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C.A.

KY3bMl1H

y"tfEEHJ1K APAECI(OrO 5I3bIKA

AJI,R nepboeo 200a o6y'tellUR

MOCKBa J13AaTe}\bCKaH q,HpMa *BOCTO':lHaJl }\HTepaTypa~ PAH

2001

ytlK 8] 1.411 EEK 8 I .2Apa6 K89

H300Hue oC}'UIeCm6JIeHO npu diuuaucoeoi; nOOOepJICKe Bnaeomeopumensuoeo pOHoa

11M en u <Pyaoa K aopu J(:JICaMwl5l-n am u

Ky3bMHH C.A.

K89 YQe6HHK apaficsoro H3hIKa. ):{nR nepsoro rona o6Y4eHIUJ. - M.:

Hsnarenscxaa qn-lpMa «BoCrOtIHaH rnrreparypa» PAH, 2001. - 383 c.

ISBN 5-02-018219-2

Hacrosmee 113D.aHHe npencraanaer co60ii nepepatioranasra 11 )lOnOJlHeHHMi1 B8- p118HT YQe6Hlu::a apaficsoro Jl3&IK8 MJI I KypC8, H3,n8}-lHoro B Mfl1MO (YHHsepCJ.fTeT) Ml1,ll Pel> B 1993 r. Y'ie6HI1K paccxaraa H8 O)lHOrO)lH'iHhIH K)'pC o6~eHHJI B BY38X 11 ztsyx- rpexroaasnoe o6y'ieHHe B nauesx. OH opaeirraposan H8 BhIpa60TKY KOMMYHHK8THBHhlX H88&11(08, cHa6IKeH npOnHCJlMH, aYJlH03anHCblO psna TeKCTOB H MQ)KeT cny)KHTb 13 xaseerae CaMOY'lHTeJIJI.

IiEK Bl.2Apa6

ISBN 5-02-018219-2

(Q C.A.KY3bMHH, 200 I

nPE)(HCJIOBHE

Apa6cKHH H3hIK BXOllHT B rpynny ceMHTCKIiX H3bIKOB. OC06eHHOCTbl{) »'3blKOB 3TOH rpyrmu HSJUleTCH TO, l:JTO B HID( xopens cnoaa COCTORT TOJIbKO H3 COrJIaCHbIX 3SYROB: 06bIl:JHO 113 rpex, pezce 113 nsyx HJlH xersrpex. ¢opMoo6pa- 30BaHl1e 11 cnosoofipaaoaanae npOI1CXO.IVlT npeHM)'llI.eCTBeHHO nyrera H3MeHe~ HIDI crpyxrypu CJIOBa (BHYTPeHHeH 4lneKCHH).

COBpeMeHHbIH JU1TeparypHbll1 apa6CKHH 1I3bIK pacrtpocrpaaen aa o6umpHOM TepPHTopHH, BKJII{)l:JruorueM crpama EmiJI<Hero Ii Cpemrero BOCTOKa, ApaBHMcKoro nonYOCTPOBa H CeBepHOH A«PPHKH. B 3TliX crpaaax CJIO)l(lUIHCb TaK)I(e MeCTH.bJe pasrosopasre .JI3bIKH, lUIH lUiaJIeKTbI, OTnWlaIQIUHeCH llpyr OT npyra PH.1l.0M ocofieasocref (q,OHeTHl:JeCKHX, neKCHl:JeCKHX H rpaMMaTHl:JeCKHX). O.nHaKO rrareparypasra apa6CKHH H3blK SlBJUleTCK rocynapcrseumoa B 3TKX crpaaax. 3TO .Jl3blK HayKH, xynoxecrseaaof mrreparypu, npeccsr, panao, oqmI..:tHaJIbHbIX BbICT)'rmeHMH rocynapcrsemrsrx H nOJIHTlfI.leCKHX ,neKTeneH.

HaCTO.Jllll,}1H )"-IefiHlIK CTaBMT uenuo H3yqeHHe coapeaennoro mrreparypaoro apaficxoro Sl3bIKa. OH npennamasen .llJl.SI nperronaaarenea 11 crynetrron BbICWJ{X yye6HbIX 3aBelleHHH, ,1l,JUI yxauurxcs JIHueeS, B KOTOPbIX apa6CKHH R3hlK IUYl:JaI{)T Hap}111Y C .upynlMH HHoCTpaHHhIMH H3bIK3MH, a TaK)l(e LIJIH urnpoxoro xpyra nau, H3yttalOllI.HX HlIH )f(enalOlllHX 113Yl:JaTh apa6CKHH .SI3bIK B no- 3HaS3TeJIbHhiX uenxx, J])UI 03HaKOMJIeHillI. C caMo6bITHOH KYJIbTYPOH apafios, HX 60raTbIM KynhrypHhIM 11 nareparypnsra HaCJIe}1.HeM, Hcropnei1 Ii peJIHfIrleM. TIp11JlO)KeHHe K Yl:Je6HHKY aYAH03anHC11 «pOHeTl1l:JeCKHX ynpaxnenaa 11 uenoro pHJla yqe6HhIx TeKCTOS B HcnOJIHeHHH llHKTOpa-HOCHTeJUl H3bIKa naer B03MO)KHOCTh q,OpMHposaTh y 113Yl:Jal{)uurx mrreparypnutl apa6CKHH K3bIK nposnsre HaBbIKH rrpasansnoro npOH3HOllieHIDI H QTeHHj{, nonpaacas oepasny.

DpH ero COCTaBJIemU1 HCnOJIh30BaHbI HapRIlY C H3.llaHHhIMH paaee ere-teetseHHbIMH Yl:Je6HHKaMH apaficxoro K3bIKa cnezryioume yqe6Hbie nocofias: « I:I adiqatl», «Mabadi 'u- n- na1)y i ua-l-' imla' i», «Al-qaya' idu», «Hisab 1», «A t-tadblru-l-manzi I ijju», «Al-q ira' a ua-n-nususu-l-' adabijja», «Al-qira' atu-l-gadlda», «Al-baqa» H JlpYfHe, H3naHHhle B CHpnM B 1967-1976 rr.: «Ta'Ilmu-l-Iugari-l'arabiiia li-l-mubtadi'tna», «Ta' llmu-l-lugati-l- 'arabiiia li-gairi-n-natiqlna biha», H3naHHble accouaauaea «l1cnaMcKHH npH3bIB) (r. Tpanona, JIHBM); «Learning Arabic for English Speakers» N2 1-4 (Cairo, An Egyptian Broadcasting and Television Federation Company), «Al-qawa'idu-l-tarabiiia .. l-muiassara» (ArRijag, Al-Mamiakatu-i-'Arabiiiatu-s-Sa'udijja), «Ta'ltmu-l-lugati-l-tarabijja li .. gairi-n-natiqina biha», H3.naHHble Me)l(,ll)'HapollHotl HcnaMcKoH OpraHH3aUHeH CnaCeHIDI. (qmpMa «PRESS Ltd») H np.

ABTOP finaronapea [l3.H.KpaCHoBcKOMyl, B.I1. COnOBheBY, M.MaccapaHH, 3.B.RKOBeHKO, lO.H.Ky.n.pHBueBY sa C006pa>KeHIDI H 3aMe'-IaHIDI, cnenamnre so BpeMH pa60TbI Ha.n. Ylfe6HHKOM.

ASTOP rnytioxo npasuarenen Enarorsoprrrem.noay <l>OH.llY HMeHH cI>ya.ua KanpH .n.)l{aMHnH~nailll1 sa coueacraae, OKa3aHHOe B ~\3naHHH yqe6HHKa.

wOHETHKA

3BYKH apa6CKOrO H3blK3

3BYKH peQH C03}l.3lOTCH patioroa pesesoro annapara [ronocoasie CBJl3KH, fl3blqOK, MbIUIUhI roPTIlHH, He60 (ero ropraasas qaCTb - rnepnoe MeGo, sanHJUI _. MHTKoe HeGO), H3hIK, 3y6hJ H ry6hJ] H KOJle6aHIDlMH soanyxa. OHM COCTOHT »3 TOHOS, xoropsre S03HHKaJOT BCJ1enCTBHe pHTMIftJeCKHX KOJle6aHHH rOJlOCOBhIX CBR30K, R UIYMOB, B03HHKalOUI,1IX B pe3YJIhT3Te Hep"TMWleCKIIX Kone6aHHH npa npoxone aosnyxa H3 nerxzx xepea opranst apra KymlUH H. I-!3 OJlHHX TOJlhKO TOHOS (co6CTseHHO ronoca) 3BYKH peql{ He COCTOJIT.

Ilpa onMC3HHH 3BYKOB pellH HX KBaJIH<pnU,MPYIOT no cnoco6y H Mec1)' apTHKYJUlUlUI. HIDKe xparxo nOHCIDIlOTCH nesoropsre TepMHHbI, ynOTpe6JV1eMhIe npn onacaana 3BYKOB apaficxoro 1l3bIKa B rpaMMaTWlecKoH qaCTH nepssrx YPOKOB yqe6HMKa.

c:J>pHKaTHBHhle cornacasre: JlJUI HHX xapaxrepea IU)'M, B03HHKatolllHH: npa rrpoxone soanyxa Qepe3 uiens Me){():(y c6nIDKeHHbIMH, HellJIOTHO cse.neHHbIMH opraaaaa pexa,

CMhl1.lH.hle corrracasre: ronocoasre CBH3KH CMhJK310TCH H Pa3MblK8lOTCfl.

Ilpoxon aosnyxa xepea HOCOBOH peaoaarop nOJ1HOCThlO 33KphIT.

Afj)4>PHK3ThJ: cornacasre, COCTOJIWHe 113 CMLIQHOrO H q,PHK3THBHoro 3BYKOB. CMhIKaHHe opr3HOB pellH 33KalfllUS3eTCH HX HeIlOJIHhIM paCKpbITHeM, npllBOMlUHM K 06P330S3H1flO inena,

COrJmCHbIe 3BYKH ztenarcararcse na lBOHKHe H rJlYXHe. ,lVI1I 3BOHKHX xapaxrepno TO, qTO K WYMy npHCOe}l.HIDIeTCSl ronoc, 3 rulSl rJ1YXHX -- TO, qTO ronoe OTCYTCTsyeT. Couopasre cornacaue: ronoc npeofinanaer Ha)l rnyMOM.

3M~aTHqeCK"e cornacnsre npOH3HOClITClI npa HanpR/KeHHH opranoa pexesoro annapara. TIpM apTHK)'JIflu'HH rJly6oK013J{HeHe6HbIX COrJIaCHbIX ysacrsyer H3bIQOK. B aprnxynauna CBH30'lH.LlX cornacasrx ~aCTBYJOT ronocossre CBH3KH. 3eB~Me COfJIaCHhIe, KaK H CBH30tJHhle, 06pa3)'lOTCH a ropTaHH.

naJ1aT3J1If30B3HHhIH -- CMXrqeHHhIH.

B apa6CKOM Jl3hIKe llMeeTCX 28 cornacmrx H rpn rnacnux snyxa.

3SYKH apaficxoro H3hl1<3 npOH3HOClITCX B UenOM npa 60JIhWeM Hanp.sI>I<eHHU opranoa penn, lJeM 3Byl<M pyccxoro Jl3hIKa.

113yqeHHe 3BYKOBOH CHcreMol fl3hlKa HeOTJxenHMO OT H3yqeHlui cnoa, cnoBOCOlfeTaHHH: H npe.ll)10JKeHHH. Pasnen «<l>oHeTHKa» conepaorr Heo6xo)lHMhIe CBe.lleHIDI 0 neKCHKe, MOP<POJlOfHH 11 CHHT3KCMce cospexearroro mrreparypnoro apaticxoro R3bJK3.

Apaficxoe nHCbMO

Ha npOT.sDKeHHH Bel(OS apa6bl BbIpa60TaJIH pxn Pa3HOBH.1l.HOCTeH .nHCLMa, K8)J(.naH 1f3 KOTOPblX HMeeT CHOH oc06eHHOCTH. Haaoonee pacrrpocrparremrsnur CTaJm .ABe 113 HHX, OlIHa 113 KOTOPblX, nesarnas, HMeHYeTcn «aacg», nPYraJI, pYKonHCHa5l, - «pyx'a», B H8CT05l111eM yqe6HI1Ke see TeKcThI npelICT8SReHhI nellaTHhIM wpmpTOM «HaC~». Ho napany C JTliM lI,alOTCR raiose nporracn, OTpaxeroume OCHOBHLle rpaq)H'l{eCKHe JJleMeHTbI cospeaeaaoro apaficsoro pyxonacaoro urpaqrra «PYJ.<'a», nonroroaneunne IO.H.Kyn:pJlBQeSbIM, KOTOPLIH: mo6e3HO B3R1I na ce6R rpyn ;zy61IHpOBaTb B PYKOITHCHOM sapaaare pan sanaHMH, a raiose rrpenxoxenas JI.JIjJ 1.{TeHH.R Ii TeKCTbl ypOKOB .N"2 1-15 yqe6HHKa. Paspafioraassre 11M H naansre S ypoxe N2 15 uancrpoxaste H noncrpo-rasre YCJIOBHhle o603HalleHIDI RaK HeJIb3.R nyxrne OTBelJaIOT o6menpHIDIThIM npasaRaM naysansuoro IITeHliSl apaficsoro 'rexcra. Bnaronaps TaRoM)' CO'lJeT8HIDO nesaraoro uipadrra «nacx» Ii pyxonncsoro «PYJ.<'a» yqalllH:H:CH He TOJIl~KO UPHo6pe~aeT HaBblRH rrOHHMaHIDl Ii qTeHIDi nesarnsrx If PYKonHcHbIx TeReTOS, HO H caM yqHTC.SI KpaCHBO H rrp8SHlIbHO nacars pYKonHCHhIM nosepxou «pyx'a»,

YPOK .N21

Cornacnsre ) ()J.), ~ tv, J (p), j (3),.J (y), 6YKBa f (aJlH«j1)

Apa6hI mUlIYT cnpasa uaneno. EOJIhlllHHCTBO 6YKB coe.QIUUleTCH na nHeLMe c npennrecrayromaua 11 nocne.nyrouU1Ml1. TaKl1M 06Pa30M, MO)f(HO npocneznm, sersrpe Pa3HOBIlUHOCTH uanacanas onHoH H TOH )Ke GYKBhl B cnoae: B coenaHeHHH C nocnenyiomea 6YKBOH (8 COe)l.I1HeHHH crreea), B COe)l,I1HeHHH C npe~ .nhlJl)'weH 11 nocnenytomea (c 06eHX CTOpOH), B COenI-lHeHHH C npensurymett (cnpaaa) H nanncaane 6YKBhI 6e3 COe)l.HHeHHH.

Illecrs 6YKB apaticsoro an¢aSHTa He COe,Ul1IDlIOTCR C nocne.nylOlUl1MH 6YK~ BaMH. OH11 MOryr COe)1.HWlTbCR romxo C npenweCTBYKHll.HMH. 3TH 6YKBhI cne,nylOUlHe: ~ (nan h) , ~ 6aJIb), J (pa), j (3aHH), J (yay) If 1 (aJU14».

Ilepssre H3 3THX IDlTH 6YKB 0603HaQalOT cornacnsre 3ByKH.

1. Cornacnuti 3SyK, 0603HR4aeMhIH 6),KBOH .) (nans), - nepellHeHe6HhIH 3a3y6HbIH 3BOHKHH B3PhlBHOH 3SyK. TIpH ero apTHKymlUHH KOH'lHK H3hIKa CMblKaeTCH C BepXHHM PHllOM 3)'508 H MrHOBeHHO PaJMhi KaeTCH. 3TOT 3S)'K He CMH~aeTCfl, KaK B PYCCKOM .R:3bIKe, KpOMe aexoropsrx crrysaen, B 4aCTHocTI1, xorna sa HI1M cnenyer 1I.OnfHH fnaCHh.IH 3SYK (11). OH He ornyinaerca .B KOHue cnoaa, KaK 3TO HMeeT MeCTo, Hanp"Mep, BCJlOBaX «Men», «rren», xoropsie rrpoH3HOC»TC.R «MeT», «ner». Apa6cKHH 3B)'K npOH3HOCHTC.R KaK (n) B CJIOBaX «,lJ,ap», «nava». B rpaHCKpHnUHH 0603HaQaeTCfl 3HaKOM (n),

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III

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HaOHcaHHe 6YKBhI Hanacaaae 6YKBbI Hanacaane 6YKBhl Hanacaaae 6YKBbi

B coe,Ui1HeHIH1 B COeD,HHeHHH C B coe;:umeHHH 6e3 Coe.lJ.HHeHlUI

cnpasa ofienx CTOPOH cneaa

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2. Cornacnaf 3S)'K, 0603HaQaeMbIH 6YKBOH ; (]aJIb), HBJUleTC}I 3BOHKHM Me}((3y6HbIM lPpl1KaTI1BHbIM 3BYKOM. Ilpaero apnfKynHl(HH KOWIHK Ji3LIKa pacrrorraraercs Me)f(,ny BepXHH.M H HH)KHHM p.RnaMH 3y50s. 3BYK npOH3HOCHTCR C Y'qacTHeM ronoca. CooTBeTcTByeT aHrJIHHcKOM), «th», aanpaaep B cnosax «that», «this», B rpancxpannaa 0603HalJaeTc» 3HaKOM (]) (c QepTOQKOH CRH3)').

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3. Cornacasrf sayx, 0603HalJaeMLIH 6YKBOH ,J (pa), - nepeJJ.HeHe6HhlH coHOPHbIH 3B)'K. rlpH ere apraxynsuan KOWlHK Sl3bIKa npH6nIDKaeTC}I K sepxaen

necne (H. Kauencsuic KpaTKHH BBonHbIH xypc rpoHeTHKH apaficxoro mrrepa.rypaoro JJ3hIKa. M., 1946. C. 10) Ii BH6pHpyeT. Apraxynapyercs 60nee 3Hep~ fwtHO Ii HanpH)f(eHHO, qeM cooruercreyronuoi 3ByK B PYCCKOM 1I3bIKe. EOJIee pacsarncr. IIpoH3HocHTclI npaxepao K3K (p) S cnoaax «POM», «psnia», «pOD>. B rpaHCKpHIILUfH 0603HaqaeTClI 3HaKOM (p).

IV

III

II

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4. COfJI3CHbIH 3SyK, 0603HaQaeMblH 6YKBOn j (3ailH), - nepe,llHeHe6HbIH 3a3y6HhItt 4>PHKaTHBHbIH 380HKHti 3SYK. 3TOT cornacasni 30yK B OTJIwtHe OT PYCCKOfO cornacnoro He HMeeT napasrx (TBep.lI.hIX Ii MHfKHX) ¢OHeM, 3aHI1MaeT cpennee nOJIO)KeHHe Me)KJJ.Y M.SIrl<HM H TBep,llbIM PYCCKIiM cornacnsra (A.A.Ko6anee, Llll.Illaptiamoe. YQe6HHl< apaficaoro Jl3bIKa. M., 1998. C. 14). IIpoH3HocHTc» KaK (3) B CJIOBax «3RMa», «aepxano». B TpaHCKpHIIIUfll 0603HaqaeTC.SI3HaKOM (3).

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5. Cornacnsra 3BYK, 0603HaQaeMbiM 6YKBOH J (yay), .SIBnneTC5I ry6HO-ry6~ HhIM $pHKaTHBHbIM 3BYKOM. Ilpa rrpoaaaeceamt JTOfO 3BYKa ry6hI Bhl.lU3HH)'ThI snepen, oxpyrneau H He conpHK3CaIOTCH npyr C npyroxr, ApTHI(ymuuUl nanp$I)KeHHa.sJ. 3TOT 3SYK COOTBeTcTByeT ry6HO·ry6HOMY «W» B aHfJIHHCKOM 1I3hI· xe, B TpaHCKpHnUHH 0603HaQaeTCR 3H3}(OM (Y) (c Jzy)I(J(OH caepxy),

IV

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6. ,[{OJIfHH rnacnsrn 3BYK (a) 0603HaQaeTC» 6YKBOH I (3JIH$). liYKaa I (aJlHq» asrrrormser H He xoropsre acnoaorarerrsnsre $YHKI.UiH. Ilozrpofinee 0 3BYKe (a) 6y.neT CKa3aHO HHlKe.

IV

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I'nacnsre 3BYKH a, y, H

B apa6CKOM .sJ3bIKe rpa fJIaCHhIX 3BYKa: a, y, a, Orm 6blBaK>T .uonrHMH H KpaTKHMH. nOnn-ie rnacaste 3BYKl1 0603HaQalOTClI npexaymecrneaso c nOMO-

W.LlO 6YKB. KpaTKHe rnacasie 3ByKH aa nHCLMe MOryr 6blTb nepenaau c noMOIULlO cnell,HaJIbHblX 3HaKOB aan 6YKBaMH, 0603Ha1JaJOI.lUlMH cornacasre 3BYKH, lUlH non HUMH. TaKHe 3HaKH HaJblB3lOTCH ornaCOBKaMH. GAHaKO ornacoaKH nHIUYTCH He scerna, II IO,l1,H , 3HaJOlll,He apa6CKHH H3LIK, nauryr H 1JHTaJOT TeKCT B OCHOBHOM 6e3 ornaCOBOK.

1. rnacHhlH 3BYK (a). ApTlIK)'JUlUIDl apaficxoro 3BYKa (a) OTnWlaeTCJI OT apTHKYJISU,HH sroro 3BYKa B PYCCKOM H3hIKe. PyCCKUH 3BYK npoIDHocHTCH npa MHHHMaJIbHOM nO,lUUlTHH H3hIKa H3 caotioraroro ero nOJIO)KeHIDI B HIDKHeM pnJzy K MnfKoMY He6y.

TIPH npoasaecenna apaticsoro (a) Jl3bIK HeMHoro npanonasr K MnfKoM)' He6y, KaK 6LI npH6J1HIKaHCb K Mec1)' 06pa30BaHHH PYCCKoro (3), HO He ,nOCTHran ero. BBH'..1zy ororo apa6CKHA 3BYK (a) npaofperaer nerKMH 3-o6p33Hhli1 OTTeHOK. B HeKOTophIX cnosax apa6CKHH 3BYK (a) npOH3HOCHTCR npauepao Ka.K pYCCKoe (3) (HKGMeHCKuu. TaM IKe. C. 25, 27).

KpaTKHH fnacHbIH 3BrK (a) 0603Ha1JaerCH Ha.LI.C'Fp01JHbIM 3HaKOM (ornacosKOM) _- , lJepTOlJKOn, KOTOPrul CTaBHTCH HaKJIOHHO Hall cooraercrayiomea 6YKBOH, 0603Ha1Jaromen cornacasra 3SYK. 3Ta 1JepT01{Ka - ornaCOBKa - aaasrsaeTCH fjJamxoii. BTpaHCKpHflllHll q,aTXa 0603HaqaeTCJl3HaKoM (a), HanpHMep:

~ (na), ~ (1a), ~ (pa), :; (sa), J (ya).

2. rn3cHblH 3BYK (y) npoH3HoCHTCH KaK pyccxoe (yja cnosax «YXQ», «}'TpO». Ilpn ero apTHKYmu.\IlH ry6w oxpyrnena, B nexoropsrx crryxasx 3TOT 3BYK npHHHMaeT orrenox «0», a B KOHe1JHblX 3aKpbITbIX enorax (B lJaCTHOCTH, B MeCTOHMeHHH MY)I(CKOrO pona «OHR») npOIDHOCHTCR KaK PYCCKoe «0».

,

KpaTKUn rnaCHbIH 3BrK (y) 0603Ha1JaeTCH ornacoaxoa _, npeACTaBIDllOmeA

C060H RaR fiLl YMeHbIlleHH)'lO B paasrepe 6YKBY .J (yay), KOTOPrur HaJLIBaeTCH OaMMOU H CTasliTCH HM 6YKBOH, 0603Ha1JaJOlU,eH comacasia 3BYK. B rpancKpHrru.HH 0603Ha1JaeTCH 3HaKOM (Y), aarrpnvep:

J. '. J. J. }

~ (.llY), .) ~y), ) (py), j (3Y), .J (yY).

3. rnacHblH 3BYK (u) apraxynapyercs KaK pyccxoe «It» B CJIOBaX «san», «nIDI)}. Crrenyer, O)lHaRO, HMeT.b B BUllY, 1JTO apatiexae rnacaue, KaK KpaTKHe, TaK Ii )lOJIfHe, npHHHMalOT oxpacxy COCe.D.HHX COrJIaCHhIX. Ilpn 3M4>aTWIecKHX Ii HeKOTopbIX .llpyrHX cornacaux )TOT 3BYK npOH3HOClfrCR KaK PYCCKoe «sr» (H.KaMeHCKuu. TaM )Ke. C. 25,27).

KpaTKHM rnaCHbIH 3BYK (ll) 0603HaQaeTCH 3HaKOM (ornacoBKoii)--::-, xeproxKOn, KOTOPaH CTaBHTCH HaKJIOHHO non cooraercrsyiouiea 6YKBOR, 0603Ha':lalOmeii cornacnstf 3BYK. 3Ta ornacoaxa Ha3hJBaeTCH #(JIcpoii. B TPaHcKpHIlIl,HH Ofi03Ha1.JaeTcs: 3HaKOM (M), HanpHMep:

? (JUt), ? QH), -! (pa), ! (3"), ~ (YH).

4. OTCYTcT8He rnacuoro 0603HalJaeTCSI He6oJ1blllHM KPY)KOlJKOM _:_, KOTOPbll:I CTa811TCSI Han6YK8oH. 3TOT KpY)f(OlieK Ha3bIBaeTCSI CY«YHOM, uanpasrep:

0.1 IJ~ 0' ." 0

J') (nyp), J') (Jyp), .)j (3YP), .)J (WP), .)j (311Jl).

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CJIOrH B apaOCKOM H3blKe

B apaficxox Sl3blKe pa3JU1QafOT xparxae 11 .Ll,OJ1fHe CJ10rH.

1. Cnor, COCTOSlUJ.HJ1 113 cornacnoro H xparxoro rnacaoro 3BYKOB, SlBJ1S1eTCSI omspstmus« KpomKUM CJI020M, Hanpl1Mep:

.) (Jl'I1), ~ (ny), ") (na)

... } ...

~ (11), ~ ~y), ; (ja)

~ (PY), J (pn), :; (pa)

...

Bee 3TH CJ10rH SlBJUIIOTeSi OTKphIThIMH.

B cnoae ~JJ (yapana) Bee 11'11 crrora Sl8JISlIQTCSI OTKphlThIMH KpaTKI1MH CJ10- raMH.

2. eJ10r, COCTOSlUJ.I1H H3 COrJIaCHOrO, xparxoro rJ1aCHOrO 11 cornacnoro 3BYKOB, SlBlISleTCHJOKp61mbiM C1WZOM. 3aKphiThIH cnor B apaficxora assrxe SlBJISleTCSI )lOJ1rHM (B PYCCKOH. rpaHcKpHnUHH nonrora B 3aKphiTOM CJIOfe He 0603HaQaeTCH), nanpnvep:

o .. , 41' ,

'j (3HJl), .)j (3YP), .).) (nyp)

...

Bee 3TI1 cnorn Sl8J1SllOTCSI 3aKphIThIMH.

laoaHueM 1

TIpOlJHTal1Te BC11YX cnenyiounte C110fl1.

Onpenernrre orspursre 11 saxpsrrsre (nonrue) CJIOfH.

0- o.,..J .... oj ......... 0 .. oj. D 0.,.1 ",. J ........ ,. ., ' ....... J "

.)j .)J J.J .).) JJ .).) .).) .)? J') .)? J') .J J J .) J.) .).) J .).).) .) ... .).)

,.,.",. " .... ~

Saoanue .Kg 2

CKOIlHpYHTe KaK MOIKHO T04Hee cnezryiounre npOllHCl1 PYKOIlI1CHbIM nolJepKOM pyx'a ()].Ba-TP" pasa). Ilpo-nrraare uanacaanue cnosa.

~':.2oNWtII~NIIoo~ ..... ~st...r!..N1rIIo~P"""AM4111t't3d( "tSlW'"~I/""'''''''~'~~~'''''~~'''''''''''''~'''''~-~~.

~ _j .. <~. ,,_.e:...L.~; J ~_,.~~..::!:: .... ~ ... c: .!.".jw-r'"'"~~_j_

...-!oJ!. t _~. ~ 'w,e -L~ ... _ ... "t. ,./._...L..._J.---4..-J '''-'.....t_LL

, -- ~, .. -:::..:t-...-_e.~ ~...:l_d.:;d.._~:;:::.. ... ~~;;_~2:_~-.:l~_~,r.!..

-'~...-L.. ,g,. " i.""" .. """'" ,,_.t......l.._....t....l..........,_L~ . .....,

. ... .. . . "

::":'~~,,~. _,~ .. ,:!,.,:'..,,--~4-. , ...... :": ~~_~_...:::..:;_._:':~._L~_ ... ~.d.__d...:!-

10

YPOKN22

COrJIaCHhle y (6), u (T), ~ (K), r (M), ~ (if)

B ypoxe NQ 1 roaopanocs 0 IlleCTH 6Y}(Bax apafcxoro arupanrrra, KOTophle He COenHHJIIOTC.R c nocnenyiontaxa 6YKBaMH. Bee OCTIUIhHble 6YKBhl COemIHJi· lOTCH C nocnenyionuoaa nOepeJl,CTBOM COeJl,HHHTeJILHLIX QepT01:feK.

1. COrJIaCHhIH 3ByK, 0603HaQaeMhlH 6YKBOH y (6a), no CBOen apnu~yJUIUHH 6JIll30K COOTBeTCTByIOmeM)' PYCCKOMY COrJIaCHoMY, 3aHHMaeT cpensee ITOJIO· )f(eHlie MeiK..uy MHfKHM PYCCKHM 3BYKOM, aanpnwep B cnose «rOJI)'6H», Ii rsep.n.LlM PYCCKHM 3BYKOM, nartpavep B C)lOBe «H36a». HaXO.u;ICh B KOHue CJIOBa, apa6cKHM 3BYK He ornyinaerca B ornnsae OT pyccxoro «6», nanpauep B cnone «..uy6», xoropoe npoH3HOCHTe5[ «zryn». Apa6cKHH 3BYK y COOTBeTcTsyeT 3BYKY «fi» B CJIOBaX «fian», «6aw[)). B rpaHcKpHm.,tHH 0603HaQaeTC51 3HaKOM (6).

IV

III

II

I

-.

...J

2. Cornacmrn 3ByK, 0603HaQaeMLlH 6YKBOM ~ (ra), raiose He HMeeT IIap~ HhIX (raepnsrx H MHrKHX) QJOHeM, 3aHHMaeT cpeznree nOJIO)KeHHe Me)K.Il)' MJI:r~ KHM Ii TBep.uhlM PYCCKHM 3BYKOM. OH apraxynapyercs KaK COOTBeTCTByroI.I.J,ll.H PYCCKHH 3ByK «T}) B CJIOBax «TaM)}, (<Tapa». B TpaHCKpHnU.IUI 0603HaQaeTC.R 3HaKOM (T).

IV

III

II

I

3. Cornacasra 3BYK, Ofi03HaQaeMhIH 6YKBOit ~ (Ka~), - He6Hh1H, nanaramnoBaHHhIH. Ilpa ero apTHKYIDlllHH Cpe.llIDUI xacn, Jl3bIKa CMLIKaeTC.R co cpenHUM HefioM Ii orpunaercx OT Hero. 3TO 3BYK 3HeprIfl{HbIH, C HeCKonbKO MJIT- 101M OTreHKOM. ilPOH3HOCHTC9 e He6oJ1bllIHM npH.1lhIXaHHeM. CooTBeTCTByeT PYCCK0M)' «R» B CJIOBaX «KliHO)}, {{KepOCHH}}. B rpaHCKpHIIUHH 0603HaQaeTCjJ 3HaKoM (K).

IV

III

II

I

4. COrJ1aCHhIH 3SyK, 0603HaQaeMhiH 6YKBOH r (MHM), - CMhIQHhli1 ry6HOry6HOH 3BYK. ApTHKYJUllJ.H.R sroro 3BYKa He rpefiyer nanpsxenax. OH 3aHHMaer cpenuee nOJIO)l(eHHe Me)K.llY MHfKHM Ii Tsep.l(hIM PYCCKHM cornacnsra «M». COOTseTCTsyer 3SYKY «M» B CJIOBaX «MHP», {(MHf». B rparrcxpamraa 0603Ha~ qaeTC}I'3HaKOM (M).

IV

III

II

I

5. Cornacnua 3BYK, 0603HaQaeMLIH 6YKBOH loS (Ha), - cpe.nHeHe6HhIH <ppIU(a'fMBHhIH COHOPHhIH 3BYK. bJUf30K no npoasaomemno K PYCCKOMY <db>, HO npOIl3HOCHTCf{ 60nee anepru-nto. B TpaHcKpHnUHH 0603Haqae-rC.R 3HaKOM (ii).

IV

III

II

I

--

Y)l.apeHHe

1. Ynapenae B apa6cKoM cnoae 06bIlIHO nanaer aa TpeTH" CJIor OT xoaua,

2. B CJlOBaX, B KOTOPblX MMeeTC.R 3aKphITbIH cnor, ynapesae nanaer aa 3TOT cnor. ECJIH 3aKphlTbiM .RBJI.ReTClI nocnezmaa error, TO ynapesae nanaer na rpeTUn CJIor OT KOHua.

3aiJanue Kg 1

DpOllHTaHTe cnezryromae CJlOBa. TIp" lITeHH" nenanre ynapeaae na rperan cnor OT KOHua cnona.

~ ;.s- " "' ..
KaTaMa Ka6ypa .r!~ Jl.a6apa
~ paKH6a :.r~ ,'laKapa ~:; 6apaKa
• "j
~) 8 } ..
Tap aKa KyrH6a ~r.. Hapwzy
. _.
..
w- xaseara ]$) paxaaa W KaMHJl.a
_"
~ ,rI' ,., } ..
MaKapa ..;-O~ ,AaMapa ~~ TapH)zy
..
£ ~J.5 " .. ..
M 6aTaKa KaJa6a )~ 6an,apa
.
,; ' .... "" .- ;' J ,
JJ..t 6a1apa j.r! 6apa3a ~..r. 6apY.lla 3aoaHue.M2

Jlposaraare cnezryionure CJIOBa, nenaa ynapeaae B COOTBeTCTBHH C H3J10- )KeHHbIMH npaBHJIaMH.

12

0:,s-~ ~ -:;s
]aKapaT paKJ:I6aT U Ka6ypaT
'" ) .
~·:15 ~ , .,""
K8Ja6Ta paKH6ra .. -< KaTa61)'
, . . .
. ,J ___ IS. EEiiiI,II
.
, • ""111 #" :..3..; ~"
UJ~ 63Jap1)' fiaKT)'6y M TapaKTH
. .. ,7
~~ " . , ~:,_(~
xaxapra r.J...o:J .llaM)laMa ]aKapTa
)1 ... ,1 • " i1a6py3y ~1..S" Ka,Ja61)' ~.>5J TaKJH6y
J.r.!.
, 3aoaHueM3

Cxonupytrre KaK MO)f(HO rosaee cnenyiouiae nponaca PYKOllHCHhIM noqepKOM PYJ:C~3 (ABa-1pH paaa). Ilpo-nrraare HanHcaHHble CROBa.

,lloJlrue rnacmae 3BYKH a, y, H

BLIwe rosopanocs o 33KphlTLIX AOJIrHX cnorax, Hapsny C 33KphIThIMH J],onrHMH CJIOraMH B apa6cKHX cnOB3X HMelOTCH orxperrsre nonrae enora. OTl<PhITLIH AOJIfHJ1: CJJor COCTom H3 COfJIaCHOrO H nonroro fn3CHOfO. EMU B cnoae HMeeTCH OAH" OTKphITblH .nOJlI'HH CJ10r, TO ynapeaae nanaer na 3TOT CJ10r.

1. )J;OJIrl1H rn3CHblH 3BYK (a) 0603HaQaeTC}{ 6YKBOH: I (anH~) nocne cornacaoro, OrJ13COB3HHoro $3Txoit B rpaHCKpHnUHH 0603HaQaeTCR 3H3KOM (a) C 1.JepT01.JKOH csepxy, nanpassep:

'L,; .- r· )I~
U 6kr3 3apa .n.iipa
. ))
:VL.:,; t1y6apHKY ~1:.4 HyJJ,apy ~'-'.! H3K8.Dy
~ ... J

2. AOJIrHH rn3cHblH 3BYK (y) 0603HaQaeTCH 6YI<BOH .J ~ (yay) nOC]Je co-

rnacaoro, ornacoaanaoro }l.3MMOH. B TpaHcKpI1IIUHH 0603HatIaerCH 3HaKOM (y) (c -repronxoa csepxy), nanpavep:

13

J J. , ,. , " , J ,
~.J~ HaJy5y JJft Ha3YPY JJ~ ifauYpy
J ,. J .. }
, ~_,5
J:..r! 6YAl1pa ~.JJ.: HaJ\YM)' KYrl16a
. , 3. ,UonrHn rnaCHblH 3BYK (11) 0603H3.1.laeTc» 6YKBOH 1./ =>. (lla) nocne cofJIaCHOrO, ornacosanaoro IUICpOH. B -rpaHCKpHTIUHH 0603HaQaeTCH 3Hal(OM (w) (c l£epTOqKOH csepxy),

} }

..r..f-!. HyJl.HPY

ila6HT)'

J J

,.L, ...)"t tiypH.Izy

J J

J..........J i1y6fi.Izy

... ill>

"

J ,

.L _;,..: Ha3H.uy

, ,

Apaficxae rnacasie, KaK KpaTKHe, TaK H nonrne, npHHHMalOT OKpaCKY (OTTeHOK) COCe.l{HHX cornacaux, nasor Gonee 60raThiH BOKaJIH3M, l£eM npaaenerrHhle asnne TPH OCHOBHble rnacaue apaficxoro jJ3blKa.

3UOUH ue .M 1

TIpOqHTaHTe conepxanraeca B )laHHOM paanene cnoaa, nenas YJJ.apeHHe H8 .IlOnfHX OTKpLITbIX cnorax,

3UOUH ue ,Kg 2

CKonHpYHTe }CaK MO)f(HO TOIJHee cnenyroume nponaca (nsa-rpn pasa), Jlpo-rarattre aarmcannoe.

YPOKN23

COfJla.CHLle • (x), J (JI), ~ (H), ,. (XaM3a)

I. Cornacasni 3BYK. 0603HaQaeMhiH 6YKBOH 0 (xa), - <l>PHKaTHBHhIH rnyxoa CBJl301.{HhIH 3BYK. TIpH ero apTMK)'JUllUiH ronocosas meJ1h cnerxa pa30MKH)'Ta, MJIfl<Oe He60 npanonaaro, npoxo.n .llJIJI sosnyxa B nOJlOCTh aoca saxpsrr. ConpHK8Ca1OUl.HnCR C rOJIOCOBbIMH CB1I3KaMH B03.IzyX C03,naeT axycrmecxoe anesarnerme npHAhIXaHIDI. B TpaHcKpHflUHH 0603HaqaeTC}l3HaKoM (x).

IV

III

II

I

+

o

f1pHMephI:

I' h' , ;Ii' •• ~
~J ya6axa ~..l.J H()Jxa6y
. -
... I' " " ,
o~ Tap Ii xa y.;lA xapa6a
"
, , . " " " ....
'-:"~ i1axpy6y ~~ 1axa6a 2.3BYK, 0603HaQaeMhIH 6YKBOfi J (11aM), - nepetJ.HeHefiHbln COHOPHbIH cornacmra. Ilpa ero apTHKynnu'HH KOHI{HK H3blKa npHMblKaeT K aepxnexy PRJzy 3y6oB. OH npoH3HoCHTCR MHfKO, npHMepHo KaK «JI» B CJ10Bax «nea», {(.J1eTO». B HeKOTophIX CROBax 3TOT 3BYK npOH3HOCHTCH TBep.n.o. B qaCTHOCTH, 3TO npoacxomrr, xorna nepen J IUm: nocrre Hero npOH3HOCHTCSl onHH 113 3M<I>aTHt{eCKIiX corrracmrx 3BYKOB (xapaxrepncrnsa TaKHX 3BYKOB naercs HH)J(e). B TaKHX CJlY4aRX J npOH3HOCHTCH npHMepHO KaK «n» B cnose «nuso». B rpaHCKpHnUHH 0603HaqaeTCH 3HaKOM (rr).

IV III II I
J. .l.. J J
TIpHMepbl: ~"'; ]a6ana ~~ yYJlHAa
, ~
r~ HanYMY 6an6ana
.
, r-<J
~ HaMHJlY naKYM 15

3. Cornacaua 3BYK, 0603HaQaeMhli1 6YKBOR ;,; (HYH), no CBoeR apntK)'JUl" UI1I1 6nH30K 3SyKY (H) B cnosax «HOGh», «sera», HO rrpOI13HOCHTClI 60nee anep .. rJ1qHO. B 1paHCKpHnW·fH 0603HaQaeTCR 3HaKOM (H).

IV III II I
. . ~
~ -- ..J
DpMMephl: ;' J". " '"
~j) paayaa 0-''''';': Ha3HHY
,
, " ~
~ 6YHHita . xanasa
".J.j r, ",,.I'
HaKapa J........j Ha68Ja
. 4. COrJIaCHhIH 3SyK, 0603HaQaeMblH 3H3KOM ~ (xasrsa), - rnyxori 83PhlBHOH CBR30QHhIH cornacasra. 06pa3yeTCH rryreu CMbIKaHHH ronocoaux CBH30K 11, nOCJ1e KOPOTKOH naysu, MfHoseHHoro HX p33MbIKaHIDl. B cepenmre M B KOHue cnona npoH3HoCHTC~ KaK nocne nepepsraa B ronoce.

B uasane CJ10Ba xasoa mnnercs C I (anH$OM). B TaKHX cnysasx I (anH$) .RBJIlIeTCH JlHIllb nO)].CTaSKoH (HOCHTeneM) )1)111 XaM3bI. Ecna ornaCOBKaMH xaM" 31>1 lIBJIlIlOTCH $aTXa IillH .ll,aMM3, TO xasna CTaBHTcn Hall i (aJIH$OM). ECJIH or .. naCOBKOH MBJIHeTCH xscpa, TO xaasa MO}{(eT 6bITb Hall aJIliq,OM, HO Game rtnWeTC» nozt HHM. B Tp3HCKpHnUHH xaaaa 0603HaQaeTCH anOCTpoq,OM (').

Harrncanae xaM3bl B aasane cnosa:

F l ".

! ('M) r eM) I ('y) i ('a), aarrpassep:

, ,.... ,
:_Sol 'HpKa6 J51 'axana
• )$
I
, I 'YMHpa
r Y,UuoeHue COrJlaCHLIX .

Y.ll,BOeHHe cornacnoro 0603HaQaeTCH 3HaQKOM .:_ H3a Y.ll,BaHBaeMbIM co .. fnaCHbIM. 3TOT 3HaQOK H33bIBaeTCH «TaW.LUUl» WlH «manna», HanpHMep:

:.t , f#' paTTa6a
;!aKKapa ~)
.. Iii
JJ~ yannana ~ paKKro3
~ "" , " ......
," xappa6a .__.~ ;!axxa5a
y~ . 16

TaHBHHHoe OKOHQaHHe

TpaJlHUliOHHaH apa6CKafl: rpaseaaraxa .neJIHT ace cnoaa na Tpli paspaaa:

HMH, rnaron M qaCTMl.{a. K paspany MMeH OTHOCJlTCSI HMeHa cymeCTBHTeJIhHLIe, rrpnnararerrsnue H q'HCJIlneJIhHhle.

EOJIbllIHHCTBO HMeH "MeeT oxorrsaane (YH), xoropoe 0603HaqaeTCH .QB)'MH .n:aMMaMH ~ Hat!. KOHelfH0l1 corrracxorl. OKOHlfaHHe (YH) Ha3hISaeTCH TaHBHH"hiM (OT cnosa TaHYflH). B PaJroBOPHOH pexa OROH'tJaHRe (YH) same acero He npOH3HOCHTCH.

npHMephl HMeH cymecTBHTeJIbHbIX C TaHBHHHblMH OKOH4aHHRMH:

.. ~ I (' H6H)'H) eLIH '" _ (6HHTYH).nOQb,.neBOl.{Ka
~
.j-!! .
,.
t ~t
:..\ ('a6YH) oren r' ('YMMYH) MaTh ~H4lTOHrH

B apa6CKOM H3hIKe l1MeIOTCJI)lBa YCTOW-tHBhIX 3BYKOCOQeTaHIDl: (ay) H (au). fJIaCHblH 3BYK (a) B JlHqnoHre (an) npoH3HoCHTCH rrpmiepao KaK pyccxoe «a», HanpHMep:

.. • ,. (6aHTyH) AOM .. _, (pai16YH) COMHeHBe
~ ~_)
- .
... ,. ... ,.
i.r!. (HaYMYH).neHb,CyTKH . (HaYMYH) COB (npouecc)
r_J-J Jlnrarypra

6YKBb[ I, cJ H J. eCJI" OHH nHUI)'TCH PH)lOM, npHIDITO CBH3E.ISaTb npyr C LlPY-

rOM, T.e. H306pa)f(aTb na nHCLMe J1HraTypaMH.

Co-reranae ~ H J npHHHTO H30fipa)f(aTh JIHral)'pOH J$. COlJeTaHHe ~ H I npHIDITO H306pa)f(8Th nararypoti L5. COQer8Hl1e J H I npHHJlTO H306pa)f(aTh nararypoa "'l, nanpaxep:

.. ~
wL5 (Karn6YH) OHIIIyuudt, nacarens
. .-
IiS (KaJlfuMYH) cnosa, peqL
::Js (KaJl6YH) cofaxa
. 17

I' JlaBHOe H BTOpOCTenCHHOe yaapenae

ECJUI B CJlOBe HMelOTCSI.QBa J{onrux cnora, TO rnasnoe ynapenue nanaer aa BTOPO" cnor, a sropocreneaaoe - H3 nepBhIH CJIor.

CJIor, na KOTOPblH nanaer rrraaaoe ynapeaze, npOH3HOCHTCH C nOBhIWeHHeM TORa, a cnor, na KOTOPbIH nanaer sropocreneaaoe ynapenae, npOIl3HoCHTelI c nOHfDKeHHeM TOHa.

~ .

Hanpaaep, B CROBe .L .... L:: (yqeHlfl<) HMelOTClI naa nonrnx cnora: O)lHH ~

-.. ..

,nonn-Iii 3aKphIThiH cnor, a npyroa ~ J].onrHH OTKPhlThIH enor. Fnasaoe ynape-

HHe naaaer aa STOPOD (,QonfHH OTKpblTblM) cnor, a aropocreneaaoe - aa rrepShIH (,QonfHH 3aKpbITblii) cnor.

B cnose ;; : ~L5 (T&1 nepenacsrsancs) T310Ke llMelOTCfI nsa )l.OJlrHX cnora:

OJlMH llonfHH OTKphlTblH cnor, Ii npyroa - Jl.OJlrHH 3aKpbITbIH cnor, Fnasnoe ynapenae nanaer na STOpOn (Jl.OnrHH 3aKpblTbIH) error, a uropocreneanoe=-na nepBhlit (llonrHH OTKpbITbIH) cnor.

3aoaHue.Nil 1

Orpa60TaHTenpOH3HomeRHe cnenyiourax enos. Buy-nrre HX .

. ~15 'i~ ,~ 'r~ ,~ ,~i 'ii ,~i

Saoau ue .H!! 2

3aoallue.M! 3

CKonHpYHTe KaK MO)f(HO roxaee cne.l()10111He rtponaca (naa pasa), IlpoxaTame aanacaamre CJlOBa.

18

YPOKN24

COrJl.aCHLle [VliK), t (X), U* (c), t. C)

1. COrJIaCHJ,IH 3ByK, 0603HaQaeMLIll 6YKBOH (!. (JOKHM), - nepe.1lHeHe6HaJI 3BOHl<aR al}ll}lpm<aTa. COCTOHT H3 B3phIBHoro 3BOHKoro «n» H41pHKan£BHoro 3BOHKoro «)I(». 3BYK «,lOK» OTHOCIITCn K naJIaTaJlH30BaHHhlM cornacasra. COOTseTCTByeT aHrJIHitcKOM)' [dg] , aanpaxep BCJIOBe «general», B Erarrre 3TOT 3BYK rrpOH3HOCHTCH xax PycClodt 3B)'K «D>. B TpaHcKpHnl..{HH 0603HaQaeTCH 3H3KOM (lDK).

IV III II I

...>r-

.

..>

.

Ilp nsrepta:

.".

J..::.~ ,lJ)KaMHnyH

2. COrJIaCHhI~ 3syK, 0603HaQaeMhlii 6YKBOit t (~a), - 3a.D.HeH~6Hblii rnyMHLIM q,pHKanmHbIH 3BYK. DPM npoasaeceaaa :nor03BYKa H3bIK OTO.ll.BMraerCH aaaan K H3hIlJKY. 3aJlHIDI CITllHKa Jl3hIKa npanoaasra. )l3LPiOK BH6pHpyeT 3Hepraxnee, qeM rrp» aprn.KYJIHUIU1 pyccxoro «x», Apa6cKHH 3ByK npOH3HOCHTCJI 60nee XPHrotO, qeM PYCCKHH «x», B TpaHcKpHnIUiH 0603HalJaeTCJl3HaKOM «x».

IV

III

II

I

.

c:-

.

..>



L

TIpHMepbI:

.". ."

~_,; Tay5H?iYH

20

",I ,

• .. ~Ypuml(VH

~~ ~~ ''_'~'.l

.. ,,"

~ ;s:a6apYH

3. Corrracrrsm 3BYK, 0603HaQaeMblH 6YKBOH sr' (CHH), - nepenHeH~6Hb1H 3a3y6HbIH 4lpHKaTHBHbIH rnyxoa 3SyK. TIPH ero apTHK)'.IUIll.HH ry6bl pacTJIHYTbI. 3BYK 3aHHMaeT cpensee nOJlO)KeHHe Me)f(Jzy MXrKHM H TBep,UbIM PYCCKHM «C», rrpoH3HOCHTCJI KaK «C» BCJlOBax «CaHH}), «CYK». B TpaHcKpHITIJ.HU 0603HaQaeT~ CH 3H3KOM (c).

rv I III II I
~ -- ...uI J.Y
TIpHMepbI: tI • ": 4 • "
~ 2S3MCYH l_ 11 4 M3C.lQKli,lzyH
~
.
.-
4 . .- .. '!I
r..r)~ .n.apCYH ~ CHKKHH)'H
~ M3CK3H)'H ~~ diKHH)'H 4. COrJlaCHbIH 3BYK, 0603HaQaeMbIH 6YKBOii t. (aHH), - ropraaasra CMLlq ..

Hbln BJpbIBHOH 3BOHKHH 3BYK. He HMeeT COOTBeTCTBIDI B PYCCKOM X3blKe. TIp" ero apTHKYJUl1..UIH opraaa pesn H3rrpX)f(eHbI. MhIWl.{bI ropraaa MOTHO CMhIKalOTCJI H MfHOBeHHO paa MhI KaJOTCX. B TpaHcKpHnUHH 0603HaQaeTCJI 3Ha .. KOM C).

IV HI I II I
t: ........ ~ t
Ilpuu epsr: .- , .- .- .- .-
~.) pa,n>Ka~a ~ ~a6apa
'!I .. l .- "
~ MY' 3JlJIHMYH ~ T3Ma' 'YH)'H
• ~
r-4 'KTlM)'H KY"H6a
.
tl~J .; " " ..
ya,na'YH .. racavapa
r II ,
~
r~ Ma'nYMYH Saoanue J(g 1

Ilposaranre npaaenemure BMIlIe npHMepbI.

21

3aoanueM2

Ilposaraare cnenyroume CJlOBa, ofipama» BHHMaHHe aa npaaansayio apra-

xynsumo 3BYKOB.

3aoanue.IiD 3

Cxormpyare KaK MO)KHO roxnee cnenyiomae rrponaca (nsa pasa). IlpoxaTaHTe aanacaaasre CJlOBa.

_'1c! e," <II (.< .41, < , L <~ ..... 1! .t < 1J L« , .

e:.-;.Ai ~~ (~ . .c'f ch Lt:::, ~ .:If p.,e &

,::~:: t~ d ~ ~?t:f 't( ~ P J: eL

:~:, ::t~ :2:: ' tt:=::: ~ u:::: -- ,2 f);' ~ g:~;& t ...... t u?;:

:K w'~ jG: ~ ~' t.;:f ~ n.::t : fj, : & '.U ~&:& 4 j;2 Q. ~~. !;;.

~ (. " , ~ , ". ", I 1': e" • < A .u: • , .., .<

,~ u-='-/ k:t: if:;'jJ ~"r;'.' 4 'r:!4 .c--' J::; .~

: ,;,~ ,!% ': 11;:;; 'l:!:: ~2: j;;t:E t: j1

" <

I=' < •

II ,

It. <

tJ-·

11MB cymecrna-rensnoe. POA HMeH cymecTBHTeJILHLIX

HMeHaM cyw;ecTBHTeJlbHbIM B apaticxoa .5I3hIKe npHcYW;H CJJe.lzylOIUHe rpasoaaraxecxne xareropan: POA, lfHCJlO, nanex, COCTO.HHHe (onpe.neJIeHHOCTH HJU1 Heonpe.neJIeHHOCTH).

22

Ba:>KHhIM npH3HaKOM HMeHH cyinecraarensnoro 5IBnHeTC5I xareropas pona.

B apa6clwM R3hIKe ecrs naa pona: MY)f(CKOH 11 iKeHCKHit B OTnH'·IHe OT PYCCKoro R3bIKa B HeM HeT HMeH CYllleCTBHTenhHLIX cpeznrero porta. - B TO )f(e BpeMJI B HeM HMeJOTCR HMeHa cyutecraarensasre, xoropsre MOryT ynorpefinsrsca KaK B MY>KCKOM, TaR 11 B >KeHCKOM pone (TaKMX enos HeMHoro).

fpaMMaTlf'-leCKHM npM3HaKOM HMeH cymecraarem.mrx )J(eHCKoro pona 06hIQHO lIBmleTCH OROlflIaHHe (-aryH). fpa<plf4eCKOe H306pa)J(eHl1e sroro

... ...... '"

OKOfNaHWI i IDIl:! ~. 3Ta 6YKoa - rpa$KQeCKHH BapHaHT 6YKBhI w. Ee Ha-

ssrsaror «ra M3p5Y'r3», T.e. «ra CB.R3aHH3R» B orrnorae OT «ra MaM.uy.ua», T.e. «ranonras», OHa 0603HallaeT TOT)I(e 3SyK, -rro 11 u. 51smulcb OKOlf4aHMeM, i «ra MapGYTID) MO)KeT HMeTb COe.ll,HHeHHe C .upyrHMH 6YKS3MH 1111Wh cnpasa (L) lUUI He HMeTh coenHHeHHA: o.

DpHMepbI HMeH cyutecranrensmrx )KeHCKOro porta:

.. "I' i) ~ : .. '! " "
~~ llIKa~ aBTOM061:fJ1b ..:,_; ..LA ropo,lJ,
- , Orcyrcrsae OKOHl.IaHIDI i (-aryH) B 60JIbWHHCTse cnyxaea lIBJHleTCH npH- 3HaKOM HMeHH cytuecratrrensaoro MY)f{CKOrO pozia:

:_'G ~ pa6oTa.TPYJl .. 8" I
.llBeph w - KHHra
. . . , OnHaKO B apa6CKO~ 1I3blKe ecrs HMeHa cyutecrmrremaure, He HMelOlllHe OKO}{l-laHlUl '0, HO HSJlRlOIUHeCH HMeHaMH )l(eHCKOro pona. TaKoRbI, B qaCTHO·

CTH, HMeHa:
I~ 1110% II ~ • I IcecTpa ~ ~l I MaTb
~, .. ,
r K HX lIHCrry OTHOClITCH TaK>Ke HMeHa, 0603HatIalOrn.He napasre tIaCTH lIeJ1OSeqeCKOrO Tena:

~ . ". " .
~ rl133 J_;;..J aora
" • I ~ .-
~~I YXO ...u PYKa a TaK)l(e C]JOBO ~ I"'~ «..o;OM, 3..o;aHHe» H nexoropsre npyrne.

Hap:JI)1J' C 3THM ecrs nexoropue HMeHa cyutecraarensnsre, HMelOll1.He OKOHtIaHHe i, HO :JIBJUllOll1.HeCH CJ10BaMH MY)l(CKOrO pona, nanpnaep:

..... . , L~
o...L...J:. crapoera (8 nepesae) 60J1bWOH 3HaTOK, yqeHbIH 23

3aoanue

Ilepenmnare II ornacyare cnenyiomae cnona. Y xaxare HX rpaMMaTWleeKIIH PO.Q. Bsrysare HX.

..

.~ ,)~ ,~I ~4.-JL.. ,u~ ,~I,;.> 'b)~ ,~..L.o

IIpaBHJla Y.llapeHHH

OT HMeH cyutecraarensaax MY)KCKOrO pona, B qaeTHOCTH 0603HaqalOI.IJ.ID( npcipeccmo senoaesa ImH pon ero 3 aIDITHit , MOryI' 6b1Tb 06pa30BaHbI HMeHa cymecraarensuue )f{eHeKOro pona e .no6aBneHHeM OKOlfllaHIDI i. B 3TOM eny .. sae B HMeHaX cymecraarensnsrx )f{eHCKOro pona 6y,neT na OJU1H error 60JIbWe, qeM B COOTBeTCTByrow.eM HMeHH eYlll.eCTBHTenbHOM M)')f{CKOrO pona, H npo .. H30H,ueT nepesoc y.n3peHIDI.

~ .,. ' .. J

Hanpaaep, B :n .. o~: F «ysnrens» ynapeaae rraaaer na 1peTHH cnor OT

KOHl.{a. B cnose j 0 L.,,_. <<ytlHTenbHHll,a» Y.D.apeHHe, T310Ke nanas aa rperaa

.,. ' .. J

error OT KOHua, nepeHOCIITCR -- cpasrrurensao CO enOBOM : 1 : ~ -- na cne ..

.,. '" r--

JzyIOW.HH error, B cnoae ~~ «pa601.JHi1» YJIapeHHe nanaer na J],onrHH cnor.

"'.;. - ""

B cnoae ~ W;. na .ll.onndt error nanaer aropocrenenaoe ynapeaae, a rJ1aBHOe

ynapenae n~.naeT na cne.lzylOlll.HH xpaTKHH OTKpblThIH cnor. B cnose ~

.,. ~;.-'"

«6H6nHOTeKa» s OTJIWIHe OT cnosa ~«6IOPO, Ka6HHeT, fIHCbMeHHhlff

CTOn}) aropocreneuaoe ynapeaae rranaer aa 3aKphlTblH error, a rnasnoe ynape .. HHe - na cJJe.LzylOll.{Illi sa HHM KpaTKHH OTKpblTbIH C11or.

3aoanue .Nk 1

06p33yfire HMeHa cyutecmarensaue )l(eHCKOro porta OT cnenyromax HMeH cymecrsarensasrx My»(CKoro pona, TIpOlJHTaIhe HX, cofimonaa npanana nepenoca Y JtapeHHJI B cnoaax )KeHCJ(Oro pOJ],a.

~W; yqeHblH .,. , .. J
~).J.A npeno.nasaTeJIh
~r ." ,
rraccaactp wLS' nHwYU.\HH, rracarens
. .- ) • .-
~n H.!l)'lUHH ~rJ KoppecnOH.neHT
. .- .. .;-4
; ~~
~ Y1.JHTeJIh pa60lJHH 24

3aoaHue.M! 2

Csonapynre KaK MO)f{HO rosnee cneJIYlOWHe nponncn (nsa-rpa pasa). IlpolJHTalfre nanacamnre cnosa.

it < 0«

Y a' u< .< "L~ < -" < <
4.-:1,,( - ~ ..
(...J - ·-6 ... C\..:.... _._.. 4.- ~
, > .. , t.:: ~I; :; W ::;:,. ~ ?:; ,-:-;1 f1 ~.~ ~c; L2;~~, U2~ a:~ ~ ¢ t~ !;ZL ;:.c:. ~ J;~ '-~ I~ j;?c ~t

Ilpoeroe nepacnpocrpanenaoe HMeHHoe rrpennoacenae

ilpeJUIO)KeHHe, B KOTOPOM cxasyestoe supaxeao HMeHeM cyinecrnaremHhIM (HJIH npHJIaraTeJIhHbIM), Ha3hIBaeTCH HMeHHhIM. npeJlJIO)f{eHIDI rana: «3TO .nOM», «3TO 6H6JIHOTeKID) - .sIOJlIDOTC.sI HMeHHhIMH. B PYCCKOM .sI3hIKe nO.llJle)f{aUJ.HM B TaKoro pona npe)l)IO)KeHIDIX HBIDIeTCH' YK33aTeJIhHOe MeCTOHMeHl1e cpenaero pona ({3TO)}. B apa6CKOM H3bIKe pon yxaaarensuoro MeCTOHMeHIDI «:lTO» MeIDIeTCSI B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT pona HMeHH, JlBJUIIOmerOCH CKa- 3yeMbIM npennoxenas. ECJIH csasyexoe asrpazceno HMeHeM )l(eHCKOfO pO)l.a. TO yxasarensnoe MeCTOHMeHHe «oro» 6yneT )l(eHCKOro pona,

YKa3aTeJJbHOe MeCTOHMeHHe M)'J:KCKOro poza 1:U (3TO, 3TOT) npOH3HOCHTCH C ynapenaex aa rrepaou errore, 3TOT C1Ior CtIH'raeTClI lIOnrHM H npOH3- HOCIITCH npOTH)I(HO. fpati>HtleCKH 3TO aaorna 0603HaQalOT aa nHCbMe ornacosKOM (<!>aTXa), xoropas CTaOlITC)J He HaKJIOHHO, a BepTHKaJIbHO Ha.n. 6YKBOH b:

I'" , J..II.

YKa33TeJ1hHOe MeCTOHMeHHe )l(eHCKOro poza b.u. (3TO, 3Ta) raiose npOH3-

",.;

HOCHTCR C ynapeHHeM na nepBOM errore, npOT)J)I(HO. B 3TOM cnose T3}OKe HHO-

• I

rna CTaBHT <!>aTXY Han b BepTHKaJIhHO: ~fA'

Fnaron-caasxa «ecrs» B raxoro pona npeAJIO)f(eHWIX oTCyrCTByeT. liMeHHhIe npeMO)KeHIDI, KaK H sooouie nOBeCTBOBaTeJlbHhle npennoxenax, npOH3HOCllTCSI C nOHH)I(eHHeM TOHa B KOHue npeJUIO)KeHIDI.

TIpHMepLI HMeHHbIX np enno acerrait:

i~~~" • I ~ .'". 1:U
b~ 3To aBTOMo6lUIh. ~ 3To )lOM.
.... IIi4 .. 25

""_.,. _, . \

"0 J....J ..> o.u 3TO raaera.

;...,;--. " ...

.. -:of-" \"; '..

~ ..- 3TO flHChMeHHhIH CTO]] .

.

-: ,I-:r- \'i'..

_ ~ ..- 31'0 KHHra.

Ilonneacauree B TaKoro rnna HMeHHbIX npellJIO)KeHIDIX CTaBHTCH na rrepsoe MeCTO, cK83yeMoe ~- Ha BTopoe.

Bonpocarem.mae npennoscenaa

Tpanauaoaaas apa6CKa51 rpaMM8THKa neJIHT cyniecraarensmre aa «P83YMHbIC», T.e. 0603HalJalOUme moneH, H «Hep83YMHble», r.e, 0603HaQaroUl,He npenMeThl, HBJIeHIiJI 11 )KHBOTHbIX.

. ,;

L Bonpoe 0 J1IOMX aanaercs npa nOMolU11 MeCTOHMeHWI ~ (KTO) H crpo-

HTC~ B 3aSHCHMOCTH OT pona HMeHH cymecTBHTeJIbHOrO, KOTOPbIM Bhlpa)f(eHO csaayevoe.

, 'f,l
.... " 1:U (;' I'" ' • .,. . , <;' ,.- • ,
wi • .J..jJ) ~ Kro 3TO?3TO oren. rl o~ .o...l.tl ~ KTO 3TO? 31'0 MaTh.
. " " 2. Bonpoc 0 ({Hepa3YMHhIX» aanaercs npH nOMOmH MeCTOHMeHIDl ~ (xro) H raiose cTpOl1Te1!. B 3aBHCHMoeTH OT pona HMeHH cYlUecTBHTeJ1bHOrO, KOTOpbIM astpaxceuo cxaayevoe:

:;: .. : 1 .... ;. -;. n.·' .... i. '-... I"

..-' .,.._ U GTO 3TO? 3To Jl.OM.

~ o~ 1=li L.:o tITO 3TO? 31'06H6JlHoTcKa.

3. Bonpocu «Hro 3neCh? qTO TaM?» 3a,UaJOTC51 rtpa nOMotUM nonpocirrensitoro MeCToHMeHWI ~ I~Co (4TO?), narrpaxep:

:_'8 G W (;L:'o
~ lITO anecs? 3neeb KHlira .
. .-
..... .- ~G 1~G I~L:'o
~...l.I~ LITO TaM? TaM raaera. I1HToHaUHJI B TaKHX BonpOCHTeJIhHblX npe,lIJlO)KeHHJlX - nOHWKaiOlURRCH K KO H ny n penn OIKeHl15L

3a()OHueM 1

OTpa6oTaHTe npoasnoureune cnenyiounrx enos, BbIY4HTe KX .

. ~w .u, ,~ ,~ j~.L~ ,~,I';~ .u ,oli ,!:.u

26

3aoallue .M 2

IIpe,rJ;Jlo*eHHH ,l{JIH '1TeH"H

.~ oJ.. <lo..u. ~

.

~

.is; ... ;I o..u. <lo..l.. l.A

. '-'~ ~l.a <l~L.a 1~l.A

. .

.,-,L::5 ~L.a <l~L.a I~Lo

.

. '0 J.:I: o..u, ~ o.a ,:_,.o

~

I . ~ .

'j oJA . ooa ,:_,.o



.~I 0.1. ~o.l.. ,jA

.~ oJ.. ~oJ... ~ . ~L> oJ.. ~ oJ... ,:_,.o

.~ oJ.,. ~o..u. ~

CJ10Baph

.~ I'>" ~1.1.. L.o

- .

.~ IJA ~1.lA. l.o

.

.iJ..,...r: La 1l.a l~l.o .A,jlj- La \la I~l..o . ~ !.lA. llJ. ~

"

.yl 1..iA \I..u. 0A

~

.tI 1J,.11~ ~

. r-" I..u. <1 1.1. w-o .JL> 1..iA \1.1\ VA

'0-:'1 1.1b \1..iA :.r

J.~ ",. ., ;< ~
i .).:I. 6 a6YllIKa ~I ,UIIBaH, co<pa
~
4 :II ..-
.. ..-
~ J))IJl)I (CO CTOPOHbI orua) .).:I. ,ll,e,ll" nezymxa
.. " "
...
JL> JlHJljI (CO CTOPOHbl MaTepH) . I 6paT
C.
,0" " t ~ <#'
~L> TeTKa (CO CTOPOHbI MarepH) .._... TeTKa (CO CTOPOHhI orua) 27

3aoauue J(g 1

Ilposaratire H nepeaezmre npeJUlOlKeHIDI JUlSI qreHHSI.

3aoauueM2

CKonHPYHTe KaK MO)l(HO ro-mee cneJlY10111He nponaca, Ilpo-nrraare nanncaanoe.

< fI~·.L <,eZ ,e <I < <

::>- 7 7

YPOKN!5

Cor J1aCHhIC C (l), 4J'f' (C), j, (T), J (I})

1. COfJIaCHblH 3SyK, 0603HaQaeMhIH 6YKBOH C (xa), ~ 3esHbIH q,pHKaTHBHb"lH mYMHbIH rnyxoa 3BYK. Ilpa ero apTHKyIDIl.{HH MhllllUbI ropraaa nanpsraIOTCH H CHJlhHO cyaoraarorca. fOJIOCOBhle CBH3KH He BH6pHpyroT. 3SYK ofipaayeTCH B pesynsrare BhI.l{hIXaHIDI B03JlYXa sepea 06p8.30BaBmyIOCH mens (A.A.Koeanee, F'Lll.Illaptiamoe. TaM IKe. C.66--67). B rpaacxparmaa 0603HaQaeTCH 3HaKOM (x) (c TOt{KOH non 6YKBOH).

IV

III

II

I

npHMepbl:

t:J:...,. ~HKMaTYH -J~ ca6H~H
.. ~
~ M~KaMa1)'H W J:(a6nyH
"" ~,., .. ~ . ,
W Ha66a~YH Yr; ~ M~6y6YH

.. ~ '" .. '"
) .- ~HMapYH e:-o MaCaJ:(a
~ .... ,Q
f1~ MH~6apaTYH 2. COrJIaCHhIH 3SyK, 0603HaQaeMhIH 6YKBOH ~ (ca.n), npOH3HOCllTCH C noBbIllleHHbIM Hanp~DKeHHeM opranoa pexenoro armapara. TaKHe 3ByKl1 npHIDITO nassmars 3MtiJaTH"IeCKHMH. ITpH apruxynauzn 3BYKa t,J' 33Jl.IDDI lfaCTh H3hIKa nOLlHHMaeTCH K MHrKOM)' He6y, a KOHllHK H3bIKa cTpeMHTcH 3aIDITh TO )J(e noJIO)l(eHHe, 'lJTO H npa npOH3HeceHHH 3BYKa sr": KOl{qI1K H3blKa npa 3TOM HeeKOJIbKO CMemaeTCH BO BH)TpeHH1OIO nonocrs pra, npHMepHOe npe.L(CTaBJIeHHe 06 3TOM 3BYKe MO)f(HO norryxars, eCJ1H OtteHb HanpH)I{eHHO H 01phIBHCTO npoH3HeeTH pyccxoe CJIOBO {(ChITbD> (Elll.Iliapiiamoe. COBpeMeHHhIH apa6cKHH H3bIK. M., 1961. C. 14). BCJIenCTBlie HanpJDKeHIDl opraaos pesesoro armapara cocemrae C 3MQ>aTH1IeCKHM cornacmru 3ByKH rrpOH3HOCHTe)1 60JIee nartpsxeaHO, 'lJeM 06hl'lJHO. B TpaHcKpHIIUHH 0603HaQaeTCH 3HaKOM (I;) (c TO'lJKOH non 6YKBOU).

29

IV

III

II

TIpHMephI:

.- ~ ~
.)?~ r;Y)lHpa Myx.rIHr;yH
~ .- .. ~ -: .-
J·o ,0 MHc,::a.rw:yH ~ ,O.,._j 'raxaccycya
.-
.. t" '" .. . .-
~ T~armyyYH ~ r;a6pYH
.. " toI "" It 1
~L> Kar;r;yH . Hr;6a'YH
~~
t " • :rJj.
A , , ~ c,::H6HaTYH KarIar;a
_ . .,.
.. , 0 '" ... , 0 I
,).J ,.a..4 Mac,::.napYH IJ"'L 0:- > 'HKTHr;ar;YH
... ~ 3. COrJIaCHhlH 3BYK, 0603HaQaeMhiH 6YKBOH 1, (ra), - 3M¢aTWIeCKHit 3TO nepe.1lHeHe6HhIH 3a3y6HhIH CMbIqHhIHillYMHhIH rnyxoa 3ByK. Ilpa ero apTHK)'JIlIUHH 3a.1lIDUI xacrs H3hIKa nO.l1.HHMaeTCJl K MJlrKoMY He6y, a KOHlIHK Jl3bIKa cTpeMHTC5I 3aHJlTb TO iKe nOJIO)KeHHe, qTO H npM nponaneceanu 3BYKa ~. CDCe.l1.HHe c cornaCHbiM .1 3BYKH npOH3HOC5ITC5I 60nee Hanp5l)KeHHO, lleM 06hIllHO. B TpaHCKpHIIUHH 0603HaQaeTCH 3HaKOM (r) (c TOlll<OH nO.1l6YKBOH).

IV

III

II

I

....b...

Ilp awepsr:

'!I~ ..
THptbYH .1.:..~ yaCa1YH
.) .,.
1,~ .... ::ii,J
Marra1YH ~~ MYTfapH,nyH
~~ " ...
yacaTHRHyH ~ Tana6a
M '"
.- i~~L1.:.,
0L1~ cap ar3H)' H MYrapanaryH
p ..
TH6nyH h . t ~'I CaJIHT)'H
~
M ..
.. "
~ ~~
MYTH'YH TayiinYH
.. 4. Comacnsra 3BYK, 0603HaQaeMbIH 6YKBOH J (~a<l», - rny60K03a,llHeHe6- FlblH WYMHbIH B3PbIBHOH rnyxoii corrtacnsra, Ilpa ero apTHKYlliIUHH 3a,llIDl5l qaCTh 1I3blKa OTOJI.BHfaeTClI H83a.n H asepx, BfIJIOTH)'lO rrpHMhIKIDI K 3a.l1.Hei1 xacTH MHfKoro He6a nan H3bl1.{KOM. DPH npOl13HeceHHH 3BYKa (1:<) Jl3hIK pe3KO OT-

30

psrsaercs OT MHrKOrO He6a. Bees peseaoti annapar aanpazes. B TpaHCKpMTIUMH 0603HaqaeTCJI 3HaKOM (t<) (C TOl{KOlt non 6YKBOn).

IV

III

I

II

.. ..... 0

J \ , pO; "/ I 'HCTH~6fuJyH

. .,. !

* "' .. "I

,o""J 'a6al;<a

v-.

.. ~

,';.........ji 'aHH~H

V-"-,,

""'1. -!.. 6 ~ ISY WIa

"

..

J:,J

HalSana

3adallue M 1

Ilpoxaranre cnezryiomae cnosa, o6pawaH BHHMaHHe aa npaBH.1IhH)'lO aprnKYJUJWDO COnOCTaBJUleMLIX 3BYKOB.

3aoaHueM2

caaasre CJTOBa.

Cxonnpyare KaK MO)l{HO To:qHee cnenyroinae nponaca. Ilpo-nrratrre nann-

J4!f;:::? *;Q'~. ZE:i, P,t,e :e: :at CE+~ t2 ~t' .. ~ c:&t t1:

31

::::;~ i;:;l$; ~!::e ;e ~ft. Sk Ji; :::::::::":~~ .. :~:; ~" .t:;::; "" tr;:!:~ : ::: .. ,j1! ~"JE" ZJ:;r :cr -+ .i a ZI£2 Q:r;:;;:UL &l,j1<k JX ~';i; :or ¥ - d~' ~:;~2 _. ~i:!:'! c.e - ~ Jil

--:: (~k - 0-;;;!e c:.f>; -$;.,;' ~,

~:: -~" ~ -~~:: "J::?P-;~

'.. . G A ,(.u A Q('" q . ." < ",8' Sf R,"

-. U:::":. ~ -. '.J.;=-! .. ,. tJ:::!:~. - ... ~

",:"~.13 i~~ - c;.J "cXi.' ~u4!Jp~~'

:..,tV · G;::!: - ;;;;:;;; ;w - ~ · .~:u1."". : " .. $;f ::- ":s:-:~;r,, c:·~: :;~,:~.s;:;~g:~~ "" ~".

~if u • ~ ~ " " a ~ < tf ::8

q;= - t!)r; \; :. =: - ~ t!t .:1- ~ .G:2i .

" : 'ct::" - rJ<: t;~"':.~: ·"tl>1e -7 ~">t;

- lPau - ();,,\t "t;J; -<C:tt " ~ - tl< : : 2J. - (tic :E:: - M :d(:-:::J:~ .~ t:J!f ~;Pt.:::tC! -:;r~ :4_;§l~-, :~ :~~~.··-1 ~ ~.:;..~; ~~ - ~ ~ .

. '----:'; ~e ,.. > -, .. ,. -~~-

32

Onpe,neJIeHHOCTL

H. neertpenenennocrt, H.MeHH.

TaHBHHHoe OKOHtJaHHe ltMeH cywecTBI1TeJIbHbIX (a raiose liMeH npanaraTem~HhIX Ii QHCIIHTeJIbHbIX) lIBJIJleTClI rpaMManrqeCKHM npH3HaKOM HX neonpe.a.eneHHOCTH. fOBOPlI TO~lHee, neonpeneneaaocrs HMeHR 0603HalJaeTClI HMRl.JUeM B TaHBHHHOM OKOWlaHHR COrJIaCHOrO «W), HBJIlIIOIUerOC}I py.nHMeHTOM npesaero HeonpeneneHHoro apTHKJUI (r.lli.lliap6amo8. CospeMeHHbIM apa6- CKHii H3bIl<. M., 1961. C. 37). ,

. ~

rpaMMaTlflIecKHM npH3HaKOM onpenenenaocrx UMeH HB1I1teTClI apTHKJIb J I

('an). APTHKJIb ynorpetinaercs HenOCpe.1lCTBeHHO nepen HMeHeM, K KOTOPOMY OTHOCUTCH, He3aBHCHMO OT pona, ~lHcna 11 rraaesca sroro HMeHH, H nHllIeTCH CmiTHO C HHM.

ITPH npacoenaneaaa apTHK1I11 K HMeHH B aeonpenenenrroa COCTOlIHHH TaHBHHHoe OKOWlaHHe, TOQHee cornacmra «H» sroro OKOWlaHIUI,OTnanaeT. OKOH4aHHeM HMeH B orrpeneneaaoa COCTOHHHH OCTaeTCX (8 HMeHHTeJIbHOM nanexe) KpaTKl!,H 3SyK «y», 0603HaQaeMhIH JlaMMOH ( J).

. ~

APTHKJIh J I Jlo6aS1I11eT HMeHM HOBblH cnor. 3TOT cnor nonysaer BTOpO-

crenenaoe ynapeaae B cnoae, HanpMMep:



.. -:Of"'"

~ KaKOH-TO (Heonpe.lleJIeHHhIH)

nHChMeHHhlH cron

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i J...J__r: xaxas-ro (aeonpene-

neanas) rasera

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~. (onpe.ll.eneHHhIH).nHChMeH·

HhlHCTon

J .~

MO' r • :_ ". t I

.~~ (onpe.ll.eneHHaR)ra3eTa

Cornacasre 3SyKH B apa6CKOM 1I3hIKe neJI}lTCH aa TaK H(l3b1BaeMble «conuesHhle» H «JIYHHhIe).

Corriacasre, 0603HaQaeMhIe 6YKBaMM ~J ..1 ~ r..r' J ~ ~ 0,·- conneuHhle ..

Cornacasrc, 0603HaqaeMhie 5YKBaMH ~ J II r ~ J t. t L ~ y, - .nyH· Hhle.

ECJIM CJIOBO, K KOTOPOMY npacoezntnsercs apraxra, HalJHHaeTCH c COJIHell· nero corrracnoro, TO J apTHKJlX accaaannpyercs C 3THM 3BYKOM. B TaKHX cny-QalIX J apTHK1IH mnuercs, HO He npOH3HOCHTCX., a COJIHe1.JHbIH 3SYK ynnansaercs, liTO na nHCbMe 0603Ha1.JaeTCH 3HaKOM ... (Tauumn) Han 6YKBOH, 0603HaQruomeH :nOT COnHe1.JHhIH cornacasra,

2 - 1767

33

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• ~ ,)..J '* i)~- i)~ r_";'- - i~

ApTHKJIL J I ynoTPe6JlJIeTC1I. C KMeHaMH, 0003HaQalOIUHMH H3BeCTHLIe

npensseru, JIHua HJ1H RBJIeHIDI, IUIH npeznrersr, JIHua H HSJIeHWI, 0 KOTOPLIX yrroMHHaJIOCb panee.

Saoanue .M 1

06pa3YHTe HMeHa cyutecraarem.nue )l{eHCKOro pona OT cnenyioniax HMeH eymccTBHTeJIhHbIX MY}f(eKOrO pona, BLIyqHTe HX .

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y<IHTeJ1b IJ""JJ..A npenonasarens Saoanue ,Kg 2

Ilepesenare na apa6eKHH 1I3bIK CJIe.n:yIOIUHe cnoaa, narnnnare HX B Heonpenenemrov H onpeneneanou COCTOllHIDIX. OrJIaCYHTe me

Fopon, aBTOM06HJlh. lllKa<p, KHHra, rasera, yseaaua, naccazorpxa, crynerrrxa, nncarens, xoppecrronnear, .nOM, crynerrr,

JIH'IHhle MeCTOHMeHHH B e}l,HHCTBeHHOM qHCJle

OHa

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11 (AJUI M.p. 11 IK.p.)

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Paaee roaopanocs, qTO sonpoc 0 JIlOMX sanaercs npn nOMOlUH MeCTOHMe-

o ...

HIDI ,:.,-0;

~ r:u ~ KTt) 3TO? (0 MY)I(l{HHe)

\~,li::;O KTO 3TO? (0 )KeHJJJ.HHe)

34

EeRM pex), H,neT 0 npooeccaa 1.IeJ10BeKa HRH pone ero nesrern.nocrn, TO sonpoc CrpOHTCSI CJIeJzylOlUHM 06P330M:

I ~~·~IKTOOH?

TIpHMephI:

~. ' ~I ,"i -;,. r» •. \."i -;,. .•.• .....0 ..

- --'.....- v- KTO oro? 3To oreu,

'>Il

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i:.Ju, ui ~~i '." KTO Tht? 51: CTYJleHTKa .

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,

COIJHHHTeJIbHhlii: COlOl .J

COlO3 J (M, a) CB.sI3hIBaeT Me)f(Izy c060n KaK O.QHOpO.l(Hl>Ie 'IJIeH.hJ npennoxeHWI, TaK H npe)lJIo)KeHIDI B cocrase CJImKHOCOl{HHem'IhIX npe)l)lO)l(eHHH. OH ruunercs BMeCTe co cnOBOM, xoropoe aa HHMCne,n:yeT, aarrpauep:

~:;, ~ "'" 't .... ~ " J, ~ .,or" 'iii' ,.,

o~J ~ ~Li..A ~~lli,j-A KTO TaM? TaM .ne.nyuIl<a H 6a6YWKa.

Ilpa nepexacneuaa O.I1.HOPOJlHbIX qneHOB npeJ])IO>KeHI1Jl B apa6cKOM ssstxe scerna ynOTpe6JIReTCn 3TOT C0103, KaK 6bl 3aMeIDUl yucrpetinseasre B PYCCKOM assixe sanarue, nanpauep:

~" '>I '>I l.J .. }.

o"~J. ~Jr I) c ~ eJ li.A TaM l101.lh, MaTh, ne.nyuum H 6a6yunm.

C0103 J BbIfTOJIIDleT Ii paszenarenstryro pons. Kpoue Taro, 3THM COlO3QM aasacryro HatIHHalOTCf{ HOBhIe cauocrosremusre npe.D.JIO)l(eHIDL

IIpe)l,Jlo~eHHR )l,JJR qTeHHR

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J YlfHTeJIh, npodieccop

Saoanue M 1

Ilpoaaraare H nepeaeznrre npeD.JIOlKeHIDI .n;Ul 'lTeHWI.

3aoall ue .Ml 2

TIpol"Il1TaHTe cnenyiouure CJ10Ba c TaHBHHHhIMH OKOWlaHIDIMH H 6e3 HHX.

,~~.Mlw.u ,~ ,~ ,~ ,u..,~ ,J.-o~ 14..NJM ,yL:.5 .~Lb ,~1J, ,~J: , 4) 'IJ""J...: 'A '~JJ...o

3aoanueM3

Ilpo-nrraare cnezryrounre cnosa, ofipauias BHHMaHHe na apraxynaumo corrOCTaBJI.ReMhIX 3BYKOB.

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36

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Saoanue J(g 4

Cxorrapyirre KaK MO)KHO TOL(Hee cnezryiourae rrponacu. Ilpoxararire aanncaanoe.

~t -u ,:~l .; :';1: c:~;rtt _; "~~

:: tn: "~" ::J!J': ~:I;' tQt:~: t:b-~ := :' .!qr: ::Z~: l2~ ;;e;;;_ tt I;: Q \k :,~:~ ~,', <;;;;1 c.:.;i Cj:tt;:. ~:~:

!J'~t }!"rw'it;;e ,t.;..:;..: :;;;:: 'j:~l

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Saoanue J(g 5

CJIeJl.YJOlllHe HMeHa cyuiecrsarem.asre aamnnnre B onpeaeneaaoa coCTOHHHH. TIPOqHTaMTe me, ztenax ynapeune B COOTBeTCTBHH C H3BeCTHhIMH npa-

BHJIaMH.

..• a

~~

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37

3aouHue.M 6

YPOK.N26

COrJIaCHhle tP (m), t (r), J (~)

COrJIaCHbIH 3BYK, 0603Hal.£aeMblH 6YKBOH r.P (IlIHH), - nepe)l,HeHe6HbIH cppHKan1BHbIH rnyMHblH rJI)'XOH cornacuus. TIPH ero apTHK)'IDIUHH KOWlHK H3hIKa npH6J1H)KaeTCH K nepeznreay He6y, a Cpe.D.HJHI xacrs COHHKH fl3bIKa npnnO)lHHMaeTcn K cpe.uHeMY He6y. Yrorrxa ry6 HeCKOflhKO OTTnn{B3IOTCH naaan (A.A.KoBa.!lee, T'Lll.Lllaptiamoe. TaM )f(e. C. 32). Apa6cKHH 3BYK HanOMHHaeT MHr}(Oe PyccKoe «1lI». B rpancxpanuaa 0603Ha"IaeTC5I 3HaKOM (ill). 3TOT corJIaCHblH -. COJIHeqHI,lit

IV

III

II

I

-

--

Ilpnsrepu:

.... ';" ;"

~ fiatuapyn

... :./ '"

~ ).J yaparuYH

,I t C.o" " ......

~ m3K.1lYH

~,,, ..,

b~ mazosaparyn

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loW v: ..

ntapnnyn

2. Cornacaun 3SYK, 0603HaQaeMhIH 6YKBoi1 t. (raan), -. rny6oK03a)1.HeHe6- HbIH <ppHKaTHBHbIH rnyMHbIH 3BOHKHH 3BYK. CooTBeTcTBIDI B PYCCKOM 513bIKe He l1MeeT. TIp" ero apruxynxuaa 3anH.HH xacn. H3blKa nO,O,HHMaeTCH K 3MHeMY He6y, C6Jut/RanCh C H3hJQKOM. B rpaHCKpHnUHl1 0603HaQaeTCH 3HaKOM (r). 3TOT cornacnua .-. JIYHHhIH.

IV

II

III

I

.

t:

t

ITp 1:1 M cpu:

,00 ,. ti_;
)J..l:. ranpyH t· 6anaryH
J.l; "". I) ...
Tayarrana Jjl rasnyu 39

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~~ )],3MraT)'H f3HaMYH
" ., , " ., "
~ cyrpya "-:-'~ Manm6YH
" ", ~ ., .... '
I..:-I-r rapA6YH &~ .na6ryH
J1 j-:;: TaraJI{'aJ1a ~ t: .. ;' Marcan3ryH
. " ....
..... ~ _.....~. ......- 3. Cornacnsra 3BYK, 0603HaQaeMhiH 6)'KBOH J (cpa), - ry6Ho~3y6HOH: CPPHKanmH1IH IIIyMHbIH: rnyxoil 3BYK. COOTBeTCTByer 3BYX)' (<p) B cnosax «41apa», «4>aKen». B Tp3HCKpHJUurn 0603HaqaeTC~ 3HaKOM (cp). ::nOT COfJIaCHhlH - JI)'IDIbIit

IV III I II I
, . .
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npHMepLI: ~ 'J , ..
CPWVKJIYH ~ 93<}l<PYH
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~.;J <jJYP931)'H .. I! ... --.. TaKHH<pYH
.. -
,
JiU cpy mt>ynyH 3aOOHue }{g 1

TIpot{HTaHTe cnenyronrae CJIOBa, o6parua.sr BHHMaHHe aa npaBH1IhHYlO apra-

KY mllUno conOCTaBJIHeMLlX lOYKOD.

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CKOITHPYHTe cnenyroume npormca. Ilpo-nrraare aanacanmae CJIOBa.

.. - . .

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40

f':~a;:j;Zi::~; t2rb~; 'E:i::~~:::~:~;t ~+£ t .:.:~:: ~:~(1:J ,: '!: ,i. ~ Q #.j::ot .:~: :iJ~t:::~,~:;.:,,~;;r-:tm;;:~ tp -=:~t- ~::::th§:.~~:~-;r~::~ ::~

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~ .: :~"-lI?Z:::~~, zrt:t:·.zl·1~:·~.il~·:··~

11MB "pHJIaraTeJIhHOe

HMeHaM npWIarareJIhHbIM, KaK H HMeHaM cyutecraarensmra, rrpacynnr rpaserarmrecxne xareropan pona, 1.meJIa, nanesca, COCTOJlHllil (onpeaenenaoCHI H neonpeneneauccnr).

I1MeHa npanararensmre B apa6CKOM R3hIJ<e .neJUlTCH aa naa paspana: K3qeCTBeHHble H OTHOCHTeJlhHble.

Kaxecraeuasre npanararem.rrue 0603Ha1.Ja1OT npH3HaKH, xoropsre MOryr npOHBJIJlThCH B npenaerax, HBJIeHlliIX HJUI nanax B 60JIhllIei1 HJII1 MeHhweH CTeneHH, 0603Ha1.JaTh, HanpHMep, BHeUIHne, qm3H1.JeCKMe, .uyxOBHI:Je xaxecraa, npocrpancmemrsre, BpeMeHH:ble rrpH3HaKH, UBeTa H T.Jl. OHM MOryr H3MeH.RThex no CTeneWIM cpaBHeHWI.

OTHOCHTeJlbHble npanararem.nue B apa6CKOM X3!lIKe 06pa3yroTC.R OT HMeH CYllleCTBHTenbHMX H <pHKCHpYIDT orsoureaae I< npe.llMeTaM, HBJIeHWlM, 0603HaqaeMhIM 3THMH HMeHaMH cyweeTBHTeJIbflhlMH. 3TH npH3HaKH He MelUIlOTCJI, He MOryT npOJlBJIJlThCH B 60JIhllIeil lUIM MeHbruefi CTeneHH.

HMeHa npWIaraTCJIbHble xaxecraemnae

Kopens mo6oro apaticxoro CJ10Ba 06hIQHOCOCTOHT "3 rpex, peace nsyx H1IH xerupex, cornacnsrx 3ByKOB. YenOBHO 3TH cornacnue 3BYKH 0603Ha1.JaIDTCn

6YKBaMH J, t; J. Taxoe 0603HaQeHHe cornacmrx 3BYKOB naer B03MO>KHOCTb npa H3yqeHHH Mop4>0nonUI apa6CI<OfO Jl3b1Ka BhIpa3HTb JUQ6yw q,QPMy CJIOBa

onpezteneasok cxeMOH, liTO B 3HalfHTenLHOH Mepe ofinersaer lITeHHe apa6CKO· ro TeKCTa 6e3 ornaCOBOK.

Kasecraeuasre rrpanararensasre 06paJ)'lOTClI OT KopHen enos no orrpeneneaHbIM cxevaer. Ecna MhI BHHMareJIhHO paccaorpios cneayiomae npanararensrnre:

". ('.-

~ 6onhwoH

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J...J ...\..> HOShlM.

-, .

TO 06HapYJKHM, qTO rrepsaa xopemraa (xopaeaas) BO scex cnyxaxx OnlaCODbI· SaeTC.H lj>aTXoH, BTOpM - IOICPOH c nocne.ll)'lOlll.HM ,UonfHM (11), a TpeTMI "Me .. er TaHBMHHoe OKOWlaHHe. YCJIOBHO 0603HaQMB nepBYJO sopenayto 6YKBOH J, BTOPYID - 6YKBOH c- If rperuo - 6YKBOH J, nenaeM BLISOA, qTO AaHlIhle

c.,_ .. ..

npnnararerrsnsre 06pa3y:toTCH no cxexe ~.

.. .. '"

TIpHMemlB TOT )f(e ycnosasm cnocof K npanararensusne rana r:.r-> (xo-

.. ..

poman), nerraea BbIBO)l., '-:ITO OHM 06Pa3y:toTClI no cxeve ~.

Ynorpe6MTenbHLIMH THrraMH liMeH npanararensasrx KaQeCT}3;eHHlJX HBIDI-

... ." .". ;'

~ ,J..::U If APY-

IOTCR TaK>Ke npanararerrsnue, 06pa30BaHHhle no cxeMaM fMM, nanpaxep:

,. .,,,

...I.-.> XOPOWHH, OTJmllHbJH

- .

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~ _. P TPynHblH

)J{eHCKHH POA KaqeCTBeHHblX nparrararenstrsrx nepeuacnennsrx asnne TH-

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nOB oopasyerca nyrex .no6aaneHWI OKOWIaHWI 0 , sanpaacp:

06 HMeHax npJ1J1araTeJIhHh[X, 0603HaLJaIOllUlX usera, tPH311lJeClme .KaLJeCT~ sa, nexcropsie npyrae npH.3HaKIi npenaeros, HBJIeHMH linn nan, a raxace 0 rrpanararem.rrsrx OTHOCHTeJIhHblX 6YlleT CKa3aHO B !(aJIbHeHIIIeM.

Saoauue

06paJyHTe HMeHa rrpanararensasre )f{eHCKOfO pona OT cnenyrounrx rrpanaraTeJIbHbIX MY)I(CKOrO pona, BhIYl.J:HTe 3TH CJIOBa.

~_,1 ~ ,. . .-
1lJJHHHbIH nerKHH ,. P MaJIeHbKldi
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..u CTapbIH 60J1hlllOH ".I,..;J..> HOBbIH
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J"'.- ~i KOPOTKHH KpaCHBblH t..... ..... P TJlY,UHhlH
- ... . 42

IIp II If aCTHSI

B 3HaqeHHH UMeH npUJIaraTeJlLHLIX

K HMeHaM npanararensmax 6nl13KO npHMbIKaJOT no saasemno H ynorpetineruno npauacras .n.eHcTBHTenbHoro H crpanarerrsnoro sanoroe. npWIaCTH.H MOryr 0603Ha'4aTb npH3HaK npenaera, qaCTWIHO HJ1H nOJlHOCTblO yrpaxaaas rnarom-nue CBoHcTBa. TaKHe npaxacraa He OTJllf4alOTCH OT I1MeH rtpanaraTeJlhHbIX no ynorpetineiuoo B COCTaBe npe)])10>KeHIDI.

npWIaCTHH 06pa3)'IOTCH no HHbIM MoptjJOJIOrUqeCKHM cxeMaM (cpasnareJILHO C UMeHaMH npanararensaauu). 0 HUX 6Y)leT CKa3aHO B llaJIhHellweM.

TIpHMepbl npH1:JaCTHH, 6nH1KHX no 3HaqemnO K HMeHaM npanararensnsns:

.. , 't " ~)~
(~ OTKPbITblH. npo XJIa,uH bIM, XOJ1o..uHbIH
j t »» ~IJ
~ 3aKpbITbIH rrpocropnua, WHPOKHH
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) )l(eHcKHH port OT TaKoro nma npWlaCTHH ofipaayercs nyreM nofiaaneaas

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OKOHlJ.aHlUI b .

Saoauue

06pa3yHTe npasacraa )l(eHCKOro palla OT BblwenepelfHCl1eHHbIX npW-IaCHfH MY)I(CKOrO pona. Bsrysnre 3TH cnosa.

Caepxnonrne CJIOrH

Panee Y)f(e rOBOpHJlOCh 0 KpaTKHX Ii nonrnx cnorax. B apa6CKOM H3hIKe Pa.3JIW.JafOT TaK)I(eCBepmOJ1nle CJlOrH. Caepxnonraaa HSJUIIOTCH cnora, KOropue COCTOHT H3 cornacaoro, nonroro rJIaCHOrO H cornacuoro.

B npaaenennsrx npliMepax np11lfaCTHH caepxnonrreaa HBJlHIOTCH nepBhle

~,. ~.,..

CJIOfH B Cl10Bax ) 1...>, F ~ ,

Ilpasonacanae ,. (xaM3LI) apTHKJIH JI nocne rnacnoro 3BYRa

ECJIH cnosy C apTHKneM J I npenurecrsyer rJIaCHhIH 3ByK, TO xasrsa apnuClUI co CBoeH ornacoexoa He nHweTCH 11 He npOH3HOCHTCH. Ha nHCbMe 3TO o603HatIaeTCH 3HaKOM ~ (sacna), KOTOPblH nam eTCH Han 1 (aJIHq>OM), nanpavep:

43

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~~:~JI l:.u :trOT llOM 60flbllJOH.
• N •
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i~~ i~L;.:J1 ~~ :trOT aBTOM061U1b HOSbIH. •

ECJlH CJIOOY C apTHKJIeM JI nperunecrsyer BonpOCHTeJIbHaH qaCTHu,a ~,

CyKYH :nOH qaCTHUbI MeHHCTCH aa KRCpy, a aJ1H<p apTHKJUI nOJIYl"IaeT 3HaK ~ (sacrra), nanpaaep:

~G ~L.:.SJi ~ KHHra anecs?

Ilpaauna .. TenHR

Ilpa qTeHIUl apaticxoro rexcra B 60nhllIHHCTBe crrynaea He rrpOH3HOCHTCH OKOHLIaHIDI HMeH cymecTBHTeJIhHbIX H npHJIaraTeJIhHbIX lKeHCKoro pona B KOHue npennoxeana 11 BH)''TpH npeanoxeaaa nepen naY30H. He np0113HOCHTCH raxsce, KaK npaanno, KpaTKHe rnacasre 11 TaHBHHHbIe OKOWiaHIDI HMCH M)'IKcxoro pona.

Pacnpocrpanenaoe HMeHHoe npennosceaue

B pacnpocrpaneanou HMCHHOM npe,lVIOlKeHHH KaK rronnescamee, TaK H cxaayesroe MOryT HMeTb CBOH onpeneneuas.

Iloaneseauree MOIKCT 6blTh BbIpa)KeHO JIWIHbIM liJIH YKa3aTeJIbHbIM MeCTOHMem'feM, a TaKJI<e HMeHeM cymecTBHTeJIhHhIM B orrpeneneanoa COCTOHHHH (c apTl1KJIeM JI). RI,p-IHble 11 ysaaarem.asre MeCTOHMeHIDI HBrunoTCH cnOBaMH B onpeaenenaou COCTOHHHH.

CK33yeMoe HMeHHoro npe,lJJIo)J(eHIDI Bhlpa)KeHO HMeHeM CYllleCTBHTeJlbHbIM HJIH npHIIaraTeJIbHbIM. Cxaayevoe, KaK npaaano, cornacyercx C nonne)KalUHM B pone H qHCne, HO pa306meHO C HHM B COCTOHHHH: no.nne)Kalll.eeB onpenenennou COCTOHHHH, cxaayexoe - B neonpeneneusou.

Onpeneneuae, BhIpa}KeHHOe HMeHeM npHJIaraTeJIbHbIM (una npHlIaCTHeM), cornacyerca C onpe)leJ1HeMLIM B pone, 'IUCJ1e, nanesce H COCTOHHU" H CTaSUTCH nocne onpenenaeesoro CJ10Ba, nanpuvep:

oil
~::..;; I~ 3TO KpacHBbIH ,!lOM.
"
e- r :!~'J •• ' 3To npocropnaa KOMHaTa.
~.JJ.J..rb.a
" ,."
oiI..v~ ~u," J OH HOBhIH CTy neirr.
-.,. .. " ~
" .... ",t.I,~.,~"
i~J.:=: 4......)..\.0 ~ OHa HOBM npenonasarensanua.
, - 44

.. J ... ~i
~-r ~wl HOBbJH nHCbMeHHblH CTOll y.n06HblH.
" .
.-
idi~~i ~: ~: ii HOBWI 6H6mlOTeKa 60llbUlrui .
, " . B nepaux qeThIpeX npHMepaX onpenenenae OTHOCHTCH K cKalyeMOMY, asrpazceunosry .llMeHeM CYllleCTBliTeJIhlIhIM, Ii COrJJ3cyeTcH CHUM 8 pone, '1HCJ1e, nanesce H COCTORH"H.

B JlByx nocnemnrx nplfM.epax onpeneneaae OTHOCHTCH K nO..llJJe*ameMY H T3.lOKe cornacyerca CHUM B pone, lJHCJJe, na.lle)Ke H COCTORHHH.

Bo scex npmrepax onpenenenae 13HHMaeT MeCTO nocne onpeneaseaoro

cnOB3. ,

. ~

Onpenenenae K IIMeHH cymeCTBHTeJIhH0M)' c apTHKJ1eM JI MOiKeT 6bITL

BhlpajKeHO YK3JaTeJIbHLlM MeCTOHMeHHeM: r1....A (3TOT), bU (ara),

, ~ J' • ~i"

~~ (TOT) H ~ (ra), Tasoe onpenenenae 3aHHM3eT MeCTO nepen '1J1eHOM

~ ~ --

npe.llJlO)KeHHR, K KOTOPOMY OHO OTHOCHTCR (a naaaoro rnna npenaoxena-

KX - rtepen nonneacaunes), nanpieaep:

... ~ ... J • :H
~ ~..wl " IlA 3TOT HOBblH AOM KpaCHB.
~ .
" ... . - .
..... ~ '" ~c,.j1 J ~ o __ '"
'O~ A .• (,i.H o.u 3Ta npOCTopHWI KOMHara CBeTllaJI.
... ... ...
.. J 0 .. ~i ~~
~-r ~..wl TOT HOBMit nHChMeHHhtH CTO]] y.n06HhIH.
" ... . . ...
i~i~~i j:7(:i! •
~ Ta HOBaR 6116mmTeKa 60nblllrul .
. ... MeCTO nonneacautero H cxasyessoro

B pacnpOCTpaHeHHOM HMeHHOM npe~J10*eHHH

l. B raxoro nma HMeHHhIX npe.DJIO)l(eHIDIX nonneaauieeaanaaaer nepsoe MeCTo. HCKJ1lOl.feHHe cocraansror npennozsenas, B KOTOPbIX nonnezcamee HMeeT orrpezenenae, Bhlpa)KeHHOe YKa:JaTeJIhHhIM MeCToHMeHHeM. OHO CTaBHTCH nepen nOMe)l(aWllM. YeJlOOHO, a yqe6Hblx uensx rronnexamee C ero onpeneJIeHIDIMll aaorna Ha3hIaalOT «rpynnoH nonrreacaurero».

Csaayevoe C ero orrpenenenaaaa (YCJIOBHO - «rpynna csaayeuoro») aa-

HHMaeT MeCTO nocne «rpynma nonnexaurero». sanpaxep:

..... ~" ... 0 ""iI' C ioOlt J ~ .. ."

...L:,,~ ) 8 ._,., '0 ~ I .) I :.u I ~~...uo 3TO 6oJIhUIoe 3,llaHue - HOBbIH HHCTmyT.

2. B HMeHHblX npennoxeaasx THna: «3.nech HOBaJl KHHra», «TaM 60JIbllIOH

KpacliBhIH )l.OM» COCTOHHl1e nonnexautero 3aBHCHT OT CMbICJIa, OT KOHTeKCTa.

45

ECJIH nonnexauree aupaxeno HMeHeM S onpeneneanosr COCTOHHHH, TO OHO B 60JIbllIHHCTSe cnysaes 3aHHMaeT MeCTO nepen CKa3yeMbIM (SbIpa)f(eHHbIM cnosaMH «anecs» HJIH «TaM»). Ecna >Ke OHO SbIpa>KeHO HMeHeM S neorrpenenenHOM COCTOHHHH, TO OHO xaure scero 3aHHMaeT MeCTO nocne cxaayexoro, nanpavep:

.,. ·t
~ ~wl ~L:._(JI HOBaJI KHHra 3,UeCb.
- , . . ,
~ ~ ::: .:_~ :VllA TaM 60JIhWOH KpaCHBblH ,UOM. Saoanue Kg 1

Ilpo-nrratire cnenyioutae CJ10Ba C TaHBHHHbIMH OKOHIlaHIDIMH H 6e3 HHX.

3a{)uuue.N1! 2

Cxonapyrrre cnenyioume nponaca. Ilposuranre aanacaaaoe.

Ilpeanoaceaaa AJIH qTeHHH

. OJ.:..b:' ~ c~l )JJI ~~ .. o_d )JJi '.Jl~ ~

~

.od4;,~,~~ .~JjJ"":' • .aJ!~!!.ie .~~l.~ l:.A

'~....rA ~.dJ1 ~ a -:,11

~ ~

. c~ ~1_,Jl j,j_;J! .~Ij j,j__,AJ1 .~_);. ~~

;;jjl_j La .J~ ~~1 ~~j L~ ~L.JI l~ .,,:--,~ ~~j ~~ ~ cJJUI J..AI . ;;-7 __ • .?b..L;LJI eU;J cd ;;.LWI ~h . ;;JjL ~l:.J\-,

'~J;';;o~ ,'J~h~;;~! .~~ ~,~ ~;j~ Od all ojjl:JI~-,

•• to ~

.~ ~J.:lI~II..a .~J...:,;-~! '~)J~.?J~ W

.W_f ~~I ~.)'11 .~_f ~JjJl ~;:J! I~ .r-::..l9 ~_fJl

CnoBaph

~ -:

~ 06WHPHbIH, npOCTopHbIH

xsaprnpa

KOMHaTa

CT)'J1

I ., '1 -
. CBeTJIhll1:
~
~-~ TOT,TO

~ Ta,TO
-
tuG OKHO
-
~i JJ.HBaH. corpa
M,}
-
"8 ynaua
t! ~. Saoauue .M! 1

Ilpo-urratire 11 nepesemrre npennoxeiraa .lJ,JUl YTeHI1J1..

Saoanue }{g 2

BbInHWI1Te 113 npeMO)KeHHH .llJ151 QTeHIUI I1MeHa cyurecrnnrernarsre My)KM cxoro pona 11 OTneJIbHO _. I1MeHa cynrecranrensusre IKeHCKoro pona B onpeneJ1eHHOM 11 neorrpenenenuoa COCTOHHIDIX.

47

3aoaHueM3

BbIDHlIIl1Te H3 rrpe.IJ.]10)l(eHHH: )J)UI l.{TeHIDI HMefia npnnararensasre xasecrBeHHhIe (xaxnoe B MY)KCKOM Ii )l{eHCKOM pone, orrpertenetmou H aeonpenenenHOM COCT05lHlliIX).

3aoauueM4

YKa)l{HTe B Ka)K.n.OM npe.lVIO)KeHHH nonnexamee If cxasyeaoe, a TaK)Ke ortpezieneuaa (nocnezmne - TaM, rzte OHM HMeJOTC5I).

3aoan ue .Nil 5

CKonHpYHTe KaK MO>KHO TO'4Hee nponacn npe,UlIO)l{eHHH )],JIH qTeHHJ{. Ilpot.nnaHTe nanacamtoe.

48

3aoanue J{g 6

3aoanue.Nil 7

Ilepeseznrre na apa6cKHll Sl3LIK.

1) 3Ta ynaua KOpOTKaJl? HeT, ora yrraua MHHHaJl. 2) 3TOT HOBbIH aBTOMO- 6um. KpacHBhIH? ,Aa, :nOT aBTOM06ID1h KpaCHBhIit 3) 3m rrpocropnas KOMHaTa CBeTJlaH? ,lJ;a, sra KOMHaTa CBeTJIaH. 4) To OKHO saxpsrro? HeT, OHO OTKphlTO. 5) 3)l,eCh nHchMeHHbIH crorr, JtHBaH Ii MarreHhKHH cryn. 6) qTO TaM? TaM llIKa4J. 7) ThI yqeHHK? HeT, 11 cT)'AeHT. 8) OHa cT)'AeHTKa? HeT, OHa npenonaaarensanua.

YPOKN!7

COrJIaCHLle t!,. ~), u# ()J), J; (~)

1. COrJIaCHhIH 3ByK, 0603HaQaeMhIn 6YKBOH ~ ~a), - Me)K3y6HhIii $pH~ K3THBHblH lIIYMHhIH rnyxoa 3ByK. Ilpa ero apTHKymU.lHH KOWlHK .R3bIKa naxoLUfTeR MeiKJzy BepxHHM II HH)J(HHM pR,QaMH 3y6oB. B OTnWHfe OT 3BYK3 ,; 3BYK 6 rrpOH3HOCHTCJI 6e3 ysacrax ronoca, CooTBeTcTByeT rnyxouy aHrJIHHCKoMY th, uanpzaep B CJ10Bax thank, think. B TpaHcKpHllUMH 0603HaQaercjJ 3HaKOM ~ (c t.{epTOt.{KoH camy). 3TOT cornacusni - COJ1Het.{HhlH.

IV

III

II

I

i\ -

Ilp auepsr:

"
f): l.:: ~a'na6YH ~~ ~a.uH~YH
!_,...JU
. - ..
~ \ ., • • '" U
:. - , 'HCTH~MapYH ~ - £fi6HZYH
. I I.'
) , -
" : .
..
t ~!" JjW
J..j ~mpa~aTYH .. ~ .. Ta~alpUIa
'.r:
;# ...... " 0J_;.
:. :. £ap&apa
f.r 'Sa.lla&a
.. '#"
~ Myccwta 2. COfJIaCHbIH 3BYK, 0603HaQaeMhIH 6YKBOH ~ (J}:a.o.), - 3M$aTH'IeCKHH nepeD.HeH!6HhJH 3a3y6Hh1H CMhll.JHhiH 3BOHKHR 3BYK. Ilpa era apTHKYIDIlUIH 3a.lI.lliIH qaCTb H3hlKa nO.lI.HHMaeTCH K MHfKOMY HeGy, a KOH4HK jJ3bIK3 crpexarcx 3aIDITb TO )Ke nOJIO)KeHHe, tITO If npa npoasneceaaa 3ByK3 ,). COCe.II.HHe c cofJlaCHLIM ~ 3BYKH npOH3HOCHTCR Gonee HanpjJ)KeHHO, '4eM 06hI'4HO. B rp3HCKpHnUHIf 0603HatIaeTCR 3HaKOM (n..) (C TO'4KOii non 6YKBOH).

3TOT cornacaun - COflHet.{HbI!I.

IV

III

II

I

npHMephI:

~ '" ..
~ . - . HatillJ.tYH
J.IH.II.llYH ua: . a,
.. M ..
'" • .. , J '" ..
t:'= .. ~.~:..,o M)'Tcw.a'J;I.H'YH ~) 'apnyn ......... 0""

;;, . a ,', naxnarya

... 0 } "th

._" • .., Jzy 't' yH

~,'" 0 J

J 6 .a..o My;;crappyH

3. COfJ1.acHhIH 3BYK, 0603HaQaeMhiH 6YKBOH .1 (sa), ~ .. 3M(IJaTH'lecKHH nepe,QHeHe6HhIH 3a3y6HhlH QlPHKaTHBHhIH IlI)'MHhIH 3BOHKHH 3BYK. DPH apTHKYmU.l.HH aroro 3BYKa 3aJlIDI.R xacrs .R3hUm nOllHHMaeTC.R K M.RfKOMY He6y, a KOHl{HK .R3blKa cTpeMHTCH 3aH.RTb TO )f(e n0J10)f(eHHe, -rro H npn npOH3HeceHHH 3BYxa i. COCe,llHHe C 3TKM corrracasrsr 3ByKH npOH3HOCHTCH 60nee narrpszcemrc, l{eM 06h1QHO. B TpaHCKpHnUHH 0603HaQaeTCH 3HaKOM (~) (c TOl{KOH non 6YKBOH). 3TOT cornacnuit - COl1Hellm,Ii:t.

IV

I

III

II

o

" ~ 1; ~

J , - A Ma:}xapyH

.. 0

,. .. '"

.J:;a"A,,> ~H't'',3yH

..

t;,1;;"

.. '"

4. B nexoropsrx apa6CKHX. CJ]OBax coxpaaunocs TpaJl.HUHOHHoe 0603HaQe~ HHe 3BYKa (a) 5YKBOH !oS (8 KOHue eJIOBa). TaKoe!oS (5e3 TOlJeK CHH3Y) npUIDITO HaJhIBaTb aJUI$ Mal:w)ipa (8 OTJIH'4He OT 6YKBbf I, KOTOpa.R Ha3bIBaeTC}l. aJIHlP ray Jln a).

Ilp av ep sr:

~:;.1 ,
'y~pa ~ , ana
J ..
'..S~ KY6pa ~J , ill1a 51

3aiJauue,Kg 1

Ilposarattre cnezryiounre cnoaa, ofipautas BHHMaHHe aa npaBRJIbH)'lO apraK)'JUIU,mo conOCTaBnKeMbIX 3BYKOB.

3aoanue.NB 2

CKOllHPYHTe KaK MOIKHO roaaee CJ1eJJYlOlll.He nponaca. IIpoqHTaATe aanncaanoe.

-

-=;,.~_:z' t;~JttI!C::- .. :_---=;t:..._4 __ !e~ .. --_;;;_:;-,:,._.~ -=. ~:;:....__ •.. _~ -=-~~~'" ~G=:!:~.~; k;~-

-

. 7 ..

- .J.J"S. ~.-

.I 0 4'

Q L

-,

~.-

~-

- .

. ._._ ,- .. -.',..._.. ,~-~ ~-

0,<,1

52

CKJIOHeHHe HMeH eymecraarensnsrx H npUJlaraTeJlLHLIX

HMeHa cytuecrmrremsure, nparrararerrsxsre, a T810Ke IJHCJIHTeJlhHhle CKJIO~ IDIlOTCJl no TpeM HJIH no .uBYM nap.e)f(8M. Bee HMeHa cyurecratrrensasre H npnnararensnsre e,nHHCTBeHHoro IJHCna, HMelOWHe TaHBHHHoe OKOWlaHHe, CKJIO~ H.IDOTC.R no TpeM na){e>KaM: HMeHHTeJIhHLIH, pOllHTeJlhHhlH H BHHHTeJIhHbIH. HH)f(e npHBOllHTCH 06p33eu CKJIOHeHWI HMeH MY)f(CKOrO Ii )f(eHCKOro pona B aeonpeneneauoa Ii onpeneneanox COCTOJIHIDIX.

!J..,;,;, L.:8

....... . . ....

11M eHHTeJ1bHhlH

PO.ll.HTeJ1bHbIH

BHHHTeJIbHLdt

11 MeHHTe.nbHbIH

POAHTe.nbHhIH

BHHHTe.nbHblfi

B neonpenenennoa COCTO.sl.HHH liMeH na.ne)f(H bbIpa)KeHhl TaHBHHHblMH

... ~

OKOH'iaHIDIMH (YH), ~ (fiH), (as). I1MeHa MY)f(CKOrO pona B aecrrpeneneaaox

COCTOHHHH B BHHHTenbHOM na.a.e)l{e npHHHMalOT B KOHue C]JOBa I (aJIHQ», a HMeHa >KeHCKOro pona ruUJfi>a He npHHHMaJOT.

Saoanue

neHHOM COCTOHHHHX:

TIPOCKJlOIDIHTe cnenyrouiue cnOBOCOIJeTaHIDI B ueonpeneneaaoa 11 onpene-

~.,.. J. iI'

. ~ _,.;:..i-4

~ ' . .,.-

I'-,",,-P

.

Fnaron

I'narony B apaficxora H3blKe npacyum rpaMManfllecKHe xareropan rmua, BpeMeHH, HaKJIOl-leHHSI, 3aJIOra. B OTJIH'tJHe OT pyccsoro Sl3hIKa B apa6cKoM fl3blKe orcyrcrsyer aeonpezreneauas .popMa rnarona. Bee rrraronsi ynorpetilUI,IOTcn B JlH"IHOH q.opMe. ,[(pyroe OTJlWIHe COCTOHT B TOM, IJTO B apa6CKOM Sl3bIKe rJIarOJI nponrenuiero BpeMeHM He HMeeT rpaMMaTHLlecKoi1: xareropau

S3

SIilla. Ilepeson rnarOJIOB npourenrnero BpeMeHI1 na PYCCKI1H 513bIK (HX snnosaa xapaxrepncraxa) 3aBHCHT OT CMhICJ1a npe1IJ10}f(eHWL

Tpall.HUI10HHan apaficxaa rpaMMaTHKa .aeJU1T rrraronsr aa «npaanrn.asre» 11 «aenpasunsaue» B 3aBHCHMQCTH or CQCTaBa KOpIDI. Fnaronu, B cocrase KOpIDi KOTOPhlX BtOPOH H TPeTHH cornacnsre onanaxoau, lUlH ecrs xasrta, UJIH eornacnun J HJ111 t_$, HMeHyeMbIe ({cna6bIMH», aTHOCRT K pa3p5lJIY «uenpaaansHhIX» fnarOJIOB. Crrpszceune TaKHX rnar0110B HMeeT CBOli ocofieaaocrn. Bee ocransnsre rnaronsr OTHOC5ITC5I K paapszry (mpaBHJ1bHbIX)).

TIpHMephI npaBilllbHblX fnarOJIOB:;;S .~ ~~.

Cnpsnseane npaBHJ1hHOrO TpeXCOrJ1aCHOrO rJ1arOJIa B npouremuesr apearenn B e,[(HHCTBeHHOM QnCJ1e

BBHJzy OTCYTCTBaH B apa6CKOM 83bIKe aeonpenenenaoa ¢OPMhI rna rona (HHqH1HHTMBa) HCXO.ll,HOH ~OPMOH rnarona 01MTaeTCH cpopMa 3-ro JIHu,a e,uHHCTBeHHoro '4HCna MY)f(CKOrO pona, KOTOPYK' YCJ10BHO nepesonar na PYCCKHH 513hIK HHQH1HHTHBOM.

)J..rIJI CnpJI)f(eHIDI rnarorra B npourenurex BpeMeHH B e)l.llHCTDeHHoM Lfllcne l1CnOflb3YJOTCJI cnezryrouiae OKOHl.JaHJ15I:

J

J1MUO Ii pen

o .-

0_

)

3-e n, M.p.

l-e Jl, )K.p.

3-e fl. )K.p.

2-e fl. M.p.

Odpaaeu cnprOKeHHR rJlarOJIOB B npotnennzev BpeMeHH:

;;s 6blTb 60J1blllHM 8 nacars
:_s CaLl,HThCH (8 Mall m-ry , noeaa)
. ".) ..s: :3 JIHUO H po)].
. ~.)
:.::..:s ) :';S'
N l-e JI. M.p.
'*- .
. ,,) ·
:.::..:s J • " (
~ l-e n. »c.p.
'--'-'- .
'" ) ·
:.::..:s ..- • " (
..:. .: 2-e JI . M,p.
'" .) ·
.:: Q,., ? 2-e n, IK.p.
" . ,,) '--
, · 54

;5 cs ~ 3-e JI. M.p .
• " ",.J .
0;.5 :.:...;s • : ~ (;
.._ . 3-e JI. )f(.p .
. "J . Cnpseeenae xaxaoeaaaoro rJIarOJIa JJ.j c npHMhlM LlOnOJIHeHHeM

Cnpsxcaue rnarona C HalJaJlhHOH xaM30H B rtpouienmea BpeMeHH He OTJIiftIaeTCH OT cnp~DKeHlUI npaBHJ1hKbIX rpexCOrJIaCHhIX fnarOJIOB.

, L::SJi' o. ~ i L.:80°jj.j
._;" ~..I.> 11 B3HJ1
, ,
., L::SJi ~/jj.i L.:8 ~ajj.i H B3HJla
. '" . .-
~ L::SJ1 :,:_"~i L.:80~i ThlB3Hn
.- . .-
~L::SJi 0:G.i G80:.G.i T(,l B3HJIa
. , .- , ,.
G, :.G.i GliS :G.i
;_'L:.SJI OH B3Hn
. ,. ,
~L::SJi 0lli L.:80:.u.i OHa B3HJ1a
, '-' .- Ilepezr ilMeHeM B ortpeneneunov COCTOHHHH :_ (CYKYH) OKOWlaHHH )l(eHCKO-

. ~

ro PO.l1.8 3-ro JIHua)l.JUl 6J1aro3BytlHH MeWIeTCH aa - (xscpy), ArrHq, apTHKJUI JI

." .-

aacrrapyercs: ~ ~i ~ };.j.

Fnarom.nue OKOH4,aHHJI I-ro H 2-ro rraua conepscar YKaJaHHe na cy6beKT Jl.eHCTBIDl. Ynorpefinenae JIWlHbIX MeCTOHMeHHH npn HHX xpatine penxo, nonneacaiuee supaaceao B caMOM rnarone.

,lLrrH OTJ1HuaHH5I .o.eHCTBID1, 0603HaQaeMOrO rnarorrov B npouiemuev apeMeHH, ynorpetinsercs qaCTHlJ,a L:o, xoropax CTaBHTCH nepezi rnaronosr.

Ilepexoonue enazonu mpetiysom nocne ce6R oononuenus 8 euuumens- 110M naoence:

Fnazonu, ynompetinsuotuuecs c npeOJlOlOM, ynpaenmom pooumensu bUt naoe;m:OM uuen,

Bee npennora B apa6eKoM R3L1Ke ynpa8JU1JOT pO,ll.HTeJIbHhIM na)l.eJKOM MM.eH. K 'lJHeny Hal160JIee ynorpedrrrem.nux npennoron OTHOeHTClI cnenyioume:

.- • '"
Jr! .
Ha,Il, ~ B, Ha
~ Qo J , K, B, aa, sa (qaCTO BhIpIDKa~
'--!.ri 6mn, o xono u-ll er nanpaaneaae ABH)f(eHWI ) J:";' ,-
BOKpyr ~ Ha
"' • '" •
,
~ no HanpaBJ1eHHIO K ~ OT,H3
.. • '"
"~I nepe.lJ. ,;r- OT, H3
r
w B, H3, C, nOCpeJl,CTBOM (eror npeanor
" .
MO)KeT 3aMeHWfb npeJlJ10r ~. OH
nHlUeTCH ClllITHO co CIIOBOM, I< KO~
TOpOM)' OTHOCIffCR) 3aoQllue.h9 1

Ilpocnpsranre rnaron t:;;'J (KJ1aCTb, nOJIO)KHTb) 8 e.1l.HHCTBeHHOM ,{Hene, HMeR B BH.1l.Y, 'iTO rrrarort, J(OTOPhIi1 HMeeT cna6bli1 cornacmaa U HJIH ..;) 8 naxane CJIOBa, cnpsraercs B npomennrea BpeMeHH TaK )Ke, KaK H npasnrrsHbIe rJIarOJILI.

3aoaHueM2

Ilepesenare na apaGcKHi:t Jl3bIK cnenyioume npe,QJIO)KeHIDI:

R B3M TeTpa,n;b. ThI B311J1 rerpans, OH 83M rerpans, OHa 83Ma TeTpaJ],b.

" ~ .....

enDBD «rerpans» .r:.J,) B nepBOM cnyxae ynorpetnrre B HeOnpeJI.eneHHOM

COCTO~HHH, BO BTOpOM c.rryqae _ B onpenenenaov.

B TaKOM )f(e rrop1l.D.l<e nepesenare Ha apa6CKHH flhIK rtpennowemre: <01 B3jJJI

4,., • .,

UBeTOK» Ii T.Jl.. (IJ,BeTOK _ i_;A j).

3TH npe)lJ10)KeHIDI nepeaemrre Tal()Ke B OTP"llaTeJIbHOH .popMe (c OTpHl.J.a~ HHeM L.:o).

HMeHHhIe npe~J10*eHHH CO cKa3yeMLIM, BLlpajl(eHHLIM HMeHeM C npe)1;JIOrOM

B npennoaceuasx rana: «Kapaunam na llHChMeHHOM CTOne», «Ha nHCLMeHHOM crone KapaH,nallI»·- cxaayeuoe asrpaxeno HMeHeM C npennoroa. B TaKHX npe)lJlO:>KeHIDIX COCTOHHHe nonnesauiero H csasyexoro 3aBHCHT OT KOHTeKCTa. ECJIH noztnexautee BbIpmKeHO ItMeHeM B orrpeneneaaoa COCTOHHHH, TO OHO B 60JlhWHHCTse crrysaea 3aHHMaeT MeCTO nepen CKa3yeMbIM. ECJIH OHO BbIpa>KeHO HMeHeM B Heonpe.nelleHHoM COCTORHHH, TO OHO GaIUe scero 3aHHMaeT MeCTO nocne cxaayessoro, nanpasrep:

56

a ... ,... ~.f
~I.~~I Kapaaztam aa rIHChMeHHOM crone.
r-u~i~ Ha nHChMeHHOM crone xapannam. ..; .

ECJIH nOCJIe npe.lVloroB~, ~ cnenyer HM1I C apTHKJleM, TO CyKyH npen-

. . ...

nora.:.r! MeHJI.eTC$i na cpaTXY, a CYKYH npennora ~. - aa K1ICPY. XaM3a apTHK-

IDI B 3THX CJIyqaJIX He mUlleTC.SI Ii He npOH3HOCl:fTCH, a aJIH<fJ aacnnpyercs, aanpaMep:

• ",. .- • ... ...
- :11 ~ OT ,llOMa - :11 ~ H3,nOMa
'...- • • L • ,
... - . .. . - . 3aoanue

Ilpoxarattre CJIeJl)'lOLUHe npeJUIO)l(eHWI. Bsryrnrre npeJUIOrH M HMefOll.{MeCH B 3THX npenncoseaasx CJIODa.

~ I .. ~ .. ..
• .:::z 4 JlaMna, naMnOqKa Io:-'_"'; 6J1H3KHH
c . ...
~~ .. "
MeCTO 1 ...., .naneKHH
W\4Z
-" .
... .. " .
~~ H.nTH. yXOJlHTh ~ .. ~ ... L!Ji 1:U~ Ha :3TOH ynaue KpaCHBhIH .n;OM.
-~~~~~! .. - '"
;' • "fI:,. , ~L1Jl~~
J 6 • 0 1I ~I Crynerrr nomen (yuren) B HHCTH'ryT.
. .
, !: ...
.... J",. • ., .... "" ~ .
~~I OwL t I .. l\ c.: -'-'~ J YqeHHua nonoxana KHHI)' aa nHChMeH-
.. - ... '"
~i~ HblM: CTOJ1.
"., .. , o~ .,. ~ " "" ~ljJi . ..
-4-" • " ~ w_...i o ...\..lI 3To 3JlaHHe (HaxO,llHTCH) 6nH3Ko OT HH-
, ~ '.~, , ..
CTHT)'Ta.
;'. " .. ___ ;' iJ.....a.,; } IJJi d1
f+" JI ~ T03.o;aHHe (HaxO,llHTCH) nanexo OT HHCTH-
........ J "
.. TYTa.
..~ , .,
~I " .. " -:.' t"· 11 Jlaxma HM nHCbMeHHblM CTOJIOM.
!..J _,., L ._ i.2 •
; ...,
"'"J' ..... ~.";.J
L.,.., ) J...o ...:' , ,J I ,-,,;J Oxono )lOMa WRona.
~ ,..... . 57

~ ~~ o;_jj J" ~ ~ L.S:_jj MeCTo soxpyr llIKonhI xpacasoe,
~ ~) J>I.)
0" G .-
- .... Ow I .. ° : J. \ ~ 1I" .. ". Y1{eHHK nomen no HanpaBJ1eHHIO K uncone.
~) ~ )....-. ~~
... .. ",;"
~ .. : t :; .. _ 0 ji .. ~i Ilepen .LlOMOM 06UIHPHhlH: napx.
~.u...J..L> L • •• r
........ --
.. ~ "........ ...
~ )J:Ji ~ ):0 i ~!18 Y1{eHHK nncan B rerpann xapanztaurou.
"" .
.. ~ " '"

L)J-o.JI .L_,-jlj L_)J...o .)..ul oh .LL,: Q ~ _)b t.)L..!J1 1.1\ J

~ c ~

dJ..j . LS? I Li.: J..> L _)..L.oJ I i l...o IJ . ~ Li.:..L> ~ _;J J...A.j I"

.~ ~~l!J1 L_)..wl Jy 0~i 'Or!. ~ A i!JJ..1

c c

_) 'II ;ll ·r:. ;< ~...+JI J_,j 'VL:JI w-o ~_,.i ~I .* ~laJ

~ c

JJ)I . j .. \) L; J.J_,JI 'r~~ a JJJ" ~J rl' Ih ~ .~~

.LJ..w1 Jl~~J ~~ JJ)Il>i ~ .~)! jLol ~I"

c c

~J.>I .oj ... \) l_j ~._~ ; 11 oh .o~ jl...ol A...A.,jIJ o~ ~ ~ ~l.:..AJ

.L_)JJ.I ~_) ~!)I ~I iltJJ..1 ~ ~~J lt; 4:t! ~,' ; 11

o..uWI ~ .~~J J.jl;>J ~.,$J ~ U_;iJ1 ~ .U~ L:.. ~~ JJ)i .O)~~J_;:.j~J~L:5~I~ .t....~Jo_)~ . J+7:f .L!~ ..u)II~ .~I i~i ~_jJl ~

Cnosaps

:J~ 1) .D.HT}I, pefieuo« ~ ",. BTOPIi1{HhIH, BTOPOH cryne-
~_,..jlj
2) CLIH, MaJ1b1{HK " ,. HH, Cpe.LlHHI{ (0 III xone )
: a !!~ CTOHlll,HH ~I~ pacnonoxennua
~ noprrperrs, narnca i.S~1 npyra» (zc.p.) (ere CJ10BO He
- ..
, H3MeH}leTC}I no naaeacaa)
~ ,. .....
..r~ KpOBaTb * peKa
,.
::;. , ...
.. 3aTeM, nOTOM (COlO3) MOCT
~ r-:: 58

...

Cll,lVHl{llH

MY)I(llHHa

TOHKHH

l1IHpOKHH

.. "I.-

~ Y3KllH, TeCHhtH

~ qepHHJIa .r.--:,

-1-, ~ 0"

.:i .a...:o: llHllO

~i eCTb,CbenaTb

JKYpHaJI

ctaparensi: blH, nplUle)KHblH

~ H, 3aTeM, nOTOM (COqHHHTeJIbHbIH COI03; mUIIeT~H CJ1HTHO C nocneJlYlOlllHM cnOBOM)

-;j qaCTHlla nO)1,TBepiK)];eHH.Jf (nepen rnarOJIOM B nporne.n,rneM BpeMeHH); HHOf,lla nepeaO)lHTC.S «Y)Ke»

3aoallue .Nk 1

Ilposaranre H nepesennre npeJLllO)KeHIDI JLllH qTeHIDI.

3aoallue.Nk 2

Bbl6epHTe H3 ClIOB, B3HTblX B cKo6KM, nonxonsnree CIIOBO. Hanarnare npennoacenas Ii onracyare HX .

. (~ ,i JJ-.r:- ,0 _"A j) IJ.: ~ . .. 1..J.;J I _b.i

.( i).:_ ,~ ,?~) i)~ ~I u.l>i

.(ii:J.> '.r~ ,~) ~ ~!y~

.( o)l.;:_ ,yl:5' , . .t;;;s!) )~ .. , ~! ~

• s-

.( ~ ,l-)J..o ,~J.» ~ ..,s i;/I ~~

.( ~ ,)b ,4.,.,;J..4) r-"!J.i Jl~1 ~~

.(y~ ,i;L;- ,~) iJ:~ J!jJ~!~~

.( ~ ,~ ,i.iib) iJ:~ Jl..u)1 ~~ Lo

59

3aoanueM!3

Ilepenmuare H OfJlaCYHTe cnenyiouiae npe,ll,JIO)KeHIDI. TIO.n:qepKHHTe nonnescautee OJ].HOH xeproti, cxasyessoe - J].ByMH qepTaMH, onpenenenae - 8011- HHCTOH JlHHHeH.

tJL:JII~~ .1t .. , ~i__,..llj~..u..IJ '~J~J~~~I~ ~J..:~I ~J~i .~I ~ i)~1 ~i .ooo4~ ~JM ~_,..JI J_,_,..bJ1 '~J i)~ ijj~1 ~ . "cd ~ ~~L;jl LJ..u.1 o..u ~ .jJ~1 ~ )~I ~L;5Ji '~J "c.v_r: ~_}JI u~ ~ .jJ~1 J ~..LiJ1 ~_r<.Ji .~I~

Saoauue J(g 4

CKonHpYHTe KaK MO)KHO ro-raee npOnI1CH npe)1JIO)KeHHH )l.illl -rrenas. IlpoqHTaHTe aanacaanoe.

60

3aiJauue J(g 5

Aaihe YCTHLIe OTBeThl sa sonpocsr.

~Jfo ~~I ~..t. ~ y~1 J.. ~~ ~ J.:~I _;J..u! j.. ~i.d ~_,.il!J1 ~J.JJ.I ~ ~I J.. ~~ ~ ~ ~I ~..a ~ iliWI J.I.

3aoaHue.Ng 6

3anoMHHTe nocnosany.

~i.d ~..,All 0.1. J.. ~~II.l.~ I;L. ~ ~_,.b ~ I 1..iJ, J.. ~ J.:.'" tJ L!J I 'lA J.

~ #'. .' ... o6i11_'

3aoaHue .N!! 7

Ilepesezurre aa apa6eKHH H3bIK. Ornacyare apa6cKHH nepeson,

3Ta YJIHIl,3 .l11IHHHaJI H IlIHPOKaJI. Ha :nOH ynane aoaaa insona. 3To cpe,D.HIDI uixona. B :non mxone fionsntax 6H6nHOTeKa. Illxona pacnOJIO>KeH8 6JIH3 xpacjrsoro napxa, Oxono lliKOJlbl .a.pyroH naps. 3T3 KOMH8T3 npocropnas H CBeTJIM. B KOMHaTe llIK3$, ITHCbMeHHDIli CTOJI, Jl.HB3H, KpOB3Tb H c1)'JI. H3 mrcsMeHHOM crone KHlIr3, )l{)'PH3J1, f83eT3 H xepnnna. M3J1hl{HK B3M H3 nopnpena 'rerpans H nOJIO>KHJI 31)' rerpaas aa nHCbMeHHbIH eTOJI. Manhl{HK CH,lUIT H8 cryne nepen nHCbMeHHh{M CTOJIOM 6J1113 orxpsrroro OKRa. Asepb B 3TOii KOMaare 33KpbITa.

YPOKN!8

XaM3a CpeJlHHHaH. npaBOnHCaHH~ XaM3bl B CepeJJ:HHe CJlOBa

XaM3a B cepenaue cnosa rnmrercs C O.llHol1 113 cnenyroumx 6YKB:

I (anH$), J (yay) HJUf '-! (l1a). 3TH 6yKBhI ycnoaao Ha3bIBalOT HOCHTCJUlMH xaM3bI HJIl1 rroncraaxoil .llJl1l xaM3hJ.

,[VvI onpeneneaas HOCHTenH XaM3bJ HCXOlVlT H3 cnezytourero.

OrnaCOBKH, 0603HaQalOUme KpaTKHe rnacuue 3BYKH, Pa3JlJIllaJOTCSl «no ClIne», Hanfiorree CHJl.hHOii ClJHTaerCH xscpa. EH coorsercrayer 6YKBa t..S (Ha- 6e3 TOlJeK CHIf3y). (Apafcxaa rpaMMaTHKa HMeHyeT ee «nafipaa.)

3aTeM cnezryer .llaMMa. En COOTBeTcTByeT 6YKBa ~ (yay).

Aanee cnenyer cpaTXa. Eit coorsercrayer 6YKBai (anH$). 3aTeM - CYKYH, HO OR He 0603HaQaeT fJIaCHOrO 3BYKa.

TaKHM 06P330M, aJIH<p - 6YKoa, xoropax COOTBeTcToyeT <paTXe (11 ee Y.llJlH-

HeHHlO): ~ y.

u J J

Yay -. 6YKsa, xoropas COOTseTCTSYeT .llaMMe: ~ y.

Ha - 6YKBa, xoropaa COOTBeTCTByeT xscpe: c..s-! ~ •

.. .- .-

4T06bI nanacars Xi3M3Y (C HOCHTeJleM) B CepCJl.HHC CJIOBa, H)'JKHO conocra-

BHTb (cpasaars) ornacoasy xauasr Ii Of1laC08K)' 6YKBbl, npemuecrayioutef xaase, XaM33 nnurerea Ha)J; 6YKBOH, KOTopaH COOTBeTCTBYeT GOJIee CUJIhHOH 83 3TUX JlByX ornaCOBOK.

Ilp axep sr:

'" ,.- ", ....
~IJ <pa'ey" ~u Ka'HJIyH
... ~ J:. mY'MYH ,.t : • .JH'6YH
rJ-N ~.!I
. ....
.-
~ cy'HJla JL ca'ana
... l ~ =!'''''" -tC. }
-4;L; Ta'HH.a:YH & ).J-! 6y'paT)'H
ii:;J ....
• HMpa 'aryn ~ 6H'PYH
~
) j~, s i1y' aiUiH.uy .. .~ J' MY'MHH)'H
"u....J"':! ~~
~ 62

I-b sroro o6wero np3BHJ13 lfMelOTCJI HCKJIlOlJeHIDI:

1. XaM33, ornaCOBaHH3JI <paTXoH, nocne nonroro I (3) HHllleTCSI aa crpoxe (r.e, 6e3 nOllCTaBKH), HanpHMep: i;C~ i~w..

~ .

2. XaM3a, OfJIaCOBaHHa.Sl 4laTXoH HJIH 113MMOH, nocrre nonroro (y) WIH J (yay), ornacosarrrroro CYKYHOM, rranrercx xa eTpoKe (6e3 nO.JJ.cTasKH), nanpn-

~.. J J JJ ....

Mep: it< J~ b" _,...;:,.



3. XaM3a, ornaCOsaHH3JI tilaTXoH, llaMMOH "JUi K.SICPOH, noene..; (ita), Of11a-

J "'./ tJ~, ....

coaanaoro eYK)'HoM, nHIlleTCH Han 4.S (Ha6poH), HanplfMep: IJ'" Or _ '; .:i.~! 0.

Hanacaaae TaKHX eJIOB cnenyer 3anOMHHaTb no Mepe HX ynorpetincaaa S yqe6Hblx rexcrax,

HMeHa, OKaWlHB3lOIllHeeH xaM30ii nocne aJUI<l>a (: ~ : L..:....:o : L..:o) ,

t • e-. ,

H HMeHa, OKawumaJOWHeCH xaM30H nan aJImi>oM (LJ_:':' ~), B BHHHTenh-

HOM rranexe necrrpenerrerraoro eOeTORHHJI aJmqm He npHHHMaIOT, HarrpHMep: :. ' : .,

: ~ : ~ L.1J. L(':o.

I1MeeTC.SI o6wee npa8HJIO roDI Ha1JaJIhHOH, cpe.JJ.HHHoH H KOHeQHOil xaM3LI:

~

COqeTaHHe II (a cepenaac H B KOHue CJIOBa - nocne corrracaoro, OrJ1aCOBaH-

noro <paTXoH), 0603H3QaeTClI 3HaKOM ::_ (MaMa), KOTOPhIH nmuercs Han i (aJIHCPOM), aanpasrep: 'l>T < J.>li lJL < lJl~G, i:.G < t;.(G.

, "

3aiJauue

Ilepenaunrre cnenysounte cnona, onpenenas HOCHTeJIH xaM3bI B COOTseTCTBHH c OCHOSHhIM o6mHM npaSIDIOM npasonacauaa xaM3hI B cepezume cnoaa,

Hecor nacyesrsre onpeneneaas

Hecornacyesnre ortpeneneaas YK33bIBalOT na npHHa.n.neJKHOCTb npenaera IDm: npH3HaK ero. OHH xoryr 6MTh BbIpa)KeHhI: 1) KMeHeM cynrecrsrrtem.mra B pO.llHTeJIhHOM nanesce 6e3 npeanora; 2) liMeHeM cymecTBHTeJIhHhIM c rrpenJ10rOM.

63

Hecor JIacyeMLIe onpeneneaaa, BLIpa)KeHHLIe HMeH3MHCymecTBHTeJJLHLIMH B pO,llHTeJlLHOM rraaesee 6e3 npeancra

Oco6eHHOCTh JTOH ICOHCTPYKl.UfH B TOM, l.JTO O.D,HO HM$! cymecrmrrensnoe 9BJUleTCn orrpenenenaev 1lJUI npyroro HMeHH cyinecraarenssoro, nanpnsrep:

noprtpens (onpenenenuoa) yq:eHHUhI

rerpans (KaKorO-TO) crynerrra

TeTpaAb(onpelI,eneHHoro)ctylI,eHTa

~ .. J tIi' .".

~_: .. 1_", ~ t· .~ -. .......h (

.. _1 ... _. ~ nopt 't'enL KaKoH-TO) yqeHIUJ,hl

,. ... ",... ~

Onpenensexoe lIMn He npHHKMaeT aprnxns JI, KaK He npHHHMaeT H TaHBHHHoro OKOlPIaHlUI. CaMO aecornacyexoe onpeneneane MO)fCeT HMeTb apTHKJ1b JI HnH He HMeTbero.

Ecrra rrecornacyeuoe onpeneneaae BhlpalKeHo llMeHeM B neonpezeneaaoa COCTonHHH, TO Ii onpenenseaoe lIMn raxxe saxomrrca B neon pe.neJ1eHHOM COCTORH"". Ecna necornacyexoe onpenenenae BhIpa>KeHO HMCHeM B onperteneHHOM COCTonHHH, TO H onpenenxeaoe HMR - B onpe.ll.eJ1eHHOM CO<;TOHHHH.

} ~ 0,:.

3Ta CHHTaKCHl:{eCKa» KOHCTpYKUIDI HOCHT HaKMeHOBaHHC U ~ l' I. Ee TaK-

!t.

)l{e Ha3bIBaJOT {(cOnpn)l(eHHbIM eOCTOHHMeM» liMeH cymecrurrrensmax.

Ecna onpenenaeaoe enOBO KMeeT npa cefie TIUOKe Ii cornacyenoe onpeneneHHe, TO OHO 3aHHMaeT MeCTO nocne aecornacyexoro onpe.lI,eJ1eHIDI, aanpaaep:

s. ... • ..... ~ .-

I :'.: ~ -;" j • I'- t I _~ . AI':., II ~ t· -: •

~ ".-..J..>...J _ ..... c " ~ HOBhlM noprtpens (onpeneneanoro) yq:eHH-

~. ... .. ., ~

Ka - 3.neCh.

3.lI,eCb HODbIH nopnpens (KaKOrO-TO) yseaasa,

ECllM onpenenseaoe HMJI MMeeT npa JTOM H YK33aTeJIbHOe MeCTOHMeHHe (a ero MO)fCeT HMeTb TonLKO HM$! B crrpenenennou COCTonHHH), TO 3TO MeCTOHMeHHe eTaDlITCH rtocne cornacyesroro onpenenenas, HanpHMep:

»: ~i ., ,. ~ .-
'oJ.; i o 1 '; II .. ' ~ -:. ::trOT HOBLIH nopnpens ~eHHKa - aa
... I A P >....0
- , . ~ ... ~ .-
~i .-
~ . ,.. nHCbMeHHOM crone.
fJJ.A
. ... ...
...
;~~i .. • y; ~ .-
J..." lit I 711 .. 1:.. .; • 41 B 3TOM HODOM nopnpene yqeHHKa KHHra H
A " >....0 If!
... - ... . " - .- ,,~ ... .. #'
::J~J~8 oli TeTpa.n.h.
. ~,'" 64

Hecornacyeuoe onpenenenae MO)KeT HMeTh caoe uecornacyexoe onpeneJIeHHe, sstpaxenaoe HMeHeM cywecTBHTenhHhIM B pO.IlHTeJIhHOM naaesce. )lruI roro lJTo6bI In6e)l(aTh J],JIHHHOH uenosx« TaKHX onpenenenaa, HCnOJIh3)'lOTCJI npennora ~, ~, rtpennor J. Ilpennor J ssrpaacaer rrpHHa)I.Jle>KHOCTh H UH-

M' ,. "

weTCH CJIHTHO co CJIOBOM, K KOTOPOMY OTHOCHTCH, narrpasrep:

~ " ~ *,
Me.n.HQHH3 t:J5 cpaK)'nhTeT
. .- H
~I ... a :.%t 3KOHOMHKa ul~j censcxoe x03,dkTBO
.- ! , ':II ':II ". ,,'1, .-
~I~ .~l1'-' OH - cryneur MeAHUHHCKoro HHCTHlyra B
. ,," u-!., ~
.. .
G..wi b'" 3TOM ropo.n.c .
... ".- .-~
~I'-~i 1 ~ j <- 'l.:Ju, .- OHa - cry neurxa censcxoxosaacreeaaoro 4>a-
_ ; _.. ~ ." ~
~ ... .., • .; 1
~l ,4 -=.J~I :' , " . : KynbTeTa HHCTHTYI'a 3KOHOMHKH.
.- ., ~
., 3aoallue

B hlylHne CJlOBa: ~ l..a;.:j I ~ 4J; I;j 4lS',

Hecoznacyeuoe onpeoeneuue MOJICem 6blmb eupauceuo maxsce UMeHeM c npeonozon, B qaCTHOCTH, TaKHe onpeneneaaa MOryr 0603HaqaTb MaTepHaJI, H3 xoroporo cnenaa TOT HJ1H HHOH npenaer, nanpavep:

" . , .. .-
._,~ urepcrs .;-J"';> menx
.,
"L:j .,. ",. ~
i ... .neBYWK3 ~l '; ,,' 0JI3Tbe ~i" ~~~ .. ,-, 'Wi~ Ha OKHe IllenKOS3}I 3aHaBeCK3.
~ b .. b",u'
r.. .- ; _" .-
, .-
J~i'· WI~· J, " .... ,t
, Li.l.J I '" I .ll.esywKa B3J1na urepcraaoe nnarse.
' i" ~J..>
, ~ .- Saoanue J(g 1

3 - 1767

65

Saoauue J{g 2

B cnenyiourax npe)J.JlO)KemUIX onpenernrre COCTOJlHHe (onpe.neJIeHHOCTH HJ111 neonpeneneaaocra) HMeHH CYllleCTBHTeJ1hHoro. HMefOlllero necorrracyeMoe onpeztenenne. 3anOMHHTe CJlOBa •

.. ~ coce.nHHH
)J .
"
to
..b.;L;.. CTeHa
...
:! .. J
o)~ KapTHHa, lPOTO, ¢ororpa¢l-UI . ..uJ _r-r b)J~1 jJ_;AJ1 J .b)J~1 li.,;,J1 J ..u_,J1 _r-r .~)J..o ),) ~M "pll ~J.J..I y.} .~ .. ,;tl ~.,I.j.1 y,) ~)..wl ),)

.J_,;) ~)~ A,;.,;,JI ~l". ~ . li.,;,J I ~b ~ ~)I ~J~ . - . I» ~...wl ~

~ M t.J

.~I y.. i..l..AJ ~..wl il:J..,..

Saoauue }{g 3

CKOIIHpYHTe cnenyiounre nponaca. Ilposnranre aanacannoe.

66

•. ~ 6~ ~ ...... _u.,

, 77 7

3aoallue.M! 4

Ilepermunrre cnenyionme npennosceaaa. TIO.D.'l:IepKHHTe WMeHa cymecrsarern.aste, K: KOTOPhiM OTHOCHTCH YKa3aTeJIhHhIe MeCTOHMeHIDI. TIepeBe.D.HTe •

. ~..fJ1 J-&. ~.a i~~1 j_ .L-JI ~ .~I J-&. l.a ij_tl:J1 yl;S' .~WI J-&. ~.a b~1 ~)I iJp ,~..rJ J-_,1t l.a ~J..JI tJ~ .~ oJ.. ~)J...JI ~J> ,id ~ ~.a ~)..wl )~ ~ ,~__,.j ~ ~) J..o o.a ~..w I ll:..l> y.;3

~

. \oS? I ;.j .); ,.b;L:,. J-&. b J..A, 4lhJ I b J~

06CTOSlTeJILCTBa BpeMeHH

06CTOHTeJIbCTBa BpeMeHH MOryT 6bITb BblpameHbI:

- HMeHaMH cymecTBHTeJIbHhIMH H npHJIarareJIbHbIMI1 B BHHHTenbHOM rtanexe aeonpeneneaaoro COCTO.SlHH», nanpuvep:

t_;.~ }'TPOM .. ~ yrpo
. C.
I~~ L,;.~ paHHHM yrpOM :.s-~" L::, panee yrpo
. ~ . C .
~_,l, 8~ .. ~
J nonroe BpeMH J-_,.b ~~ nonroe BpeM.JJ
.- ,
J J
C~ B nonnern, R nOJI.lleHb
: L.:....:.o BellepOM ~L.:.....:o Bellep (npHMeqaHHe: KOHettHIDl xasea nocne nonroro (3) mnuercs 6e3 noncrasxn);

]*

67

- HMeHaMH CYlll.eCTBHTeJ1hHhlMH B BHHHTeJ1hHOM nanexe B onpeaenennoa COCTORHHff, sanpmsep:

'~i ceroaas ~T ~ t.:.::., ceroznts yrpOM
r M c c·
... ,
r~ .neHb - HMeHaMH CYIUeCTBHTeJlbHhlMH B onpeneneauox HJIH necnpeneneuaov COCTOIlHHH c npennoraxa. Hazfionee yrrorpefiarerrsnsre rrpennorn:

... . ... } . }
J..:..i .no L c, co BpeMeHH,
TOM)' H33M
'" • ..
..l.A..I nocne (xepea)
· IIpHMephI:

:1;t1i 2Q ~i ·
.nO nonyJl.lUI ~. ,..r YTPOM
... ,.,
o if, ,. .. • , '" I"~
Al2J1 ~L.....JI ·
~ nocne nony.AHJI r..s' sesepox
·
, .. "
• t .. ~~
~! ·
~ B nonneas HOllLIO
.. .-
• .. } . .} 0 " .. 0 .-
rJ'!. ....1.:..4 ,ll.eHh TOM)' xasazt r.J1. ...LLI xepea )leHL
·
.. .. MeCTO 06CTouenbCTBa BpeMeHH cpena npyrax 'lJIeHOB npeJ(JIO)l(eHIDI onpenensercs co.nep)KaHHeM npennoxenns.

" "

06CTOJITenbCTBO BpeMeHH oreexaer aa aonpoc ~ ~ (xorna),

Saoauue

MeCTO csasyeaoro

B fJlarOJlLHOM npe,n:JIOiKeHHH

B rnaronbHOM npelIJlO)KeHHR csasyexoe, xax npaBHJIO, 3aHHMaeT MeCTO nepezt IIOMe)KalII.HM, nanpasiep:

68

.. ""',,. ~ " ,,~, 0 ~ J 0 -GI.- ,f"''' ,

'~~J ;j ! Q'" ~~ j ~ . )1 ub!

~ , ~

ManhlJHK B3HJI noprrpem, H nomen B III sony.

,[{eBOlJKa B3HJ1a KpaCHBhIH UBeTOK H yiurra.

TIPI1 0TPHuaTeJIhHOM OTBeTe na sonpoc B rnaronsaou npennoacenaa CRa-

;

qana naercs ofiuree OTpHuaHHe, T.e. ynorperinsercs sacraua ~, a 3aTeM rna-

ronsxoe orpauanue - xacraua Co, nanpaaep:

1~~J..Ji ~J r:;)1 " 'II;,,. ~ pi' Xorran JIM ThJ cerozras
~~~
B WKOny?
~ ,,0 , 'liP ~~ .,. 0 ~ 0 .. J 0, .- Co ,'1
.~.)wl r~1 ..::.......~ Her, H He XOAMJl ce-

ronns B III KOJ1Y • Ilpennoaceuaa ,ll.JlH 'ITeHHH

~ ~l ~i_, ~I ~~ ~~ .1.J~~b~ r_,.JI ~ ~~af' i~j ~I ~~! ~~) 0..L!~ bJ.Jj. ~I.} .iJ+i110~ ~~J i~)1 . ~~)'I ~ ~ ~_,; !~ ~I ..\.43_0) .~.wl ~J ~ ~I_,JI

.~I ~ J, · oJl rj-A (;'_~JJ

~ ~

.~I ~ <.) ~u, l_jl ,~~ J+: ~lIlh ~ ~L1 wi ~J-

~\.:.~~ 0-:' u-l! \eU~ ~ t..:_W I~L,)i~ b~ ~J..JI ~J>J .~J..JIll:J.> ~1 ~~ ~I ., ~ 11 J-:-i-

~

. ~l":.5 ul.;-iJ o~ J.l; ~ il.:~1 ~ ~..:~ '" L,. . ..: ... :.! JI ~

~r,;.:-;!!~! (;~)~)~t; i.)~ ~J ~L-J! <.} .)L_,1l;J_, ~~I <.} ~ Lo-

," •. ,J! ~I ~ .• _JJ

."-,,.¢c ~.

... . ~ .

Cnoaapi,

0-;J , , ~
MonOKO ~ BCTaBaTb, nOA-
HHMaThCH, npo-
6Y)K)l.aTbCfl 69

~" ~,

~~j M3CJlO (CJlHBOllHOe)

aoaspaurarsca

'~.' <'

- ..J-' CTaK3H

cue?

OTKY)1a?

~ ,."

~J cepe~HH3, ueHTp

~ Cau~TbCH,C»lleTb

npefismart., H3XO)lHTbca, OCTaBaTbCH

..

I~

~ TeHh

J

. "J

C3Jl.HTbCSI (B MaWHHY, noeaa), exars Ha lleM~n, (nepex. rnaron)

TaKCH (cnQBO Heapa6. npOHCX.)

..L:!:'.J HaXOJl,HTb, OTbICKHBaTh

3aoanueNE 1

~ ..............

i~ ztepeao

npQjIBnRTbCTa~ paHHe

ITpOttHTalfTe 11 nepesenare npeMO>KeHHR ,ll,JUI ttTeHWI.

Saoanue .M! 2

CKOITHpyihe KaK MO>KHO rounee rrpormcn npeMO)KeHHH .l1,JUI t{TeHlut FlpotJHTaHTe narracanuoe.

70

,,:.;;;; '1l~htf;;: &;.. 11.h Z',~i

il ~lt c:., (JAG: - .,~r~ ;;1f ();

.. -.".- --~.-.,,-.-- _._----_ _ ---- ----_ .. __ .. _-----_ -- .. _-

.< I "n.. < 9 ,,0(

0( "/

. L..J\

... ? 7 , , -, - 7

, ... ,

--~cl ~;1i m (j G~ " c;;;;Ji

-Lll ~; <E> -, (q- Ltb ¢

.Y:J t:!3 ~;di il <::_:[,1 L". - £ ,;;;;;rr J ~ t·~:;L q;!\3 1.:s;; c! :~t :uf 'J, (;_- 1k::lT

- .

3aoaHue .Nil 3

BhlnJ-HIIHTe li3 npe.llJIO>KeHHB )1J151 l{TeHH5I liMeHa CYlIleCTBlITeJIhHhle C IiX necornacyeasraa orrpeneneauaxn.

Saoauue }(e 4

Hanaunrrc CJ1e.ll,YJOIIU1e CJIOBa, onpenemm HOCHTeJUI xaM3hI B COOTBeTCTBHH

C OCHOBHhlM npaBHJIOM ee npaBOrTHCaHIDI B cepeznure CJ10Ba .

...- '" ~ ;#' ~ ,OJ ~ ". oJ! ~ ""; J .... ...,t: ,,;"

~~_;,.;, J:_;,.;, ~~. Q h A ~~ • ,,0 L~..-I ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~)

,

\,II ,. ,,; oJ: .... '.,.

.~~~ r~\..!j

Saoanue .Nil 5

Ilepeaeznrre aa apa6cKHit .Sl3bIK CJIe.n:YlOlIlHe npe)1J10>KeHH5I:

I) B 3TOM KpaCHBOM 3,[1,aHl1H HHCTHT)'Ta 60J1hllla51 6H6JlHOTeKa.

71

2) Ha nHCLMeHHOM CTOJIe sroro craparensaoro yqeHHKa KHHra, rerpam Ii

xepnana.

3) B KOMHaTe 310ro MaJ1bttHKa [lHCbMeHHblti CTOJI, xpoaars Ii wKaq,.

4) B :noli KOMHaTe MaJlbt{HKa nHcbMeHHblH cron, KpoBaTL H wKacp.

5) B nopnpene sroro cryaerrra KHlira Ii rerpans,

6) B 3TOM nopreene cry nenra KHHra Ii rerpans.

7) 3,naHHe 310ro HHcTH1)'Ta HaxO.QHTCJl6J1H3KO OT J].OMa.

8) 3TO 3J].aHHe HHcTH'I)'Ta HaXO,llHTCH 6JIH3KO OT llOMa.

9) Ha OKHe 3TOA KBapTHpbI 1llenKOBaJI 3aH(WeCKa.

10) Ha 3TOM OKHe xaaprapa WeRKOBaJi sasaaecxa.

11) YTPOM MWlLl{HK B3JlJ1 nopnpens H yuren B urxony.

12) ManeHLKaR nesosxa 83Ma 3101 UBeTOK H nouma K 6a6YlllKe, cHWlllleti B rrapxe B TeHH nepeaa.

13) >I 83M B 6H6JlHOTeKe HOB)'lO KHHry Ii yuren .o.OMOH.

14) qTo ThI 83JlJ1a B 6H6JIHOTeKe? J1 83j{JJa B 6H6JTHOTeKe CTaPblA "JIJIfOCTpupoDaHHLIH )i()'PHaJI •.

3aoauueNu 6

)];aHTe nHCbMeHHble OTDeTLI aa cnenyiouure aonpocsr.

v y~1 1.3...A 0..L>i w-:i

~

~ j.r:J1 ~L-...o ~~ v-: I ~!

~i~ J.l; ~ ~ w-o ~ j~1 r~ ._:. I u I~lo

~~_,.1 L.:J_, ) S • • tI ~ ~ j.. \' ~I .J.A.t ~.~ ~i~l ~ u--S"~ i)~ ~J j..

M ~ r.r:-ll 0i_ri I~L..

~ ~I ~ ..:_l.,J I~lo

\' J C" II v-o ~.....!t.» ~

Saoanue M 7

.,~~~~ I""

3anOMHHTe nocnOBHUY: ~J . .u: ~

Saoan ue J(g 8

Ilepesenare sa apa6cKHH R3hIK. Ornacyare apa6cKHH nepeson,

1. B 3TOH cnansne (KoMHaTecHa) KpOBaTb " lI.HBaH. MaJILlJHK BCTaJI pano YTpOM, csen XJ1e6 C MacnOM, asman craxan MOJIOKa, 83M nopnpem, Ii nomen 8

72

UIKOJIy. IIocJIe nony.nHJI OR BepH)'JICJI ,llOMOi:f. OH nposaran KOPOTKlfH paCCKaJ II ManeHbKOil HJIJIIOCTpHPOB3HHOH KHHre. Ilocne ororo OH nomen B roponcxoa napx H OCHmaJICH TaM nonroe BpeMJI. Ilepen nexepoa OR BepHYJICH .lI.oMoit

2. Xonan JIll TbI ceroana B HHCTH1)'T? ;::J;3, JI yinen B HHCTHTyT nocne noIl)'.llIDl H OCTaBaJICH TaM nonroe BpeMR.

Fne TbI 83M :)TOT wunoCT'pHpOS3HI-lLIH lK)'PHan? jI 83J1Jl TIOT )f()'pRall B OH6JUlOTeKe MeJUJII.HHCKorO lIHCTHI)'TIl. 3Ta HHCTHryrCKaJI 6H6JIHOTeK3 (6«6- nnorexa HHCTmyTa) HaXO.ll.HTCR 6JIH3KO OT 3Jl.aHIUI CeJlhCKOX03HficTBeHHOfO !}laK)'JIhTern aacnrryra :)KOHOMHKH.

Korna TLl sepH)'JICH AOMon? Ceronas JI BepH)'JIC1I lloMOi{ sesepox.

3. TLI lIllTaJI ceroztsx rasery? HeT, 11 He lIHTaJI ceronns n13eT)'.

ThI exana na TaKeR? ReT, 51 He exana ua TaKCH.

MaJu,qHJ( B3JIJI rropnpen»? HeT, OH He B3IDl nOPT.peJIh.

Tbl XOAHJl ceronaa B napx? HeT, 11 He XOAIDI B napx ceronas,

ThI nonro HaXOllHJIaCh B HHcTH1)'Te? Her, 11 HaXO.1lHJlaCb TaM aeaorrro (H He aaxonanacs TaM nonro).

YPOKN29

~ ... ~p _, ... ~ ...

XaM3a COe,[],HHHTeJJhHaSi (~"J1 iJ--ll)

... 0 ... Op _" ... 1:1 ".

II XaM3a pa3,UeJIHTeJIbHaH (F'I i,_;...A)

XaM3a B nasaae CJlOBa 6bISaeT nsyx annoa: coenaaarensuas Ii pasnenaTeJIbHaR.

COeJlHHHTeJ1hHOH XaM10H Ha3hIBaeTC)1 Ta, xoropaa qi1TaeT~SI, ecna cnoao c aasansuoa xaM30M orxpusaer npennoxenne, Ii ortycxaercs (He naurercs H He npOH3HoCHTen), ecrm 3TO enOBO naxomrrcs B cocrase npenrtoacenaa, Harrpavep:

.. c

~J-. HMJI

HMJI sroro senosexa Ha6HJIb.

KaK 30Byr sroro xerroaexa? (nocnoano:

KaKOBO HMa sroro xenosexa")

.. .

~l~cbIH

a ... o~ , ""'p .... / '0

~I ~ ~J! I»:.r.! CblH 3TOro -renoaexa nOMa.

, ..... ". ..,. ""

J" .. ... .., J o~.. £II f.

<' ~) I I h 0--:' I 0-! I rne C1iH aroro xenoaexa?

B nepaov 11 rpen.ev npHMepax xavaa eo caoek orrracosxoji 11I1TaeTC5I B cnosax ~! 11 ~!. Bo BTOPOM Ii qeTBepTOM npasiepax xasoa B 3TRX cnosax He naurerca H He npOH3HOCHTeSl, a HaD. aJIHCPOM rrmnercx sacna .

.. t~ 0

COe,lU1HlneJIbHOH >1BJI51eTC5I aa-ransnaa xasrsa B cnone '01."...01 (>KeHllU1Ha),

ecrrn 3TO enOBO ynorpefincno B aasane npe,WIOlKeHIDI B neonpenenemrou co-

_. to ~ °t

CTOHH}I11. B orrpeneneaaora COCT0>1HI111 aro eJIOBO muuercs: ol~l.

. . (

Hau60nee nOKaJaTeJlbHbIH npinrep COenHHI1TeJIbHOH xaM3hl -. aprmcns JI.

a npyrax crrysasx ynOTpe6JIeHIDI coe,UliHHTeJlbHOH xaM3bI B rnaronax H orrnarOJIbHbJX HMeHaX 6yneT CKa3aHO B .llaJ1bHeHllIeM.

Pa3)l,eJ1HTeJlbHOH X3M30H Ha3bIBaeTC.SI ra, KOTOPaH DHlIIeTC.SI Ii npOH3HOCHTCH B cnose, He3aBHCHMO OT roro, xaxoe MecTO B npe,llJIOiKeHlUI oaa 3aHHMaeT.

74

$.,

COLIeTaHHe 11 S nauane CJ10Ba 0603HaQaeTC.R na Oi1CbMe 3HaKOM -- (MaMa)

J ,_ 'J!l} ,_ 'JU

Hall aJUHPOM, Hanpl1Mep: .i..>1 < ..i.>11 J.SI < J.511.

XaM3a KOHeQllaH.

Ilpaaonacanne xaM3hI B rcouue CJ10Ba

XaM3a B KOHue CJ10sa nHWeTC5I na crpoxe (6e3 HOCHTeJl5I) nocne JlOnrOH rnacnoti H nocne cornacnoro, ornacoaannoro CyKyHOM, nanpnxep: ~ G ~ I "II ~

ECJm 6yKBa nepell. KOHe4HoH xaM30H HMeeT ornaCOBKY (He CYKYH), TO xaasa 0l1WeTC51 Hall. 6YKBOH, COOTBeTCTBYlOLUei1 :nOM OfnaCOBKe, He3aBHCMMO OT

i ~, } "" .. '" J {, .t

OfnaCOBKH xaM3bl, HanpHMep: l..b..> ~ Ir ~ _;J \......:..j I.

Saoan ue Ng 1

Ilepennunrre cnezyiourue crtosa, onpenernm HOCHTel151 xaM3bI TaM, rne 31'0 Heo6xoll.HMO.

3aoall ue }(g 2

.J ~ ~

MeCTOHMeHHe ( '. a 11 )

J ..

,.

B apaticxou 513hlKe I1MeeTC5I HeCKOJ1hKO paapsnoa MecToHMeHHH. xoropue Pa3JIHlIal-OTCH no 3HalieHI1IO: yxaaarerrsasre, J1l1QHble, sonpocirrenstrsre, OTHOcnrensasre, neonpeneneunue.

Apa6cKa51 rpaMMaTHKa LleJIHT MeCTOHMeH1UI Ha paanensusre Ii CllHTHbIe.

Pasnensnsre nlnUYTCH KaK caMOCT05lTenhHbIe C110Ba. 3TO yuasarensaue MeCTOHMeHH51, JlHYHble MeCTOHMeHHH B J1MeHI1TeJlbHOM nanezce, OTHOCJ1TeJlbHble, neonpeneneanue. Bortpocirrern.nue MeCTOHMeHl15J nHWYTCH 11 pa3L1,eJ1bHO, 11 CJ1HTHO C HeKOTOpbIMI1 npeanoraax.

75

Crnrraste mUllYTC.SI BMeCTe (C]lHTHO) co eJIOBaMH, K KOTOPblM OHM OTHOC.SITest: e HMeHaMM cymecTBMTenbHhIMM, rnaronaua 11 npennorasra.

Crurraste MeCTOMMemUl BbInOJIH.SIIOT nse <PYHKUHH. Ilpa HMeHax CYIIleeTBHTeJIbHbIX OHll YKa3blBalOT aa npHHa.II,Jleil<HOCTb npenuera KaKOMY-JIH60 JIHu.y (ana YKa3b1BaIOT aa cytisexra .ll.eHCTBIDI, supaxeunoro OTrnarOJIbHhIM HMeHeM). B PYCCKOM xasrxe TaK}'lO q.YHKlUIIO BbInOJIHHJOT nparaxarensaue MeCTOHMeHIDI.

rTPM rnaronax H npeanorax OHM BbmOJ1IDlIOT $YHKU,HIO nHllHhlX MeCTOHMeHMM B KOCBeHHblX naztezcax.

CJIHTHLle MeCTOHMeHHJI "PH HMeHax CYllleCTBHTeJIhHLIX

HIDKe cnenyer nepeseas CJ1MTHhIX MeCTOHMeHHlf B ellMHCTBeHHOM xncne.

~- Man, MOll l-e n. M.p. H iI<.p.
- '"
~ TBOH,TBOjJ 2-e n. M.p.
cJ TBOH,TBOH 2-e n, )K.p.
,
}.
0 era 3-e JI. M.p.
~ ee 3-e JI. )K.p. Ilpa npacoenaaeaaa CJIHTHOrO MeCTOHMeHIDI l-ro JIMua K liMeHH C)'ll.I,eCTBHTeJIhHOMY KOHellHaH OrnaCOBKa sroro HMeHH (B IIMeHMTenhHOM II BHHHTenbHOM naaexax) MeWleTC.SI aa IOICpy, nanpaaep:

" }.".," , j.." '"
(..f"1 W" - ":-' GSJ I KHHra- MOS! ~~~l.>1 .H B3S!JI CBOIO KHH-
.... ,;.,. .,
KHHra ry.
;' ..... J II' 0,. t ,.;,~o;1
~~:J - .r=-i:U1 TeTpa.JJ.b - MaS! I.S?:J ~..l.:> I .H 83.S1JI CBOIO TeT-
.. , - ,
rerpans pans, Ilpa npHCOe.D,HHeHHM CJ1HTHhIX MeCTOHMeHHH K lfMeHaM cymecraarensnuv JKeHCKOrO pona, HMelOlllHM OKOlPlaHIIe 0 (ra Map6Y'ra), nOcne.D,IDUI aa nHChMe npenpauraerca B V (ra Maq.ma), narrpmrep:

nopnpem, - MO" noproeas

, ",}o,.f

~ ..)..J...r: 0.L:> I 51 assn CBOIO rasery.

~ ~ ~

, .... II) J" "'" I-

~ u.i> I 51 B3HJI CBOH noprdiens,

H .. ,

- H.MJl cytuecmeumensnoe co cnumuusc uecmouuenuen R6JUlemCJl UMelleM 8 onpeoenennau cocmosuuu. Tasoe UMJl nusoeoa ne npUIlUMaem apmusns.

Ecna JTO liMH »MeeT npn ee6e yxasarensaoe MeCTOHMeHHe, TO OHO CTaBHTe51 nocne HMeHH, xarrpauep:

~i ~ , ....
,_;_r.j~ Mos TeTpa.Ll.h na nHChMeHHOM
- ,-
crone,
} "i ~ ~
~ ~! MOM noptrpens aa cryne.
~ .... ,. ,.
r,Ii! .. J IIJ.,. ~ l:.u " 0 ..
~ ~I ,..;~~ 3Ta MOS TeTp3Jl.h aa nHCbMeHHOM
~ - .-
crone.
~ 0 J Olfllll ~ ~ ~
~ ~! fJ.)..A 3TOT Mati nopT¢enb aa cryne.
~ ,.- - .- .- EeJIH TaKoe HMS cyruecraarensnoe KpOMe yxaaarem.noro MeCTOliMeHIDI KMeeT npM ee6e erne H onpenenenae, TO YK33aTeJ1LHOe MeCTOHMeHHe CTaBHTClI nocrre ortpeneneaxa, HanpHMep:

.- ~~i
~ I:.L.A L:S' 3Ta MOS HOBM KHHra aa nacs-
- . ~
.- ... ... J' ;"
~ !iII.J.o ..
.. ?JI MeHHOM crone.
~
} " .... ~
.- ~J....iJ1
fJ ..1..1\ 3wT MOM CTapbIM rtoprrpern, B
~, , - .- ,
t#' ." .",iII llIKatjly.
~!~I .
~ Ecnn eJIHTHOMY MeeTOHMeHffiO 3-ro nHua M)')KCKOrO pona npemnecrsyer OfnaCOBKa iorcpa HJIH nonroe (H), TO JTO MeCTOHMeHHe MeIDIeT CBOIO ornacosI<Y aa K51Cpy, aarrpaaep:

Kaura B ero nopnpene.

77

I ,. Q ~ t

_r:.J J.J I Terpans Ha ero nHCbMeHHoM crorre,

Ofipaseu CKJIOHeHIDI HMeH cymecTBHTeJIbHhIX co CJUlTHhIMH MeCTOHMe~ HlliIMH.

n8,ll,e)lm
BHHHTeJlLHblH PO;::UfrenhHblH I1MeHHTeJIbHbIH
~ ,.. ~,.. ~ ,.. ~, -' ,... , .....
~_r:..J~ ~~~ Ht;.· ,,;;:JJ I-e n.
._Q~
H ,.. ,.. ,.. ... "'" ,. -1 ~ ,.. -1
,. ... J' ,.rI' 0- ~~7;~ ~ ,. " ...... ..... s : "''' ~~~,
4.!l; 1; « ?'..o . ~~~ eL:- t;«~ 2-en.
M.p.
, , .... .... ....
d": 4 ~ ;'..0 ..... ". ....... ' ..... , ..... J .... "" J ,. ..
~~~ ~ t:.. ~~~ ~1 - t:.. ~.rJ~ 2-en . )f(.p.
... Q~ I,;. =' q ""...0
.... .... ,.. , ,- .... ,..
J ,.. ,.. "0 },. II'" 0;" .... '" ,.. ',.. ~ J. " ,... JJ ~ 0 ...
.. .. t;. /)."..;J~ 1:,.' !?.) A .. 1:.' o_,.;.J~ 3-e JI . M.p.
, " ::-...0 ;;7_"~ , 4 ""-0
JEW
,.. ,.. ,.. ,. ,.
I" , ,.. ,.. 0 "" .......... 4-; " ,... .... ..,. 0 .... !" J. ~ -;. LA~;~
bi' ~ ,J",;..h bi' ~_;:..i~ 3-e n. IK.p.
+ " Xo4 4 Xo4 +~ ,,~
,.. ,.. ,.. ,.. TIpH npl1COe,ll,HHeHlUf CJIHTHhIX MeCTOlfMeHHH (KDOMe MeCTOHMeHHH l-ro Jill"

. " t .. -c

ua) 1< HMeHaM cyuiecrmrrensmra yl (oreu) H tl (6paT) 3TH nsyxcorrracasie

liMeHa nonysaror ztonrory, COOTBeTCTByrol.l(ylO na)le)l(HOH ornacosxe,

"t .. t

C}(JJOHeHHe UMeH ,,-,I U t' CO CJ1HTHhlMU MeCTOHMeHIDIMH.

nan,e)f(H
BHHHTeJIhHhJH PO.IJ:HTeJIbHbJH 11 MeHHTeJIhHLIH
f t , t t t
. I ~I . I ~I . I ~l I-e JI.
~ ':?": ~
" f £ t ~i ' J f, ~;i
~L>I ~CI ~I ~_"'>I 2-e n, M.p.
- .
" ,..
" f, c t (, J t ,.t,
~L>I eJCI 41 I.!LI eJ ..,..>1 eJ __t-!' 2-e JI. )K.p .
· .. .
, " ,.. ,,.. ~ .- .. ,.. .
;Lj.i ;ci t ! .J J. t J 1
.t.-.>I .__.I b..,..>1 b__t-! 3~e n, M.p.
• .. .. ,
,.. ". , "
#' ~ f. ~, ~i ~i " J t ~ 1
L.A.L>I ~L.:I Ut ".>1 3~en. )K.p.
J-1
· ,.. B pa3rOBopHOH pettlf KOHel.IHhie rnacnsre CJUfTH.hIX MeCTOHMeHHH (KpOMe MeCTOHMeHIDI LA) He npOH3HOCHTCH.

fipHMephl ynorpefineaas cnHTHhIX MeCTOHMeHHH e,UHHCTseHHoro l.m:cna c HMeHaMH cymecrmrremnsnm:

78

JO 0 D,. "
~~i ~ ~i ~ J..:~i ~~~ MOH HOBaH TeTpa.Ilb sa
I' .. "" "" "" ""
~~-,~1 nHCbMeHHOM CTOJIe B CO-
cezmeti KOMHaTe.
,- ..
0 .. . ,- J ,. 0 .. ~
LI~I bJ....), ~ ~..I..Ll! MoH. CTapbIH noprtpens B
~
.- , "" , .. ,. ,. 3TOM lllKa<py.
c • '" (. , }t , ot
--.....;.\ ~ ~ ~I \'~~I ~I Tne TBOH: oreu? MOH: oren
, ~ .- , .. .
B .ll.OMe csoero 6paTa.
r;, , 10 , ! ). t , of
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~ .

I1HCTHT)'T HMeeT 60J1bUl)'lO 6H6J1HOTeI<Y.

Ilpennora ~ H ~..u 0503HalJCUOT HaJIHlJHe npe,UMeTa y xaxoro-naoo JIH~

ua. B OTJIKl£He OT HlIX npennor f::::.4 0503HaQaeT HaJIHlJHe nperesera y xaxoroJIn60 JIHUa B JlaHHblH MOMeHT, nanpaxep:

o f_ •

~ " t:..: ":." ~,I ! I '" :, I ~

~ '." , :_ , ...:...9 ~ ~ .J.:,..;;. Io.l""'"

~~ ~ -", ,

'!JI t......,.,. .. .....' t."", G .,

~ ,.j! ~ " .".;..; ~ ~I ~. J..A

ECTb JIM Y raoero 6paTa QHCraH rerpans?

B nocnennea npelIJlO)l(eHHH co.neP)I(HTCH aonpoc, ecrs 11M lJHCTaH rerpaas HMeHHO ceasac.

6. 06beKTHhie OTHOllIeHHH Bblpa)KalOT rrpeanorn, ynOTpe51I.SllOIUHeCH C rnaronasor. TaKHe rtpenrrora M3MeIDIlOT, YTOlJIDIlOT 3HalJeHIDl rnaronos, nanpasrep:

,~ npamrrs, ynpaansrs
~ ~ npMrOBOpHTb KOrO-JI.
u ~ nparoeoparssseay-n.
.
" Fnaronsr, ynorpednmomaecs c npeDJIOraMH, cnenyer 3anOMHHaTh BMeCTe C npennoraaa.

7. Ilpeanor ._, ynorpeforsercx )l)1H BhIpall<eHIDI pa:mWIHbIx 3HaQeHHH,

"

B l.{aCTHOCTH:

92

-. 0pYAHJI WIH CpenCTBa, HanpllMep:

-. MeCTa neHCTBHJI, 3aMeWUI npennor ~, sanpaxep:

.. .-

'. J .~ '0 J .~

(t(...iJ1 u-!) L(,.AJ~ (B KOMHaTe);

,. ... "''' ,,,tI.,. ,

- COBMeCTHOCTL D.eHCTBHJI, 3aMeIDIJI npennor C:'" HanpHMep:

... OJ#' ,. .~ ,

fl)lt ~~ fl) I ~ ~~ (OH ytuen C MaJIbqHKOM).

3TOT rrpennor HMeeT H .npyrne 3HaQeHIDI.

Saoanue

Buy-nrre cnosa:

c:..o ~ ~L;.;i ~ ~L;.;i ~ ~ w-.:-! ~ ~ \.S..u ~IJ-'

CJIHTHLle MeCTOHMeHHH npn rnaronax H npeanorax

CJ1HTHhle MeCTOHMeHHJI rrpn nepeXO.lJ.HLIX rnaronax ssmonnsror <PYHKurno J1W1HbIX MeCTOHMeHH" B BHHHTeJ1hHOM nanexe.

IIp" npeUJ10rax CJIHTHhle MeCTOlfMeHHJI BblnOJ1IDUOT q,YHKI..UnO JIWlHbIX MeCTOHMeHHH B KOCBeHHOM (p0,ll;HTeJIhHOM) rtanexe.

Hexoropue oco6eHHOCTH coeJUfHeHIDI CnJITHblX MeCTOHMeHHH C fJIUrOJIaMH H npennoraxa.

1. TIPH npacoenanenaa CJIHTHorO MeCTOHMeHIDI l-ro JIHll.a eJl.HHCTSeHHoro 1{MCna K rrrarony OHO npHHHMaeT TaK H33hlBaeMwit «oxpaanun» H)'H. TIpHMephI ynorpetineana CJIHTHbIX MecToHMeHHJ:I c rnaronasm.

.- ..- "t
. 4 .• OH nOHJUI MeH1I ~~ OH cnpOCHJ1 MeIDl
~~ Q
.- .....
~"o~; ,f-
OH nOH1IJ} Te611 (M.p.) ~~ OH cnpOCHJ1 Te611 (M.p.)
..-
... ,..t
e1 : . OH nonsn re611 (zc.p.) c.U~ OH cnpOCHJ1 Te611 ()K.p.)
, '
... ~ .-
} " .- ;JL
• II , ' OH noaan ero OH cnpOCHJI ero
~
.- --t
t ' , . 4J~
, 0 , ' OH nOH1I11 ee OH cnpOCHJI ee
, 2. Ilpa npHCOel1.HHeHHH CJUITHOrO MeCTOHMeHIDi l-ro naua e.nHHCTBeHHOro t:mCJla K npennorax ~ )1 ~ I.S:.J 06pa3)'lOTC1I COlfeTaHWI:

f H ~

~ ::; .
HaMHe ~ BO MHe
:)1 KO MHe ~:.J npa MHe, Y MeH5I
_ ft - o 0 .-

3. Ilpx npHCoeJUiHeHHH aroro MeCTOHMeHlUl I< npennoran ~ Ii ~ ofipa-

:tJ ~.", ....

3)'lOTCJI COl.JeTaHI1R: ~ (or MeIDl) Ii~. (OT MeIDl, 060 MHe).

4. Ilpa npncoenaaennn CJ1HTHOrO MeCTOHMeHllil l-ro nnua I< rtpennorara ~

" 0 CJ ...

H ~ KOHel{Ha1I ornacoaxa rrpennora MeIDIeTC5I na K.RCpy: !..S~ ~.

#' "",; _.#' u",

5. Ilpn npHcOe.QI1HeHl1H CJ1MTHOro MeCTOHMeHHlI 3~ro J1Hua eznnrcraeaaoro

4HCJ1a MY)I(CKOrO porta K npennorast ~ ~J! ~~ ,~"_J 06p(3)'lOTCH cose-

o ' ". • "" " ....... • ..... ~

TaHH1I: ~l.c: (na HeM), ~l (K HeMY), Y (B HeM), ~..u (npa HeM, Y Hero).

" II' 5 ; .. '" '"

Ilpaaepu ynOTPe611eHH1I C11HTHhIX MeCToHMeHHH C npennorasia (r11ar011

npHXoAHTb-Jl ~).

.. ~J .. .. .-
. ~~ ~ Ko MHe npHWeJ1 ztpyr .
M " ..
" ~ ,.- .- ..". ~,. .; o " ,.- ~ ..... 0 1 0 ....
. ~.r&- .u.>...:o A...~ ~~l ~ B KOMHaTe nl1CbMeHHhlH
. .- - .
.-
CTOJ1. Ha HeM apa6CKHH
>KYPHaJI •
"" ~ ..... "" fiI .., ..,0 J ~ :! ... .. " , , ~~
L.,.,)J...o 4-!~J . ti..l..> TaM 06W.HPHblH napx. OKO-
. . .- 11 ,
--..~
, ..
no Hero lllKOll.a.
~ .. .. ~ " 0 .- "8 ~:J ~
(' ~~ t..S""'!"J.)...A u - Y Te6" ecrs apa6CKHH
- .- . ,
yqe6HHK?
:L.:...:o J " .. J 0 , ,.-
A...A....o ~~) 51 sepUYJICH c HHM aeuepov.

.. J .- ,- ~l 0 .- " ..
l , M q ,~ w~ K HeH npamrraee nonpyra,
. .
.. .. 6. Ilpn rrpncoenaaerura npeanora J K CJUITHhIM MeCTOHMeHIDIM (HcKJUOl.Ja1l

..

MeCTOHMeHHe 1 -ro mma e.D.HHCTBeHHOrO 4Hcna) xscpa npe.nn:ora MelUleTca aa q,aTxy. nanpavep:

3Ta KHHra npHHa.n.ne>KHT exy,

Y nee 60JlbWWI CeMh.H.

:}rOT *ypHaTI npHHa,une>KlIT MHe.

94

7. Bonpoe K raxoro pona npellJIO)KeHIDIM sanaercs npu nOMOlUH npennora

. '"

J 11 nortpocarensnoro MeCTOHMeHIDI ,j-G, HanpHMep:

'"

3TOT xapannaur npHH3..LUle:II\HT Te6e. unu: 3ro TBOH xapannaur,

8. B rrpe)l.J10IKeHIDIX, cozrepacaunrx OTpHU3HHe npHH3.nJ1e)KHOCTH xaxcrorrafio npeaseera, HeUlH H T.n. KOMY-J1H60 HJ1" OTp"l.(3HHe HaJ1HllUSI npeJ],MeTa UJ1" naua rne-nufio, B xaxecrae OTpHuaHIDI ynOTpe6JUleTCH rnaron

~ 0" - • ,,- 0 '"

~ (He ecrs, He HMeeTCH, HeT) ,l1)lH MY)l(CKOrO pona H t.:. ";., .lUlH )KeHCKOro

porta.

Fnaron, KaK npaBI1JIO, cranarca B Ha'laJIe npe,nJImKeHIDI Ii cornacyercs c nOWlelKaIUHM B pone, HanpIiMep:

KOMY npHHanJIelKUT :)TOT xapannaur? U/lU: LJeH 3TOT xapaanaur?

ECIIH nocne rJIarOJIa IKeHCKoro pona CTOHT HMH. cymecraarerrsnoe )I<eHCKO~ [0 pona C apTHKJIeM J!, TO CyKyH OKOWIaHIDl .Jl,JUI 6nar03BytIHJl MeIDIeTCJl ua KJICpy, a anucp BaCJIHpyeTCll, narrpnvep:

• .,; Ell " 0 ,,;'

c..,u, f_. J

3TOT IKYPHaJ1 npnaanneIKIIT He exy.

Y MeHSI mIT apeveaa.

TaM HeT rasersr.

3neCb HeT xapaanarua,

)KypHarI npHHa,UJ1e)l(HT He eMy.

Saoanue }{g 1

3aoanue Kg 2

Hanaunrre eo BceMH C)UtTHbIMH MeCTOHMeHllSlMH npennorz:

'" . '"

~" .. J

3aoanue.Ni! 3

Ilepeaeznrre na apa6cKuM 1I3blK npennoxeuas: OH aepnyncs co MHOM (c TO- 60M Ii T . n.), ynorpeonn ace CJIHTHble MeCTOHMeHIDL

llpH'IaCTHH .neiicTBHTeJlLHOrO H crpa,naTenbHoro 3anorOB

OT npaBHJlLHLIX TPexCOrJIaCHLIX rJlarOJIOB

npWIaCTH1I Jl.eHCTBHTellbHOro 3aJIOra OT rrpasHJIbHJ,IX TpeXCOfJIaCHbIX rna-

.. .-

rOlI08 06Pa3YIDTCH no cxesre ~ u, a npWiacnrn crpanarensnoro 3aJIOra - no

." j 0 Ii'''' ." ,

cxeae J_,......A.o. )I{eHcKHH pen ofipaayerca llo6aBJIeHHeM OKOHQaHIDI i -, aa-

npmrep:

~~ 3HalOmHH ~
~ " " 3HaTb. Y3HaBaTb
W~ 3HalOI.ll.aJI
.-
~~ pa60TIUOILtHH ~ pa6OTaTb • .n.enaTb
" "
;.L~ paoorarouras
"
:JL1 HLIzylllHH ~
. .. HCKan., npOCHTh
" ..
wlJ:, .
HmymIDI
...
.. J."
r.,.;..Lo OTKPblThlH .. " ~
.. ," , ~ .r" ~ OTKpbIBaTb
~~ orxpsrras
.. J."
J~ 3aKpbITblH jJj
... '" ,. ~ 3aKpbIBaTb
;J~ 3aKpbITaJI
.. J • "
t_JJ.J-4 3ace,JlHHbIH " ""
t_;.J ceRTb
! .- J • .-
4.&.JJjA 3aceRHHWl DpH4acTIUI n:eHCTBHTellhHOfo H CTpanaTeJIbHOrO 3anOfOB B apaficxo« 1I3Mxe, TaJ( )l(e KaK H B PYCCKOM,nerKO cy6cTaHTlfBHp)'JOTClI (ynorpeonoorcs KaK

96

HMeHa cyurecrsarensasre) H ansexrasnpyiorcs (ynOTpe6JOOOTCH KaK HMeHa

.J. J. .-

npanararensnue), HanpHMep: .JJ' ... , 0 (3HaMeHlITbIH, H3BeCTHbIii) .

.J. J • .- ~~ .- J
, ... ~ OH - 3HaMeHHTblH yqeHbJH.
. JJ II 0
, oJ" J • , W~ .-
, ... ~ OHa -. 3HaMeHHTWI yqemul.
. O,)J .0
.-
o~i ". } ~~ ~t1Ji
~~ . Crynear CH)J;HT (CH)lJIlUHH) B ayn.HTO-
. !,J",) ~
. .-
., pUH.
o ~ ~ ". J 1 '" l t,;. J" ;il f,
!,J" JJJI ~~ . 4.JLkJI Crynenrsa CH,lJ,HT (CHLVlIUWI) B aY.llH-
~
.- . . .,
.- TOP""· Saoanue J(g 1

3a()auue.N£ 2

06pcnyihe rrpWlacTIDI.ll.eiicTBlITenbHOro sanora OT rrraronoa Ii onpeziemrre

Saoauue J(g 3

06pa3yihe npWlaCTIDI crpanarensaoro sancra OT rnaronoa Ii onpenemrre

CnpJI)KeHHe rnarnna ~

B upourenuresr BpeMeHH B e,llHHCTBeHHOM qHCJle

Frraron ~ KMeeT pasaue 3HaQeHIDI. Inecb ynorpefinserca B 3HaQeHHH «npOBOIU1Tb» (apeus).

J • ." ~

..... a; l-e n .

.", ..... '

._., a; 2-e n. M.p.

4 - 1767 97

• .- .-
~ . ~ 2·e n. m.p.
La • . ~,
.,. H
.- ,
~ 3·e JI. M.p.
• .,. ,
H '-ai 3·e JI. m.p.
~ IIpoI.JHTaiiTe H nepeaenarc TeKCT

~

~ ..l>'il ja..J L., ai L(,'(-

....,7""H.... ...

~J~' J~ Ih~~ ~1·~.J-::, c:o A..7_~_a;U~ a 11 A..~.J.5' ~ ~u, .J-A 0 'iIJ . L~L:JI 4-.J..w1 ~ u-o

. ~J-A L....o~ ~..u ~~ ~~ ~J . J...."_:-: ~ ~J.:>;_,j ~I ~ ~! ~..r4->

.. ..

. ~I 'f! Q II ~ oJ.;...c ~ • t'; Q 4J J-._,.1 ~..l>J LG:o b lJ

~ ~ . ..\,jlj ~~ I , :-J ~ . I~ ~...;-4 ;J.;J,.,.l-J

L . ... .:. t I . .. .. . . <,,, • ~ .. ('" • tJ ~ A.J~ LOO·., ~.~J~.rJo.r~.JO ~J ~O:.h

I , ~ l.c ~x_. ~ ~JL1 ~J .~L:~ (L; a 4 ~I ~-'

. LJbj 4J_,j_, 0.1 a; A ~_'. 0_""_j-~ U:i j~

.. ~

rj-!-! ~J . o..uWI jLoI ~I . C=!~ ~.;-iJ1 ~ rLl:z.:J'_,

. LL~ Q ~ .r_;>J1 ~ oJ~ i.l.iWI ~_, . .r_,.-JIJ ~I . ~l-t:- u-l! oj a: 0 1I_, ~I y.;J JJJwl ~,.,..c.1.;l>~J. odJ~I~ o.)~ A_~J~I ~

. ~~I ~WI ~_,.> ~, yl~ ~_,;.

CJ10Bapb

~ 6 , ~~i ,. ,
~J MarKHH rJ-! BOCKpeceHhe
.,.
~" ~ • ~, .-
0.1.4.: 0 CTOJ1HK, T)'M6ol.JKa ;._;~ )f(YP HaJIH:CTHKa
, ,
II "CAS ~ J
~. 3J1eKTpW.JeCKHH ..r..,J.A )l.HpeKTOp
" ' " '
t.1_j nOpR)l.OK,CHCTeMa w~ IOHOUla, nO)l.pOCTOK
r '
" , .. ,
(j.f-t BeJ1HKOnenHbln, ~.)..> paarosop, 6ece)l.a,
,
rtpeeocxonasra paCCKa3 98

~ ~ ." ~~
A;_""j l..(BeTOlJHaJI aasa nponauarerrensra,
~ . ~
YMHblH
i:'~ <I> ~
Kooep , &, b I npIfBeTJlHBI.IH.)lo6·
~ ~
PbIH, H3S1IUHhIH
~ ~ ~ .,. • ,
jJLj, CTOJl ~ )lOCTasmnOlll.H,H yno-
o .J
~ BonbCTBHe. narepec-
HblM, yBJIeKaTeJlhHhlH
~ ~ ~
j~ ann ap ar mocrpa
-til • ~ ... ~L.;.
~ nororrox, xpsnua CTopoHa
. ~
<#I " "t I~
~) n01l OtteHb
- ~ .
~ ~. ~ ..
\J.1'!. ... #', : TeJleBH30p ,.~ seuis, npenuer, He-
LITO, lITO-JlH60
.,. ~, j_;(-
0UI Me6eJIb, 06CTaHOB- B03paCTal:OlUHH,
~)
ICa 1IHWHHH:
,. ." .... .... ,
4Ja...,_,> KapTIl UJ-I" urepcrs
WI" ".' ... " ,
<» .r>: reo rpaqm)l ...L::- rOCnO.ll,HH
:e • I" ", ' ~ , .-
y-!~ reo rpruimttec.KHH y~ 6HTb
;:.Ji..C MHp ~ nnasars
, ,,, 06rOHSlTb " . ~ )lo6po
- .r::>
~
o~ .,. ,
- - .. , >KaJIOBaTbCJI . CBeT
: )_;J
* • "" ,II , .' ... .
~.J ~I notipo nO)KaJ10BaTh i~~ ceKpe-raph
, IN, .. "
... ~ , , .,
6narOp0,lUibIH, i~LiJI KaHp
~"
mo6e3HblH , YnpaJlCHeHUR

1. OTBeTbTe aa aonpocu:

~ .).:10. ~l r.J-!. ~ J~ ~! ~ ~ ~ y! A..i..;~ ~ ~ ~ loU 4..A.J~ ~ J~ r..rJ~ ~i

99