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Sequence of Presentation

1.Why Process Control?


2 What to Control?
2.What
3.Role of Sensors and Instruments
4.Modes Of Control Systems
5.Basics of Feedback Control Systems
6.Examples of Servo Control Systems
7.Conclusions

1. Why Process Control ?

1.Safety of Equipment and Personnel


2.Productions
2
Productions Specification of quality &
quantity
3 Operational Constraints
3.Operational
4.Observe Environmental and Country
Laws
5.Economics

Control Objectives
Give example

1. Safety of
Equipment
q p
&
personnel
2. Production
Specification of
quality &
quantity
3. Operational
Constraints
4. Environmental
Regulations
5. Economics

T6

Feed

T1

T2

T5

F1

T4

T3

F2
Process
fluid

PC

Vapor
Product

L1

F3
Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
product

Safety of Equipment & Personnel


High pressure
in drum is
dangerous

1. Safety of
Equipment &
personnel
2. Production
Specification of
quality &
quantity
3. Operational
Constraints
4. Environmental
Regulations
5 Economics
5.
E
i

Feed

T1

T2

T5

F1

T4

T3

F2
Process
P
fluid

T6

PC

Vapor
Product

L1

F3
Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
product

Control Objectives
Give example

1. Safety of
Equipment
q p
&
personnel
2. Production
Specification of
quality &
quantity
3. Operational
Constraints
4. Environmental
Regulations
5. Economics

T6

Feed

T1

T2

T5

F1

T4

T3

F2
Process
fluid

PC

Vapor
Product

L1

F3
Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
product

Safety of Equipment
No flow could
damage the
pump

1. Safety of
Equipment &
personnell
2. Production
Specification of
quality
lit &
quantity
3. Operational
Constraints
4. Environmental
Regulations
5. Economics

F d
Feed

T1

T2

T5

F1

T4

T3

F2
Process
fluid

T6

PC

Vapor
Product

L1

F3
Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
d t
product

Smooth Production Rate


Always keep
the production
rate smooth

1. Safety of
Equipment
q p
&
personnel
2. Production
Specification of
quality &
quantity
3. Operational
Constraints
4. Environmental
Regulations
5. Economics

Feed

T1

T2

T5

F1

T4

T3

F2
Process
fluid

T6

PC

Vapor
Product

L1

F3
Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
product

Quality Assurance

Give Example

1. Safety of
Equipment &
personnel
2. Production
Specification of
quality &
quantity
3. Operational
Constraints

T6

Feed

T1

T2

T5

F1

T4

T3

4. Environmental
Regulations

F2

5. Economics

Process
fluid

PC

Vapor
Product

L1

F3
Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
product

Quality Assurance
Achieve L.Key
by adjusting
the heating

1. Safety of
Equipment &
personnel
2. Production
Specification of
quality &
quantity
3 Operational
3.
Constraints

Feed

T1

T2

T5

F1

T4

T3

4. Environmental
Regulations

F2

5. Economics

Process
fluid

T6

PC

Vapor
Product

L1

F3
Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
product

Observe Environmental and Other Regulations

Never release
hydrocarbons
y
to atmosphere

1. Safety of
E i
Equipment
t&
personnel
2. Production
S
Specification
ifi ti off
Feed
quality &
quantity
3 Operational
3.
Constraints
4. Environmental
Regulations
5. Economics

T1

T2

T5

F1

T4

T3

F2
Process
fluid

T6

PC

Vapor
Product

L1

F3
Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
Li
id
product

Economics

Give Example

1. Safety of
E i
Equipment
t&
personnel
2. Production
S
Specification
ifi ti off
quality &
quantity
3 Operational
3.
Constraints

T6

Feed

T1

T2

T5

F1

T4

T3

4. Environmental
Regulations

F2

5. Economics

Process
fluid

PC

Vapor
Product

L1

F3
Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
product

Economics

1. Safety of
Equipment &
personnel
2. Production
Specification of
quality &
quantity
3. Operational
C
Constraints
i
4. Environmental
Regulations
5. Economics

Give Example

2. What to Control ?

1.The Influence of External


Disturbances
(Suppress Them)
2.Ensure Stable Operation
(Avoid Unsteady State)
3 O ti i d O
3.Optimized
Operation
ti
(Control Operating Costs)

Suppress the Influence of External Disturbances

Disturbances?

Ensure Stable Operation

Ensure Stable Operation (contd)

Optimized Operation (online)

Potential Stochastic Gains through effective Process Control


When we control a process, we reduce the variability.

Potential Stochastic Gains through effective Process Control (Contd)

Variability is moved from controlled to manipulated variable!

Potential Stochastic Gains through effective Process Control (Contd)

What statistics
can we calculate
l l t
from this data?

How do we relate
variability to process
performance?

Potential Stochastic Gains through effective Process Control (Contd)

Process performance
p
efficiency, yield,
production rate, etc. It
measures performance
for a control objective.
Calculate the process
performance using the
distribution not the
distribution,
average value of the key
variable!

Examples of feedback system

3.

Role of Sensors and Instruments


A typical instrument has three components:
` A Sensor
` A Modifier
` A Display (Or transmitting arrangement)
Sensors feel the condition and originate the
signal
i
l followed
f ll
db
by modification
difi ti
and
d
amplification for effective display or
transmission.

Comment on Sensors and Instruments


` Instruments are the eyes of engineer/
operator that can see & feel the intense
process variable inside the vessels
` Accordingly the measurements should be
reliable and as close to actual condition as
possible with reasonable costs.
` Process control go hand in hand
If you cannot measure you cannot control!

Example of Temperature Control (Heat exchanger)

4.

Modes of Control Systems


`
`
`
`
`

Feedback Control Systems (Regulatory)


Feedforward Control Systems(Servo, Tracking)
Sequential Control System
Distributed
Integrated

Modes of Implementation
` Pneumatic
` Electronic
` Digital

Basics of feedback control system

Example of Composition Control

Examples of feedback system

Examples of feedback system

Where is Control Done?

Examples of feedback system

Examples of feedback system

Control System Implementation


` Analog and local Control
` Microprocessor based Distributed Control
` Field Bus based Distributed Control System
(State of art with ever growing capabilities
and features!)

Control Systems Implementations In Industry

Control Systems Implementations In Industry

Control Systems Implementations In Industry