrian basilica. Beginning with Syria, let us
consider the basilica. Here, besides examples very like the
Roman
in
buildings,other structures
absolutelynew
appear,

ARCHITECTURE

OF

HISTORY

172

the

history of

art.

Only within comparativelyrecent

has

attention

been

directed

to

Antioch

and

the

times

so-called

receding civilization has left


as impressiveas any
ruins,and often well-preservedbuildings,
in Pompeii. In the typicalSyrian basilica the
to be found
and a covered
abandoned
atrium
was
porch, flanked by two
"dead

of

cities"

monumental

Syria, where

towers,

unique fagade,very

72

FIG.

was

thus

Greek

sometimes

In the
gave

timber

and

Between

bore colonnettes

THE

TOURMANIN.

"

double

great space.
of the

suggestiveof

obtained.

colonnade

substituted

was

which
roof

and

way

the

later medieval

narthex.

architecture,

RESTORED

BASILICA

the
interior,
generallythree-aisled,
to great piers,bearing an
arcade,
of span,

giving an
clerestorywindows

wide
the
ran

for

up

gave

to receive

the

impression of
corbels

the transverse

structure

something

often
beams
of the

feelingof logicalarticulation so commonly associated with the


generally
organicRomanesque and Gothic styles. There were
three apses at the east end, usuallyround, though occasionally
square, in plan, and at times horseshoe-shaped.

EARLY

CHRISTIAN

ARCHITECTURE

173

be seen
examples of Syrian basilicas may
and
at Ruweiha,
at Mchabbak,
at Tourmanin
(Fig. 72).
the
finest
of
the
Perhaps
Syrian fagade is that of
example
Tourmanin, and the most
complete, and probably the best
singleexample of Syrian architecture,is the church of KhalbLouzeh
of the scarcity
(Fig.63). In the Hauran, on account
of wood, an even
remarkable
more
development took place,

Examples.

FIG.

and
cut

73

"

one

stone.

Good

KALAT-SEMAN.

THE

BASILICA

finds buildingsconstructed
Transverse

arches

were

OF

SAINT

STYLITES

SIMEON

entirelyof monumental
thrown

across

the naves,

to the main
supported roofs of stone flagslaid parallel
axis of the building.The timber roof then entirely
disappeared.
The originality
of these buildingsreallyindicates a reversion
of the Orient to its native genius.
Buildingsof the central type in Syria. The buildingsof the
central type in Syria were
equally important. Constantine
of the Holy
himself set the style with the famous
church

and

these

Sepulchre,crowned

with

dome

supported on

an

interior

174

HISTORY

colonnade, and

OF

surrounded

by a circular aisle carrying a


buildingsof capitalimportance in the

galleryabove it. Two


history of architecture are
(Figs.63 and 64) in Syria.
inscribed

in

ARCHITECTURE

the

churches

The

former

The

square.

of Ezra
is in

plan

an

Bosra

octagon

is covered

drum

octagon

and

by

an

egg-shaped dome, the transition from the drum to the dome


being made by squinches. A salient apse, semicircular within
and

three-sided

of Bosra

is

inscribed

carried

without, appears

even

ingenious.

more

within

at the east end.

The

The

square.

plan

great

The

is that

central

system

of

circle

dome

was

and,(to neutralize its thrust,was


eight pillars,
by an annular barrel vault, fortified by four
exedras at the anglesof the square.
Three apses

on

rounded
sur-

circular
semiwere

placed at the east end.


Perhaps the most
perfect of the
the monastery
of
Syrian buildings of the central type was
Saint Simeon
an
Stylites(Fig.73). Round
octagonalcourt,
in the

center

of which

the column

was

four great three-aisled basilicas


Greek
The eastern
cross.
arm,
the

church

the

proper;

of the famous
form

placed to

were

ascetic,
a

gigantic

finished with

others

three apses, was


reserved
for pilgrims.

were

The

of invention
in these buildings
extraordinary fertility
shows
the beginning of an attempt to produce a satisfactory
ecclesiastical buildingof the central type.
The architects of
to be preoccupied largelywith this problem.
Byzantium were
The Mschatta frieze.Not less significant
Syrian decoration.
have seen
at
the decoration
of the Syrian building. We
was
and free use
Spalato,imported from Syria,the modification
of classic detail to
same

procedure

embellish

was

the

maintained

exterior
with

of

Oriental

motives

are

combined

The

infinite variations

Moreover, the Syrians evolved


Syria proper.
in
of sculptured decoration, superbly shown
in the Berlin museum,
Mschatta
(Fig.74) now
and

edifice.

an

the

new

in

scheme

frieze from

wherein

classic

in the richest of patterns

Polychromatic decoration, too,


in Syria. In short, the region showed, at an
was
common
early date, new
developments in architecture which unquestionably
for the Byzantine style,and
aided in paving the way
for the remote
Romanesque of Europe.
perhaps even
struction
Early Christian architecture of Egypt. In plan and conthan
show
far less ingenuity
the buildings of Egypt
and

crisplycut

in low

relief.

FIG.

74

"

BERLIN

MUSEUM.

THE

FRIEZE

GOWSKl)

FROM

MSCHATTA.

(STRYZ-

176

those

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

of

class of Egyptian monuments


Syria. An interesting
is marked
by the use of an immense
trefoil-shaped
sanctuary,
divided from the three-aisled nave
wide
by a
transept. The
trefoil sanctuary, however, may
well be an importation from
invention, the cistern with its cover
Syria. One Alexandrian
supported on columns, was caused by local needs and destined
to exert
a
strong influence in Constantinople. The special
evolved
importance of Egypt lay in the decorative schemes
there.

centuries

For

school of

Alexandria

had

decoration.
livelypictorial

been

To

early Christian

centuries brilliant work

inlaid marble.

Thus

decoration

in

was

of

center

added

in the

glass mosaic

and

equipped, Egypt was able to dower both


Italy with the rich polychromatic interior
became
the vogue
practicallythroughout

and

Byzantium

this

the

which

Christendom.
basilica in Anatolia.

The

themselves

In Anatolia

structurallythe most
Ephesus, but

citywas
studied

the

the architects

inventive

of all.

sites where
the

proved

The

trolling
con-

the architecture

best

perhaps being
and one
Bin-bir-Kilisse
churches),in the plain
(the thousand
Anatolia.
Here
the majority of
of Konieh
in southeastern
the basilicas recall the buildingsof Syria. They are generally
three-aisled with a singlestrongly salient apse, either circular
is a porch flanked
to the nave
or
polygonal. At the entrance
All this might be Syrian,but the Anatolian
by two towers.
strikes his specialnote by vaultinghis structure, and numbers
and
of these buildingshave
nave
heavy barrel vaults over
be
aisles. An excellent example of this type of buildingmay
Side by side with these vaulted structures,
at Daouleh.
seen
be

may

however,

are

be

may

brick walls, and

very

numerous,

timber

roof.

central type in Anatolia.


buildingsof the central type. We

The

of
of

The

Nysa.

cross
a

Martyrium,

bound

conical

conical
the most

Persian.

at

dome

dome

type, with atrium,

the Graeco-Roman

seen

written

monument

was

in
Anatolia, too, abounded
have an interestingdescription

in the fourth
to be

century by Gregory

cruciform,the

arms

of the

by semicircular niches, and


of the
the crossing. The
use

their intersection
was

to

cover

suggests the

influence

of

Persia, and

indeed

is
architecture
in Anatolian
element
significant
The
buildings, like
Syrian conical-domed

the
the

EARLY

CHRISTIAN

churches

of

Anatolia

or

variations
at

of

and

ARCHITECTURE

copied from
themselves
inspired direct from Persia. Many
Gregory's scheme may be seen to-day,especially
Ezra

Bosra, may

have

177

been

Bin-bir-Kilisse.
The

been

Anatolian

domed

basilica.

the
Historically

esting
inter-

most

in Anatolia, however, is what


of the types evolved
has
called the domed
basilica.
The first step in its development

by placing a square bay before the apse to


and adding galleries
above the aisles
enlarge the presbyterium,
To give a lightereffect to buildingsof such
for the faithful.
weakening the barrel vaults by
large dimensions, without
piercingthem with windows, the architects hit on the scheme
of breaking the barrel vault with a dome, and thus the domed
was

made

basilica,destined

to

exercise

an

enormous

influence

on

later

being. A perfectexample of the type


be seen
the dome
at Kodja-Kalessi (Fig.63), where
cupies
ocmay
The
two
same
bays of the nave.
type, constructed
in Saint Clement's
in brick, occurs
In both the
at Ancyra.
dome
is carried on squinches. On the other
hand, at Saint
Nicholas
of Myra, and at Dehr-Ahsy in Syria,we find domed
basilicas with the domes
carried on pendentives.
The problem of the dome.
the
Many and ingenious were
solutions of the problem of the dome
in Anatolia.
Materials
were
varied,and bricks and terra-cotta, adopted from neighboring
To
used to reduce the thrusts of heavy domes.
Persia,were
make
the transition from the square
or
polygon below to the
round
dome
methods.
above, the architects adopted many
sometimes
commonest,
Squinches were
merely of flat stones
laid across
the angles of the square, reducing it to a polygon,
and then other stones
laid across
the angles of the polygon,
the
obtuse, until in successive courses
making them stillmore
into the roughly circular form necessary
coaxed
to
was
mass
architecture,came

receive the base

of the dome.

angles of the

Sometimes

arches

were

thrown

polygon, and again, when


the dimensions
were
small, singleblocks at the
sufficiently
hollowed
out in pendentive form.
angles were
The pendentive. By far the most
important solution of the
problem, however, was the true pendentive. In mathematical
of a hollow hemisphere, the
terms
a pendentive is a segment
diameter of which is equal to the diagonal of the square to be
across

the

into

square

or

HISTORY

178

In

covered.
is not
a

so

easy

non-technical
to

ARCHITECTURE

language, however, the member


Imagine a square to be covered by

describe.

of such

dome

OF

dimensions

that

its

edge would

touch

the

Obviously the dome would


only at the four corners.
project beyond the four sides of the square.
Imagine all
portionsof the dome projectingbeyond the sides of the square
off vertically,
and the result would
be a pendento be shaved
dome
tive dome, or, technically,
on
a continuous
pendentives.
square

FIG.

75

RAVENNA.

"

THE

MAUSOLEUM
OF

THE

OF

GALLA

PLACIDIA.

DRAWING

EXTERIOR

Imagine then the top of the pendentive dome to be sliced off


of the lateral
horizontallyat a point just above the crowns
be four
The result would
arches caused by the vertical cuts.
sphericaltrianglesor pendentives,segments of a sphere,the
diameter

On

below.
dome
The

of which

on

these

would
a

true

equal the diameter


dome

could

square

placed,producing

pendentives (Fig.64).

originof the pendentive. The

to become

be

of the

one

of the most

marked

pendentive was

destined

characteristics of Byzantine

EARLY

CHRISTIAN

ARCHITECTURE

179

Though its originis open to dispute,it must


have been the logical
outgrowth of the Persian vaults of light
without
material
centering. The strong probabilityis that
architecture.

the

architects

of Anatolia, in close contact


this most

independently created
Diffusionof

with

Buildings at

Through the influence of commerce


and sixth centuries were
ticism the fourth, fifth,

and

Ravenna.

widespread diffusion of Oriental


it appears,
as
palace of Diocletian in

have

we

Orient,

member.

important
influencein the West.

Oriental

the

influence

monas-

marked

by

in the West.

noted, in the fourth

though
Al-

century

in the
Spalato,and again later in Rome
decorations
of the basilicas,and
especiallyin the buildings
of the central type, its full force in Italyis best judged in the
Here
architecture
of Ravenna.
two
buildings of the midof Galla Placidia (Figs.63 and
fifth century, the Mausoleum
75) and the so-called Baptistry of the Orthodox, attest the
of Oriental inspirationin this
almost
complete domination
Western
city. The former, now the church of Santi Nazzaro e
Celso, is Greek cruciform in plan, the crossingbeing covered
dome
with
continuous
on
a
structed
pendentives, ingeniously conof hollow
terra-cotta
amphorae inserted one within

The

another.

material

Orient, especiallyof Persia.


walls
the

as

square.

by

is

blind

interior shows

The

polygonal structure, with

of the tomb

of Galla

is

plain,the brick
arcades.
Externally

incrustation of preciousglass mosaic


The
Baptistry of the Orthodox

Fonte)
that

appears

the influence of the

exterior

The

being lightenedsomewhat

dome

manner.

establishes

alone

plete
com-

in the Alexandrian

dome

(San

Giovanni

constructed

in
like

Placidia.

though
AlMingling of early Christian and Byzantine elements.
such
works
fall within
in point of time
the early
Christian
period,to classifythem merely as early Christian
would
produce a deep misconception of their architectural
elements
of
significance.Already they anticipateso many
the Byzantine style that they might as justlybe called Byzantine
This does not mean
that they were
importations
from
Italian
Constantinople. On the contrary, they were
Eastern
influences that were
products of the same
already at
work
in Constantinople to produce the Byzantine style.
Conclusion.
therefore,
Early Christian architecture may,

180

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

From
one
regarded from two points of view.
sufficient style,amply providing the early Church
be

beautiful
fulfilment

in themselves
needs

of the

from

and

with

ings
build-

finer in their

even

for which

it is

they

complete

designed.

were

self-

garded
Re-

this

basilica is
point of view, the Christian-Roman
the supreme
From
product of early Christian architecture.
the other and broader
point of view, the earlyChristian style
ening
is a link in the great architectural chain, connecting the weakclassic art with the vigorous new
style of Byzantium.
Especiallythe buildingsof Eastern Christianity,
experimental,
lawless in their disregard of classic tradition,at times even
crude though always full of promise, herald in no uncertain
of the art so soon
in Constantinople.
tone the advent
to appear

CHRONOLOGICAL

LIST

OF

EARLY

CHRISTIAN

MONUMENTS

It must

be noted

that it is often

ments
impossibleto date medieval monube
satisfied
with
the half
must
we
frequently
in
which
erected.
A
a building was
singledate,
century or century
refers to the beginning of the portion of a
without
qualification,
In general it is always well to
building referred to in the text.
in dating a medieval
remember
that an error
is apt to
monument
give the monument
greater antiquitythan it deserves.

exactly, and

ITALY

Rome,
Rome,
Rome,

Saint

Old

Peter's.

"

Consecrated

Santa

Costanza.

Saint

Paul's

Outside-the-Walls.

Maria

Maggiore.

"

Built

326.
rebuilt

323-337;

Founded

"

1256.
386, but

rebuilt

1823.
Rome,

Santa

Rebuilt

"

432"440.

Founded
ca.
Rome, San Pietro in Vincoli.
450.
Placidia.
Mausoleum
of
Galla
Ca.
Ravenna,
450.
the
of
Orthodox.
Mid-fifth
Ravenna, Baptistry
century.
San
Stefano
Rotondo.
Rome,
468-483.
after 500.
Soon
Ravenna, Sant' Apollinare Nuovo.
Lorenzo
Fuori
le Mura.
Rebuilt
Rome, San
578; remodeled
"

"

"

"

"

"

1216-27.
Rome, Sant'

Rome,

San

Agnese, Fuori -le-Mura.

Clemente.

"

"

Rebuilt

1108.

Rebuilt

625-638.

EARLY

ARCHITECTURE

CHRISTIAN
THE

of the

Jerusalem Church
Ruweiha.

Fourth

"

Kodja-Kalessi.
"

Frieze.

Mschatta

EAST

Holy Sepulchre.
"

312-337.

century.

possibly fifth century.


Possiblyfourth,possiblysixth century.

Fourth
"

Fifth

Mchabbak."

181

or

century.

Fifth century (?).


Saint Simeon
Stylites. End of fifth century.
Saint
Clement.
Fifth century (?).
Ancyra,
Daouleh.

"

"

"

Myra, Saint Nicholas.


Bosra.

"

Ezra."

"

Fifth century

(?).

512.
515.

Tourmanin.

"

Khalb-Louzeh.

Sixth
"

century.
Sixth century.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL

A. Michel's

Histoire de

vol.
I'art,

NOTE

i,

pt.

i,

1905,

contains

valuable

Perate
and Camille
Enlart
summarizing early
by Andre
Christian art, including architecture.
H. Marucchi's
Basiliqueset
de Rome, 1002, is an authoritative
work, forming vol. 3 of the
eglises
A. Venturi's
author's
Elements
series,
d'archeologiechrelienne.
and
contain an
Storia dcll'arle italiana,vols. i and
1902,
2, 1901
of early Christian architecture in Italy. G. T. Rivoira's
account
Le originidella archittetura lombarda, vol. i, 1901, is an exhaustive
study of the originsof Italian medieval architecture by an eminent
whether
they involve early
scholar,who believes that these origins,
rather
than
Christian
or
Byzantine architecture,are Occidental
Oriental.
G. Leroux's Les originesde V edifice
hypostyleen Grece, en
Orient,et chez les Remains, 1913, is a scholarlywork, important for the
basilica. W.
lightit throws on the origin of the Christian-Roman
is
the
Lowrie's Monuments
a skilfully
Early Church, 1906,
arranged
of
of early Christian art, with architecture soundly treated.
hand-book
A. L. Frothingham's Monuments
of Christian Rome, 1908, is another
of the histories of the monuments.
hand-book
with good summaries
M. de Vogue's Syrie cenlrale,
and groundbreaking
1865-77, a monumental
somewhat
of date, is the
out
piece of scholarship,now
of
the
author's
most
publications dealing with
important
many
architecture
and other arts in Syria. By H. C.
early Christian
Architecture and Other Arts, 1903, and Ancient
Butler are two works
former
is the publicationof an
The
Architecture in Syria, 1907.
American
expeditionto Syria in 1899; the latter is the second divi-

articles

"

82

of

sion

"Publications

the

Both

1904-1905."
elaborate

most

de

an

they

thesis,

author's

Christian

Diehl's
of

Manuel
the

and
d'art

history

Christian

early

4,

with

points.

of

Die

exhaustive

oder

for

is

1910,

Byzantine

with

art,
of

East

the

(Handbuch

1914

to

highly

is
the

the

most

latest

as

an

der
recent

discussions

lications,
pub-

ments,
monu-

of

account

the

impulse

the

in

Orient.

authoritative

valuable

of

Though

creative

from

came

of
zpoj,

series

Christian
on

the

that

art

information.

early

the

publications

last

especially

defended,

Baukunst,

the

than

both,

in

Kleinasien,

1901,

encyclopedic

Byzantine

byzantin,

references

Rom,

the

in

Syria,

to

material

new

of

publications,

Byzantine

Kunst,

altchristliche

of

successors

of

architecture

Altchristliche

Wulff's
ch.

successfully

Expedition

masses

worthy

scholar
with

important

are

Princeton

are

original
more

the

Orient

Denkmaler

deal

works

early

are

J. Stryzgowski's

by

ARCHITECTURE

present

and

Byzantinische

the

of
works

way,

Vogue.

and

OP

HISTORY

C.

sis
synthe-

discussion

of

introduction.

the
O.

Kuntwissenschaft),
summary

of

of
individual

all,

CHAPTER

BYZANTINE

VII

ARCHITECTURE

Origins. Byzantine architecture

like the Wise

came,

Men,

East, the roles of the Magi being played by the


three great cities: Alexandria, Antioch, Ephesus.
From
the
of the

out

first of the three

the

came

of the

stylefrom
Byzantine ideal

the

relief and

cut

an

all-over

acteristic
a charpolychromy which remained
The
second
beginning to end.
plied
supof sculptured decoration,flat,crisply
The
third,
covering of the surface.

important of all,gave the structural elements which


Byzantine architects fused, systematized, and developed

most

ten

for

centuries.

Centralization.
from

area,

center

nerve

To

the

the

Although

Armenia

to

remained

this centralization

France

diffused

stylewas

and

from

Russia

practicallyalways
are

due

the

main

at

to

over

vast

Africa, the

Constantinople.

characteristics

and

general homogeneity of the style. Byzantium took the ideas


of the Orient, handled
with the lavish means
them
and broad
with a refinement
conceptions of Rome, and welded them
The
Attic.
result was
neoa
new
art, but, like the
literally

Architecturallyas well as
distinctlyimperial one.
Constantine
perial
politically,
supplanted imperial Rome
by imConstantinople.
Ecclesiastical and secular work.
Byzantine architecture was
but this generalization
often be
must
primarily ecclesiastical,
such as
qualified. During the reigns of important emperors,
Constantine
(323-337),Justinian(527-565),and Basil I. (867887), civil architecture played an extremely important part.
The churches
exercised a greater influence on other stylesthan
civil buildings,and were
often preserved when
the civil buildings
were
destroyed, but this fact should not blind us to the
importance of the non-ecclesiastical work.
Roman,

84
Lack

whole

OF

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

-consciousness
of self
of the style. Whether
however, Byzantine architecture
unselfconscious.

in church

Lavish

the

as

lay

or

clesiastica
ec-

the

on

was

decoration

might

be

palace, the important consideration was


always a
the
satisfactorysolving of structural needs, and this became
of Byzantine esthetic
real, if unconscious, canon
theory.
dividual
Moreover, the style tended to be corporate rather than inthe
as
though not to nearly so complete an extent
medieval
Europe.
Especiallyin the earlier
stylesof western
the works, but later
period individuals were
apt to dominate
and
obscure
architects were
craftsmen
given very free rein,
and

in the

even

voice

or

of the

than
which
chain
was

repetitionsuntil the fifteenth. The art


always conscious of and taught by its past, but it never
of monotonous

The

and

Brick

expressive of

but

used

ideals
the

bricks

bonded.

material.

style. By
got his

Concrete

was

of the

Romans

homogeneous

like

marble, the

latter

sometimes
relief,

decoration
enriched

in brick
with

with

an

cut

sometimes

applied as
became

carved
veneer.

common,

infinityof patterns
stone.

The

absence

and
in

the

cores,

disappeared.
as

adjunct

an
was

outside
Byzantine architecture
Armenia.
restricted regions, notably Greece
and
of decoration
the Byzantine architects used
purposes
and

to

for

of ashlar

use

of

striking

used

in

unknown

and

means

most

nearly always

less

architecture

commonest

were

the

the

none

frequently increased

vaults
rigid concrete
but
used
stone
was
freely,

other

of

was

Byzantine

architect

the

Cut

in

mortar

joints were

mortar

of the

development

and

the

material

light, porous
effects,and

to

materials

varied.

very

width

its teacher.

development. Byzantine art has generally


considered
It was,
in truth, conservative,
rigidlyconservative.
sistent
inconnot
was
yet only in so far as conservatism
with development. Nothing could be more
mistaken
the too common
conception of the Byzantine style as one
a
as
crystallizedin the sixth century and continued

Materials.

most

than

the

as

appears

and

slavishlycopied its past,


steady for being slow.
were

individual

the

civilization rather

Conservatism
been

earliest times

tically
prac-

of

tain
cer-

For
mosaic

in

flat,tapestry-

In

the

wall

later

surfaces

brick, or

brick

of formulated

style
were

nating
alter-

esthetic

BYZANTINE
criteria gave
the

full

ARCHITECTURE

play

to

the

185

invention

and

good

taste

of

designers.

Structure.

of the Byzantine
originalityand fertility
architect never
shows
more
happily than in the solving of
The
vaulted
a
style was
problems of structure.
essentially
the most
and
the dome.
important form of vault was
one,
Wood
being scarce, the problem of centeringwas serious,and
the architects,taking their cues
from
Anatolia and Persia,
learned to construct
soon
important vaults without centering.

FIG.

76

RAVENNA.

The

SAN

VITALE.

EXAMPLES

OF

BYZANTINE

CAPITALS

and most
durable materials,
they developed the lightest
bound
joints. Then
by
by thick, adhesive mortar
completing the vaults in successive,concentric,self-sustaining
so
as to requirelittle or no
rings,by slantingbrick courses
port
supfrom below, and by the invention
of ingeniousdevices for
the definition of vault surfaces during the process of construction,
the architects succeeded
almost
entirelyin eliminating
the necessityfor centering. Moreover, the stabilityof the
further insured by an
finished structure
was
equilibrium of
and
thrusts.
Domes
vaults
were
grouped compactly and
their thrusts opposing one
another, and the thrusts
logically,
of a great central dome
neutralized
and carried off by a
were

To

that end

86

number

HISTORY

OF

of subordinate

domes

had, especiallyin

thus

of that

ARCHITECTURE

grouped

the

period,a

later

logic which

structural

it.

round

large

associates

one

The

style

measure

with

Gothic

architecture.
The

Supports.
of

same

supports. The

was

inherited

use

from

logicwas shown
of squinches for

the

East

and

admirably
the

in the

use

support of domes

continued

with

variations

throughout the entire development of the style. Far more


the use
of the
important in the history of architecture was
pendentive. To the Byzantines belongs the credit of recognizing
the full possibilities
of the pendentive, and the use
of
these members
augurat
inwas
as
a support for a superimposed dome
in Byzantium (Fig.64).
not
Capitals. Moreover, the logic of the architects was
confined solelyto the immediate
The
supports of the dome.
of an
capitals,which carried the weight of the vault, were
and logicaldesign. Unlike the Roman
ture
entablaentirelynew
with its merely crushingweight, the mass
which
the Byzantine
capitalhad to carry was heterogeneous and exercised
in many
directions.
this mass
To meet
a variety of thrusts
the architects first designed a sturdier Corinthian
capital,
Next they added
with a wider abacus.
a heavy thrust
block,
like an inverted, truncated
the transition
pyramid, to make
from
the capitalto the mass
above.
Capitals of this sort
may

be

impost
current

San

in the

seen

from

came

Eski-djouma in Salonica.

Syria,where

Vitale

(Fig.76),when

Ravenna

at

capitalwas
richly ornamented

almost

impost

block.

broad

at the

slender

top and

shaft.

the three

It was,
the

Greek
moreover,
stern

on

The

slender

form

thus

at

the

classic forms, and

cistern of Bin-bir-direk

to the

was

having probably
taken

was

it

in

acter
char-

base

on

broad, thin

high, convex

where

it meets

combines

is both

was

apt and

elements

bell,
the
of

beautiful.

capable of infinite variety,


the rudimentary capitalsin the
rich profusionof the melon, bird

flexible,and

simplicityof

members

shaped
Finally,at Hagia
all Byzantine
which

to

invented

idea of the

Corinthian

carried

the load is transmitted

abacus, whence

the

abandoned, and

Sophia at Salonica, the form appears


based, an impost block,
capitalswere

from

of such

use

in the fifth century, the Syrians in turn


it from
Persia.
A further step
received
of the

like

the

The

BYZANTINE
and

ARCHITECTURE

wind-blown

basket, and

acanthus

187
capitalsof

the

fully

developed style.
clesiastical
Types of ecclesiastical buildings. Since the Byzantine ecall other
sorts in importance,
buildings surpass
devote
of our
must
The
most
we
study to them.
types
created were
diverse.
In the earlier period the type developed
from

the domed

Anatolia
the

basilica of
the

was

favorite,

famous

example
being Hagia Sophia at
Constantinople. In the
called second
so
golden
most

in the

age,

ninth, tenth,

and

eleventh

the

Greek-cross

came
plan befashion, although

the
both

types existed in both


Sometimes

periods.
plan was

that

the
square,
in the actual

cross

the

Greek

within

marked

cross

buildingonly
clerestory. At

the

other

In

of

inscribed

cross

by

centuries,

times
was

the

Greek

true

designed on plan.
beginning the so-

called

triconch

shell"

plan,with

IbMlr,

"three-

or

trefoil

FIG.

77

"

SERGIUS

division

of

the

CONSTANTINOPLE.
AND

BACCHUS.

SAINTS
PLAN

apsidal

popular,and this
with modifications,throughout the history of
type persisted,
gotten,
the style. The
true basilican plan, though not
wholly forwas
never
popular. Circular and polygonal buildings
ing
also designed, but by far the most
were
popular form of buildend,

was

of the central

type

was

the Greek

cross.

though
Hagia Sophia of Constantinople. Altion
Hagia Sophia may be regarded almost as the proclamaof
number
of Byzantine architecture,it was
preceded by a
buildings outside of as well as within Constantinople that
have
heralded
the approaching style. We
already noted
Churches

earlier than

Similarly the

basilica, built in Constantinople in

Stoudion

463, although it conforms


the

might well be called Byzantine.

buildings which

Ravennate

ARCHITECTURE

OF

HISTORY

to

the Hellenistic

type and

retains

and
lintel system, is Byzantine in spirit,
Byzantine church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus

the

post and

purely

in

Hagia Sophia.
Constantinople (Fig. 77) slightlyantedates
This buildingrecalls the churches
of Ezra
and Bosra
(Figs.63 and
64) in Asia Minor, but is more
skilfully
planned and executed.
Saint Irene,Constantinople.In
532 Justiniancaused the building
of another

church, Saint Irene,in

Constantinople (Fig. 78), which


the fullbrings us still nearer
fledged Byzantine style. The
architect of Saint Irene was
ably
probinspiredby the church of
ing
Hagia Sophia at Salonica,a buildwhich
probably antedates
somewhat

its great namesake

Constantinople.
Irene
and
Hagia
Salonica
Anatolian

Both

Sophia

domed

by barrel
78

FIG.

them

CONSTANTINOPLE.

"

IRENE.

SAINT

PLAN

vaults

the

basilica.

In

are

shape of a
possiblethat we

seems

the germ

abutted
about

grouped

in the

and it

cross,

have

here

of the Greek-cross

Hagia Sophia. All these buildings appear

at

of

Saint Irene the domes


"

Saint

variants

are

in

form.

insignificant,

of the
Church," the church
however, beside the "Great
Divine Wisdom, Hagia Sophia at Constantinople. This building
embodies

more

fully than any


the first golden age.

Byzantine styleof
532, to replacea Constant
had
been
destroyed in
Tralles

and

Anatolian

dedicated

Isidorus

origin.
with

the

Nika

of Miletus

The

the

inian church

church

most

were

other

the

full-fledged
Justinianbegan it in

of the

same

sedition.
the

name

which

Anthemius

architects,both

of
of

completed in five years and


and
amid
impressive ceremonies
was

DjAMi

MANASSIA

CONSTANTINOPLE:

SAN

ViTALL

TlAVENNA

UTTLEMLTnOPOUS
Arntws

XtWCHVBCH

or

BASIL

HAGIA

MX

LA

SOPHIA

CoN5TANTiNOPLt

tTSCHMlADZIN

CHAPLLLt

FIG.

79

"

PLANS

OF

BYZANTINE

CHURCHES

BYZANTINE

ARCHITECTURE
December

general thanksgiving

but
fell,

558 the central dome

accordingto

reconsecrated

was

and

Plan

and
galleries,

reared

carried

on

square

about

measures

FIG.

the

construction.

occupies a great
narthex,

by

8l

an

"

atrium

dome

four tremendous
in turn

to

In

rebuilt it

design,and

HAGIA

the church

EXTERIOR

SOPHIA.

pendentives, 107
huge piers,25 feet square, and

building. Abutment
domes

of Anthemius

on

by two half-domes
(Fig. 80). These

west

by Justinian.

537,

Emperor in 562.
In plan (Fig. 79) Hagia Sophia
which, excluding the apse and the
narthex,
250 by 240 feet. A double
In
the
the
is
center
nave.
precede

CONSTANTINOPLE.

great dome
four

nephew

less ambitious

somewhat

27,

191

of the
mark
the

buttresses

abutted

same

the
north

feet in diameter,
abutted

diameter

east

the

as

and

central

longitudinalaxis of the
and south is suppliedby

of marble-faced

rubble.

The

half-

at the

springingby paired smaller


half-domes, and thus, partlyby opposing thrust to thrust and
ing
partlyby carryingoff the thrust of the great dome in descendure
stages to the outer wall and the ground, the whole structis

are

admirablystabilized.

At

the east end

salient apse,

92

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

polygonal on the exterior,opens into the eastern half-dome.


and its half -domes
Right and left of the central dome
are
which
aisles,groinvaulted, and surmounted
are
by galleries
covered

with

domical

At present four minarets

vaults.

incongruous Turkish design stand


the building.
Exterior.
Although the apex of
the

pavement,

FIG.

82

"

the

external

CONSTANTINOPLE.

free at the

the dome

appearance

HAGIA
TOWARD

SOPHIA.

THE

four

of

corners

an

of

is 180 feet above


of

the

building is

INTERIOR

LOOKING

APSE

squat (Fig.81). The

Byzantine architect of the first golden


of properlyabutting a lofty
age fullyappreciatedthe difficulty
dome, and seldom sought to make the dome a strikingfeature
externally. The dome of Hagia Sophia,less than a semicircle
in cross-section,
is in height from
but 47
springingto crown
feet.

The

effect,however, is none
combining monumentality with compactness
external

feelingfor the esthetic value

of

the

less fine,

and

sturdy,frankly

strong

safe

struction.
con-

BYZANTINE

interior,on

The

Interior.

ARCHITECTURE
the

other

193

hand, gives a strong

impression of height (Fig.82). The ring of small openings


piercingthe base of the dome
lightensthe whole structure,
almost miraculouslysuspended over
that the dome
so
appears
the

void.

great central

the

Moreover,

columns

of various

proportionsin ground story and galleries


give a much-needed
scale,which permits the eye easilyto grasp the monumental
proportionsof the building.
A domed basilica. Although Hagia Sophia is roughly square,
it is not properlyof the central type, but is planned with reference
to a longitudinal
axis, and therefore fulfils the liturgical
ideal of the

early Christian

the supreme

basilica.

It may
be regarded as
of the Anatolian domed

Byzantine development

basilica.
first

ideals of the
brilliant

on

decoration

The

Decoration.

the

golden

age,

interior.

The

of

Hagia Sophia, true

is drab

the

on

exterior

is

to

the

exterior,but

painted

now

in

black bands, but in the originaldesign there was


no
attempt at enliveningthe wall surfaces with colors or even
The
the other
interior, on
patterns in the material used.
horizontal

hand,

was

gorgeously decorated

with

marbles

veneered

and

The
thin, was
marble, sawn
glass mosaic.
highly polished
and skilfully
placed so that reversed patterns from the veining
of a singleblock were
juxtaposed. Above the ground story
crusted with gold-backed,glassmosaic, now
the interior was
The
unfortunatelywhitewashed
by the Turks.
capitalsand
of the surfaces were
with crispcarving in flat
decorated
some
relief,
suggestingthe art of Syria. Occasionallythe interstices
of the carving were
filledwith black marble, further accenting
the alreadysharp impressionof lightand shade.
The Holy Apostles,
Constantinople.Although Hagia Sophia
the greatest and most
was
typicalbuildingof the first golden
other buildingswere
constructed
during this period,
age, many
of them
of the greatest importance historically.The
some
another
most
significantbuilding after Hagia Sophia was
and
work
of Anthemius
of the Holy
Isidorus, the church
Apostlesin Constantinople (Figs.83 and 84),destroyedby the
Turks

to

make

building, known

for the mosque

way
to

us

illumination (Fig.83),was

of Mohammed

by descriptionsand
in the form

of

Greek

II.
a

This

manuscript

cross

obtained

i94

HISTORY

by the intersection
(Fig. 84). Over
windows, and
The

ARCHITECTURE

OF
of two
the

over

basilican naves,

crossing was

each

another

arm

vaulted

and

aisled

dome

pierced with
dome, probably blind.

received with much


suggested was never
first golden age, but it unquestionablyformed
the

type thus

in the

for

favor
basis

numerous

which

churches

in

erected

were

Byzantine

later

architecture.
Saint

Mark's

Venice

is but

in
a

velopmen
de-

of the
lost church

of the

Holy Apostles.
tinian'
Building ojJusage outside

of Constantinople.
The
important
of

architecture

Justinian's time

not, however,
stantinopl
confined to Conwas

or

to

even

At

the

East.

in

Parenzo

Bishop Euphrasiusraised an
important church
in the beginning
Istria

FIG.

83

"

CHURCH

THE

ROME.

ILLUMINATION

SHOWING
OF

THE

HOLY

VATICAN.
THE

MANUSCRIPT
INTERIOR

APOSTLES

AT

OF

THE

TINOPLE.
CONSTAN-

(DIEHL)

of

the

sixth

tury,
cen-

basilican

form, but Byzantine in spiritand

in

decoration.

Italyplayed a
this period, and the buildings
beauty and creative genius to

still more

important role in
at Ravenna
scarcelyyield in
those of Constantinople.
the
Two
Buildings at Ravenna.
buildings in Ravenna,
churches
of Sant' Apollinare in Classe and Sant' Apollinare
Nuovo
(Fig.69), are of basilican plan and Byzantine detail
and decoration,

The

latter

was

commenced

under

Theodoric

BYZANTINE

(493-526),but
former

ARCHITECTURE
decorated

was

consecrated

was

church

Ravennate

in

of the

by Byzantine
By far the
549.
period, however,

workmen.

The

important

most

San

was

Vitale

(Figs.79 and 80),begun between


526 and 534 and finished in
and destined to exercise
547, a buildingshowing great originality
It is in the
strong influence on subsequent architecture.
form

of

octagon crowned

an

with

dome

on

drum,

carried

by eight stout pillars.


These pillars
are bound
to another
one
by an
ingenious system of
exedrae similar to those
of Saints

Sergius and

B acchus

dimi nish

To
.

the

thrust, the

is constructed

as

of Gal la

tomb

dome
in the

Placidia,

of

long terra cotta


amphorae, fitted one?
into

another.

pier

is bound
wall

external

arch, and

each

Each
to

the

by

an
FIG.

salient

84

"

CONSTANTINOPLE.

APOSTLES.

angle
with

PLAN,

THE

HOLY

RESTORED

is

strengthened
pier buttress.

Later

of the firstgolden

architecture

age.

The

death

of

Justiniandid not interruptthe architectural activitywhich


both vitality
art continued
to show
his reign initiated. The
of Kalenderand originality.At Constantinople the mosque
the
Diaconessa, built by the
hane-djami, probably once
Emperor Maurice, dates at the latest from the seventh century,
and

shows

basilican type.
From
of Saint Andrew
the ancient church

reversion

to the domed

the

now
period comes
with a great central
the mosque
of Hodja-Moustapha-pasha
dome, abutted like Hagia Sophia'sby half domes.
Outside of Constantinople the
Development in Armenia.
showed
art flourished in this period,and especially
originality
in Armenia.
The cathedral of Etschmiadzin
(Fig.79), with
same

"

"

its Greek
terminated

cross

inscribed

by salient

in

apses,

square

and

the

certainlyinfluenced

four
the

arms

tenth

i96

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

Athos, and appears to be imitated


century churches of Mount
in the ninth century French
church of Germigny-les-Pres. In
its present form
The

seventh

that
vitality

FIG.

85

"

Etschmiadzin

there

is little doubt

Iconoclastic

that

CHARLEMAGNE'S

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE.

well

as

it

showed

century.
much

so

stronglyinfluenced

CHAPEL.

INTERIOR

Byzantine architecture

side
out-

controversy. Diffusion of the Byzantine

726 the development of Byzantine art


impeded, though not arrested,by the beginning of the

stylein Europe.
was

the seventh

century architecture of Armenia

as
Constantinople itself,
of the central city.

The

dates from

In

Iconoclastic controversy.

Though

Leo

the Isaurian's

decree

ARCHITECTURE

BYZANTINE
was

directed

architecture

197

affected,and
against images, all the arts were
in Constantinoplewent
through a period of semi-

stagnationwhich was not relieved until Theodora's restoration


until the
of image worship in 842, and not
reallyremoved
accession of the Macedonian
dynasty in 867. Nothing better
than
its
illustrates the vitalityof Byzantine architecture
of the art
diffusion in this dark period. The very throttling
tended
what
nople
Constantito spread it abroad, and
at home
lost the Occident of the Carolingian Renaissance
gained.
magne's
From
the very beginning of the ninth century dates Charlefine chapel at Aix-la-Chapelle
(Figs.79, 80, and 85),a
of San Vitale.
later Germignydirect imitation
Somewhat
les-Pres was
planned on lines suggested,as we have seen, by
the Armenian
architecture of the seventh century.
Byzantine
architecture
therefore,not arrested,but merely temporarily
was,
ceased to center in Constantinople.
With
the accession of the MaceThe second golden age.
donian
her sway,
and there
dynasty Constantinopleresumed
the second
as
began what is generallyknown
golden age of
to the empire,
once
more
Byzantine art. Prosperity came
Fresh Oriental influence vivified
to the rulinghouse.
power
the art, and architects sought inspiration
in the monuments
of
the
far removed
from
however,
past. Inspiration was,
imitation.
The architecture
of the second golden age differs
the
widely from that of the first,and ably demonstrates
dynamic power of the 'art.
Changes in plan. In the second golden age the basilican
plan entirelydisappeared. The octagon went with it,and the
triconch
type occurred
only in a radicallymodified form.
Even
basilican type became
the domed
very rare, although the
ninth
(now the Gulcentury church of Saint Theodosius
djami) at Constantinopleshows it.
The Greek cross
plan of the second golden age. By far the
the Greek cross, but this differed essentially
favorite plan was
from

the earlier Greek

Placidia

form
and

the

and

the

arms

subordinate

cross

church

of the

seen

of the

cross

domes

as

appear

in the mausoleum

Holy Apostles. In
in the contours

of Galla
the older

of the
of the

plan,

cross.
placed on each arm
In the latter,
the re-entrant
anglesare filled on plan,the ground
story plan being square and the cross appearing only in the
are

98

stories.

upper

vaults, and
between

within

hidden,
and

with

plan

tend
of

thrusts

placed

are

is thus

central

Greek

dome

thrusts

and

of the

neutralize

to

the

covered

are

cross

domes

angles. The

vaults

the

central

in

with

barrel

the

angles

inscribed

cross

four

often

domes,

subordinate

domes

another, and

one

dome.

Thus

the

all

whole

of the
organic that one is reminded
The
of
organic systems of Romanesque architecture.
germ
the typicalGreek
cross
buildingof the second golden age is to

system

is

The

arms.

the

at

of the

arms

subordinate

square,

barrel

oppose

The

the

the

ARCHITECTURE

OF

HISTORY

logicaland

so

found, therefore,not in the classic example of the Greek


of the first golden age, the church of the Holy Apostles,
cross
in such a buildingas
but in the domed
basilica,and especially
be

Saint Irene

Constantinople (Fig.78).
Changes in expression. Along with this change in plan there
a
came
change in architectural expression. The vertical line
accented.
The height of the buildingbecame
was
greater in
Domes
were
proportionto its breadth.
constantlyraised upon
drums, and became
strikingfeatures externally. The logical
reflected in the lines of the
was
spiritof the construction
exterior.
Thus
vault in the interior was
a curved
represented
the exterior not by a gable,but by a curved
line. As the
on
construction
became
more
daring the scale decreased, and the
buildings of the second golden age were, in general,much
exterior
smaller than those of the first. Finally,the whole
was
regarded as suitable for decoration, polychromy was
appliedto it,and the texture of the wall received especialcare.
Bricks of various shapes and colors were
used and ingenious
at

patterns devised,

Byzantine

church

that

so

bears

the

but

exterior

of

twelfth

slightresemblance

to

that

century
of

one

of the sixth.

(Fig. 79),the "new church" of Basil I.


(d.886),was to the second golden age what Hagia Sophia was
to the first. Unfortunately it has been destroyed, but we
its plan from
in the form
know
of a
descriptions.It was
La

Nea.

La

Nea

Greek

cross,

with

in the

angles between

this building set


that followed.
Evolution

of

central

the

the

dome

arms

and
of the

four smaller
cross.

domes

set

Unquestionably

type for the majority of the churches

the type.

The

evolution

of the

type

can

be

BYZANTINE
traced

in extant

in

form

subordinate
shows

It appears
in a rudimentary
at Skripou in Bceotia,dated
874, which lacks

domes, and

the Greek

be

seen

FIG.

86

"

199

monuments.

church

ARCHITECTURE

is

heavy

in

construction,but which

It may
plan with barrel-vaulted arms.
in
the
fully developed
Kilisse-djami(formerlythe
cross

CONSTANTINOPLE.

THE

VIEW

KILISSEDJAMI.

FROM

THE

EAST.

(EBERSOLT)

Theotokos) in Constantinople(Figs.79 and 86),dating from


the first half of the tenth

vaulted

and

arms

favorite
Comnenian
Saint

the

Luke
second

and

of brick and

Examples.

The

Here
The

angle domes.

harmoniouslycurved,
bands

century.

Greek

appear

both

exterior

finelytreated

the surfaces

barrel-

lines

are

in alternate

ashlar.
cross

within

square continued
Macedonian
the
a

the

and
plan throughout
dynasties. One sees it in the small church of
at Stiris in Phocis
(Figs.84 and 87),dating from

church

half of the

eleventh

century, and

later, in the

epoch of the Comnenes, it appears finelydeveloped in the triple


church of the Pantocrator, built about 1124 in Constantinople

200

HISTORY
of

by Irene, empress

church

central

Variations.
favorite

type

period.

The

FIG.

87

THE

EAST

four

"

has but

It must

Of the three
the north

on

plan

two

was

and

of the second

THE

golden age.

be

MONASTERY

churches

are

the

was

OF

and

(SCHULTZ

some

of

of this form.

the

most

twelfth

Athens.

All

of

later
of the

FROM

BARNSLEY)

beautiful

these

date

the

better

Metropolis
the

from

century.

variation in the churches


squinch group. Another
In these
period might be called the squinch group.

The
this

the

finelycomposed

The

well as
Moni
at Nauplia is of this type, as
known
and the Little
churches
of Saint Theodore
at

the

VIEW
AND

Nea

80)

that

omission

LUKE.

SAINT

CHURCHES.

TWO

domes,

subordinate

and

south, are

domes.

variation

(PHOCIS),

SHOWING

(Figs. 79

buildings

supposed, however,
slavishlycopied everywhere in
not

commonest

STIRIS

Byzantine

two, those

of the classic

perfectexamples
The

Comnenus.

John

this work

form

which

ARCHITECTURE

OF

dome

is broader

drum,
churches

and

the

of the

in diameter

and

is carried

on

proportions are squatter than


period. To this genre belong

of
the

sixteen-sided
in the

other

the monastery

BYZANTINE
of Saint Luke

with

(Fig.87), the Nea Moni


Daphni, near Athens.

at

Athos.

at

The

their semicircular

the cross,
deserves

2OI

at Stiris

the fine church


Churches

ARCHITECTURE

form

churches

specialmention.

88

FIG.

"

It is

VENICE.

lateral

One, the catholicon

group.

three-aisled

SAINT

MARK.

Chios, and

and the vicinity,

terminating the

apses

another

of Athos

of

arms

of

of

Lavra,

building,the

PLAN

three-fold division being indicated on the exterior by arcades,


the types of the Greek
and it thus appears
to combine
cross
and the domed
basilican churches.
Saint
of

Mark's, Venice.

variation from

occurs

in the

By

the favorite

famous

church

important example

far the most

plan

of the second

golden age
(Fig.

in Venice

of Saint Mark

88),begun in 1063. This building is a frank reversion to the


nople.
plan of Anthemius' church of the Holy Apostles at Constantidefined on the ground
The plan is that of a Greek cross
story, with
smaller

dome

dome
on

on

pendentives

pendentives over

each

in
arm

the

center

of the

and

cross.

202

HISTORY

galleriednarthex
the

The

cross.

OF

embraces

ARCHITECTURE

three

great pierswhich

sides of the western


the dome

carry

give greater space in the ground story, and are


the width of the piers,
carried on marble
by galleries,
Light is admitted
through rings of openings round

89

FIG.

of

the

VENICE.

"

domes,

exterior

SAINT

which

(Fig.89)

MARK.

less than

are

the

domes

wood, lead covered, which

VIEW

are

THE

FROM

pierced

are

to

connected
columns.
the

by

bases

PIAZZA

semicircular.

masked

of

arm

On

the

false domes

of

strikingfeature of the church


from the Piazza.
Within
as
seen
(Fig.90),the decoration is
extremely rich,veneered marbles and preciousmosaics being
used as freelyas in Hagia Sophia at Constantinople. The
its clustered marble
exterior, with
columns, polychrome
marble
and flashing
mosaic, is as lavishlydecorated as
veneer,
the interior.
The buildingas it stands is by no means
geneous.
homoThere
some

from

of the
modern

are

mosaics

form

many

date

Gothic
from

details in the
the

Renaissance

facade, and
and

even

times.

Byzantine influencein Aquitaine. Saint

Mark's,

or

its

BYZANTINE

prototypes,

appears

architecture.

In

Front

FIG.

90

at

"

of Saint

ARCHITECTURE
have

strongly to

France

the twelfth

Pe"rigueux(Fig.99) repeats

VENICE.

SAINT

MARK.

INTERIOR

Mark's, though then

decoration

within

and

without

arthex
are

203

influenced Occidental

century church
almost

verbatim

LOOKING

and

TOWARD

all the

omitted.

of Saint
the

THE

plan

APSE

polychrome
other
Many

similarlyconstructed, so that the


buildingsof Aquitaine were
architecture of that regionmight be classified alike under
the
headings of Byzantine and French Romanesque.
Georgia and Armenia.
Among the most
originalbuildings

204

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

golden age are those of Georgia and Armenia.


of
early in date, for example the church
very
the Black
on
Sea, probably of the tenth century,
of Akthamar
Lake
Van
on
(Fig.91), surely of the

of the

second

Some

are

Pitzounda
and

that

tenth.

In

these
the

buildings
Greek

form

cross

used

was

most

freely, though
older

forms

the

as

domed

basilica
three

such

and

the

shell

type

survived.
other

In

respects,
these

however,

buildings showed
ity.
striking originalThe

central

dome, raised on a
lofty,ashlar-built,

many-sided drum,
almost

became

tower.

On

exterior

it often

appeared,

the

at

as

Akthamar,

as

sharply pointed
The

cone.

FIG.

91

"

SEEN

(LAKE VAN).

AKTHAMAR
THE

FROM

THE

often

CHURCH

ceased

but
cut

times
of

in the thickness

of the wall.

and
disappearedentirely,

homogeneous

material.

The

cut

stone,

exteriors,in

even
a

the

The

use

buildingswere
the

manner

to be

salient, and

(LYNCH)

SOUTHEAST.

apse

roof

tiles

hitherto

came
bea

angular
tri-

of brick at
constructed

being of this
unknown

in

decorated with crisp cut relief,


Byzantine architecture, were
the origisuggesting the earlier art of Syria. So great was
nality
of this Georgian and Armenian
architecture
that of late
that
a
theory has been advanced, not without
plausibility,

BYZANTINE
this region

from

The

under

golden age

fourth

crusade

diverted

was

into ruins.

to an

came

Not

controlled

of the second

golden age.
Byzantium's brilliant prosperity
and Comnene
and
the
dynasties
end in 1204, when
the disgraceful
to Constantinople and
the city

the Macedonian

second

205

creative genius which

the

came

Byzantine architecture
"Byzantine Renaissance."

all the

sank

ARCHITECTURE

this great disaster,however, could

even

utterly crush the Byzantine spiritor the vitalityof Byzantine


art.

Culture

later

thirteenth,the fourteenth,and

again

rose

the

on

period known
Constantinople,however, was
came

of letters

the

were

eminent, but

ashes

the

as

city and

in the

the

ries
early fifteenth centu"Byzantine Renaissance."

weak.
she

of the

Her

lacked

scientists and

men

for architectural

money

enterprises. Thus we find the more


the last Byzantine period outside

important buildings
of
of Constantinople, in
Greece, in the Balkan
states, in Asia Minor.
Divergences
in
these
caused
and
local
taste
occur
material,
buildings,
by
still
the
but
has strong unity. Moreover, the art
style
continued
sank to mere
to develop and
never
repetitionof
earlier works.
Plans.

The

the favorite.

Greek
At

the

cross

plan continued
time

to

be, on the whole,

frequent reversion
basilican type.
to the old domed
Especially at Trebizond,
in such churches
as
Hagia Sophia and the Chrysokephalos,
the western
of the cross
was
arm
lengthened,aisles were added,
and
the longitudinalaxis of the building emphasized. At
Athos
a
development suggesting the ancient Syrian threeshell

same

there

was

plan occurred.

Elevations.

elevation

the

of this last

churches

period
showed
strikingchanges. The vertical line was unsparingly
accented.
in Serbia (Figs. 79
Frequently, as at Manassia
made
and
divided
92), the ground story was
high, and subvery
by thin vertical engaged columns
suggesting narrow
pilasterstrips. The drum became
startlingly
elongated,and
Serbian
the dome, for safety'ssake, made
smaller.
In some
for example Ravanitsa
92),
(Fig.80),Manassia
(Fig.
buildings,
and the church of the ArchangelsnearUskub. the dome
is almost
invisible and
In other

cases

In

the drum

has the appearance


of a slender tower.
is lowered, the diameter
the drum
of the dome

widened, and the whole surmounted

with

cone.

The

massy

206

OP

ARCHITECTURE

of this

appearance

makes

HISTORY

it stilla

form, as at Hagia Sophia


striking almost donjon-like
"

Trebizond,

at

feature

"

of the

exterior.
Decoration

Decoration.

Mosaic, being very

as

costly,was

well
less

underwent

change.
cheaper

freelyused, and

the

medium

of fresco
into

came

vogue.

the

great

Some

of

frescoes, for

example those at
Mistra (thePeribparison
leptos)bear com,

with those
of

contemporary

terior
Italy. On the expolychrome

marble

almost

was

doned,
aban-

completely

give

to

place to the richest


decoration

in multicolored
and

terned
pat-

brick
the

that

style ever

vented.
in-

At times

glazed tiles
intermingled

even
were

with
and

FIG.

92

"

MANASSIA

(SERBIA). (POKRYCHKIN)

the

of

such

as

Saint

Arta

example

of the

artist could

beautiful

get by the

effects which

the

refined

and

color

the

is

later

brick,
exterior

church

Basil's at
a

brilliant

Byzantine

texture

of

his

surfaces.
been
Inspiration. Of late years several theories have
advanced
of this extraordinary last
to explainthe inspiration
burst of activityin Byzantine art.
By far the most plausible
is that western
Europe at last paid off a part of its heavy debt,
to
and returned
Byzantium something in the way of in-

BYZANTINE

spiration. The
Byzantium, the
the resort

ARCHITECTURE

prevalence
almost

Gothic

fresco such

to

which
to

bound

emphasis

on

the

building
vertical

in

line,

and

On

fifteenth

the other

century Constantinople

hand

it is

reasonable

as

to

that the creative

suppose

showed

art

three-aisled

as
was
common
Italy,all support
the close political
and
cultural ties

fourteenth

Europe.

western

the

in

theory suggested by

of

207

in its first

third, and

remained

when

weakened

the

surrendered

to

which
genius and vitality
Byzantine
also
two
produced the
great periods

at work

down

to

city, abandoned

the fateful year


by Christian

of 1453,

Europe,

the Turk.

building. The early palace. Albeit the historical


importance of Byzantine architecture lies primarily in the
ecclesiastical buildings,the style also showed
great originality
and activity
in its secular works.
The buildingof great palaces
Constantine
accompanied the building of great churches.
set the example by raisinga magnificent palace in the new
have
there is no
must
city,of which now
trace, but which
followed the generallines laid down
by Diocletian at Spalato.
We
know
the appearance
of an
early Byzantine palace from
the mosaic in Sant' ApollinareNuovo
at Ravenna,
representing
the
mosaic
of
This
Theodoric,
now
destroyed.
palace
shows us a long,arcaded
structure
composed of a central porch
with a gable and two
two-storied,
wings. The
wings are
with square windows
in the second
Apparently
story arcade.
exigenciesof space suppressed the Syrian court, and the
colonnade
opened directlyon the street.
Secular building in Justinian'stime.
Shortly afterward,
the reignof Justinian produced a great burst of secular building
Secular

in

Constantinople. At

white

marble, the baths

this time
of

the

and

raised

Roman
The

cistern.

The

under

was

apparently

the forum

baths

splendidlydecorated

of Arcadius

which

built, all in

was

restored,

were

rivaled

those

of

the

produced a unique
Constantinople: the cistern. The

need for storingwater

type of civil building in


earliest

Senate

Zeuxippus were

in marble

polychrome,
aqueducts were
Campagna.

the

in 407.

the

Cisterna

Maxima,

constructed

As the size of these cisterns increased

they became
really important monuments
daring in plan and delicate in detail.

of
The

architecture,
cistern called

208

HISTORY

OP

Pulcheria, built in
and

metres

the

In less than

had

421,

vault

ARCHITECTURE
surface

carried

was

of

over

produced such tremendous


direk (the thousand
and

works

The

metres.

the

as

columns)

one

idea

square

thirtygranitecolumns.

on

century, however, the ambitions

1000

of the architects

cistern

with

of these

of Bin-bir-

surface

of

colossal works

over

3500

square

from

Alexandria, but their development in Constantinoplewas

absolutelyunprecedented. They
of the Byzantines to have been no

the

prove

whit

came

engineeringgenius

inferior to that

of the

Romans.
Palaces

of the second golden age. In the second golden age


the activityin secular building was
as
great as in the first.
in the age by building a new
Basil I. ushered
palace, the
writers have
Cenourgion, to the splendor of which
many
testified. To this he added
buildings,the Pentacoumany
bouclon, the so-called Pavilion of the Eagle, the treasury,and
Later
raised the Boucoleon
others.
on
Nicephoras Phocas
the shore of the Sea of Marmora.
Starting with a small
buildingalready on the site,this Emperor produced a palace
lavish in its appointments and
at
once
donjon-like in its
strength. Each generation added something to the Sacred
Palace or other imperial residences.
In the twelfth century
the Sacred Palace was
somewhat
neglected,and the Comnenes
Blachernae, a palace

built the

Enthusiastic

accounts

building,and
the

Turks

in

the

of crusaders

call the Tekfour-Serai

churches
The

of this
Sacred

appearance
are

in brick

texture

of the Golden
the

attest

graceful architectural

part of the original. This


surface

at the end

ruin
and

beauty of this
fragment which

probably

we

shows

ashlar

Horn.

have

refined

similar

to

an

extant

pattern and
that

of

the

period.

Palace.

of the

Much

Sacred

still disputing as

to

has

Palace
its

plan.

written

about

the

(Fig.93), yet archeologists


Indeed

the

term

"Sacred

singlebuilding,is confusing.
The work
astical,
was
a conglomeration of buildings,
lay and ecclesiheterogeneous in plan, dimensions, and date, covering
total area, roughly triangularin shape, of over
a
400,000
One
side
bounded
the
Sea
of
was
Marmora,
by
yards.
square
and one
the
feet
by
Hippodrome, a giganticstructure
1400
The
in length, easily capable of holding 80,000 persons.
Palace," indicatingas

it does

been

ARCHITECTURE

BYZANTINE

209

third side faced the city,but was


protected from
and gardens. Within
were
quarters by terraces

fora, schools,council chambers, gardens, and

FIG.

93

"

CONSTANTINOPLE.

PLAN

OF

THE

SACRED

even

PALACE,

the

poorer

churches,
a

private

RESTORED.

(EBERSOLT)

hippodrome. The general effect must, therefore,have been


bewilderinglycomplicated,and not wholly unlike that of the
Kremlin
to-day. Both to the complication of the plan and
the unbelievable
richness of the decoration numerous
descrip-

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

tions of visitors testify. The complexity of the plan served


of the site.
to exaggerate the tremendousness
Recognizing
have

visitingambassadors
led through hall and
luxury succeeded
court, where
luxury
richness
and
surpassed richness, until they finallyreached
in the Chrysotriclinium,an
the royal presence
octagonal
domed
if
of
accounts
hall, decorated,
eye-witnessescan be
believed, in gold, enamel, and precious stones
beyond the
and One Nights.
wildest dreams
of the Thousand
Later palace building. After the sack of the city in 1204
its pristinesplendor.
the
Palace
recovered
Sacred
never
At the same
Palace buildingreceived a fatal set-back.
time
Prankish
chateaux
numerous
sprang
up in Byzantine territory
The
and
influenced
latest
Byzantine civil architecture.
of the fortification
Byzantine palacespartake,therefore,more
than of the palace proper.
be supposed, however, that
It must
not
Fortifications.
warlike architecture
had been neglected in the earlier periods
of the Byzantine style. The
willingness of the Byzantine
this the

architect
favor

emperors

to

of the

wont

were

suppress,

for

to

of

reasons

defense, the graceful in

strong is well proved by the great enceinte

of

dates back
of which
to the reign of
Constantinople,much
Theodosius
II. (408-450). Africa especiallyretains monuments
which
of early Byzantine military architecture
were,
in their day, absolutelyimpregnable. Of such a type are
the citadels of Lemsa
in Tunisia, and of Haidra
(Fig.94). In
the second
works
of Manuel
golden age the still extant
Comnenus
the same
of military
at Constantinopleshow
power
design at home.
The ensemble.
In the period of Constantine
and Justinian
the general appearance
of Constantinople must
have
been,
aside from topographicalvariations,not unlike that of Rome.
The

Roman

constructive

sense

and

broad

grasp

of the

tials
essen-

inherited by the Byzantines.


In
cityplanning were
the later period, however, the city must
have
assumed
an
of inchoate
complexity. Within the inclosure of
appearance
the Sacred Palace, building after buildingwas
added, until
all semblance
of a synthetic plan was
lost. Without, the
lack of a logical
scheme
ences
same
prevailedand, except for differin architectural detail and material, the Constantinople
of

ARCHITECTURE

BYZANTINE
have

of Basil II.must

looked

211

like the Stamboul

much

of

to-day.

houses
crowded,
irregular,
and the broad planning of classical antiquityhad given way
to the apparently thoughtless and illogical
grouping of houses
of the buildingof the Middle
characteristicof so much
Ages.
No examples of the less palatial
The dwellings of the rich.
Byzantine habitations remain, but illuminated manuscripts

had

Streets

FIG.

94

"

become

narrow

HAIDRA.

THE

and

idea of the appearance


give us some
wealthy. They were
apparently not
found in the "dead
cities" of Syria.
or

From

stories,the

three

the ninth

building.

small

materials

were

of combined

towers

other material.

The

small

of
and

brick and

of the
unlike
The

houses

of two

were

with

porticoes.
century open loggiasdecorated
lateral pavilionsoften flanked
the street, and
projectedover

marble.

marble,

in

doors

were

were

grilles.The

The
and

terraced,and

Windows

domes.

glass set

outer

of the

houses

those stillto be

ornamented

steep,sometimes

with

squares
brick

or

Balconies

sometimes

were

ornamented

with

the twelfth

stories and

the upper
the main
the roofs

to

facades

(DIEHL)

RESTORED.

FORTIFICATIONS,

facades

the

were

floors of

times
some-

square,

prevailing
generally
one

of nail-studded

or

the

iron;

212

the inner
The

HISTORY
of

better

OP

ARCHITECTURE

wood, carved, paneled and inset with plaques.


an:l
dwellings were, therefore, both luxurious

graceful.
poorer quarters. If,however, the public buildingsand
habitations of the rich were
splendid,the dwellings of the
The

were

poor
common

and the parts of the cityused by the


citizens ill built,vilelyplanned, and worse
kept. If
of the meanest,

believe contemporary
accounts, such
de Deuil, who visited the cityin 1147, in the
we

the

housetops

often

themselves

were

by pools

of mud

The

odors

met

above

the

noisome, and

and

men

the

quarters

common

streets, and

indescribablyfilthy,at
in which

that of Eudes

as

may

times

beasts

were

the
even

streets

barred
drowned.

unlighted at night,
to sunup
sundown
so that from
they were wholly given over to
thieves,cutthroats, and yammering scavenger
dogs like those
infest Constantinopleto-day. If the reader could, by
which
of present
strained flightof fancy,imagine a combination
some
region in Rome, and the
day Stamboul, the Campo Marzo
Tatar cityin Pekin, he would
probably have a not inaccurate
of twelfth century Constantinople.
idea of the ensemble
The influence
ofByzantinearchitecture. No discussion of the
Byzantine stylewould be complete without a word about the
powerful influence which the art exerted on contemporaneous
At times, as in Aix-la-Chapelle
and subsequent architecture.
as in Saint Front
(Figs.79, 80 and 85) and Germigny-les-Pres,
of Norman
de Perigueux (Fig.99) and many
of the churches
itself as little more
than imitation.
this influence showed
Sicily,.
A subtler influence is recorded in the acceptance by the
which underlay both the
West of the unformulated
principles
of the Byzantine
forms- of detail and the constructive
scheme
building. The Byzantine architect,rejectingall singleforms
of all
of the classic capital,
evolved by a gradual combination
form suited to new
the elements
of the classic capitala new
of the
needs.
The
Gothic
capital is but a refinement
Byzantine,or rather a further development along the lines laid
Gothic
down
and
by the Byzantine. The
Romanesque
development of the vault,too, was made possibleby the flexible
of the vault inauguratedby the Byzantines. Even
treatment
the basic Gothic principle,
the stabilizing
of a complex vaulted
of an equilibrium
of opposingthrusts, finds
system by means
were

streets

BYZANTINE
its

antecedent, as

of the second

have

we

in the

seen,

Byzantine architecture

later

styles. Moreover, Byzantine influence on


confined to the contemporary
Middle
not

styleswas

and
Ages. We shall see that Renaissance
to
are
Byzantium.
largely indebted

southern
the

213

golden age.

Influence on
other

ARCHITECTURE

Russia, and
to

recurrence

in

Greece, where

it has been

modern
In

architecture

Balkans, in
the stylewas
native,

constant, and

the

such

buildingas

Metropolis at Athens, though a debased imitation of


older work, has the merit of being a wholly natural reversion
Saracenic
architecture
art.
must
to a native
Finally,even
acknowledge a great debt to Byzantine.
Significanceof Byzantine architecture. The importance of
It may
be
Byzantine architecture is, therefore, threefold.
the Roman
and
regarded as an important link between
in contemporary
of inspiration
as
a source
Romanesque styles,
and
subsequent architecture,and finallyas a powerful and
the New

self-sufficient art in itself.

On

the

whole, writers have tended

pointsof view at the expense of the


of
The
result has been a stressing
third.
of the architecture
the development of the great
the first golden age before
medieval
Europe, and a neglectof the equally
stylesof western
clastic
important Byzantine architecture which postdates the Iconodynamic quality of the art has
controversy. The
largelybeen overlooked, and the styleinvested with a false
which
writers on
conservatism
recent
Byzantine architecture
are
only beginning to dispel. It is well, therefore,especially
in a generalhistoryof architecture,to emphasize the fact that
of transition,
the Byzantine stylewas
not only an architecture
but especially
an
independent,self-sufficient art which showed
in the
new
ever
vitalityfrom the age of the first Constantino
to

emphasize

fourth
sense,

the first two

century
shows

it

to

that

even

of the

last in the

fifteenth,and, in

to-day.

CHRONOLOGICAL

LIST

Early Period,to
Palace
Constantinople,

Constantinople, Senate.
Cisterna
Constantinople,

OF

the Accession

of Constantine.
"

of Justinian
"

323-337.

Maxima.

"

MONUMENTS

407.

323-337.

in 527

2i4

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

Constantinople,Cisterna Pulcheria.
421.
W
alls
of
Theodosius.
First half of fifth century.
Constantinople,
Eski-djouma. First half of fifth century.
Constantinople,
Stoudion
basilica. 463.
Constantinople,
Ravenna, Sant' Apollinarein Classe.
Begun before 526.
Palace
of Theodoric.
Ravenna,
Begun before 526.
"

"

"

"

"

"

First Golden

Age, Inauguratedby Justinian,527"726

Bin-bir-direk
Constantinople,

cistern.

528.

"

Ravenna, San Vitale. 526 or 534-547.


Salonica,Hagia Sophia. C. 530.
"

"

Constantinople,Saint Irene.
Constantinople,Hagia Sophia
"

532.

532-562.
(Dalmatia). 540.
Constantinople,Holy Apostles. 536^546.
Ravenna, Sant' Apollinare Nuovo.
549.
"

Cathedral

of Parenzo

"

"

"

Saints
Constantinople,

Bacchus.

Sergius and

"

First

half of sixth

century.

Constantinople,Baths of Zeuxippus. First half of sixth century.


Lemsa
(Africa),Fortifications. Sixth century.
Haidra
(Africa),Fortifications. Sixth century.
Saint Gregory, near
Etschmiadzin
(Armenia). 640-666.
of Emperor
Constantinople,Kalender-hane-djami(the Diaconessa
Maurice?). Seventh century.
Constantinople, Hodja moustapha pasha (Saint Andrew's).
"

"

"

"

"

"

Seventh
Cathedral

century.
of

in seventh

Etschmiadzin

(Armenia).

"

in

Begun

fifth,restored

century.

Age of Iconodasm, 726"842


Charlemagne's Chapel. 796-804.
Aix-la-Chapelle,
Germigny-les-Pres(France). Ninth century.
"

"

Second

Golden

Age, Inauguratedby Basil /.,867-1204

(Basil I.)."Before 886.


Constantinople,"La Nea"
Cenourgion (BasilI.). Before 886.
Constantinople,
(Basil I.). Before 886.
Constantinople,Pentacoubouclon
Constantinople,Gul-djami (Saint Theodosius). Second
"

"

"

ninth

half

of

century.

Skripou (Bceotia). 874.


"

Constantinople,Boucolcon

(Nicephorus Phocas, Emperor). 963"

969.

Akthamar,
Pitzounda

(Armenia). Tenth
(Armenia). Tenth century.?
Lake

Van

"

"

century.

BYZANTINE

ARCHITECTURE

215

End
of tenth or beginningof eleventh
Lavra, Catholicon.
century.
Stiris (Phocis),Great Church
of Saint Luke.
Beginning of eleventh
"

"

century.
Mid-eleventh
Chios, Nea Moni.
century.
Mark's.
Saint
Venice,
Begun 1063.
Stiris (Phocis),Theotokos
of Saint
(Small Church
"

"

half of eleventh

Luke).
"

Second

century.

Constantinople,Kilisse-djami. Second
Daphni. End of eleventh century.
"

half of eleventh

century.

"

Perigueux (France), Saint Front." 1120.


n
Constantinople,Pantocrator.
24.
Moni.
Nea
Nauplia,
1144.
Mid-twelfth
Athens, Saint Theodore.
century.
Athens, Little Metropolis. Mid-twelfth
century.
Constantinople,Palace of the Blachernae (Manuel
"

"

"

"

after 1143.
Walls
Constantinople,

Comnenus).

"

Soon

of Manuel

Comnenus.

"

Soon

after 1143.

Byzantine Renaissance,mid-thirteenth century

"

Arta, Saint Basil. Thirteenth century.


Trebizond, Hagia Sophia. Thirteenth century.
Trebizond, Chrysokephalos. Thirteenth
century.
Ravanitsa
(Serbia). 1381.
of the Archangels. Fourteenth
Uskub
(Serbia),Church
End
of the fourteenth
Mistra, Peribleptos.
century.
Manassia
(Serbia). 1407.

1453

"

"

"

"

"

century.

"

"

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL

NOTE

del'art,1905, vol. i, pt. i, contains a brilliant


C.
of the history of Byzantine art, by Gabriel Millet.
summary
Texier and
R. P. Pullan's Byzantine Architecture,
mental
1864, is a monugraphic
out of date, with excellent text and superb lithowork, now
of
details.
and
platesof a wide range
Byzantine monuments
A. Choisy'sL'art de bdtir chez les Byzantins,1883, is an old but authoritative
illustrated
for
well
and
tine
Byzanwork,
especially
important
construction.
J. Stryzgowski'sKleinasien, 1003, and Byzantinische Denkmaler
are
important recent
publicationsof research,
already noted, emphasizing the Eastern origin of Byzantine art.
d'art byzantin,1910, an authoritative,
C. Diehl's Manuel
scholarly,
the
of
modern
embodies
results
ancient
and
up-to-date handbook,
research in the Byzantine field. T. G. Jackson's Byzantine and
up-to-date,scholarly,and
Romanesque Architecture,1913, is.an
A. Michel's

Histoire

is

188*

handbook

ofdate.
G.

out

though

for

than
vol

Irtfrom

in

discusses
in

character

tnMrvon

but

*"

authoritative

and

reaSe,

the

work

stanTnople
de
L

5^"

in

an

E.

subject.

the

on

Tpopular
readable
and

is

X9-,

illustrated
a

useful

ground

for

for

those
a

an

need

who

study

of

Uon

with

on

the

of

^
to

acquire

Byzantine

art.

J.

and

B.

the

1900

of

the

proper

Walls

oj
weU

^descnp^

Bur ^
Bury

history

The

Barkers

history

city.

the^

^^^f^ff

G.

monuments.

interesting

not

ac-

on

Constant^nople

city, with

the

important

most

perhaps

but

last

bwamso

mentioned

here

period, is

Grosvenor's

A.

Empire,
mre,

Roman

an

ot

1902,

H.

the

on

defenses

the

of

the

of

accounts

mterestine

book

monograph

is the

It

inclosure.

the

in

buildings

city

and

Lethaby

R.

W.

^1894,exhaustive
Tan Sophfa
earlier
Byzantine
f the
to

tinople;
Constan-

899,

the

is

aymonumental
"^^fg^^

is

dwelling.

Bvzantine

the

8 54,
van

o*

byzantine,

^habitation

Beylie's

I9o3!

of

ntine

A^
scholarly,

Constantinople

monuments

Byzantine

the

on

is

1912,

out

Baux

work.

churches

the

on

Byzantine

author's

same

Byza

interesting

well-illustrated volume

and

Jahrhundert,

".

Constantinople

in

original

$alzenberg's Altchnsthche

vom

Churches

Italian

taly.

churches

the

way

W.

Konstantinopel

Millingen's Byzantine

interestine

able

an

France.

central

out-of-date

word

ttahana,

Chough
^85^
of

^France

byzant^ne

L' architecture

architecture

Byzantine

for

important

and

date,

on

Byzantine

for

dell' arte

deVerneihl's

an

lojn-

arcMeUura

important

more

even

Storia
A. Venturi's
art.
early Christian
on
well-illustrated volume
and
is a scholarly
1902,
centuries, publishing much
the sixth to the eleventh

material

of

noted, is

^r
and

range

origini delta

Le

Rivoira's

T.

already

1901-07,

art, of great

Byzantine

of

Bayet's

Charles

liberally illustrated.

work,

readable

ARCHITECTURE

OF

HISTORY

2i6

Amstory
A^mstory

empire

historical

will
1

oj

be

CHAPTER

ROMANESQUE

VIII

ARCHITECTURE

of
discussion
architecture
Definition. A
Romanesque
inevitablybegins with a definition of the term Romanesque.
The name,
though an accepted one, and apt when understood,
is nevertheless
confusing to the beginner. Comprehension
ure
architectmost quickly when
we
comes
Romanesque
compare
to the Romance
languages. After the break-up of the
Roman
a
period of cultural confusion.
Empire there ensued
From
this confusion homogeneous nationalities slowlyemerged.
Based
Latin
civilization,quickened by northern
on
energy,
from
modified
and
conditions
differentiated one
another
by
These
nations
nations
of race
and geography,
arose.
possessed
the
Latin yet differingfrom
each a speech also based
upon
Thus
the Romance
speech of other nations similarlybased.
of Rome,
and national
languages, reminiscent
yet individual
into being. Preciselythe same
in character, came
phenomena
Roman
in architecture, based
as
a
point of
upon
appear
departure, but differingfrom it,each school being individual
which
and expressive of the peculiar genius of the race
duced
prothus
included
and
all
root
bound
it,yet
by a common
classification: Romanesque.
in a common
difficultiesbegin. From
This much
Date.
understood, new
civilization in the fifth century to the
the break-up of Roman
there occurred
clearlydefined rise of the nations about 1000
formative
more
frequent than
period in which chaos was
a
spoken and written,
order, yet in this period language was
magne
At times, as during the reign of Charlebuildings erected.
(the Carolingian Renaissance), civilization in this
Should
call the speech of this
brilliant.
one
even
period was
In very
its architecture
Romanesque?
period Romance;

218

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

general classifications all west-European architecture,outside


of mere
Byzantine imitation,roughly from 500 to 1 1 50, is called
The field may
then be subdivided, the period
Romanesque.
of later development from
to 1150
and
1000
placed by itself,
the

earlier architecture

classified

Carolingian,Carolingian
and Ottonian, or even
pre-Romanesque. Once the distinction
is comprehended the danger disappears.
Relation of Romanesque to Gothic.
The comprehension and
architecture
has
been
more
appreciation of Romanesque
albeit
hindered,
innocently,by writers on Gothic architecture
than by anything else. One of the most
brilliant,
Quicherat,
summed
up the style in the clever yet misleading definition
that has appeared in every
subsequent book on the subject.
According to the French
archeologist,Romanesque is an
architecture that, retainingelements
of Roman, has ceased to
be Roman,
and
anticipatingelements of Gothic, is not yet
Gothic.
Every phrase of this definition is true, yet its total
is pernicious,
the self-sufficiency
of the Romanesque
as it overlooks
ure
architectstyleand relegatesit to the positionof a mere
of transition.
Nothing more
clearlyshows its weakness
than its over-emphasis of organicRomanesque styles,
such as
Lombard, which led up to Gothic, and its utter inapplicability
of the most
to some
monumental, if inorganic,stylessuch as
as

the Tuscan.

Organic and inorganicarchitecture. The distinction between


what is called an organicand an inorganicstyleof architecture
An organic architecture is a vaulted
here.
well be made
may
the vaults supported by ribs,buttresses, and piers,and
one,
the latter deliberately
arranged with sole reference to the needs
Such
of supporting the vault and opposing its thrusts.
an
architectural system, so often compared to the bony structure
of a living organism, deserves
the
adjectiveorganic. An
architectural system may, however, be more
or less convincingly
structural ribs in a
organic. The omission of one or more
more
or
vault, the' maladjustment of one
supports to the
the organic
thrusts which
they are designed to meet, may mar
feelingof the system but not destroy it. On the other hand
a very
splendidbuilding may be completelyinorganic,like the
cathedral
on

of

Pisa, which

simplewall.

is covered

Romanesque

with

timber

roof carried

architecture must, therefore,

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
be studied for itself alone
before

or

as

National

as

is

much

of these variations

from
were,

In the

of
the

result of what

coming

feeling. This pointmust

strongly,since so
Romanesque comes

to

not

for what

excuse

an

and

the

219

after.

be insisted upon
charm
of the

varietyof

has gone

the

the

more

study

style. The

of

causes

of course, historical and geographical.


often called pre-Romanesque, from 500

early period,so
European architecture
1000,

showed

considerable

geneity,
homo-

naturally with the growth of separate nations


came
a growth of national
styles;and within the nations,
into districts which
often sharply divided
themselves
were
regna in regno, there grew up local stylesof great individuality
Thus
and charm.
Romanesque is,outside of France where
national
organicGothic developed,perhaps the most distinctly
of each country'sarchitectural styles.
is much
Ecclesiastical interest. The study of Romanesque
Gothic, is
simplified
by one fact. In no other style,not even
but

the interest
is this that

so

confined to ecclesiastical architecture.

in

brief discussion

of medieval

So true

architecture,

profitablystudied in its Gothic


aspects, leavingthe student free in the Romanesque period to
the vastlymore
concentrate
on
important church and monastic
buildings.
and
not only a natural
Corporatequality. The style was
ideals
it was
an
religious
expression,
expressionof the common
of the whole
it was
distinctly
people. In other words
corporate. A magisteroperariusdirected the works, but great
freedom
of assisting
The
craftsmen.
allowed his swarms
was
result was
variation and inequalityof workmanship, but for
that very
reason
a freshness
an
lamentably lackingin many
work.
otherwise impeccable modern
to
Architectural refinement. This freshness, which
seems
invest Romanesque, and indeed
all medieval
buildings,may
well
from
the
come
assymmetricalqualityof the work.
partlyas
Whether
in plan,in the heightsof columns
or not the variations
be observed
in practiand of arches and the like,which may
cally
allmedieval
is the result of inaccurate measurements,
buildings,
settlingof members, or deliberate design after the
secular

manner

architecture

of Greek

livingquality,a

is most

architectural
sense

of movement

refinements, the result is


and

picturesquenessthat

220

HISTORY
all

banishes

monotony

when
interesting
dry as dust.

more

and

keeps
painstakingand

characteristics. Though

General

the

building vitally

the

elaborate

plans

widely diverse (Fig.99),all are


with
specialreference to
arrangement

churches
the

ARCHITECTURE

OF

are

in

embodied

the

Christian-Roman

buildings of

the

central

and

and

when

tombs,

type

Romanesque
development of
needs
liturgical

confined
of

this

seem

of

basilica.

were

churches

works

In

general,

baptistries
they
type occur,
arch, as opposed
to

represent Byzantine influence. The round


the
Gothic
to
pointed arch, is a general characteristic
of Romanesque,
though many
examples of pointed arches
in the

style.
Although
Classification.

occur

have
at

the

been

classifications of

many

offered,the main

divisions

esque
Roman-

of the movement

of its great development in the eleventh


centuries are fairly
clear.
Italyhad a styleof her

period

twelfth

subdivided

roughly

into the

northern, central,and

and
own,

southern.

Germany, too, had an individual style,on the whole semiFrance


organic in the Rhine Valley and inorganicelsewhere.
with no
offers the most
complicated problem of classification,
In the
less than six main subdivisions in her Romanesque art.
find a distinct Provencal
south
we
style,highly classic in
feeling. Farther north we find the Auvergnat, most precocious
of the

French

schools, which

may

be

classified with

that

of

Languedoc, the artistic center of the latter being at Toulouse.


In Aquitaine another school grew up, showing marked
tine
Byzanmodern
writers have urged an
affiliations,
although some
Still
autochthonous
growth for the Aquitanian churches.
subdivision
be made
another
of Burgundyj with its
may
In the north two
emphasis on monastic architecture.
highly
organic styles developed, the most
precocious being the
Norman,

the most

called the

He

de

finished
France.

that

of the district

around

Paris

geneous
England afforded a very homobe regarded as
type of Romanesque, which may
offshoot
of Norman, and
an
Spain had an individual style
largelyimported from Languedoc, though influenced,especially
in the south, by Eastern
architecture.
of the style
Carolingianarchitecture. A closer examination
in its various manifestations must
with the
begin of course

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
art

which

we

have

called Carolingianor

might perhaps better


the
less descriptiveterm
it takes
though occasionally
which

"

be called
art

pre-Romanesque,

by

of the

221

dark

neutral

more

ages.

This

or

and

art,

something of a national aspect,


architecture of England, was
as in the Saxon
European rather
of the
national.
than
most
Moreover,
some
important
of the style,like Charlemagne's chapel at Aix-lamonuments
Chapelle (Figs.79 and 85) or the church of Germigny-les-Pres,
we
over
lightly,since they only emphasize how
pass
may
closelyat times Byzantine architecture was copied.
New
developments. There was, on the other hand, much
The basilican
buildingin the periodwhich strikes a new note.
often
plan was not merely used, it was developed. Apses were
added
turrets
at the west
or
were
end, free-standingtowers
included, and often the bema
was
exaggerated to produce
in German
architecture of the
the T form of plan so common
Frankfort). With the
Carolingianepoch (Salvatorskapelle,
accumulation

of

relics,the need

of chapels,in
multiplication
these

radiated

on

from

for

the form

the rounded

altar space led to


Sometimes
of absidioles.

more

east

end

of the church

(Saint

place in the
With
the
elaboration
of the
T-shaped bema.
liturgy,
ceremonial demanded
an
ambulatory for processionsround the
The
included.
was
apsidalend, and this important member
diaconicon
and
prothesisof the early Christian basilica soon
and vestry of the later works.
became
the sacristy
Saint Gall. By far the most
illuminatingexample of
Carolingian architecture is the ninth century monastery of
Saint Gall (Switzerland)known
to us
by a manuscript plan
This
shows
the
main
characteristics of
(Fig. 95).
drawing
the projectedmonastic church and the subordinate
buildings
about it. The church
itself is of the modified
basilican plan,
with three aisles,
and a western
eastern
an
apse, two flanking
western
towers, an exaggerated bema, ambulatory about the
The
eastern
room.
apse, and flankingvestry and secretary's
complicated plan of Saint Gall is useful,too, in emphasizing
the importance of the monastery
and, indeed, the strengthof
the monastic
system in this period. The church is but the
it
host of others.
About
most
a
prominent building among
are
packed separate structures, shops,baths, kitchens,stables,
Martin, Tours), sometimes

they

were

given

222

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

servants' and guests'quarters,vegetableand flower


hospitals,
gardens, in fact everything which could contribute to make
the monastery
a
self-sufficient,
self-sustaining
community.

Existingmonuments.
plans for

Many

our

extant

We

knowledge of
monuments,

are

not, however,

the architecture

though

confined

of the dark

usually damaged

to

ages.

and

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
by alteration,remain

marred
work

like.

was

ceuvre

is

of the

dark

one

In

France

though

the

show

us

Beauvais

at

of the best known


ages,

to

223
what

the

examples of
buildingis so

the

so-called
the

original
Basse-

architecture
in

severe

design,

plain walls and timber roof, that it aids little in the


highly
study of Carolingian buildings. Perhaps the most
developed type of Carolingian
its

with

church

is that

of Montier-en-

Der

(Upper Marne), where a


large proportion of the tenth
century building is preserved
for the student.
Among the
German

many

examples of this

most
perhaps the one
worth
emphasizing is Lorsch
(Rhine Valley, near
Worms,
Fig. 96). Here the facade of
art

the basilican

gate is preserved

in its original
form.

Carolingian decoration.
These fragments show us other
innovations
made

and

contributions

architecture

by this
strikingbeing

to

style,the most
the triangulardecoration, an
easilyrecognizedcharacteristic
of

architecture

the

all

over

Europe Windows were framed


in triangles,
gular
gable-like triandecoration
lief
applied in re.

to

the

themselves

walls,and

FIG.

96

"

THE

LORSCH.
BASILICAN

ONE

BAY

OF

GATE

the walls

composed of lozenges,sometimes vari-hued, with


the emphasis on triangularform.
The important billet mold
appeared for the first time, and the window
design of two
and embraced
lights,separated by a column
by an arch, is
reiterated and handed
and Gothic.
This
to Romanesque
on
form may
well have originatedin the campanili of Carolingian
Italy.
of
Pre-Romanesque architecture of England. On account
geographicalconditions,the pre-Romanesque architecture of

224

HISTORY

England shows
as

on

were

an

Earl's Barton
Roman

OP

ARCHITECTURE

individualistictendency. Such monuments

(Fig.97)

are

not

be

to

confused

with

temporary
con-

continental monuments,
though they were founded
modified
traditions,
by barbarian ideas. Towers

frequent,the angles re-enforced by

the very

Saxon

characteristic

long-and-shortwork,

of stone

slabs embedded

ternate
al-

horizontallyand
vertically.Walls

were

decorated

strongly

with

also

salient

stripsof stone, some


and running
placed vertically
from

the

ground

to the summit,

banded

some

round

the

tally
horizon-

building.
by

Openings were
clumsy wall shafts, almost
barrel-shaped and strongly
forms.
suggesting wooden
The
handling in
masonry
the Saxon
tremely
exbuildingswas
but
the style
rude,
was
sturdy and might well
have developed into one
of
great beauty had its evolution not
been
arrested by
divided

IIG.

97"

EARL'S

BARTON.

THE

TOWER

the Norman

conquest.

Pre-Romanesque architecture ofSpain. Geography affected


the Carolingianarchitecture of Spain as well.
The peninsula,
like the island of Sicily,
was
always a battle-groundbetween
and
and
Oriental
which
races
a
civilizations,
bridge over
influence entered Europe. The
Spanish architecture of the
dark
like that of the north, developed the basilican
ages,
in
plan, but showed
decidedly individualistic tendencies
Barbaric
in decoration.
arrangement of detail and especially
elements
with the Visigothicoccupation,and to them
came
added
Oriental influence, especiallyin
were
soon
a decided
decoration.
as

easilyas

Sassanian
Tarik

ideas crossed

himself.

As

the
result

straits of Gibraltar
we

find horseshoe

arches, fluted scallop


shells,and other details which

give the

ROMANESQUE
architecture
of

church

semi-exotic character.

the

Santullano

Oviedo), and
Miguel.

225

Extant

monuments

are

be named
the
interestingmay
(Oviedo), San Miguel de Linio (near
Maria
de Naranco
San
(Fig. 98), near

Among

abundant.

ARCHITECTURE

Santa

most

A.D.
activityabout 1000
Although undue
importance has been given to the effect on buildingof the safe

Architectural

FIG.

passage
passage
at

98

SANTA

MARIA

beginning
an

is,in round

NARANCO.

numbers,

of

architecture
Romanesque
extraordinaryimpetus about

be accounted

for in many
of the individual nations and

may

DE

PLAN

of the year 1000,


when
so
people,relyingon
many
in the Apocalypse, believed the end of the world was

hand, the date

received

"

good

one

for the

Building

proper.

that time.

The

fact

by the growth
ways, but chiefly
the economic
prosperitywhich

comparatively orderly governments insured.


Priority. In this later Romanesque, Italy,Germany, and
France
each claims priorityfor its own
versy
style,and the controis complicatedby the fact that almost all the monuments
have suffered from repair,
restoration,addition,and alteration
be dated by
less complete. The
more
or
majority cannot
documents
and the minority which
have suffered
can
may
from a subsequent,undated
alteration. In general Brutail's
be earlier
rule is excellent:
documented
a
building cannot

their

than

the date of its

document, but may

be, and

generallyis,

HISTORY

226
later.

critic must

The

far

as

ARCHITECTURE

proceed with

against internal

documentary
avoiding

OP

ideas,

evidence,

possiblethe mistakes

as

and

above

all

caution, checking

extreme

and

which

vice

come

versa,

from

conceived
pre-

steelinghimself against the

bias.
patriotic
Lombard
Romanesque. On weighing the evidence, the
oldest theory seems
not
but the
convenient
only the most
and we
most
the priorityof Lombard
assume
plausible,
may
Romanesque and begin our discussion with that style. This
givesthe credit of creative genius to Italy,but insists upon the
(Lombard) blood to quicken this genius.
necessityof Germanic
Opponents of the theory call attention to the fact that Lombard
architecture
as
designed in the eleventh century is highly
lost this organicquality,that the
organic,that the stylesoon
died prematurely,and that Italian architecture has
movement
always been distinguishedfrom northern by its fondness for
be explained
inorganic forms, but all these phenomena may
stock and the commercial
by the weakening of the Lombard
decline of Lombardy
coincident
with
the struggle between
the empire and the papacy.

appeals of

Characteristics.
characteristics

The ribbed vault.

What

of this architecture?

Since

of course,
vaulted, the favorite
groin vault. This form we have seen

was,

architecture,as in the vaults


from

the

heavy

concrete

over

then

the

it

were
was

the main

organic it

form

being the domical


developed in Byzantine
aisles of Hagia Sophia,

vaults of the Romans.

To

the

simple

architecture
added
groin vault the Lombard
strongly salient
ribs,reinforcingthe groin angles and binding the vault sides.

They
wall

thus

created

ribs;

two

set

transverse

of six ribs in all: two

longitudinalor
crossed the nave
at right
which
the building; and two diagonal or

angles to the long axis of


groin ribs,which met in the center of the vault and divided
it into four cells. The advantage of these ribs can hardly be
exaggerated. They could be built separately and act as
pendent
indecenteringfor the construction of the web.
They were
rested largelyupon
of the latter,which
them, and
thus

the web

could

be thinned

and

the vault

shell made

much

lighter. They concentrated the vault thrusts at, or near, the


springingof the ribs,where the architects contrived to meet
them with salient pier buttresses,and they divided the whole

MONF.EALE

MORJENVAU
MAINZ

FIG.

99

"

PLANS

OF

ROMANESQUE

CHURCHES

228
vault
that

of
a

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

building into separate compartments


crack or fault in one
liable
not
bay was
a

or

to

bays, so
spread to

another.

Compound
modified

supports.
support. An

Such

modified

aggregate

of

ribs

vault
of

demanded

different

sizes,

springing in different directions, could be gathered only


a
or
clumsily on a round column
pier. A compound
square
pierwas needed and produced. In Sant' Ambrogio at Milan
(Fig.101),for example, we find a pier compounded with an
side to bear the transverse
rib,
engaged pilasteron the nave
flanked by two engaged shafts to carry the diagonalribs.
On
the northern
and southern
faces an
engaged pilastercarries
the longitudinal
bears
rib, and againstit an engaged column
the arches of the ground story archivolt.
On the aisle side
and shaft carry respectively
the transverse
an
engaged pilaster
and diagonal ribs of the aisle vaults.
The
capitalsof these
shafts face in the direction in which the ribs spring,hence the
of the shafts which carry the diagonalsare set obliquely
capitals
axis of the building. In short, logicappears
in
to the main
member, and structural logic,a term we shall often be
every
forced to use, is emphasized.
The alternate system. The
structural logicinspired
same
another

characteristic

of Lombard

architecture,destined

to

far-reachinginfluence on later styles: the alternate


On plan the naves
were
roughly twice the width of
system.
the aisles. It occurred
logicallyto the architects that by
having two bays in the aisles to balance one in the nave
they
could
make
their vaults square
(Sant' Ambrogio, Fig. 99).
This necessitated,however, an intermediate
pier to carry the
their springing did not meet
ribs of the aisle vaults where
those of the nave
vaults.
pier
Obviously this intermediate
did not need the complicatedform or the robustness of the main
between
piers,hence smaller and simpler piers alternated
complicated ones, and the alternate system
largerand more
used with
This system was
of vaults and pierswas
created.
in Romanesque and Gothic architecture when two
great success
bays of the aisle balanced one bay of the nave.
structural system required new
The pilaster
strip. A new
against a pier
members, therefore the pilasterstrip,whether
of the vaulting system, or appearing on
to receive a member
have

the

HISTORY

230

exterior

as

OP

ARCHITECTURE

buttress, received

unprecedented development.

the

fundamentally organicqualityof
istic,
the Lombard
building,which is its most important characterthe style developed a very
originaldecorative scheme.
corbel tables were
used
Corbels were
unsparingly. Arched
and followingthe rake of the pitchedgable
under the eaves
run
of arcades, someattained by means
Decoration
roofs.
was
Aside from

Decoration.

times open,

Doors

but

enriched

were

covered

often blind.

more

with

porches,
gables supportedby

with

columns, which

were

carried

backs

the

on

lions.
of

themselves
of

ured
sculpt-

Sculpture,
rude

very

times
some-

sort,

times
some-

with

Byzantine refinement,
played a
unimportant part,
it was
but
chieflyconfined to
and the
portals,lintels,
capitals,
not

like.

On

exterior

the

generallyeschewed.
effect

builders

For

the

on

relied

"

tion
differentia-

IOI

MILAN.

"

BROGCO.
BAY

SHOWING

VAULT

AM-

"

Mosaic

ment
arrange-

and

ONE

mtenors,

RIBS

AND

with
gonG)

excluded

were
.

OF

(MOORE)

SUPPORTS.

have

SANT

DRAWING

in the

marble

Co.

veneer
FIG.

the

fairly monochromatic

material.
Copyright by Macmillan

tive
decora-

architectural

detail,carving, and
of

was

exterior

on

of textures

color

from

but these

enlivened

were

painting,now
whkh

the

,.

almost

must" ifl^

wholly

original"

been

of the interior was


garish. Further enlivenment
of carved
by rich church
furniture, sometimes
backed
with
of exquisitely
marble, or
ivory, sometimes
obtained

modeled

stucco, and

gold,and

enamel.

San?

Ambrogio

which

exhibit

the

perfectexample in
(Figs.99, 100, 101,

at

at

times

Milan.

style,we
Milan
102,

and

incrusted

even

Turning
find

in the

the

best

church

103).

to

This

with

silver,

the

monuments

known

and

of Sant'

most

Ambrogio

buildinghas

of late

ROMANESQUE

ARCHITECTURE

231

figured largelyin archeologicaldispute. It, and


neighboring and equallytypicalSan Michele of Pavia,

the

years

considered

long

modern

but

I O2

FIG.

"

to

date

from

archeology tends

MILAN.

SANT

from

thus

would

for the form


time

the

vaults

of

TOWARD

LOOKING

INTERIOR

monuments

this.

Sant'

APSE

by Romanesque
point is not as important as
would

of the vaults

reveal

century,

twelfth.

second

the first tier of stones

themselves

date

antedated

The

Normandy.

mid-eleventh

quarter of the

the

be

to

AMBROGIO.
THE

Ambrogio

the

were

in the

have

been

pierswas

Moreover, such

They
of

at first appears,

determined

placed.

by the

piers

The

finished monuments

spring spontaneously into being,but would imply


a
long development of experimental building before them,
and modern
research
has revealed
of examples of
number
a
ribbed
vaults of the eleventh
century in Lombardy, some
could

of

not

them

century.
9

even

constructed

in

the

second

quarter

of

the

HISTORY

232

OF

ARCHITECTURE

plan (Fig. 99) Sant' Ambrogio is


basilican,with three groinvaulted bays in the nave, a crossing
with an
octagonal lantern, and a short choir of half a bay.
The
Two
bays in the aisles correspond to one in the nave.
eastern
termination has a great semicircular apse, flanked by
two smaller apses of the same
shape, on the axis of the aisles.
Plan

and

elevation.

FIG.

IO3

"

In

MILAN.

SANT

EXTERIOR

AMBROGIO.

form, typicallyCarolingian,surely belongs to the ninth


is no
clerestory,the space being
century building. There
occupied by a large triforium gallery, the vaults of which

This

receive

the

thrusts

of the

nave

vaults

and

transmit

them

to

pier buttresses attached to the walls. The nave


vaults
(Fig. 100), very domical, have a full complement of
transverse
longitudinaland diagonal ribs. The aisle vaults
are
groined without diagonalribs. The facade shows an open
narthex, with an open galleryabove it. The first story is
with an
divided from the second by a horizontal string-course,
the

salient

ROMANESQUE
arched
rake

table, and

corbel
of the

engaged

ARCHITECTURE

gable.

shafts

five sections.

The

and
galleries,

Pilaster

the

to

similar

corbel

233

roof, divide the facade

octagonal lantern
attached

verticallyinto
with

is decorated

to the church

the

first story, and

the

stripsto

follows

table

two

is a square

campanile
divided horizontally
reinforced at the anglesby pilaster
strips,
with corbel tables,and vertically
by string-courses
by engaged
open

FIG.

columns.

which

104

The

prevents

"

VERONA.

church
a

SAN

has

an

distant view

ZENO.

atrium

San

Michele

of

with

vaulted

portico

of the facade.

Architecture outside of Milan.


The
from Milan the less organic Lombard
become.

VIEW

GENERAL

Pavia,

to

farther

removed

architecture
be

sure,

it

tended
exhibits

was

to
an

organic feelingfullythe equal of Sant' Ambrogio. Perhaps


the most
originalchurch after these two was Sant' Abondio at
Como, which affords one of the most pleasingand monumental
designs of the style. This building has a fivefold vertical
division of the fagade,correspondingto the five aisles of the

334

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

and fine twin campanili


interior,
a well-proportioned
clerestory,
symmetrically arranged. It is,however, unvaulted.
The
Maestri
Comacini.
One
might expect monumental
architecture at Como
and, indeed, throughout Lombardy, on
of the Maestri
account
Comacini, a famous band of workmen
first mentioned

King Rotari (636-652),the


of which
name
suggests an origin on a little island, "Isola
in Lake
Como.
The
Comacina,
importance of this mysterious
band
has probably been exaggerated,but there seems
little doubt that it was
largelyinfluential both in the creation
and in the spreading abroad
of the Lombard
style.
Reversion to inorganic type. Throughout
northern
Italy
the Lombard
held
into
west
Piedmont
style
stretching
sway,
by

the

Lombard

"

and

east

into Emilia

however,

as

well

reversion

to

an

tended

cathedral

the

in those

Veneto.

distant

inorganictype.

become

to

as

and

more

(1117),with

At

In later monuments,

from
the

monumental,

Milan, there
same

more

was

time the works


Parma

showy.

its

with
lofty if inept vaults bound
tie-rods,its broad facade, its soaringcampanile,has, at least,
a
superficial
impressivenessthat is denied the more
organic
but less obtrusive Sant' Ambrogio.
crated
(conseSimilarlyModena
of
facade
and
1184), on account
well-proportioned
in effect than
the
monumental
profuse sculpture,is more
Milanese
building.
San
Zeno, Verona.
pleasing and the
Perhaps the most
least organic of all Lombard
Romanesque buildings is San
Zeno
at Verona
(consecrated 1138, Fig. 104). This church
has probably the most
proportionsof any building
satisfactory
of its class.
Its portal is ennobled
by a gabled porch of the
type popular in this style,and quite probably invented in
Verona.
The exterior is further enhanced
by a free-standing
zontal
with vertical pilasterstripsand horicampanile, decorated
The
strips of alternating red and white marble.
interior with its great height and raised crypt is impressive,
but the inorganicquality of the building is revealed by its
timber roof, trussed after the manner
of the frame of a ship,
of its original painted
and
still retaining faint traces

decorations.
Tuscan

Romanesque.

architecture

of central

Farther

south

Italy which,

for

we

next

to

come

convenience,

we

the
may

236

HISTORY

though it overstepped the limits of what

call Tuscan,
the Tuscan

province. The
inorganic quality of

the

often

vaulted

the

time

is

be struck

style. The plans


strongly preferredthe

are

now

with

chiefly

timber

roof

the

buildings were
in size and strikingin decoration.

extremely monumental

same

In lieu of
a

once

the

At

structure.

will at

student

basilican,and the architects


to

ARCHITECTURE

OF

the
organic originality
in strikingcontrast
gorgeousness

Tuscan
to

the

Romanesque offered
comparatively drab

of the art of the north.

appearance

Decoration, general character.

This

effect

obtained

was

polished marble panels, and a profusion


The
of arcades, blind and open, appliedto the exterior.
exterior of such a buildingas the cathedral
of Pisa is covered
principallyby

of

means

:
:^-^m-~m-.:~lt~m"::-""~-H

"":' X

':"-:y

.;X;""t-^X ::"-

FIG.

106

"

'"

""'

"
*:

"

PISA.

the material

with arcades, and

PLAN

CATHEDRAL.

used

in panels,squares,
lozenges, and
to
brilliant in color as literally
so

is colored

all

Interiors
horizontal
were

marble

applied
of pure
manner
design,
be dazzling (Fig. 105).

generally basilican,the walls enlivened with


Domes
the crossing
over
stripsof lightand dark.

were

common,

certain amount

but

nave

of Lombard

vaults

rare.

At

times

influence in central

one

feels

Italy,as

at

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
Toscanella
very

and

Montefiascone, but

in

237

general the style id

individual.

The

at

group

departure for

study

The

IO7

"

PISA.

CATHEDRAL.

offer

the

cathedral
exterior
almost

the
most

THE

The

best

point of

is,
Romanesque monuments
Pisa (Figs.100, 105, 106, and

OF

THE

INTERIOR

LOOKING

APSE

cathedral, the leaning tower and


baptistry
resplendent examples of the style. The

is five aisled
arcades

at

VIEW

TOWARD

107), where

cathedral.

of Tuscan

the cathedral group

of course,

FIG.

Pisa.

vary

basilican

slightlyin

and
(Figs. 100
106). Its
height and spacing,looking

drawn
and constructed
free-hand.
though they were
The
the crossing is an
building is wooden-roofed, but over
The
egg-shaped dome
curiouslysmall for so large a nave.
wide
The
effect of the
transepts, afford a strikingfeature.
exterior (Fig.105) is one
of rich color and interesting
design.
The interior (Fig.107),however, is decorated with the typical
as

238
bands

of

marble, the

being so strong

contrasts

the eye rather than pleaseit.


The
decorative
same
Lean-ing Tower.

The

with

arcades

ringsto the

colored

settlingof

the

is little doubt

foundation

that

there is stilldispute
is caused

monument

in the

the better
chose

to

The

other

baptistryis

two

Gothic

of

one

Italy's

famous

freak.

important

of the

monuments

sign,
originalde-

attested,and there

make

so

by

for

our

since

group,

it

peculiarshape of
the roof is caused by a unique system of doming, the building
of masonry,
exertingslight
being first covered with a cone
attained by
effect of a dome
thrust, and then the superficial
springinga segment of an annular vault over the aisle,from
two-thirds
to a point about
the cornice,or upper
string-course,
belongs partly

to

the

not

open

applied in concentric

included

was

system,

into architecture's most

towers

the

as

or

builders

the

Baptistry.

study

veneer,

explanationseems

beautiful

The

is

of this famous

the lean

the latter

most

marble

campanile (Fig.105). Though

whether

to

as

dark

shock

to

as

lightand

ARCHITECTURE

OF

HISTORY

the masonry
Buildings at Florence.

the way

up

style,the

of the

period.

The

cone.

Florence

affords

local variation

example being the church of San Miniato


This buildingfollows the general scheme
of decoration

al Monte.

best

style,with a variant in the emphasis on


design. It also emphasizes another element

of the
in pure
in Tuscan
Some

Romanesque:
and

of the columns

the

imitation

follow
pilasters

of
the

the square
noticeable

classical
Corinthian

form.

order

pilferedfragments of
understand
ancient
we
can
structures, and
why the term
"proto-Renaissance" has been applied to the age which produced
in
the
such works.
In another
Florentine
building,
same
style,the baptistryof San Giovanni, this classic feeling

so

closelythat

they

is still stronger, and


the reconstruction

supposed, and
back
the

to

the dome

the

almost

has led

of about
to

some
1 200

that

argue

the late classical

building,with

between

look

its double

cathedral

authorities
less

even

important

the

period.

The

shell and

ribs, influenced

of the

like

present

consider

to

than

is generally

structure

dates

ingenious doming

of

stiffeningbarrel vaults

Brunelleschi

in

his design for

of Florence.

South Italian Romanesque.


Finally,in the third subdivision
of Italian Romanesque, that of southern Italyand Sicily,
or

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
of the Two

plays

an

239

the regionis generallycalled,geography


as
Sicilies,
Since
the beginning
important part.
history this region has been fought over

of Mediterranean

by

flicting
con-

Here

barbarian, Greek, Phoenician, Roman,


Norman
Goth, Byzantine, Italian, Moslem, and
battled,
prevailed,succumbed, and disappeared. The result was
a
races.

FIG.

lawless

1 08

and

"

CEFALU.

confused

CATHEDRAL.

VIEW

OF

THE

WEST

END

society, and an art that combined


Oriental and Occidental ideas. Although a hybrid,it actually
succeeded
in blending harmoniously the ideals of a halfdozen
find in a singlebuildingLombard
and we
races,
may
corbel tables, Norman
interlacingarches, classic capitals,
If one's idea of
Byzantine mosaics, and Saracenic domes.
Italian Romanesque is confused, it is a correct one.
The style
in Sicily. In generalthe admixture
of stylesshows
more
clearlyin Sicilythan in southern Italy. At Cefalu
(Fig. 1 08), for example, we find the Norman
flankingtowers

240

embracing
Moslem
its

HISTORY
the

OF

facade, the Norman


One

dome.

ARCHITECTURE

need

suburb, Monreale,

to

arches, and
interlacing

the

not, however, leave Palermo, and


study Sicilian Romanesque in its

The
typical form.
cathedral, to be sure, is almost
wholly spoiledby baroque alteration,but in the Cappella
Palatina in the royal palace south Italian Romanesque appears
in its most
blend.
The
harmonious
plan of this chapel is
most

FIG.

IO9

"

MONREALE.

CATHEDRAL.
TOWARD

VIEW
THE

OF

THE

INTERIOR

its pavement is of marble


inlay,and its
basilican,
The
covered
with
precious Byzantine mosaics.
Corinthian

columns

which

divide

LOOKING

APSE

the

nave

from

walls

are

modified
the

aisles

low, the archivolts which


they support are lofty with
pointed arches, here surelyof Saracenic origin. The interior,
and
mosaic, gives an
completely incrusted with marble
are

impressionof unsparing
Monreale.
is the

Probably
cathedral

richness.
ever,
example of the style,howMonreale
(Figs.99, 109, and no),

the finest
of

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE

241

Palermo, founded in 1176. This church


is of Latin cross
is
The
roofed.
plan and wooden
pavement
marble, the dadoes are marble veneered, and the upper walls are
five miles

some

incrusted
are

FIG.

much

IIO

"

with

from

mosaic.

stilted and

The

arches

pointed.

EXTERIOR

The

OF

THE

the

exterior

SYSTEM

CATHEDRAL.

MONREALE.

of

OF

THE

main
shows

NAVE

archivolts
Norman

AND

THE

CHOIR

interlacing,Saracenic decoration and


with a portico
construction.
Adjoining the church is a cloister,
series of paired columns
carried on
a
richly carved in shaft
with
and
glass and marble mosaic.
capital,and adorned
south
Such cloisters form specially
charming features in many
Italian Romanesque
churches, though they are to be found
in Romanesque work.
elsewhere

facade

towers

and

242

HISTORY

German

OF

ARCHITECTURE

The

Romanesque.

of Germany
Romanesque
is,
the
much
on
more
whole,
homogeneous than Italian,and the
national of the country'sstyles. The Romanmost
esque
distinctly
and lingeredlonger
stylethere was exceedinglyprolific,

FIG.

than

Ill

in any

"

COLOGNE.

other

SAINT

MARY

OF

THE

CAPITOL.

PLAN

be
unity and strength may
of Germany
explained by the unity and politicalpower
and
beginning in 919 with the reign of Henry the Fowler
lastingthrough the period of the Ottos and the later Henrys.

country.

FIG.

In

studying it

112

"

Its

PAULINZELLE.

distinguishthe Germanic
from
elements
those which
side.
represent importation from outThe
former
from
came
a
development of the native
we

must

seek

PLAN

to

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE

243

Carolingianstyle;the latter appear in the increasingtendency


structural system, and in a certain
to use
an
organicLombard
The last was
not
of Byzantine imitation.
amount
nearly so
in the later Romanesque as in the Carolingianepoch,
common
though certain buildings,especiallythose at Cologne, with

I
Paulinzelle
FIG.

113

"

Saint
SYSTEMS

OF

GERMAN

Michael, Hildesheim

ROMANESQUE

CHURCHES

apse-liketransepts recallingthe triconch churches of


Syria and Egypt, seem
surelyto represent Oriental influences.
General
characteristics. The
most
strikingand typically
German
characteristic of the style is its complexity and
of architectural
picturesqueness,
acquired by a multiplication
members.
Apses were
placed at the west as well as the east.
Lanterns
not
placed at
only covered the crossing,but were
the west end of the building. Towers, and especially
turrets,
their

at both
are

of

ends

were

common.

Carolingianderivation.

reflect most

These
Even

elements, as
the churches

we

have

which

seen,
seem

ties
clearlyOriental influence develop the complexiof
themselves
were
Carolingian prototypes, which
influenced by the East.
Thus
the Holy Apostles at Cologne
to

of

ARCHITECTURE

Mary of the Capitol (Fig.in),


combines Germanic
complexity with the main dispositions
earliest German
Oriental
Romanesque
an
plan. The
buildingsare generallybasilican

is but
and

OF

HISTORY

244
a

development

of Saint

and

tended

retain the timber

to

roof; the later

partiallyor
erally,
completelyorganic. Genhowever, the organism
church
is marred
by the

even

of

omission

of

are

one

or

members.

ural
struct-

more

This

organic

quality,appearing late as
be explained as
does, may
imitation
In

of

Lombard

general the

well

as

churches

the

to

an

work.

organic as

more

monumental

more

are

it

be found

in the

valley of the Rhine.


Basilican
first to
we

-7 lH.tr.

FIG.
ONE

114

"

BAY,

triforium
the

DRUBECK.

DRAWING
THE

SHOWING

and

SYSTEM

uniform

from

the

OF

find

churches.

the

basilican

them

Turning
churches

all alike in this

lack of

fering
organic feeling,but difwidely in the disposition
of detail.
Thus
the Collegiate
Church
of Paulinzelle
(Figs.
and
blind
a
112
113) shows

system

of massive

columns

ing
divid-

aisles. The

Collegiateof Gernrode
has a triforium gallery,reduced
clerestorywindows, and an
with a square pierin the ground story
alternation of a column
Further
arcade.
varietyis offered by Saint Michael, Hildesheim
(Figs.99 and 113), which reverts to the blind triforium,
columns between
the square
but places two
piersin the main
At Driibeck
tion
arcade.
(Fig.114) we note the simpler alternaand pier,but the arches from pier to"
of single column
embraced
column
are
by great blind arches of double width
and
spring from pier to pier. Variation is,
height which
nave

therefore,almost
the heaviness
and

in their

infinite in these churches, but all are

of their systems, the massiveness

simple wooden

roofs

supported on

alike in

of their walls,
trussed

timbers.

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
The

organic architecture of

basilican churches
of the

one

the Rhine.

turn

may

to the

245
As

foil to

great vaulted

these

churches

These
Valley: Speyer, Worms, and Mainz.
combine
vaulted
most
happily the Lombard
system with
German
picturesqueness. Speyer (Figs. 100, 115, 116, and
117) has an organic vaulted system, complete but for the
two
missingdiagonalribs. It has a lantern over the crossing,
square

Rhine

towers

transept

and

at the east
a

western

FIG.

end,

two

more

"

west,

western

Despite its complexity the

lantern.

115

at the

SPEYER.

PLAN

in effect.
building is compactly arranged and monumental
Worms
(Fig.116) shows as great complexity as Speyer, and
moreover

has

alternate

system,

full

complement

the

of ribs.

intermediate

Both

piers on

the

exhibit
nave

the
side

having engaged shafts which support an archivolt embracing


windows.
Later than either of the preceding,
the clerestory
and perhaps most
imposing of all,is the cathedral of Mainz
(Figs.99, 116, and 118). Here the arches are freelypointed,
and complexityis carried to the extreme, the church having its
full complement of turrets, western
lantern, western
apse,
adds
but
and the like. The
western
picturesqueness,
apse
the design of the t'agade,
the flankingdoors are mere
as
mars
inlets for worshippers as compared to the welcoming
insignificant
portalsof French churches.
German
Summary
Romanesque. To understand
of German
above
all keep in mind
the
Romanesque, therefore, one must
divisions of elements:
those developed from the Carotwo

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE

247

be suband those which are imported; the latter may


divided
lingian,
At times all
roughly into Byzantine and Lombard.
in a singlebuilding,
combine
in the church
of the
three may
as
find a semi-organic
we
Holy Apostles at Cologne, where
system, native picturesqueness,and a three shell east end
which
suggests Syria, but by keeping the main divisions in
mind
we
analyze and
may
the
host of
comprehend
Romanesque monuments
which Germany offers.
Approach to the study of
French Romanesque. As we
approach the discussion of
ness
French Romanesque, clearsuggests that we begin

stylesand

with the southern


work

toward

the

This

will,at

times, falsify

northern.

chronology, but the provincial


stylesof France are
so
nearly contemporaneous
fault is not

that the

and

one,

the

examining
stylesfirst are
and

southern
have

southern
The

great.
central

styles

important

one

characteristic:
for the

ous
seri-

advantages

the

of

mon
com-

lection FIG.
predi-

barrel vault

and

OF

consequentlyinorganic
feeling.
One

Provence.
as

the most
in

the Baths

THE

117
THE

"

SPEYER.

CATHEDRAL.

INTERIOR

LOOKING

VIEW
TOWARD

APSE

characterize

Provencal

classic of all

Romanesque

Romanesque
evitable
instyles. It was

district which

stillpreserves

the

of Diana

may

at

Pont-du-Gard,
Nimes, the amphitheater at Aries, the

of
triumphal arch at Orange, and countless other monuments
Roman
antiquity,that architects should be influenced strongly
The result was
by the examples constantlybefore their eyes.
not
only a predilectionfor the barrel vault, especiallythe

barrel vault

supported on

transverse

semicircular

arches,

as

"VI
m

FIG.

FIG.

Il8

IIQ

MAIN7.

"

"

ARLES.

CATHEDRAL.

SAINT

VIEW

TROPHIME.

TfiE

FROM

THE

MAIN

"t

NORTH

PORTAL

11;
m

'

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
of Diana, but

in the Baths
in

also for detail

strongly classical

feeling.

this fact.

of the monuments

of Saint

facade

The

capitalswhich

has

examination

An

Monuments.

almost

are

Trophime

is

The

pointed in
fagade similar

boasts

but

Trophime,
Here

emphasizes
(Fig. 119)
suggestion

classic Roman.

arches, but the

Saint

Gilles

(Gard)

Saint

to

elaborate.

more

the masonry
and the main

recalls classic

even

portalis flanked
pilastersof almost

Rome,

by channeled
deceptivelyclassic character.
of the Corinthian

only

appear

classic edifice.

These
the

examples, and
reiterate

obscure

the

same

word

"Romanesque"
sense
applies more
Provencal
style than

The

effects.

entasis

to

well-known

more

Some

columns, too, need

delicate

stolen from
are

and

transverse

section.

cross

Aries

debased,

not

is

vault

barrel

at

Corinthian

true

modified,
interior is barrel vaulted, with
that

of entablature

its literal

in

aptly to
to

249

the

other.

any

and

north

Farther

Auvergne.

different

development
taking place
was
Auvergne
find the same
we
predilectionfor
barrel vaults, but new
dispositions
in plan. The Auvergnat churches,

west

somewhat

In

as

expect in the earliest

would

one

of the

French

Romanesque styles, TRANSVERSE


snowSECTION,
BARREL
VAULT
HALF
ING
and
affiliation
have
a
Carolingian
THE
AISLE
OVER
something of the picturesqueness
of the Rhine.
of the Romanesque
Apses are provided with ambulatories and radiatingabsidioles,
-

and

absidioles

transepts. At
with
barrel

more

the

The

vaults

the

added
time

same

freedom.

vault, but

half -barrel

often

are

which

the

nave

aisles

the

to

are

thrust

eastern

barrel

walls

vault

of the

is treated

usually covered with a


often
provided with but

is

inward

and

counteract

250
the

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

thrust of the vault

of the

evitabl
(seeFig. 120). An inwas
inadequate lighting.
ground story windows,

nave

of this arrangement
admitted
through the

result

Light was
and through windows
barrel vaults, but by
much

was

in the triforium
the time

weakened, and

gallerybeneath

it had

the half-

filtered into the

Auvergnat churches

most

the

sensation

give one

of

cloud overhanging the


effect

an

which,

is at

least

it

nave

if not

black
nave,

ful,
cheer-

impressive.

individual members

The

and

general construction of the


Auvergnat church, according
with

its

early date,

very

are

erally
gen-

massive, another

the
again makes
if somechurches impressive,
times
The
terior
exungraceful.
is lightened by the
absidioles,stepped lanterns,
arcades,and generalmultiplication
of members, which give
the
building picturesquefact which

ness.
FIG.

121

DAME

CLERMONT-FERRAND.

"

PORT.

DU

churches

is Notre

THE

Dame

EAST

du

The

Monuments.

NOTRE
OF

VIEW

END

best

and

most
historically
interestingof Auvergnat

known

Port

at

Clermont-Ferrand

(Figs.

but
121). It is a heavy, barrel-vaulted,ill-lighted
of absidioles and the
impressivechurch, with a multiplication
general picturesquenesswhich well typifiesthe style. Other
as
monuments,
illuminatingif less famous, are numerous.
Saint Saturnin, and Orcival
mention
Among them we must
(Puy-de-D6me).
Languedoc. Closelyallied to the styleof Auvergne is that
120

which

and

we

may

call,for

want

of

better

name,

the

school

of

embraces
vast
a
Languedoc, though the district involved
styles of
territoryfrom Auvergne to the Pyrenees. The
been classified
Auvergne and Languedoc have often with reason
monumental
together,but the latter tends to a more

scale,and
detail.

greater delicacy in singlemembers

The

and

sculptured

prominent example of this styleis,of course,


Saint Sernin at Toulouse
and
(Figs. 100
122), a five aisled,
barrel-vaulted
with a loftyand very
structure
graceful lantern
the crossing. The building is on so elaborate
over
a scale, and
exhibits so great delicacy of material and detail,that one
does
first identifyit as a
at
not
close relative of the buildings
of neighboring Auvergne, yet
it is.

such

most

The

architectural

of
Lansculptures alone
differentiate
guedoc would
the buildings of that district
from those of Auvergne.
Aquitaine.
Byzantine
character
of the building.
North

of

and

Languedoc

of

Auvergne we find a
vigorous and distinct
very
school
flourishing in Aquitaine.
The
Aquitanian
buildings have generallybeen
west

characterized

Byzantine

the

as

of

most

French

manesque
Ro-

Saint

churches.

P6rigueux (Figs.99
and 123)has repeatedly been
Front

at

called

churches

122

THE

INTERIOR

of Saint Mark's

direct copy

other

FIG.

of the

at

with
district,

TOULOUSE.

"

SEEN

SAINT
FROM

SERNIN.
THE

Venice, and the


their domes

on

WEST

ous
numer-

penden-

unique in French Romanesque, have been said to be


To this theory a reaction has lately
inspiredby Saint Front.
of the buildings in the
Saint Front
set in.
postdates many
and there are great
characteristics,
neighborhood with the same
differences
the so-called Byzantine details of these
between
buildings and the details of the real Byzantine buildings
These
whence
facts have led
they are supposed to be derived.
tives

so

certain

scholars

Aquitaine
of the rest
firstseem,

to

conclude

that

the

domed

churches

of

Byzantium than the Romanesque


of France, but convincing as these arguments
at
they can be overthrown
by the juxtapositionof the
owe

no

more

to

Saint

plans of
We

HISTORY

252

note

Front

(Figs.88 and

the four subordinate

of the

Such

cross.

Saint

however, the

"

Saint

pendentives,and

arms

123

and

cross,

on

FIG.

Mark's

the salient Greek

dome

Probably

ARCHITECTURE

OF

Front

two

are

PERIGUEUX.

the barrel vaults, the central

similarities

is not

copy

inspiredby

SAINT

FRONT.

99).

are

not

domes

on

the

coincidences.

of Saint

Mark's; surely,
Byzantine original,
quite

GENERAL

VIEW

FROM

THE

SOUTHEAST

possiblythe church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople.


the Romanesque of Aquitaine
Certainlyit is correct to classify
as most
Byzantine in character.
Originality
of Aquitanian architecture. Not all the churches
of Aquitaine,however, have the Greek
the
cross
plan or even
domes
on
pendentives which mark the styleas Byzantine in
character.
In the cathedral of Angouleme, for example (Fig.
99),the dome vaults are arranged in the form of a Latin cross,
and at Notre Dame
la Grande
at Poitiers (Fig.124) the dome
in favor of the barrel vault.
on
pendentives is abandoned
The

churches

of the

region

are,

nevertheless,bound

into

one

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE

253

cone-shaped turrets
mingling
and
a
unique interwith
scale-like tiles,bossy masonry,
of architectural and
figuresculpture as ornament
over
portalsand windows.
Burgundy. We may conclude our examination of southern
the system

styleby

and

French

central

of decoration, curious

with

Romanesque

of the

brief review

Burgundian style.
As
pected
might be exfrom

graphical
geo-

erations,
considthis style
the

is

most

ganic
or-

of the southern-central
group,

therefore

and
makes

good

transition to

the

study of the
of Normandy

art

and

the

He de France.

The

tics
characteris-

worthy
of emphasis are its
most

accent

on

tic
monas-

architecture,
its

increasingly

volving
organicqualityinfrequent
of the
use
groin FIG.
its
vault,
originalling
ity in the handof

the

barrel

124

POITIERS.

"

VIEW

vault, and

NOTRE
OF

THE

LA

DAME
WEST

its vigorous,racy

decorations,especially
as
applied in the vestibule
a

feature which

hands

GRANDE.

END

sculptured
or

narthex,

unprecedented development

received

at

the

of the

Burgundian architects.
Cluny. The
abbey of Cluny (Figs. 99 and 100) was,
It was
perhaps, the most
typical Burgundian church.
founded
in 1089, destroyed in 1125,
and rebuilt in 1130.

Unfortunatelyit was
we

know

it

razed

by drawings

during the French

and

Revolution, but
descriptions.It was five-aisled,

254

the,nave

HISTORY

covered

with

barrel vault

vaults.
than

Its transepts were


those to the west,

cross

form

the

so

and

double, those

the aisles with


to the

five

were

absidioles,and

by

FIG.

faces of the transepts. The nave


elaborate
narthex
of five bays. There

an

125

"

VEZELAY.

CHURCH

OF

FROM

over

the

towers
crossing,

placed at
have

been

the west

and, indeed,
urged.
Extant
many

The

impression of

of

was

lantern

INTERIOR

transepts, and

Rhenish

between

monuments.

monuments

preceded

was

THE

the

connection

extant

MADELEINE.

added

were

SEEN

VESTIBULE

over

that

Burgundian

THE

THE

end.

unlike

not

smaller

east

others

the eastern

on

groin

giving the plan the archiepiscopalin English Gothic


buildings. Round

common

ambulatory

ARCHITECTURE

OF

the

church

the

two

Burgundy
in which

the

towers

were

buildingmust
of the

has

period,

often

possesses,

style may

been

ever,
howbe

judged. The cathedral of Autun, for example, exhibits an


in the form of a
narthex, and a nave
elaboratelyornamented
pointed barrel vault. An ingeniousvariant in the treatment
of the barrel vault may
be seen
at Saint Philibert at Tournus.
barrel vault over
The gravest fault of the longitudinal
a nave

ROMANESQUE
is its tendency to

ARCHITECTURE

255

usually entirely,the

suppress,

window

openings in the clerestory.In Saint Philibert this difficulty


is avoided by roofingthe nave
with a series of sections of barrel
vaults, placed at rightangles to the long axis of the building.
sections mutually abut
These
one
another, and their wall
arches
leave ample room
for clerestoryopenings, but the
esthetic effect of the series of transverse
arches is unhappy,
and the experiment was
not copied in other buildings.
torically
and the most
Ve^elay. The best known
interestinghisof the Burgundian buildingsis the abbey church
of

FIG.

126

ORNAMENT

ROMANESQUE

"

Vczelay (Fig.125). Here we find the Burgundian narthex,


with its richlysculptured decoration, but the barrel vault
the great bays of the nave
disappears entirely,even
being
The groins lack ribs,so that the
covered with groin vaults.
system is only partiallyorganic,but despitethe lack we feel
increase in organic interest which
an
signalsthe approach of
the northern
styles.
have
As we
Northern
French
Romanesque. Normandy.
northern
French
Romanesque falls naturally into two
seen,
divisions,the Norman

and

that

of the

He

de

France.

shall
of
of

examined, except the Lombard,


strongly by the former, and it seems
architecture exercised
of

characteristics

The most marked


begin with the former.
fullydeveloped Norman
Romanesque are
No
structural logicand its inventiveness.

have

Normandy.

Those

strong influence

who

urge

an

has

its strong sense


stylewhich we
marked

been

clear
on

We

that

the

autochthonous

so

Lombard

Romanesque
growth for

256

Norman

the

OF

HISTORY

stylerun

history. Lanfranc,

ARCHITECTURE

for

what

to

counter

example,

know

we

of the

one

of Norman
famous

most

of

at Bee, Caen, and


Lombards, established himself successively
Avranches, and, after the Conquest, became
archbishop of
followed in the same
places by Anselm
Canterbury. He was
of Aosta, afterward
canonized.

Unquestionably such
carried

Lombard

Normandy,
should

as

these

influence

into

men

this

though
blind

not

and

the

to

us

fact

inventiveness

cocity
pre-

of the

Norman

style.
originality.Ribbed
vaulting, the alternate system,
features comare
mon
compound piers,
Norman

both

the

To

belongs the
the

to

and

man.
Nor-

latter, however,

credit of

inventinga
form, specially
adapted

vault

new

Lombard

to

alternate

system.

In the

of the

Abbaye-aux-Hommes
(Saint Etienne) at Caen (Figs.99,
128, and 130),it occurred to the

nave

builders

to throw

rib

transverse

intermediate

an

from

the

pier,dividing the
FIG.

127

"

ABBEY

JUMIEGES.
THE

CHURCH.

surface

SYSTEM

into

mediate
intervault

six cells instead

four.

In this system
of the lateral cells run

the

of

crowns

obliquely,

instead of at right angles to the


somewhat
vault
surfaces are
The

long axis of the building.


dow
distorted, but the winthe aptitude of the form
to

enlarged,and
space was
is attested by the
the alternate system
buildingsin which the two are combined
cathedral, Fig. 139). Normandy
decorative

The

motives.

Carolingianarchitecture,and
arcade
zigzag,and interlacing
techniqueof stone cuttingand
in

Normandy

than

in

also

forms

of Gothic

(see plan of Paris


of
developed a number

billet mold
new

number

was

such

(Fig.126). Thestone fitting,


notablyfiner
too,was
contemporary schools of Romanesque,
were

invented

as

adopted from
the dog-tooth,

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
Jumieges.

important
abbey church

earliest

The

is the

Romanesque

257

man
example of NorJumieges (Fig.127).

extant

of

a
ruin, we find the alternate
system.
building,now
for
timber
pound
roof, a coma
designed
Although the church was
from
the main
piers,through the
engaged shaft runs
of the roof.
It is
beams
to the level of the cross
clerestory,

In

this

Abbaye-aux-Hommes

Abbaye-aux-Dames
FIG.

128

CAEN.

"

THE

ABBEY

have

probable

that

Lombard

wooden-roofed
at

least

we

CHURCHES.

here

OF

reminiscence

church

by
partially,

SYSTEM

in which

stone

arches

the

THE

of
roof

thrown

INTERIORS

the
was
across

early
ported,
sup-

the

nave.

Sexpartttevaults. At
Abbaye-aux-Hommes at Caen.
Caen
the so-called Abbaye-aux-Hommes
(Figs.99, 128, and
the
129), built and dedicated to Saint Stephen by William
Conqueror, gives us the most complete example of the style.
Though the church was founded in the eleventh century, the
The

258
vaults
The

are

HISTORY

OF

reconstruction

originalbuildingwas

ARCHITECTURE
of the

first half

wooden-roofed

of the

but

had

twelfth.

the

mediate
inter-

in Lombardy, and there


engaged shaft,which occurs
supports only the corbel table of the triforium string. It is

reasonable

to

suppose

that

the

presence

of the

intermediate

shaft

suggested
intermediate

the

rib,and

man
Nor-

the

invention

of

sexpartite
vault
(Figs. 99,
128, and 129) was
the

the result.

Abbaye

In the

there

Hommes
are

aux-

also

numerous

in

passageways
thickness
the
the

walls, which

give

access

to the

dows
win-

clerestory
and

lantern

open

These

INTERIOR

The

CAEN.

SAINT
LOOKING

ETIENNE.
TOWARD

VIEW
THE

OF

APSE

THE

are

an
over

crossing.

the

"

the

and

church,

129

other

of

parts

FIG.

of

features

almost

Norman

surely
tions.
innova-

tresses.
Abbaye-aux-Dames at Caen.
Rudimentary flying butAs a pendant to the Abbaye-aux-Hommes,
William's
of the Trinity, called the
wife, Matilda, built the church
Abbaye-aux-Dames (Figs.100 and 128). This church, on a
smaller scale than Saint Etienne, is more
compactly composed
and more
The
tects
archiprofusely and delicatelyornamented.
of La Trinite invented
feature of the greatest signifione
cance.
In the Abbaye-aux-Hommes
tried
the builders had
to abut the thrust of the nave
vaults by a half-barrel vault
the triforium galleries,
have already
over
a system which
we

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE

259

du Port,
Languedoc (Notre Dame
Auvergne and
Clermont-Ferrand; Saint Sernin, Toulouse).The thrust of such
the conhalf-barrel vault, being continuous, well meets
tinuous
a
noted

in

of the barrel vault

thrust
of

of the

groin vault, like that


continuous.
They are

not

but

the thrusts

Abbaye-aux-Hommes,

concentrated

at

the

are

intersection

ribs,and the half -barrel


is, therefore, useless,

of the
vault

and

at

except

points

near

tion
the intersec-

coincidingwith
of the ribs.
this

of the nave,

Recognizing

fact,the builders of the

Abbaye-aux-Dames omitted
all portionsof the half-barrel
vault where

abut

to

itwas

the

thrusts
The

vault.

nave

not

needed

of the

result

was

under

arches, hidden
the lean-to aisle roof,

which

carried

series of

the

pier
the

vaults

nave

buttresses

outer

walls

(Fig.100).

to

over

set

these

the

against

of the

Hidden

as

of

the thrusts

and

aisles
mentary
rudi-

members

nevertheless
they are
embryonic flyingbuttresses,
are,

and

to

Norman

Romanesque

belongs the credit of inventing this important feature.

KG.

130"
VIEW

IFFLEY.
OF

PARISH
THE

WEST

CHURCH.
END

Romanesque architecture of England. English originality.


Before passing on to the architecture of the He de France we
the Romanesque
architecture
of England.
to note
must
pause
The transition is wholly logical,
for, although England and
esque
divided,during the later RomanNormandy are now politically
one.
period they were
Naturally the architects of
William the Conqueror created buildings of the same
stylein
mandy
England a few years after the Conquest as they had in Norbefore.
It must
not be supposed, however,
a few years
that Norman
in
modifications
no
Romanesque underwent

26o

ARCHITECTURE

OF

HISTORY

slavishly
England. England often borrowed, but seldom
in England
became
more
Romanesque
copied. Norman
it
which
architecture
massive, as though the heavy Saxon
this massiveness
superseded had influenced it. Sometimes
of decoration,
bareness
and absence
was
emphasized by extreme
of London; sometimes
as in Saint John's chapel in the Tower
disguisedby a luxuriant profusionof Norman
it,was

FIG.

131

decorative motives,
In

"

as

DURHAM.

in the

generalthe styletended

Normandy
Durham

and

to

revert

(Figs.131 and

CATHEDRAL.

PLAN

parishchurch
to

abandon

to wooden

132),the

of

Iffley(Fig.130).

the structural
roofs.

finest and

Even
most

logic of

in vaulted

homogeneous

Anglo-Norman cathedrals, the alternate system was


if ingenious,vault system.
No transused with an illogical,
verse
thrown
from
the intermediate
ribs are
piers and the
latter have
no
engaged shafts. Extra diagonals,however,
spring from corbels above the intermediate piers,and the
result is what
one
might call either two imperfect quadripartite
vaults or a singleseptapartiteone.
The
transverse
arches of Durham
are
pointed,a phenomenon quite common
churches.
in later Anglo-Norman
English Romanesque does,
despiteits close relation to Norman.
therefore,show originality,
Romanesque of the lie de France.
Returning to France, we
take up the most
esque
now
completely organic of all Romanmay
One
think of
styles: that of the He de France.
may
it as the most, or the least,finished of styles,according to
thinks of it as completed Romanesque
whether
mentary
rudior
one
The problem is greatlycomplicated by the
Gothic.
of the

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
fact that in this

region Gothic

architecture

261

developed,and

the

it sprang
were
buildings from which
usually
either altered during the later Gothic
period or modified by

Romanesque
the

architectural

of which
finished
experiments by means
reached.
Much
that might otherwise come
Gothic was
under
the head of Romanesque architecture of the He de France must
be discussed
in connection
with developing Gothic, and may,

FIG.

132

"

DURHAM.

therefore, be
monuments

CATHEDRAL.

omitted

of the

esthetic effect.

To

GENERAL

here.

region are
an

even

VIEW

FROM

THE

SOUTHEAST

In

general the Romanesque


not
large in scale or strikingin
ings
greater degree than in the build-

of

in the
Lombardy their greatest interest is historical,
lightthey shed on future organic styles,and this impression
is greatlyexaggerated by the destruction and alteration of so
of the finest buildings.
many
Earlier and
later buildings. The
of the
earlier buildings'
lie de France
not
were
organic,and inorganicbuildingswere
erected even
contemporaneously with those of the budding
Gothic
style. Such a church as Vignory, for example, is
timber-roofed,with massive piers,plain walls,and no organic
structure

whatever.

In the

second

half

of

the

eleventh

262

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

highly organic styleappeared. The idea


from
of organic vaulting,with logicalpiers,probably came
alternate system
not
was
Normandy, though the Norman
century, however,

taken
Gothic

does

and

over

period.

decoration

and

not

of

Ideas

de France

He

till the

plan, notably in the ambulatories,

borrowed

were

in the

appear

the south.

from

Development of the style. The development of the stylewas


of increasingdelicacyand nicety of adjustment of load to
one
At times, as at Saint-Loup-de-Naud, the vaults and
shaft.
piersare massive and clumsy
but
in appearance,
always
in
exactinglylogical arrangement.
In finished examples,
Saint

at

as

shafts

are

cut, and

Remi, Reims, the


slender,delicately

delicatelyadjusted
they bear.
development. Saint

to the load

Full

Remi, however, like most


examples of the style,is not
fine
The
homogeneous.
Romanesque shafts and piers
not
Romanesque but
carry

vaults, which

Gothic

emphasize
good taste
well

Copyright by Macmillan
FIG.

133
ITS

AND

Gothic

Co.

ONE

OF

THE

vaults.

however,

AISLE

The

point which
The

like

of

Saint

side

"*

the

aisles

structural

of the

former,

two

harmonize.

the

the

manner

so

church

Etienne, Beauvais,
the

Romanesque
the ^^

elegance of

especiallythe

Morienval.

VAULTS

(FROM MOORE)

SUPPORTS.

In

"ne

ETIENNE.

SAINT

BEAUVAIS.

"

OF

DRAWING

"

do

the

really

tamOUS

^LOSt

of

monuments

{" finished

Romanesque

(Fig.133),shows

with

portions,
the

stylereached in the district.


beginnings of Gothic. One of the

vanced
ad-

the

best

examples of the style is the little church of Morienval


with an early Gothic
is covered
vault,
(Fig.99). The nave
vault,
but the north aisle (Fig.134) retains its Romanesque
lackingdiagonal ribs,though the diagonalsare supported by

known

"

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE

pilasterstripin the pier. In


tendency to stiltthe transverse

a
a

the level of the

nearer

aisle

same

one

vault, a tendency which

in the aisle vaults

of Saint Etienne

reach
limbo
in
a
(Fig. 133). Here we
organicRomanesque and the most rudimentary Gothic
Beauvais

at

If

from

the

aisle of Morienval

to

but

we

north

walked

note

may

rib in order to raise its crown

of the

crown

noted

also have

might

we

the

263

which
meet.

apsidal ambulatory of
that church we
might see a
arch
not
transverse
only
the

stilted that

its

the

approach

crown

may

of the

crown

vault, but also for the

pointed.

reason

observation

however,
of

pass,

the consideration

Romanesque

of Gothic

this

With

should

we

from

same

to that

architecture.

Spanish Romanesque.
Before
bringing to a close
the discussion
of

of the schools
ure,
architect-

Romanesque
word

is

necessary

with

regard to Spain. In
esque
general Spanish Romanrepresents an importation of the styles of Auand

vergne

The
at

134"

MORIENVAL.
VIEW

OF

PARISH
THE

NORTH

AISLE

Languedoc.

Spanish churches, that of Santiago


Compostela (Fig.135),strikinglyresembles Saint Sernin
most

famous

of Toulouse.

the

of the

Just

as

Spanish modified

it with
roofs

their

became

own

as

136).

in

Forms

English modified

the
the

southern

nationality.

flatter,so

that

at

French,
In

times

the

Norman,

and

impressed

temperate
the

triforium

climate
space

and

used, and above


Visigothichorseshoe arch, were
profuse. Undercutting
sculptured decoration became

so-called
10

so

into windows,
its openings made
the Colegiata of San Isidore at Leon
(Fig.
speciallycharacteristic of Spain, such as the

eliminated
practically

was

FIG.
CHURCH'

all
was

264

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

tion
deepened, edges sharpened, forms crowded, until the decoraso
attained that sparkling character
typicallySpanish.
tion
The common
phenomenon, therefore, of Spanish naturalizaof immigrant forms never
more
strikinglythan
appears
in the

so

case

of

architecture.

Romanesque

features. Obviously in an architecture


Development ofsingle
heterogeneous as Romanesque it is impossibleto trace a
strictlychronological
of
development
single feature,

of

group

or

features.

Nevertheless,
risk

any

the

at

repetition,it

of

will be

well

note

to

made
the progress
by
opment
the stylein the develand

tion
adapta-

of certain details
or

features of

churchly

architecture.

of the
be

sion
discus-

The

Plans.

plan

dismissed
with
that

may

marily
sum-

the statement
the

style

material

offered

for

subsequent
church plans.

all

almost

types of
The
prototype of the
French

finished
3"m-

building,with
its
complicated
chevet, ambulatory,
Gothic

FIG.

135

COMPOSTELA.

"

SANTIAGO.

PLAN

and radial chapels,is to be found

just as
is to be found

Vaults.
Besides

The

favorite

in

Burgundy.

innovations

and

French

esque,
Roman-

plan
English archiepiscopal-cross

the

progress

in southern

in

vault

forms

modifications

was

as

marked.

of barrel vault

forms,

pointed barrel vaults and cross barrel vaults, we find


and Normandy
developing the Byzantine domed
Lombardy
such

as

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE

265

organic,domical groin vault of quadripartite


or
sexpartiteform, and handing on to Gothic the ideas necessary
for its future development. Ingenuity and
originality
shown
in the trussed wooden
were
even
roof,and it was given
and interesting
new
forms, as at San Zeno in Verona.
Supports. Corresponding to the ribbed vaults, we find the
for a compound
supports developing,with compound members
vault

into the

136

FIG.

rib

"

We

system.

into accord

to

with

LEON.

SAN

sm.

oil}*

20 n\-

ISIDORO.

find the Lombard

PLAN

AND

alternate

SYSTEM

system

the

brought
capitals

sexpartitevault, and the shaft


logically
signalingthe direction of the springingof the ribs. Chrononote
we
a
steady refiningof the proportionsof
may
the supports, suggestingapproaching Gothic, which culminates
in the delicate proportions of the best Romanesque
of the
He

de France.

Buttresses.
remarkable.

The

progress

Lombardy

of

the

buttress

was

no

less

supplied the pilasterstripagainst

266
the

HISTORY

OF

wall, used

outer

as

ARCHITECTURE

buttress,which

the

was

of all

germ

future

development. This pilaster or pier buttress was


time
steadily deepened and strengthened. At the same
solutions of the problem of carrying the thrusts of
numerous
the

nave

made.

Lombardy this was


carrying the thrusts of the

and

vaults

the

to

aisle walls
done

In

vaults, and
the

thence

the

buttresses

by omitting the
vaults

nave

the outer

to

and

wall.

In

triforium

to the

over

Auvergne

were

gallery

and

where
else-

solved

by barrel vaults and halfbarrel vaults over


triforium
a
gallery,binding in the great
vault of the nave.
Finally,at the Abbaye-aux-Dames, the
continuous
half-barrel vault, illogical
for the abutment
of a
into sections, and
these
cut
sections, or
groin vault, was
rudimentary flying buttresses, were
placed under the aisle
roofs
the

to

problem

same

neutralize

groin vaults

Construction.
details went

parts became
This

and

of the
With

was

carry

concentrated

thrusts

of

development

of

nave.

the

lighteningof
more

off the

refinement
the

and

buildingas

slender, the

whole

whole.

became

As

the

less massy.

development did not proceed equally in all regions,nor


did it even
proceed chronologically.There were, as we have
inert buildings in the
He
de France.
The
seen,
massy,
tendency was, however, to convert the heavy early type into
a
lighterone presaging the Gothic building.
Facades. The design of the facade progressednotably in
this period. In spiteof their organic structure, the Lombard
masked
behind
and
often unsightly
buildings were
illogical
of the later Lombard
churches, like San
fagades,though some
Zeno, have well-proportionedfacades which reveal the inner
of the
structure
ceived
building. Logical facade composition reits fullest Romanesque
development in Normandy
the vertical divisions
where, as in the Abbaye-aux-Hommes,
the
marked
the exterior by pilasters,
of the interior are
on
horizontal by rows
of windows, the pitched roof revealed by a
All
towers.
gable,and the whole flanked by two monumental
the germs
here which
are
were
developed into the complete
lacked
Gothic
time
facades which
fagade. At the same
organic expressiveness and logic,but added other beauties,
the
Thus
were
being designed in other stylesof Romanesque.
with
Tuscans
designed rich polychromatic facades, adorned

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
arcades, and

the

Germans

Lanterns
devoted
latter

and

Meanwhile

towers.

and

to lanterns

In

the

lavish

profusion

invention

to bell towers.
especially

constructed

were

with

picturesqueones

the like.

and

of turrets, apses,

267

north

at

very

these

early date

turret-like

In

round

was

Italythe
and

members,

standing.
free-

even

in

incorporated with the building.


Carolingian times, were
the favorite,
Eventually the square or angular tower became
and infinite variations were
played on it. At times the tower
and
was
merely carried up in a series of stepped squares
Again it was
topped by a pyramid as at Morienval.
square,
but its pointed roof polygonal, the angles being filled with
covered
with
little polygonal members,
themselves
peaked
roofs,

polygon,
the

and

variant

of

this

type

square

the square
is surmounted
tower
by
Sometimes
tapering roof springsfrom that.

the

round

arcades, is used
above

Beaulieu-les-Loches.

Auxerre, where

at

appears
a

at

as

tower,

ornamented

with

blind

and

open

in France
and

the round turret


(Uzes); sometimes
crowned
with a cone
(Saint Front,
appears

elaborate
examples stepped square
Perigueux). In the most
is placed on square,
stepped polygon on polygon, until as at
Jumieges, the towers produce an aspiringeffect very suggestive

of Gothic.
of

Openings. In openings we
the splayingcharacteristic

the latter

splay

of

note

constant

elaboration

Carolingianarchitecture.

aid in the distribution

to

of

lightwas

In
duced
intro-

In later Romanesque
simple chamfer.
the
obtained
deepened, and was
frequently in
window
and door by means
of multiple orders.
It was
thus
given architectural dignity as well as utility. Compound
of two
evolved, sometimes
times
openings, too, were
lights,someof two
embraced
blind
and
in
variants
arch,
lights
by a
of this motive.
At the same
time portalswere
ennobled
by
elaborate
porches, the finest being those of Lombardy and
Burgundy.
Decoration.
New
also came
decorative schemes
into being.
Figure and foliate sculpture was
applied to the exterior,at
times haphazardly as in Lombardy, at times
with
dinary
extraorto
subservience
vence
architectural expression,as in Proin pure
and Languedoc.
In addition, new
motives

by means
splay was

of

must

268

HISTORY

OF

design,like the Norman


the exterior and

to

ARCHITECTURE

zigzag and

the interior.

applied
ured
sculpt-

dog-tooth,were

For

the interior

new

of them
modified
classic or
invented, some
capitalswere
in original
of
foliate designs,and many
more
Byzantine, some
the purpose
the "storied capital" type in which
didactic
was
and the sculpturesrepresentedecclesiastical,
as well as decorative
of the greatest
mythological, and unidentifiable scenes
in the
obtained
raciness and originality.Polychromy
was
varied
interiors by means
of paint. On the exterior its use
architects
Tuscan
with the style. The
got fine exterior
of polychromatic marble
Outside
effects by the use
veneer.
of Tuscany polychromy played a less important part on
the
obtained
exterior,though fine effects were
by the use of several
sorts of stones
(Sicily),
by patterned brick (Languedoc) and
the like.
Secular

architecture.

omit

may

almost

architecture

and

The

few, and

nearly all
differ slightly,
except in
are

in

ensemble

In the first place the extant

several

consideration

entirelyany
the

For

ensemble.
the

altered.

In

of the

the

secular

period.

Romanesque

Romanesque

we

reasons

secular monuments
second

place they

applicationof detail, from the


much
Gothic
more
numerous
buildings of the same
type.
which
This does not mean
monuments
that there are no
by
One needs
we
judge Romanesque secular architecture.
may
but look at the enceinte
of Avila
(Castile,Fig. 137) to see
secular
idea of the
building, and
Romanesque
get an
The
of a Romanesque
city seen from without.
appearance
impressionwill,however, be very much like that obtained from
similar town, say Carcassonne
a
(Fig. 178), of the Gothic
in whole
in part,
or
period. Single secular monuments,
notably castles such as the Wart burg at Eisenach, exist
for

the

archeologist, and

especiallyin
sensible

more

civil and

the

the
to

domestic

court

discuss

show

and

court

the

architecture

distinctive

whole

arrangements
it

facades, but

question

in connection

with

of

seems

medieval

the Gothic

period.
Finally,something should
the influence of Romanesque
architecture
be said about
on
subsequent styles. The influence of organic Romanesque on
organicFrench Gothic has, of course, alwaysbeen emphasized,
The

influenceof Romanesque.

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
but

other

equallysignificant
examples

architecture

on

later art

have

been

269

of the influence
Few

overlooked.

of this

people,

they admire the gorgeouslypolychromatic Gothic cathedrals


their striped interiors,realize that these
of Tuscany with
buildingsare comparativelyslightmodifications of the Tuscan
Norman
conRomanesque style. In England the massive
as

FIG.

137

struction

was

"

AVILA.

handed

disguised by what
detail.
of

In

French

GENERAL

was,

German

work,

down

VIEW

OF

to the Gothic

after all,but

Gothic, where
we

note

THE

the

an

FORTIFICATIONS

style,though it was
applique"of pointed

it is not

mere

imitation

picturesquenessof Rhenish

Romanesque.
Self-sufficiency
of the style. Although at the conclusion of
led inevitablyto assert the influence of
our
are
study we
Romanesque on later architecture,we should be at the greatest
of thinkingof the architecture
error
pains to avoid the common
merely as one of transition. It was a heterogeneous art, and
consequently well able aptly to express the genius of not one
but many
its subdivisions,
races.
Nevertheless, whatever
.

7o

it

was

OF

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

primarilya self-sufficient,
independent style.
in
other
is
it
light wholly to miss its meaning.
any
CHRONOLOGICAL

For

convenience

together,with

of

monuments

the

exception
When
Germany.

under

placed

LIST

it refers to the
qualification,

of

OF

Saint
date

To

gard
re-

MONUMENTS

single country
Gall
is

beginningof

are

grouped

which
(Switzerland),

given exactly and

is

without

the

portion of the building


referred to in the text.
Often
round
numbers, half centuries or
centuries,are all that are possibleor necessary, and at times, when a
in the period under discussion,
several
building has been remodeled
dates are given. In generalit will be Well to call to mind
again that
in
tends
it
to give
an
error
tiquity
dating a monument
usually
greater anit deserves.

than

ITALY

San

Milan,

Satiro.

Eighth century.

"

C. 1035-95.
Como, Sant' Abondio.
Toscanella,San Pietro.
1039"93.
Begun 1063.
Pisa, Cathedral.
Sant'
Ambrogio.
1098 to mid-twelfth
Milan,
Modena.
Begun 1099; consecrated 1184.
and later.
Florence, San Miniato.
1013
"

"

"

"

century.

"

"

Parma.

"

1117.

Pavia, San Michele.


1127 (?).
Before
Palermo, Cappella Palatina.
San
Zeno.
Verona,
Begun 1138.
"

"

1132.

"

Cefalu.

"

1145.

Pisa,Baptistry. 1153-78.
Pisa, Campanile. Begun 1174.
"

"

Monreale.

74789.
Florence, Baptistry.
1 1

"

"

c.

Founded

seventh

or

eighth century;

modeled
re-

1 200.

GERMANY

Lorsch

(porch). 774.
(Charlemagne's chapel). 796-804.
Aix-la-Chapelle
"

"

Frankfort, Salvatorskapelle. 852.


Saint Gall (Switzerland). Ninth
century.
Cologne,Saint Mary of the Capitol. After
"

"

"

Cologne, the Holy Apostles.


"

Eleventh

to

(Founded 700.)
thirteenth century.

1000.

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE

271

remodeled
Eisenach, Wartburg. Built 1067; rebuilt 1130-50;
1190.
Built 1001-33;
remodeled
1186.
Hildesheim, Saint Michael.
remodeled
twelfth century.
Speyer. Founded
1030;
Driibeck.
Early twelfth century.
"

"

"

"

Gernrode.

ninth

century; rebuilt twelfth


Twelfth
Paulinzelle.
century.
Worms.
Twelfth
w orms.
1 weirtn
century
century.
Mainz.
Begun 978; largely thirteenth century.
Founded

"

century.

"

TTT

ifji

rr\^

"

"

FRANCE

Eighth century (?).


Beauvais,Basse-CEuvre.
80
1-806
Germigny-les-Pres.
"

"

Montier-en-Der.

Vignory.

960-998.

"

1050-52.

"

Jumieges. Begun 1040;


Clermont-Ferrand, Notre
Toulouse, Saint Sernin.

consecrated

"

du

Dame

Port.

"

Mid-eleventh

1080; worked

Begun

"

1067.
on

century.

in twelfth

and

centuries.

thirteenth

Cluny. 1089.
Notre Dame
la Grande.
End eleventh century.
Poitiers,
Tournus, Saint Philibert. Eleventh and twelfth centuries.
"

"

"

Beaulieu-les-Loches.

Eleventh

"

and

twelfth

centuries.

Angouleme.
1 105-28.
C. 1120.
Perigueux, Saint Front.
Rebuilt
Vezelay.
1132.
Saint
Etienne.
Caen,
Begun 1064; vaults c. 1135.
Caen, La Trinite.
Begun 1062; remodeled c. 1140.
Reims, Saint Remi.
Romanesque parts mo.
Morienval.
Older part c. 1080; later 1122.
Auxerre, Saint Germain.
Tower, early twelfth century.
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Autun.

"

First half of the

Beauvais, Saint
Saint Gilles.
"

Saint
Uzes.

Etienne.

Late

Saturnin.

"

"

twelfth
Vaults

twelfth

Twelfth

century.
180, but buildingplanned earlier.

century.

century.

Tower, twelfth century.


Aries, Saint Trophime.
Nave, first half of the eleventh
porch second half of the twelfth.
"

"

century;

ENGLAND

Earl's Barton.

London,

The

century.

"

Early

Tower,

eleventh
Saint

century {?).

John's Chapel.
"

End

of

the

eleventh

272
Durham.

HISTORY
C.

"

Iffley. Late
"

ARCHITECTURE

OF

1006-1133.
twelfth

century.
SPAIN

Santullano.
San
Santa

Ninth

"

century.

Miguel de Linio.
Maria

de

Ninth

"

Naranco.

Avila, the Walls.

"

century.

Late

ninth

Compostela, Santiago. Begun

1075;

"

Isidorp. End

Leon, San

century.

1090-99.

"

"

of the

finished

1128.

eleventh,beginning of

the

twelfth

century.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL

NOTE

VArt, vol. i, pt. 2, 1905, contains a brilliant


authoritative
and
by Camille Enlart, of Romanesque
summary,
Reber's
architecture.
F. von
History of Medieval Art, 1886, is a
out-of-date,but still useful, and especially
general history, now
architecture.
E. E. Yiollet-le-Duc's
medieval
German
good on
de V architecture,
Dictionnaire raisonne
1884-88, although in dictionary
trated,
volumes, profuselyillusform, is a history of architecture in many
and representing probably the most
monumental
piece of
and
G. von
the
in
field
of
medieval
G.
Dehio
research
archeology.
Kirchliche
Baukunst
Bezold's
des Abcndlandes, 1892-1901, is a
scholarlyand comprehensive work, with many
platesuseful for the
architect and student.
J. A. Brutail's Uarcheologie du moyen
age,
study in medieval archeology,tending
1900, is a cautious and shrewd
A. Michel's

to correct

the

works.

Histoire de

mistakes
A.

and

of
exaggerations

Marignan's

Les

methodes

earlier and
du

more

mental
monu-

passe dans Varcheiconoclastic book

ologiefravqaise,1911, on the other hand, is an


school of medieval
attacking the so-called orthodox
archeology in
France.
It is interestingas representinga healthy reaction against
dogmatism, but not convincing. J. Quicherat's Melanges d'archevol. 2, Moyen dge, 1886, is one
of the earlier syntheticbooks
ologie,
medieval
on
architecture,important at the time of publicationand
not to be neglectedto-day. Anthyme Saint-Paul's
Les ecoles romanes
(Annuaire d'archeolo^ie
francaise,1878) is a similar early work of
brilliant of the French
research,by one of the most
archeologists.
L. Courajod'sOrigines de I'art romane
el gothique,1889, a scholarly
work, is more
important for Gothic than for Romanesque art, but
valuable for the study of either. T. G. Jackson's Byzantine and
Rominssque Architecture,
space to
1913, already cited,devotes more

Romanesque

than

to

Byzantine architecture.

F. M.

Simpson's A

ROMANESQUE

ARCHITECTURE

273

History of Architectural Development,vol. 2, Medieval, 1909, presents


clear in the study of
of medieval
a summary
architecture,
especially
The
of
details.
C.
H.
Moore's
Character
and
the
development
1906, is a powerful study in Gothic
Development ofGothic Architecture,
in the early
of Romanesque
treatment
architecture,with some
in two
large
chapters. A. K. Porter's Medieval Architecture,
1909,
in
the
volumes, lavishlyillustrated,
represents painstakingresearch
field. It is important, however, only for organic architecture.
Uarchitettura in Italia dal secolo VI. al mille circa,
R. Cattaneo's
1889, is a profound pieceof research in the field of Italian medieval
F. de
Romanesque.
architecture,
especiallyimportant for Lombard
Dartein's L1 architecture lombarde, 1865-82, is an early but profound
G.
Rivoira's
architecture.
T.
study of Lombard
Romanesque
Le originidella architettura Lombarda, 1901-7,
already cited,is of
A.
Romanesque.
great importance for the study of Lombard
K. Porter's four-volume
Architecture,
work, Lombard
1917, including
is the most
modern
exhaustive portfolioof splendid illustrations,
an
work on the subject,and by a scholar of universallyrecognized authority.
vols. 2 and 3, 1902 and
A. Venturi's Storia delVarte Italiana,
subdivisions of an encyclopedic
1 904, are
historyof Italian art,already
and
material
profuse
cited,important for the publicationof new
L'art dans
I'ltalie mfridionale, 1904,
illustrations. E. Bertaux's
presents

exhaustive

an

Italian medieval

publicationof

architecture.

It

was

research
followed

in the field of south

in 191 1 by A. Avena's
of
all the monuments

meridionale,covering
tions,
important,both in text and superb illustraespecially
C. A. Cummings's A History
for Romanesque
architecture.
trated
of Architecture in Italy,1901, is a popular,accurate, and well-illusThere
architecture.
two
work on Italian medieval
are
volumes,
the firstimportantfor Romanesque architecture.
H. Otte's Geschichte der romanischen
Baukunst, 1874, though old,
tecture.
is an exhaustive
and scholarlywork on German
Romanesque archider Volkder Germanen
A. von
von
Haupt's Die Baukunst
work
is
modern
by a
a
erwanderung bis zu Karl dem Grossen, 1909,
Monumenti

the

deWItalia

but
district,

profound

student

of the

architecture

of the" dark

ages,

using

the

ure
the architectdiscussing
R. Adamy's Die frankischeThorhalle zu
throughout Europe.
is here
Lorsch, 1891, an exhaustive work on a singlemonument,
ment
the whole movementioned
of the lightit throws
on
account
on

term

in the broadest

"German"

of the
Bur gen,

1901,

architecture
is

an

sense, and

of the dark

ages.
illuminatingwork on

B. Ebhardt's
the

German

Deutsche

medieval

castle.
C. Enlart's

study

tive
en
France, 1902, is an exhausreligieuse
church
medieval
architecture,really carrying

U architecture

of French

274
the

on

HISTORY

work

of

civile et militaire
secular

Vepoque

OF

ARCHITECTURE

Viollet-le-Duc.

The

France,

is

en

architecture.

R.

1904,

author's

same
a

similar

Lasteyrie's U

de

is the

U architecture

work

and

medieval

on

architecture

religieusea

authoritative

up-to-date
architecture,devoted
principallyto the style
Romanesque Architecture in France, 191 2, presents
collection of excellent reproductions of French
a
Romanesque
buildings,with an introduction (translated)by Dr. Julius Baum.
L' architecture byzantine en France, 1851, gives the
F. de Verneihl's
old point of view of Aquitanian architecture
in a scholarly way.
H. Revoil's L' architecture romane
dans le midi de la France, 1873, is
old but exhaustive
work on the Romanesque
architecture of southern
an
work

romane,

1912,

most

Romanesque
in France.
J. Baum's
on

France.

V.

Mortet's

Recueil

de textes

a
relatif

I'
'architecture

en

collection of

originaldocuments, relatingto
nating
illumiof France, in an
century
V. Ruprich-Robert's L' architecture normande, 1884-89,
way.
French
is a monumental
book of research on
and English Norman
Romanesque architecture,lavishlyillustrated.
An Attempt to Discriminate
the StylesofArchitecture in
T. Rickman's
of date and
out
more
England, 1881, a work now
important for
Gothic
than for Romanesque
is
architecture, significantas a step in
the analysis of English church
architecture.
Similarly,E. Sharpe's
elaborate
The Seven Periods
of English Architecture,1871, a more
classification of English medieval
architecture,is more
important
for Gothic
than
for Romanesque.
G. G. Scott's English Church
Architecture,1881, is a synthetic work by a learned author, devoted
C. H.
primarily to Gothic architecture,but treatingRomanesque.
Architecture
Moore's
The
Medieval
Church
of England, 1912, is a
broad
elaboration
of the point of view
toward
English medieval
France, 1911, presents

the

nth

and

architecture

i2th

architecture

revealed

in the

author's

Gothic

Architecture.

It is

F. Bond's
up-to-date and scholarly book.
An
Introduction to English Church Architecture,
1913, is an exhaustive,
on
English church
scholarly,and up-to-datework, lavishlyillustrated,
architecture
from
the eleventh
to the sixteenth
J. D.
century.
The
Mackenzie's
Castles of England, 1887, an exhaustive,elaborate,
and richlyillustrated volume, is excellent for the study of the English

somewhat

medieval

biased

but

castle.

Arquiteciura Cristiana Estive


Media, 1909, is by far the most originaland exhausA. G. B. Schayes's
work
medieval
on
Spanish architecture.
of several
Histoire de I1architecture en
Belgique, 1850-60, a work
the
of date, is still the important authority on
out
volumes, now
V.

Lamperez
panola en la Edad

medieval

Romea's

architecture

Historia

of Flanders.

de la

IX

CHAPTER

ARCHITECTURE

GOTHIC

well

strikingas

architecture
be

art

called "Gothic"

this

that

sense

Le
.

Moliere

fade

Ces

gout des

Que

de la barbaric

ont

for

at

the

nineteenth

barbaric.

The

most

of medieval
these

"barbaric."

to

came

It is in

of

monuments

gothiques

des

ignorants

siecles

vomis

.1

les torrents.
.

Bruyere, Rousseau, attacked Gothic


bitter and illuminating. By the
once

Boileau, La
violence

in

monuments

synonym

odieux

applied to art,
the beginning of

pointed style,and

speaks

monstres

as

numerous

of the

as

From

revival

regarded

was

those

were

"Gothic,"

romantic

the most

as

word

opprobrium.

the

to

medieval

century

of

term

Renaissance

the

The

the term.

Origin of
originatedas

art

time

with

taste

which
the
fixed.
Now
oblivion
was
changed the word
is perhaps the best
generally shrouds the origin of the name
proof of the vindication of the art.
At
the period of its development,
Priority of France.
Gothic
architecture
work"
was
generally called "French
(opusJrancigenum) and the priorityof France in the style is
thus attested.
For this reason
writers have urged that
some
the style be called not
Such
Gothic, but French.
a
change
would
be, however, not only impracticalbut misleading. As
it has been suggested that the
variant of this classification,
a
word
Gothic
be retained, but that it be applied only to the
1

The
These
Which

rank

taste

odious

of Gothic

monsters

the torrents

monuments,

of the

ignorant centuries,
spewed forth.

of barbarism

FLOR.ENCE
FIG.

138

"

COMPARATIVE

SALISBURY
PLANS

GERMANY,

OF
ITALY

GOTHIC
AND

CATHEDRALS
ENGLAND

IN

FRANCE,

ARCHITECTURE

GOTHIC

architecture of the lie de France, and

stylesoutside
In
that

be called

of France

support of

277
that

merely

this attitude

the contemporary
ure."
"pointed architect-

it has

fundamentally organic architecture

been

was

pointed
developed in

out

the

stylesof other countries


either consisted of imitation of this or of a superficial
tion
applicaof pointed or Gothic detail to buildingswhich
were
structed
conaccording to Romanesque principles.
however, grave
Definitionof organic Gothic. There
are,
view.
this
of
from the
Regarded strictly
point
objectionsto
point of view of organicstructure, Gothic is a system of vaults,
supports, and buttresses,the supports being strong enough to
bear the crushingweight of the vaults only, and the stability
maintained
of the structure
chieflyby an equilibrium of
Such a system is to be found perfectedonly
counterthrusts.
He de France, and

in the

lie de

the so-called Gothic

France

or

in imitations

of the

architecture of

however,
buildings of the same
age,
though they lack the complete organism of the French, display
the same
characteristics,
especiallythe consistent use Of the
pointed arch. In France the systematic use of the pointed
In other countries
arch became
generalfor structural reasons.
used unstructurally,
that member
was
apparently for esthetic
the argument, which so often
but this does not justify
reasons,
of the pointed arch outside of
in books, that the use
appears
the He de France represents but a superficial
applicationof
French
detail to Romanesque
buildingby architects who did
the structural reasons
which
not understand
underlay the use
As we
have seen, the pointed arch
of this detail in France.
used in the Romanesque
was
period,and its use for esthetic
in England developed synchronously with
its use
purposes
that

district.

for structural
French

Many

reasons

in France.

the great organicGothic,but not the


the term.
We
must, therefore,avoid

only Gothic style.

the mistake
of
of
Gothic
callingGothic architecture solelyFrench, or French
Aside from
the futility
of tilting
the only Gothic.
at firmly
established
terms, a broader
applicationof the term is more
We may
consider Gothic architecture that style,
convenient.
marked
specially
by the general use of the pointed arch, which
the Romanesque
in all European countries succeeded
style,
in turn superseded by the styleof
and flourished until it was
Use

S.EU5ABETH

AURBTOO

CHATEAU

DE

COUCY

SEVlLLt

FIG.

139

"

PLANS

OF

GOTHIC

BUILDINGS

GOTHIC
Renaissance.

the

ARCHITECTURE

We

then

may

the characteristics

examine

279
the

subdivide

of the

art

in any

field and

region.

one

In

ural
inevitablyemphasize the structdoing, however, we must
superiorityand priorityof the organic architecture of

so

the He de France.
Esthetic

of the

Gothic
the

revealed structure.

effect
of

lie de

France

that

is this of the

So true

the

chief esthetic

effect of

buildings of that district is felt in the logicalexpression

of the

Outside

structure.

in works
Lack

clearlyunder

this is not

of France

French

true, except

influence.

Whether

of self-consciousness.

governed by structural
esthetic considerations,the Gothic
or
style was
developed
inarticulately.Its architects did not seek to formulate, at
least in

ideas

writing,the
Though the pointed

arch

round

no

one,

there

was

which
almost

audible

their

buildings expressed.
completely superseded the

of the past, as the Gothic


in the period of the Renaissance.

art

art

Socialistic
caused

by

character.

the

This

esque
of the Roman-

condemnation

naivete

later condemned

was

well

may

have

been

corporate quality of the work, for the Gothic

cathedral, like the

expression not of
It is signifian
architect,or a patron, but of a community.
cant
that, though archeology has often published the names
of the architects,or magistrioperarii,of the great Gothic
almost
cathedrals, these names
are
universallyunfamiliar
and

unnoted.

well known
would
would

The
as

not

blank

Jean-le-Loup.
Ecclesiastical

cathedrals

those

be ashamed
look

Romanesque,

at

In

and

of Amiens

of Florence
to know

and

Rome,

Reims

as

yet people who

Brunelleschi

of Robert

are

de

or

Bramante

Luzarches

or

is stronglysocialistic.
interest. Although the main

Gothic

secular

and

about

the mention
sense

the

was

art

period is in ecclesiastical building,it is


not
so
completely so as in the Romanesque period preceding
it. Especiallyin late Gothic times civil and militarybuildings
scholar
attained
therefore,
must,
great importance. The
examine
and monasteries, but town
not
and
only churches
well
farms, city houses, and even
guild halls,castles,manors,
heads and gibbets to gain anything like a complete acquaintance
with the style. Moreover
that
be assumed
it must
not
the craftsmen
the churches in the Gothic
on
employed even
interest in the Gothic

PAMi

_"tO

to

go

gy

FLOREVCE

SALISBURY

FIG.

140"

SECTIONS

AND

SYSTEMS

OF

AMTEMS

GOTHIC

BUILDINGS

GOTHIC

ARCHITECTURE

ecclesiastics. Great

period were

281

bands

lay builders, like


the maestri comacini, traveled
from
place to place as they
were
on
employed successively
one
great buildingafter another.
the frequent presence
This fact, and
of blasphemous and
obscene carvingsin Gothic churches, has given rise to a theory
that Gothic
architecture is essentially
tion,
a
style of lay construcand

sents
repre-

revolt

againstthe

ish
monk-

domination

earlier

an

The

of
age.

facts do

bear

of

not

such

out

does

theory, nor
the profoundly
religious expression
of

the

ished
fin-

building.
Gradual

phasis
em-

revealed

on

Though

structure.

in France

the most

important

sion
expres-

oped
devel-

of the

cathedral
in the

lay

tion
self-revela-

of its structure,
the

tion
realiza-

of the esthetic

importance

of

vealed
re-

structure

did
the

not

141

AMIENS.

"

FRONT

WEST

OF

THE

CATHEDRAL

to

come

builders

FIG.

mediately.
imIn the

beginning

such

essential structural

flyingbuttresses, which later came


most
important features externally,were
from Romanesque
of Gothic
evolution
may
of
structure
revealed
gradual acceptance
as

aid to

esthetic

Aspiring quality. The

to

be

one

bers
mem-

of

concealed.
be traced
as

the

the
The

by

most

the
portant
im-

effect.

aspiringqualityof

the art has often

282
been

HISTORY

noted.

The

ARCHITECTURE

OF

emphasis

on

the

vertical

line,the soaring

expressionof the architecture,inevitablysuggest all that was


finest in the religiousideals of the Middle
Ages. To see,
however, in the vertical lines and branching ribs of the Gothic
church
reflection of the poetic sylvan setting of primitive
a
ceremonies
in the realms
of pure fancy.
is to wander
pagan
the source
Aside from
of inspiration,
however, the Gothic
architect was
clever at gaining the effects he sought.
very
his naves
and tapered
Desiringheight,above all,he narrowed
his piers to exaggerate this effect. The
desired impression
of size he got "by including and multiplying small members
admirably adapted to give scale.
Date.
In date the Gothic
period extended
roughly from
Certain
indications
of the approaching style
to
1150
1550.
do, of course, antedate the mid-twelfth
century, justas certain
isolated structures
in the Flamboyant Gothic
style postdate
the mid-sixteenth, but in generalthe four centuries indicated
the style.
compass
geneity
Homogeneity. Gothic architecture had a national homomuch
Though there are
greater than Romanesque.
local schools
another

of Gothic

markedly

so

This

numerous.

expect. In
more
become
to

in

France, they do not


did the Romanesque,

as

from

they

are

as

preciselywhat historywould lead us


had
the later Middle
Ages nations themselves
Central
authority became
homogeneous.

nationality. In

felt and

was
as

own

nor

one

fact is

stronger, language purer, and


their

differ

where

individuals

districts where

national

consciousness

conscious

more

less federal
less

was

of

authority
awakened,

that local schools


France, it is significant
differed especially
from the national style. As

in southwestern

of architecture

always,

find

we

impressing architecture.
General
development.
it will be well to
the

styleas

whole.

the transitional

recording history,and

architecture

Before

say

Our

attempting

even

history

tion,
classifica-

development of
clearlybe
point of departure must

architecture

word

of the

about

the

lie de France.

Although
early use

English writers have called attention to the


of the pointed arch in England, the English buildings can,
nevertheless,be regarded as Romanesque and not transitional
Gothic.
Subsequent variations of the stylesometimes neglectmany

FIG.

142

"

AMIENS.

THE

VIEW

CATHEDRAL.
INTO

THE

APSE

OF

THE

INTERIOR,

LOOKING

284
ed

HISTORY

organic structure,
a

ARCHITECTURE

OF
but

rdle in the art

organic structure

that

plays

so

mental
funda-

the country which developed


The late twelfth century and

to

it

belongs priorityin the style.


the early thirteenth
the transition and
saw
development of
the organic Gothic style in the He de France.
(the
By 1220
date of the foundation
of Amiens
cathedral)the stylewas well
century is the age of early but

understood, and the thirteenth

ment
Building in this style,with refinefullydeveloped Gothic.
and superficial
modification,continued in France through
the fourteenth
the close of the period a
century, but toward
radical change came
the art.
over
Flamboyant architecture
was
developed, having been introduced from England.
Development in England. Origin of continental Flamboyant
used
the pointed
have
architecture. England, as we
seen,
arch at an earlyperiod,but the first truly Gothic buildingson
British
soil represent French
influence.
The
early style,
called earlyEnglish,or Lancet, coincided with the thirteenth
The form of English Gothic, however, soon
changed.
century.
in the late Middle
The Englishmen in power
Ages were scarcely
than
naturalized
Frenchmen
and inevitablyborrowed
more
France.
from
Quite as inevitably,however, they changed
and impressed it with their own
what
they borrowed
genius.
In the fourteenth
century, therefore,the English Gothic style
assumed
into
a new
expression,and the Decorated
stylecame
details
the end of the century Decorated
being. Toward
were
copied in France, and the fifteenth century Flamboyant
(orflaming) stylewas
developed along lines suggestedby the
boyant
Curvilinear
late Decorated
or
stylein England. This Flamstylespread from France all over the continent, and
is characteristic of fifteenth and

sixteenth

century architecture

more
England. England, once
originality,
developed in the fifteenth century
style which flourished there until the

outside

of

asserting her
the Perpendicular
advent

of the

Renaissance.

France.
Classification.

mind,
various

we

may

attempt

period. France we
have
give priority
put at the head, and in France we must
to the He de France.
Normandy nearly kept pace with the
He de France in creative activity,
and Picardy and Artois can
centers

of

this generaldevelopment in
the
fuller classification,
and number
With

activityin

the

Gothic

ARCHITECTURE

GOTHIC

285

these two.
classified apart from
Together these
of developingorganicGothic.
Other
districts formed the home
be

scarce

divisions

are

less important.

Burgundy

had

styleof its own,

ures
retaining the porches,often the square ends, and other featAnother
sion
divireminiscent of Burgundian Romanesque.
of Champagne, midway
gundy
Burbetween
might be made
and the lie de France, though approaching so close to
that the subdivision is hardly necesthe latter architecturally
sary.
the
so-called
ished
A very originalstyle,
Plantagenet,flourmarked
in southwestern
France, and was
by the use of
aisles the height of the nave,
vaults, and
by unusual domed
other
peculiar features, showing strong English affinities.
Still another
styledeveloped in the south, bare in decoration
and

characterized

by

might be made

free

use

of terra

Further

cotta.

sions
divi-

of

well as
as
Brittany,architecturally
geographicallyclose to Normandy, and central France, where
flourished a hybrid partaking of the characteristics of many
tecture
styles. We must, therefore,note that, though Gothic archinational homogeneity in France
had more
than Romanesque
it did vary decidedlyaccording to the district,
and
since we
insisted upon,
the point must
be more
must
trate
concenattention
architecture
the structurally
of
on
important
the north and are in danger of forgettingthe divergencesof
the stylein other parts of the country.
England, Germany, Italy,and Spain. Outside of France
the problem is simpler and the stylevaried with the period
rather than the district. In England, for example, though
the Perpendicularstylediffered widely from the Lancet, each
is found throughout the country during its period. In Germany
imitation
of French
find generally an
At
work.
we

slavish,as in the cathedral of


Cologne; at times it is very free,as in the so-called HallenOne may,
kirchen.
therefore,subdivide the German
buildings
the one
the
other
into two groups,
with
imitative,
a strongly

times

native

this imitation

flavor.

importation of
immediately
Italians.

In
the

is almost

Italy Gothic
French

modified

Here

to

architecture

Cistercian
suit the

began

style,but

was

esthetic demands

as

an

almost
of

the

geography played some


part, as in Tuscany,
where the Tuscan
Romanesque so stamped the Gothic art of
the chief variation was
the district,but
caused
by the

OF

HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE

inspirationand by date. In Spain the


stylewas generallyhomogeneous. In the beginning it was an
modified,
importation from Languedoc and Auvergne, soon
detail and
especiallyin the south, however, by Moorish
Spanish taste.
individual

of

source

Gothic in other countries.

In the Low

Countries

Gothic

was

originality
except in
secular
The
halls and
town
architecture.
guild halls of
which givesthe district
Flanders, however, show an originality
be called to the
real importance. Finally, attention must
imported

from

DOMICAL

France

RIBBED

FIG.

and

shows

VAULT

143

"

DEVELOPED
EXAMPLES

OF

important architecture which was


still remains, in the Holy Land,
and
we

little

MEDIEVAL

in

course,

to

thank

VAULT

VAULTS

built,and

other islands of the Mediterranean.

have, of

GOTHIC

much

of which

Cyprus, Rhodes,

Crete,

For these monuments

the crusaders.

Importance of the developmentof details. Unfortunately for


the logicalstudent, one
of buildings
select a number
cannot
which exhibit in chronologicalorder the steps in the development
of organicGothic architecture.
Progress was so rapidand
vance
buildings so seldom homogeneously completed that the adof the stylemay
best be illustrated by selecting
or
one
details from
then arrange
more
buildings. One may
many
these details to show
the steps in the development of organic
be
not
Gothic, even
necessarily
though the arrangement
the
to
chronological.Archeologistsmay
locality
dispute as
and date of the first singleflyingbuttress,but for us it will be

287
recognizethat the singleflyingbuttress, occurring
it does in many
as
buildings,represents a structural step
the hidden
between
flying buttress and the double one.
With
of the development of the important Gothic
a
grasp
enough

to

features,
then

in

are

we

position

reconstruct

to

fully developed
organic Gothic
building,or, if we
prefer

concrete

examples, to
why
of

naves

derstand
un-

the

Amiens

(Figs. 138 and


142)and of Reims
(Fig. 144) have
_

considered

been

perfect examples
of the fullydeveloped
earlystyle.
The vault.

The

important

most

of

single feature
the

Gothic

ing
build-

is, of

course,

the vault.

Indeed

the whole

study of

Gothic

ure
architect-

hinges
the
the

upon

and

vault

FIG.

of

treatment

144

THE

1914,

its

have

with
more

crowns

THE

LEVEL

CATHEDRAL.
FIRST

VIEW

OF

BOMBARDMENT

CROWNS

OF

IN

DEVELOPED

VAULTS

In

connection
the

THE

AFTER

SHOWING

GOTHIC

abutment.

THE

REIMS.

"

VAULTS

with
architecture

Romanesque
seen

level

that

architects

crowns

could

flexibly than
of

raise the

the
crowns

vault

the

to

came

be

made

domical

level

of the

of

it

was

transverse

the

He

de

realize that

lighterand
vault.

To

France
the

we

vault

constructed
make<