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Name : Ingrid Sisilia

Renhoran
NIM

: 201210100311172

AN ANALYSIS ON DIGLOSIA IN JAVANESE WEDDING RITUAL


PANGGIH PINANGANTEN

I.

INTRODUCTION
Language holds the important parts in some rituals in society. The use of
language in some tribes can add the sacredness of its rituals. Usually those tribes use
the high stratified language for some rituals procession. One of the tribes in Indonesia
which has unique structures about the using of language in some ritual procession is
Javanese. This tribe inhabits in most of Java Island started from East Java until
Central Java. Javanese people basically has three language structures that exist on
their society, the highest

language structure called Kromo Inggil or the high

language (H) than Krama Madya as the intermediate language and the last is
Krama Ngoko as the low language (L). The three language structures are used in
some different situations and also for different people to show the stratification or the
position, the higher strata of them the more we use the H language for them such us it
is used for elderly, prominent figure, educated people and etc.
This situation also happens in one of Javanese rituals, especially for wedding
rituals that called Panggih Pinanganten atau Temu Manten. In this ritual, Krama
Inggil becomes the only one language structure that is allowed to accompany the
ongoing procession. The using of Krama Inggil in Temu Manten ritual has been
existing in the past century and this phenomenon still exists until this modern era.
Based on the book An Introduction to Sociolinguistic written by Ronald Wardhough,
this situation can be categorized as Diglosia, in which the language in Temu Manten
II.

is still stable until now.


Literature Review
II.1 Sociolinguistic

Sociolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and society.


It describes how the languages deal with some issues in sociolinguistics field,
such as: Language and Gender, Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Language
Variation and etc.
II.2 Diglosia
Based on the Charles A. Ferguson, (1959) :
Diglosia is a relatively stable language situation in which, in addition to the
primary dialects of the language (which may include a standard or regional
standards), there is a very divergent, highly codified (often grammatically
more complex) superposed variety, the vehicle of a large and respected
body of written literature, either of an earlier period or in another speech
community, which is learned largely by formal education and is used for
most written and formal spoken purposes but is not used by any section of
the community for ordinary conversation.
In this situation Diglosia can be seen as stable language that is learned by
educated people or prominent figure in society. This language can be categorized
as high language (H) that has complex grammar and mostly is used for written
form and formal spoken. The community rarely uses this language for ordinary or
daily conversation. The H language is considered more prestigious and powerful
then the L language that is used for daily conversation that is lack prestige and
power.
The development of diglosia is categorized into nine points, they are:
1. Function
H and L are used for different purposes, and native speakers of the
community would find it odd (even ludicrous, outrageous) if anyone used H
in an L domain, or L in an H domain. It means that we use the language as
their appropriate proportions in society. We will use the H when we are in

the area of H and vice versa. It will be funny if we use the language is not in
their area.
2. Prestige
In most diglossias situation, H was more highly valued (had greater
prestige) than was L. It means that the speakers consider that the H is
powerful than L that is used to show certain characters as rustic, comical,
uneducated, etc.
3. Acquisition
L-variety is the variety learned first; it is the mother tongue, the
language of the home. H-variety is acquired through schooling.
4. Literary heritage
In most diglossic languages, the literature is all in H-variety; no written
uses of L exist, except for `dialect' poetry, advertising, or `low' restricted
genres. In most diglossic languages, the H-variety is thought to be the
language; the L-variety is sometimes denied to exist, or is claimed to be
only spoken by lesser mortals (servants, women, children).
5. Standardization
H is strictly standardized; grammars, dictionaries, canonical texts, etc.
exist for it, written by native grammarians. However the L usually there is
no grammars, dictionaries and standardized texts for the L.
6. Stability
Diglosia is more stable being protected from change by its association
with written texts and by an educational system. It can be exist over
thousand years.
7. Grammar
The grammars of H are more complex than the grammars of L-variety.
They have more complex tense systems, gender systems, agreement, and
syntax than L-variety.
8. Lexicon
Lexicon is often

somewhat

shared,

but

generally there

differentiation; H has vocabulary that L lacks, and vice-versa.


9. Phonology

is

Two kinds of systems are discerned. One is where H and L share the
same phonological elements, but H may have more complicated
III.

morphophonemic. Or, H is a special subset of the L-variety inventory.


Data findings
In this mini-research, data collection that the researcher used is interview with
the expert of Master of Ceremony in Javanese wedding ritual Panggih Pinanganten.
So based on the interview that researcher is conducted in 29 December 1014 in Batu,
Malang, she expects to find the accurate data according the fact that is found on the
field.
At the first Panggih Pinanganten is one of the traditions that is originally from
Mataram Islam kingdom when the Senopati Raja Mataram held a wedding celebration
for his son Sultan Agung Hanyokrowati. Panggih Pinanganten has philosophy for
recalling of the meeting of the prophet Adam and his wife Siti Hawa in the plain of
Arafat. Temu Manten itself is divided into two groups; first is Panggih Pinanganten
Muslim and Panggih Pinanganten Adat Jawi. In each group contains some
important procession that arrange orderly. Every procession in Panggih Pinanganten
symbolizes something and this ritual is very sacred. In those processions, they use
Krama Inggil purely that is not allowed to mix the language in procession with
another Javanese language structure like Krama Madya or Karma Ngoko. The
language Krama Inggil use more complex grammar, add some affixes or Prefixes,
and use high vocabulary that is really different with the Krama Madya and Krama
Ngoko. The use of Krama Inggil in Temu Manten must be done because the first,
the processions are sacred, then the Javanese people who are really respect to their
tradition (Nguri Budaya) must upholds the value from where they come from
automatically they do that they also respect their predecessor. The action or the output
of respecting their tradition it can be seen by the using Krama Inggil in Javanese
wedding rituals Panggih Pinanganten. Since respecting the tradition became the

reason, based on this, it shows us why the Javanese language structures especially
Karma Inggil in Panggih Pinangaten is stable until now. Below the researcher
will give the example the use of Krama Inggil and Krama Madya in the opening of
Panggih Penganten
The opening of Panggih Pinganten using Krama Inggil
Assalamuailakum Wr. Wb
Salam rahayu rahayu rahayu mugi gusti tansah paring karahayon kawelasan soho nugroho
dumateng kawulo soho panjenengan sami. Bopo biyung sesepuh pini sepuh pepunden
pamong projo pangreh panembating projo engkang kinabekten. Keparengono kawulo
kanjeng raden tumengggung Darmo budoyo Hadinagoro nyuwun palilah soho dungo
pangestu badhe hamurwakani gelaring aicoro panggih pinanganten. Supadoyo wiwit purwo
madyo wasono saget kasembadan kanti rahayu wilujeng.mbok bilih wonten luput lepat nipun
anggene kawulo kawedaraken kawulo nyuwun she agungeng samudro pangaksami
The opening of Panggih Pinanganten using Karma Madya
Sugeng siang salam rahayu bapak ibu pinisepuh soho sesepuh engkang kinurmatan soho
pangarsaneng projo lan deso kang minulyo, nuwun pangampunten engkang agung kulo
kanjeng raden tumengung darmo budoyo hadinegoro bade amiwiti titi carito adicoro temu
manten mugi mugi wiwit awal tengahan soho akhir tansah kasembadan kanti lancar gangsar
tatak titis gambling. lan mbok menawi wonten klintu luput anggene kulo wedaraken kawulu
nyuwun pangampunten engkang katah iki.
IV.

Analysis
Based on the data that is found by the researcher, it indicates the language that
is used in Javanese wedding ritual Panggih Pinanganten is in the diglosic situation.
Based on the book An Introduction to Sociolinguistic written by Ronald Wardhough,
this situation can be categorized as Diglosia. The language is stable or frozen. There is
no other language that can replace it. In this research, the language that is in Diglosia
is Krama Inggil because the language is categorized as H and this language only

used in form of formal writing or speaking. In short, it is not allowed to replace or add
another Javanese language structure in Panggih Pianganten except Kromo Inggil.
It is a must to use Krama Inggil in Panggih Pinanganten because the procession is
sacred and there is Javanese tradition that is originally from Mataram Kingdom.
Javanese people who are respect in their tradition (Nguri Budaya) will keep this
tradition from generation to generation. Facing the developmental of Diglosia,
Kromo Inggil in Javanese wedding tradition Panggih Pinanganten still exists until
this time because Krama Inggil is seen as a language that has a high position in
society. Then, Krama Inggil can be categorized as language for literature heritage
that has complex grammatical.
Sources:
(1.)Wardhough, R. (2006) An Introduction to Sociolinguistic: Fifth Edition.
Blackwell Publishing, United Kingdom.
(2.)Harold Schiffman. (1999) Fergusons Original Formulation [Online].
Available at http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/messeas/diglossia/node3.html.
Accessed on 28 December 2014, 21:35 PM.

Informant Data
Name

: Kanjeng Raden Tumenggung Darmanto Darmo Budoyo Hadinegoro

Occupation

: Master of Ceremony Panggih Pinanganten

Address

: Panderman Batu, Malang.

Position

: Bupati Sepuh Karaton Surakarta Hadiningrat