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MECH 370

Modelling, Simulation and Control Systems

Lab 3: Frequency Response of Passive Electrical Filters

James Coulton 2363011


Alexandre Simpson 6462261
Michael Aziz 6458092

Lab Performed: February 26, 2014


Lab Due: March 12, 2014
Objective

The objective of this experiment is to study the frequency response characteristics


and resonance of passive RC (resistor-capacitor) and LC (inductor-capacitor)
frequency filters.

Introduction
An electrical filter is a type of signal-processing circuit whose output allows only
certain frequencies while blocking others. The rejection of frequencies is called
stopband while the acceptance of others to pass is called passband. Several filter
types exist: passive filters composed of passive elements R, L and C, and active
filters normally having a dependent source like an amplifier. Our focus is solely on
the passive filter type.
This experiment will study three different types of passive filters. Low-pass filters
(LPF) have a passband in the low frequency region while the high-pass filters (HPF)
have the bandpass located in the high frequency region. The third type of passive
filter is the bandpass filter which allows a certain range of frequency to pass while
frequencies outside the range will be blocked. See Figure 1.

Figure 1: Ideal vs. Practical Frequency Response Curves of Filters


When using inductors and capacitors there will be positive or negative peaks at
specific frequencies called resonant frequencies. This resonance occurs when the
resistance of the capacitor, Rc=-1/wC and the inductors resistance, Rl= wL cancel
out. This means that the imaginary part of the impedance is zero and that the
phase angle is zero.

Procedure
Measure the R, C, and L values in the RCL box using the Multi-Meter available in the
lab. The values for the inductors and capacitors used it this experiment are

L1=L2=240uH, C1=C2=1uF and R=22.


Set the DSO to AC coupling, and ensure that readings for frequency of channel 1,
and RMS amplitudes for both channels are displayed.
Measure the input and output voltages for the circuits in the Figures 2.1, 2.2, 2.3.

Figure 2.1

Figure 2.2

Figure 2.3
Connect the filter circuit of interest, and sweep the frequency range of interest.
Record results at each frequency.

Results & Sample Calculations


LC-Type
Frequenc
y (Hz)
500
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
12000
15000

Radian
Frequency
(Hz)
3141.59
6283.19
12566.37
18849.56
25132.74
31415.93
37699.11
43982.30
50265.48
56548.67
62831.85
75398.22
94247.78

Channel
1 (V)

Channel
2 (V)

Magnitude
Ratio, M (dB)

19.60
18.60
15.80
12.90
10.10
7.30
5.10
3.35
2.25
2.90
3.85
5.95
8.40

0.15
0.30
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51

-42.09
-35.85
-29.86
-28.09
-25.97
-23.15
-20.03
-16.38
-12.93
-15.13
-17.59
-21.37
-24.37

LC Pass Filters Response Curves


0
-5 0

50000

100000

-10
-15
Magnitude Ratio, M (dB)

-20

HPF

-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
angular velocity, (rad/s)

Magnitude=20 log

V out
V

( )

M =20 log

( 0.15
19.6 )

M =42.09 d B

Frequency
500
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
12000
15000

Frequency
500
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
12000
15000

Radian
3141.59
6283.19
12566.37
18849.56
25132.74
31415.93
37699.11
43982.30
50265.48
56548.67
62831.85
75398.22
94247.78

Single Section RC
Channel
Channel
19.8
19.4
18.4
18.0
15.4
14.4
12.9
11.6
11.4
9.8
10.2
8.2
9.4
7.0
8.6
6.2
8.2
5.7
7.8
5.0
7.5
4.6
7.2
3.8
6.8
3.4

Magnitude Ratio,
-0.18
-0.19
-0.58
-0.92
-1.31
-1.90
-2.56
-2.84
-3.16
-3.86
-4.25
-5.55
-6.02

Radian
3141.59
6283.19
12566.37
18849.56
25132.74
31415.93
37699.11
43982.30
50265.48
56548.67
62831.85
75398.22
94247.78

Twin Section RC
Channel
Channel
17.6
17.4
14.7
13.6
10.8
8.6
9.2
6.2
8.4
4.8
8.0
3.8
7.8
3.2
7.6
2.8
7.4
2.4
7.2
2.2
7.1
1.8
7.0
1.6
6.8
1.2

Magnitude Ratio,
-0.10
-0.68
-1.98
-3.43
-4.86
-6.47
-7.74
-8.67
-9.78
-10.30
-11.92
-12.82
-15.07

Magnitude Ratio vs Frequency for Single and Twin Section RC


0

100000
50000

0
Magnitude Ratio, M (dB)

-5
-10

Twin Section RC
Single Section RC

-15
-20
angular velocity, (rad/s)

Frequenc
y (Hz)
500
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
12000
15000

Double Resonance Circuit


Radian
Channel Channel
Frequency (Hz)
1 (V)
2 (V)
3141.59
19.80
0.198
6283.19
18.80
0.340
12566.37
15.80
0.508
18849.56
11.40
0.508
25132.74
6.60
0.502
31415.93
4.20
0.508
37699.11
8.60
0.508
43982.30
11.80
0.508
50265.48
12.40
0.508
56548.67
11.20
0.508
62831.85
9.20
0.508
75398.22
5.40
0.508
94247.78
5.20
0.508

Magnitude Ratio,
M (dB)
-40.00
-34.85
-29.86
-27.02
-22.38
-18.35
-24.57
-27.32
-27.75
-26.87
-25.16
-20.53
-20.20

Double-Resonance Response
0

20000

40000

60000

80000

0
-5
-10
-15
Magnitude Ratio, M (dB)

-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
angular velocity, (rad/s)

SIMULINK

Bode Diagram: dB Vs Frequency & Phase Vs Frequency

100000

Discussion
For the LC-type, the graph indicates the start of the curve appears to be a high pass
filter and then becomes a band pass filter from the small peak on top. That peak is
the resonance peak, because the nominal cut-off frequency of these filters is
assumed the natural resonant frequency.
For the Single Section RC and Twin Section RC, the slope of the Single Section is
much less steep than that of the Twin Section. This can due to the fact that the
magnitude ratio of the Twin Section RC, channel 2 over channel 1, will equate a

bigger ratio once entered in the magnitude equation,

M =20 log

V out
V

( )

. This is due

to the much bigger difference in voltage lost in the circuit when passed through the

Twin Section RC Circuit. It can be determined from the graphs, that they are both
low pass filters.
For for Double Resonance Circuit, the curve begins with a high pass filter, then
becomes a band pass filter, a lowpass filter and finally forms into a band pass filter.
The presences of two resonance peaks in the graph are generated due to the
presence of an inductor L and capacitor C in the circuit.
Conclusion
The analysis of the frequency response characteristics of passive RC and LC filters
was determined. The objective of the experiment was achieved since the outputs of
the different circuits are identical to the expected, theoretical, output. As expected
the LC-type filter had one resonant frequency and a shallow curve at the cut-off
frequency. The RC-type filters have no resonant frequency and the twin section has
a steeper cut-off slope than the single section. The double resonance circuit had two
resonant frequencies as expected. All the experimental data was as expected with
very little error. One of the few possible sources of error is that due to some noise in
the circuit the output voltage was not entirely constant witch lessened the accuracy
of our results.