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MANUAL #TDFM

SMTC Manufacturing Corporation Rev. # 001


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Customer
Design for Manufacturing
Guidelines
AMENDMENT
(Lead Free Processing)

This document has been classified “SMTC Internal Use Only”. Modification, copying, and distribution, in whole or in
part, is strictly prohibited without the prior written approval of SMTC Manufacturing Corporation.
MANUAL #TDFM
SMTC Manufacturing Corporation Rev. # 001
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PURPOSE: .................................................................................................................................................... 4

SCOPE: ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

RESPONSIBILITY:..................................................................................................................................... 4

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING – AN OVERVIEW: ....................................................................... 5

ROHS DIRECTIVE:.................................................................................................................................... 6
LEAD REQUIREMENTS: ................................................................................................................................ 6
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LEAD ..................................................................................................... 6
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR OTHER ROHS SUBSTANCES .................................................................. 6
SURFACE MOUNT TECHNOLOGY (SMT)........................................................................................... 7
REFLOW PROFILE ........................................................................................................................................ 7
THROUGH HOLE (THR) .......................................................................................................................... 7
HAND SOLDERING ....................................................................................................................................... 7
IRON TEMPERATURE CONTROL .................................................................................................................... 8
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB)......................................................................................................... 8
PCB MATERIALS ......................................................................................................................................... 8
PCB SURFACE FINISH SELECTION ............................................................................................................... 9
CONFORMAL COATINGS ............................................................................................................................ 10
COMPONENT SELECTION (BOM) ...................................................................................................... 10
MOISTURE SENSITIVE CONCERNS .............................................................................................................. 10
PEAK REFLOW TEMPERATURE CONCERNS (COMPONENT BODIES) ............................................................ 10
TERMINATION FINISH CONCERNS.............................................................................................................. 10
BALL GRID ARRAYS .................................................................................................................................. 11
PROCESSING MATERIALS ................................................................................................................... 11
SOLDER ..................................................................................................................................................... 11
FLUX ......................................................................................................................................................... 12
LABEL MATERIALS ................................................................................................................................... 12
COMPLIANCE AND PROCEDURES .................................................................................................... 12
HAZARDOUS MATERIAL COMPOSITION ..................................................................................................... 12
MANUFACTURER COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATION........................................................................................ 12
ROHS IDENTIFICATION........................................................................................................................ 12
BARE BOARD RESIN IDENTIFICATION ....................................................................................................... 13
SOLDER FINISH IDENTIFICATION ............................................................................................................... 13
LEAD FREE ASSEMBLY IDENTIFICATION ................................................................................................... 14
LEAD FREE PACKAGING IDENTIFICATION ................................................................................................. 14
CONFORMAL COATING IDENTIFICATION ................................................................................................... 15

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LOGISTIC, REPAIR AND INSPECTION.............................................................................................. 16


LEAD FREE RELIABILITY ........................................................................................................................... 16
SOLDER JOINT RELIABILITY QUALIFICATION ............................................................................................ 16
PROCESS COMPATIBILITY .......................................................................................................................... 16
LEAD FREE INSPECTION ............................................................................................................................ 17
X-RAY INSPECTION ................................................................................................................................... 17
AOI INSPECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 17
LEAD FREE REPAIR ................................................................................................................................... 17
WAVE SOLDERING................................................................................................................................. 17
WAVE PALLET MATERIAL......................................................................................................................... 18
SOLDERING REQUIREMENTS...................................................................................................................... 18
MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY ................................................................................................................... 18
PRESS-FIT CONNECTORS ........................................................................................................................... 18

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Purpose:
This document is intended to provide Customer process engineers and PCB layout designers a set of
general guidelines to follow when reviewing designs for acceptability of lead free manufacturing at SMTC.

Scope:
This document will attempt to formalize some good design for manufacturability practices. Experience has
shown that adherence to these guidelines can significantly improve quality and/or throughput while
reducing costs. This document should not be considered complete and comprehensive; as with most
technical problems, there are often many different solutions. It is important to remember that these are
guidelines only; no rule should be considered hard and fast, and no new order should be turned down for
failure to meet the criteria outlined herein.

Responsibility:
It is the responsibility of all engineers to hold quality and efficiency above all other concerns when defining
manufacturing processes. This manual should be used as a reference to ensure that all new designs are laid
out such that quality and efficiency targets will be met or exceeded.

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Design for Manufacturing – An Overview:


Any activity used to turn component articles into a finished assembly is a process. Every process
will have certain requirements that when incorporated into the design will allow the product to be built
while improving yield and throughput. Design for manufacturing (DFM) is the practice of reviewing the
design of a printed circuit board (PCB) and the processes required for assembly to ensure that these
requirements have been met.

DFM activity is most effective early in the design stage, but should continue throughout the life of
the product. DFM activity can start even in the earliest concept stages of a design. Providing feedback
during the “back of a napkin” stage allows the designer to effortlessly incorporate DFM requirements as the
critical elements of the design (size, form factor, component mix, component technology, etc…) are
finalized. As these elements are finalized, it becomes more difficult to suggest and incorporate changes,
since there may be other considerations beyond the scope of that individual product, such as mechanical
interference within the final chassis.

DFM feedback is critical during the first few prototype builds. Any yield issues which materialize
during a small build will likely be present in a similar proportion when the product ramps into production,
resulting in thousands of defects if not properly addressed. . Designs are generally more flexible during the
prototype stage, increasing the likelihood of catching and preventing these types of defects before they get
out of control.

DFM feedback should continue even once a product has ramped into full production, although
admittedly it becomes more difficult, and thus more expensive to successfully implement a change.
Generally, yield data must be collected and presented to the customer, showing that the cost savings by
improving quality and efficiency will offset the cost of the change.

When reviewing any printed circuit assembly product for manufacturability, the following general
questions must be asked:

• What processes will be required to build this product?


• How will this product travel down the line and be presented to the manufacturing equipment?
• How will every component be placed and attached to the PCB?
• How will every component be reworked?
• How will this product be tested?
• How will this product be packaged and shipped?

By asking these questions and formulating adequate responses for each, the process engineer will be
reasonably assured that quality and throughput targets will be met, even before a single component is
placed.

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RoHS Directive:
Lead Requirements:

The introduction of the RoHS directive requires producers of electrical and electronic equipment
to eliminate the use of six environmentally-sensitive substances: lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent
chromium; and the use of polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and polybromiinated diphenyl ethers (PBDE)
flame retardants, sold in the European Union beginning July 1, 2006.
Although the directive is to deliver RoHS compliant products by July 1, 2006, removal of lead is
not trivial and its impact can be felt in customers having an earlier target date to get this conversion done.
As such, we have asked our suppliers to be compliant by December 31, 2004
The removal of lead, although appears to be not so trivial, represents major challenges in all areas
of assembly. Anything from PCB finishes, component leads/surfaces plating, solder paste selection, reflow
profiling, wave soldering, rework, etc. will have to adapt to the new materials and process changes.
The removal of lead would raise significant impact to assembly process. Many aspects of
traditional electronic assembly that were taken for granted will need to be re-evaluated to ensure as seam-
less a transition as possible. Temperatures required are generally higher, with less wetting observed. Also
with lead removed, lead contamination becomes a concern, and the resulting solder joints are duller than
traditionally expected.

SMTC is committed to doing business with environmentally responsible suppliers and requires its
suppliers to comply with all applicable laws, regulations, orders and policies in providing products and
services to SMTC.

Additional Requirements for Lead

In addition to the prohibited substances, SMTC must be informed if any material, part or product
supplied for hardware applications contains lead (Pb). Lead is a targeted substance under the European
Union's Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and
Electronic Equipment (RoHS Directive), which requires phase out of lead (with specific exemptions) by
July 2006.
In order to assess the status of procured materials, parts or products with respect to compliance to
the RoHS Directive, SMTC requires that suppliers must report any occurrence of lead (Pb) above 1000
ppm in any material (where material refers to any metal, adhesive, paint, plastic, plating, etc.) contained in
the item supplied to SMTC. A supplier questionnaire is available from your SMTC purchasing
representative for use in reporting this information to SMTC.

Additional Requirements for Other RoHS Substances

In addition to lead (Pb), other substances that will be banned (with specific exemptions) by the
RoHS Directive include cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and
polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). In order to assess the status of procured materials, parts or
products with respect to compliance to the RoHS Directive, SMTC requires that suppliers must report any
occurrence of these substances above the reporting thresholds indicated below in any material that is
contained in the procured item.

Reporting Threshold Substance


(ppm of material containing the substance)
1000 Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants
1000 Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) flame retardants

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1000 Mercury
1000 Hexavalent chromium (Cr+6)
75 Cadmium

Some exceptions are:


• Mercury (Hg) in compact fluorescent lamps not exceeding 5 mg per lamp.
• Lead (Pb) in the glass of: cathode ray tubes, electronic components, and fluorescent tubes.
• Lead (Pb) as an alloying element in steel containing up to 0.35% lead by weight, aluminum
containing up to 0.4% lead by weight, and as a copper alloy containing up to 4% lead by weight.
• Lead (Pb) in electronic ceramic parts (e.g., piezoelectronic devices).
• Lead (Pb) in high melting temperature type solders (i.e., tin-lead solder alloys containing more
than 85% lead).
• Batteries

SMTC expects its suppliers to inform SMTC of any anticipated technology or cost issues that may
affect the supplier’s ability to support SMTC products during or after the RoHS conversion. There should
be no cost premium for RoHS-compliant parts, materials, products or services.
SMTC expects RoHS compliant materials, parts and products supplied to SMTC to be of equal or
greater quality than non-RoHS materials, parts and products.
Suppliers are expected to provide a unique manufacturer Part Number for any part that is changed
to become RoHS compliant and are expected to have an effective management system to prevent
inadvertent mixing of RoHS compliant and non-RoHS compliant parts. This should include an effective
marking/labeling strategy for packaging, parts and documentation.

We appreciate your support regarding these directives. We are acutely aware of the strategic
partnership that must exist between our suppliers, customers and SMTC, if we are to achieve RoHS
compliance in a timely manner. We are confident that with your support, SMTC will be able to move our
supply chain forward to meet these challenges.

Surface Mount Technology (SMT)


Reflow Profile

Generally lead free reflow will reach temperatures as high as 260 degrees C, moisture sensitivity
of components will be exaggerated and component encapsulation materials will have to be monitored to
ensure they will survive the harsher conditions required by lead free processing.
Temperature sensitive component defects will also be exaggerated at these higher temperatures
and occurrences of joint cracking, ceramic capacitor cracks, popcorning, outgassing, etc. should be
expected and proper process control put in place to ensure maximum ramps are not exceeded. Lead free
soak periods should be long enough not to induce thermal shock and all precautions are taken to ensure
moisture levels are kept to a minimum.

Through Hole (THR)


Hand Soldering

For hand soldering applications SAC 305 wire will be used for all assemblies for compatibility
with upstream operations.
Higher lead free soldering temperature requires higher tip temperatures; as such soldering iron
thermal heat recovery becomes very important to ensure good joints, minimal thermal damage and adjacent

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component cycling. Typical higher thermal applications will require a larger thermal tip; however this may
not be realistic for fine feature soldering. It is therefore recommended that digital high thermal recovery
soldering stations be used for most SMT touchup and fine through hole applications. Analog soldering
stations will be adequate for large through hole applications with increased tip temperatures alone.
In all cases, it is important to pick the appropriate tip size for the application, close monitoring of
soldering residence time is a good indicator of poor tip sizing or improper tip temperature. Recommended
soldering residence time should never exceed 3-5 seconds, excessive soldering times are linked to
component/ PCB damage and adjacent component cycling and potential failure.
Lead free flux residues are inherently harder to remove than leaded, thus for all assemblies unless
otherwise specified by the customer, no clean lead free soldering wire is to be used. As is the case for all
no clean chemistries, the flux residue is designed to remain on the board and should not be removed except
in cases of excessive flux application. Excessive flux should only be removed by approved no clean flux
removers and should never be removed with alcohol or water.

Iron Temperature control

During hand soldering the maximum tip temperature should never exceed 890 ° F and should be
controlled closely to ensure damage is kept to a minimum (Refer to the component datasheet before
performing any soldering). Due to the high level of temperature control required for lead free assembly it
is recommended that digital high thermal recovery soldering irons (PID controlled) be used for all hand
soldering operations. Additionally process control modules can be used for added process temperature
control on operations.
Besides the temperature set point, solder tip selection is the second most critical factor for
controlling iron temperature. A large tip will maintain optimal temperature longer during high thermal
(ground plane) or difficult to solder situations, however is not suitable for close SMT proximity
applications or fine soldering. Damage to adjacent components are more likely at high temperature and is
introduced with large tips, hence it is important to stress the proper selection of tip size for the proper
application for lead free soldering.

Printed Circuit Board (PCB)


PCB Materials

Current PCB material FR-4 (Tg 130) are not suitable for lead free processing, new materials must
be used to be able to survive multiple reflow and increased plated through hole (PTH) reliability due to
increased Z-axis expansion and potential PTH reliability.
High performance FR-4 with a Tg between 170 -180 degrees C (Tg 180 recommended) or other
suitable material will have to be selected for lead free conversion for greater margin of safety in rework and
multiple thermal cycling requirements. In addition, the base resin for the board material must be halogen
free* to comply with the RoHS directive. Take care in choosing the FR-4 and ensure the time to delaminate
is higher than regular FR-4.
*Halogen-free - Printed board resins plus reinforcement matrix that contain maximum total
halogens of 1,500 ppm with less than 900 ppm bromine, and less than 900 ppm chlorine (per IEC 61249-2-
21).
Laminates must also be changed as higher processing temperatures could break the polymeric
bonds within the materials, current laminate moisture content will lower Tg also well as the potential for
solder mask / marking discoloration. New resins are on the market to meet your lead free needs.
PCB resin marking must comply with IPC-1066 and/or JEDEC JESD97 requirements (See
Compliance – RoHS Identification for more details). SMTC recommends that you contact your board
fabrication facility for suitable materials and laminates for lead free processing. In all cases, materials will
have to be scrutinized to ensure hazardous banned RoHS substances are below legislated limits.

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Changing your PCB materials and laminates will ensure your product will be able to survive
multiple reflow cycles including wave solder and rework, provide a wider temperature processing window
and increase yields.

PCB Surface Finish Selection

What surface finish should I use?


There are a number of lead-free surface finishes available on the market, your particular
application, technology and volume will determine the right surface finish for your particular design.
SMTC recommends the following finishes be used for lead-free processing for increased yield and
processing compatibility. NOTE: Surface finish selections must comply with IPC J-STD-003A –
Solderability Tests for Printed Boards.

Immersion Silver (ImAg)


Immersion Silver is a good alternative to Electroless Nickel/ Immersion Gold (ENIG) for fine
pitch applications due to the lower cost. This finish is becoming a standard in the industry and works well
in lead-free processing. Surface preparation is available in polish or etch, it is important to note that polish
should be used for micro technology and etch for all others. NOTE: This finish is not backwards compatible
with leaded processing and should NOT be selected for applications which will switch between leaded and
lead-free.
Immersion Silver should be used for medium layer count boards containing fine pitch (<=20 mil),
possible aluminum or gold wire bonding, no press-fit or card-edge connections. Medium to high tech, low
to high volume boards with fine pitch but no card-edge connections should consider this finish as the
preferred lead-free surface finish.
Advantages:
- Excellent solderability relative to HASL
- High wicking during through hole wave solder
- Both aluminum and gold wire bondable
- Recommended for fine pitch
Disadvantages:
- Handling concerns, shelf life
- Questionable press-fit applications
- Not recommended for edge connection
- Cost is approx. 120% more than HASL
- Not leaded compatible

Electroless Nickel/ Immersion Gold (ENIG)


ENIG is a long proven industry standard and is readily available from most PCB fabricators. This
finish is suitable for almost any lead-free application regardless of complexity; however is the highest cost
finish. This finish is backwards compatible with both leaded and lead-free processing.
ENIG should be used for low to high layer count board containing fine pitch (<=20 mil), require
gold bonding, press-fit or card-edge connection. Medium to high tech, low to high volume boards with fine
pitch and card-edge connections should consider this finish as the preferred lead-free surface
Advantages:
- Gold wire bondable
- Recommended for edge connection
- Recommended for fine pitch
- Good press-fit ability
- Leaded compatible
Disadvantages:
- Medium wicking during through hole wave solder
- Solder pot contamination (Au)
- Cost is approx. 200-400% more than HASL

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Conformal Coatings

In addition to PCB materials, finishes and laminates, conformal coatings must also comply with
the RoHS directive in order to consider the completed assembly RoHS compliant. Conformal coating
labeling must comply with IPC-CC-830B if assembly marking space permits (See Compliance – RoHS
Identification for more details) Contact your conformal coating supplier to ensure the type of conformal
coating chosen for your application is suitable.

Component Selection (BOM)


RoHS compliant materials parts and products will be of equal or better quality function than non-
RoHS parts and products. Customers to be informed of changes in form fit function or material
composition before implementing change. Sample parts and qualification data must be provided before
release of introduction of the new/ changed part. Parts changed to become RoHS compliant must undergo
an added level of scrutiny to ensure product quality and reliability.
RoHS compliant parts must be clearly identified via a new unique suppler part number if changed
to be made compliant. Suffix or prefix additions to existing part number structure are acceptable.
Components should have outer packaging boxes and inner package material marked with traceable
information indicating that the components are RoHS compliant. This marking should also appear on the
component package if there is room for marking according IPC-1066 “Marking, Symbols and Labels for
Identification of Lead (Pb) Free Assemblies, Components and Devices” (See Compliance – RoHS
Identification for more information)

The termination material composition, maximum component temperature rating, recommended


and absolute reflow profile limits and the Moisture Sensitivity rating must be readily available.
Supplier declaration documentation and assurance from suppliers of conformance is mandatory. Suppliers
shall maintain technical compliance files for a minimum of 4 years.

Moisture sensitive concerns

Higher temperatures exaggerate moisture sensitivity of components and more controlled methods
of control may be required. Lead free crosses likely will have increased moisture sensitivity level (MSL)
ratings and may introduce more restrictive processing methods. Baking prior to reflow may be required for
some components and should be an anticipated process step for some assemblies.

Peak Reflow Temperature Concerns (Component bodies)

Component body resistance to higher temperatures is also a concern and may result in higher
premiums for components for higher temperature epoxies. Temperature resistance should be reviewed for
every component to ensure processing compatibility. Incompatible components may have be to processed
by hand result in increased assembly cost.

Termination Finish Concerns

Depending on the manufacturer, component terminations come in a variety of metrology and react
differently with the different chemistries. SAC 305 solder alloy will be the solder of choice for all lead free
processes and SMTC recommends the following component terminations for optimal solder joint
reliability. NOTE: Refer to Compliance – Solder Finish Identification for more details regarding category
solder finishes.

PREFERRED APPROVED FINISHES (“e2” category solder finishes)

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100% Matte Tin (Sn) *

Matte Tin (Sn) over Alloy 42 (FeNi) with or without Copper (Cu)

Matte Tin (Sn) over Copper (Cu) *

Tin-Copper (Sn/Cu)

Tin-Silver (Sn/Ag) with a minimum Ag content of 1% by weight over Copper (Cu) or Alloy 42
(FeNi)
ALTERNATE “e4” APPROVED FINISHES
• Noble metal plating with the exception of Silver (Ag)
• Palladium-Silver (Pd/Ag)
• Tin-Nickel (Sn/Ni) **
• Nickel-Palladium (Ni/Pd)
• Nickel-Gold (Ni/Au)
• Nickel-Palladium-Gold (Ni/Pd/Au)
ALTERNATE “e6” APPROVED FINISHES
• Tin-Bismuth (SnBi) with concentrations of Bi between 2-3% by weight over Copper (Cu), Nickel
(Ni) or Alloy 42 (FeNi)

* Requires tin whisker mitigation technique by manufacturer


** Recommended for connector terminations

The preferred minimum thickness for Tin (Sn) and Tin (Sn) Alloy electroplated finishes on
packages utilizing a lead frame is 7.5µm (300 micro inches). Zinc (Zn) plating is not allowed as a final
solderable finish or metal package final coating. It should be noted that other termination finishes are
available, the reliability of such terminations are not known and may result in latent failures.
Lead containing terminations are not compatible with lead free processing, as little as 0.5% by
weight can cause severe solder joint reliability issues and reduce the solder joint fatigue resistance in half.
Although it is important to note that lead free terminations are compatible with leaded processes enabling
existing product transitions without adversely effecting leaded assemblies.

Ball Grid Arrays

Ball grid arrays are an exception for lead free crosses and SAC alloy balls are not compatible with
leaded assemblies. For leaded exception products, the balls of any Ball Grid Array (BGA) must be SnPb to
ensure compatibility. During lead free assembly crosses, the balls of any BGA component must be SAC
305 alloy (SnAgCu), tin-silver (SnAg) or a tin -copper (SnCu) alloy.

Processing Materials
Solder

Lead free solder is a relatively developed technology and over the last few years have matured into
a reliable and repeatable material which is currently being used in products everyday. The primary
difference between leaded and non-leaded solder is metal composition.
A number of competing lead free chemistries are available, of which Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) has
emerged as an industry preference due to a relatively low melting temperature of 217°C vs. Sn-Ag @
221°C or Sn-Cu @ 227°C. Lead free in general has a higher processing temperature (34°C), generally
superior mechanical properties, relatively good solderability with reduced wetting. SMTC will be
standardized on SAC 305 for all lead free processing requirements.
Lead containing solder comprises of 63% by weight Tin (Sn) and 37% by weight Lead (Pb). Lead
free solder obviously eliminates the lead content, increases the Tin content from 63% to 96.5% by weight,

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introduces 3.0% by weight Silver (Ag) and 0.5% by weight Copper (Cu) (a.k.a. SAC 305). Wave
processing represent the largest solder usage and to minimize costs, an alternate lead free alloy has been
chosen reducing the Silver (Ag) content from 3.0% to 0.3% and increase the Copper (Cu) content from 0.5
to 0.7%. Metal content represents the majority of the cost difference, the remainder being flux chemistry.

Solder selection must comply with IPC J-STD-005 – Requirements for Soldering Pastes and IPC
J-STD-006A – Requirements for Electronic Grade Solder Alloys and Fluxed and Non-fluxed Solid Solders
for Electronic Soldering Applications to be considered acceptable. Solder Finish labeling requirements for
the finished board assembly must comply with IPC-1066 (See Compliance – RoHS Identification for more
details)

Flux

Flux chemistries have been reformulated to increase activation temperatures to ensure proper flux
activation at higher temperatures. For best lead free soldering a water based, VOC free, no clean flux will
be used for all lead processing. Spray application provides a even and controlled method for flux
application and will be the method of choice for SMTC. In all cases flux selections must comply with IPC
J-STD-004A – Requirements for Soldering Fluxes to be considered acceptable.

Label Materials

Due to the increased processing temperatures, standard polyamide labels may not survive resulting
in discoloration and barcode readability quality concerns. These materials may have to be replaced with
higher temperature material selection which will represent some level of increased cost. Your specific
design, number of processing thermal cycles will determine your material needs.

Compliance and Procedures


Hazardous Material Composition

Internal database modifications will be required to contain component compositions of regulated


hazardous materials with the ability to accommodate additional hazardous materials as regulations dictate.
Ability to roll up hazardous compositions of assemblies would be an asset.
Depending on your requirements, provisions to support leaded and lead free tracking and
separation in addition to appropriate RoHS status tracking may be required. Manufacturer Material
Declaration Sheets (MDS) may be used a evidence of compliance with RoHS requirements and may
require additional infrastructure to support.

Manufacturer Compliance Certification

Manufacturer Material Declaration Sheets (MDS) may be used a evidence of compliance with
RoHS requirements and may require additional infrastructure to support. Depending on your ISO
certification, these may be required for both internal and external lead free compliance audits.

RoHS Identification
Lead Free and other reportable material assemblies must be marked in accordance with IPC-1066
– “Marking, Symbols and Labels for Identification of Lead-Free and other Reportable Materials in Lead-
Free Assemblies, Components and Devices”.

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Bare Board Resin Identification

If the base resin and reinforcement matrix used in making the bare printed board is halogen free*,
the label/marking “HF” shall be noted on the bare printed circuit board identification label. If no “HF” is
present, a halogen-containing base resin and reinforcement matrix is assumed.
The preferred location for the marking is on the printed circuit board layer 1 (topside) at the lower
right hand segment. The size of the mark is optional but shall be legible to corrected, unmagnified vision.
The method, e.g. screen print, etch, etc. for marking of the printed circuit board is optional but should be
legible.
*Halogen-free - Printed board resins plus reinforcement matrix that contain maximum total
halogens of 1,500 ppm with less than 900 ppm bromine, and less than 900 ppm chlorine (per IEC 61249-2-
21) Brominated substances such as PBB and PBDE is strictly prohibited as per RoHS legislation.

Solder Finish Identification

The following categories are meant to describe the lead-free 2nd level interconnect * terminal
finish/material of components and/or the solder paste/solder used in the assembly. NOTE: SMTC will be
using SAC 305 (SnAgCu) for all assemblies which corresponds to a “e1” category, noted termination
finishes must also be noted for compliance.
Solder Finish Category Description
e1 Tin-Silver-Copper (SnAgCu)
e2 Other Tin (Sn) alloys (i.e. SnCu, SnAg, SnAgCuX, etc.) (No Bismuth (Bi) or
Zinc (Zn))
e3 Tin (Sn)
e4 Precious metals (i.e. Silver (Ag), Gold (Au), Nickel-Palladium (NiPd), NiPdAu,
but no Sn)
e5 Tin-Zinc (SnZn), SnZnX (No Bismuth (Bi))
e6 Contains Bismuth (Bi)
e7 Low temperature solder (<150°C) containing indium (Id) but no Bismuth (Bi)
* e8 and e9 symbols are unassigned categories at this time.

Solder finish category marking may use the optional circle or ellipse (See figure 1.1 below) as
shown for marking purposes. If no circle or ellipse is used, the marking shall clearly define the category
(e.g. category = e2). . If printers used to produce labels or marking do not have graphic capability, the
parenthesis may be used in place of the circle/ellipse.
The preferred location for marking of the categories is on the printed circuit board layer 1
(topside) at the lower right hand segment. The color for the “e” and category number should be selected to
provide sufficient contrast to be legible to corrected, unmagnified vision. The font should be “Arial” or
equivalent and the font style shall be regular. The size of the mark is optional but shall be legible to
corrected, unmagnified vision.

Figure 1.1 : Example of Mark showing Category 2 and option of circle or ellipse.

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Lead Free Assembly Identification

Printed circuit boards/assemblies shall be identified as being assembled with lead-free solders and
using components with lead-free 2nd level interconnect leads/terminations (See Component Selection -
Termination Finish Concerns) by marking with the words “Pb-free” or the Pb-free symbol shown below.

Figure 1.2 : Pb-Free Symbol

In addition, the category (with or without the circle or ellipse) as described in RoHS Identification
– Solder Finish Identification, shall be shown on the board/assembly. The assembler shall have the prime
responsibility to mark the assembly with the bare printed circuit board finish and assembly solder used.
The marking method is optional but it shall be legible to corrected, unmagnified vision. Screen
print, silkscreen or etch are recommended for symbols.
The sequence of the marking should follow the production process, i.e. halogen-free (if
applicable), reflow/wave solder finish, and conformal coating (if applicable). A sample layout is shown
below following the process from left to right, note that boxes are not required.
HF e1/e2 ER

Lead Free Packaging Identification

There are two applicable lead free packaging labels available depending on the level of affirmation
to lead free required. The labels are and applicable use are as follows;

1. Pb-Free Identification Label - A Pb-free identification label shall only be used when the
components/devices and/or board assemblies are lead free. It is recommended the label be a
minimum of 22 mm x 25 mm with the minimum diameter of the circle being 18 mm. The
background shall be white and the symbol and letters shall be of a contrasting color. The color
red should be avoided as red suggests a personal hazard. See figure 1.3.

Figure 1.3: Pb-Free Identification Label

2. 2nd Level Interconnect Label – This label affirms the Pb-free content of the 2nd level
interconnects* ONLY, and does not indicate that the components/devices or assemblies are Pb-

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Free. If the label is affixed to containers holding printed circuit boards/assemblies the category
field describes the solder paste/solder used in the board assembly. The “maximum assembly
temperature” field, if blank does not apply. It is recommended that the Pb-free label be a
minimum of 75 mm by 50 mm. The label shall be black letters/symbols on a white background.
If all of the information on the label including the “Pb-free” symbol, or the words “Pb-free” are
included on a bar code label in conjunction with the words “2nd level interconnect”, legible to
corrected, unmagnified vision, then the use of the 2nd level interconnect label is optional. If the
enclosed components/devices or assemblies are Pb-free, then the words “2nd level interconnect”
may be omitted from the bar code label. See figure 1.4.

Figure 1.4: 2nd Level Interconnect Label

* 2nd level interconnect is defined as the interconnect made by the attachment of a device/component to
a printed circuit board. See figure 1.5.

Figure 1.5 2nd level interconnect

Both identification labels shall be affixed to the lowest level shipping containers, or other containers
that are not otherwise identified as lead free including any “ESD” or “Dry pack” bag/box, excluding tubes,
trays or other carriers.

Conformal Coating Identification

When conformal coatings are applied, and if assembly-marking space permits, or if contractually
required by purchasing agreement, coatings may be labeled/marked per IPC-CC-830B as follows;

ER – Epoxy Resin
UR – Urethane Resin
AR – Acrylic Resin

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SR – Silicone Resin
XY - Paraxylylene

Logistic, Repair and Inspection


Lead Free Reliability

Lead vs. Lead free joint appearance


Wetting differences and IPC guideline modifications
Flux appearance

Higher soldering temperatures degrade some components. There may be degradation of


functional performance without indication at initial card test. Fuses, crystals and some capacitors are
among high risk items. Fuses may blow at lower values, crystals lose tolerance, electrolytic/polymer
capacitors may degrade, ceramic capacitor and ferrite beads subject to micro-cracking.

Verify solder joint reliability and backward / forward compatibility


Whisker risk: tin whisker risk is reduced by compliance to a list of acceptable lead free finishes, i.e. Matte
Sn over alloy 42, SnBi2-3%, SnAg or NiPdAu
100% Matte Sn over Cu requires whisker mitigation technique: nickel under plate, annealing (post bake @
150C for 1 hour), fusing/reflow, or lead pitch > 1.0mm

Tin Whiskers
- Electrically conductive hair-like structures that grow outward from tin, zinc, gold, cadmium,
indium, antimony, silver or lead surfaces.
- Reliability exposure: short circuits from whiskers that bridge closely-spaced circuit elements
maintained at different electrical potentials.
- NEMI Tin whisker information
- NEMI Tin whisker acceptance requirements
- NASA Goddard Tin Whisker Information
- HDPUG General Purpose Lead Free assembly system implementation guide

Solder Joint Reliability Qualification

For solder alloy compositions not already certified, the burden will be on the manufacturer to
provide equivalent test data to validate process compatibility and reliability
Additional tests may be required to insure solder joint reliability.
Test Test Methods
Temperature Cycling 1000 cycles TCX (-40 C to 85 C, 15 minute ramp / 15 minute dwell)
Temperature Humidity 500 hours @ 85 C / 85 % RH
Bake 500 hours @ 85 C
Shock and Vibration
Whiskers The following whisker test conditions at room temperature, high temperature,
ACT. Observe whisker growth 1000 hours and 2000 hours by more than 100 X
microscope.

Process Compatibility

All assemblies must comply with IPC J-STD-002B – Solderability Tests for Component Leads,
Terminations, Lugs, Terminals and Wires and/or JEDEC JESD22-B102D - Solderability
Solder Joint Integrity / Reliability of SnAgCu (SAC) tin/silver/copper solder

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- SAC has different creep properties than SnPb (tin/lead). Long term reliability test acceleration
factors are not fully understood.
- Mechanical properties may vary with reflow parameters, especially at higher Ag (silver) contents
or in mixed solder situations.
- Surface Mount Technology (SMT): tighter soldering process controls and different inspection
criteria apply
- Wave Solder: higher temperatures, new equipment, bath contamination concerns
- Rework: higher temperatures. Risk of damage to neighboring parts.

Lead Free Inspection

All assemblies must comply with IPC-A-610C (Amendment 1) – Acceptability of Electronic


Assemblies Class 2 to be considered acceptable. Other class inspections criteria can be applied at the
customer’s request (additional costs may apply).

X-Ray Inspection

Increased BGA voiding has been documented with lead free alloys over leaded alloys and as such
may require additional X-ray inspection to ensure quality solder joints.

AOI Inspection

Existing AOI programs for leaded assemblies will be required to be reprogrammed to compensate
for physical and visual difference between leaded and lead free solder joints. Parallel assembly chemistries
will require two programs for production and additional programming charges will apply for lead free
programs.

Lead Free Repair

An approved SAC 305 alloy must always be used for all repair and rework procedures, follow
clean and no clean procedures for cleanliness. NOTE: SMTC will be standardizing on no clean chemistry
and all flux residues will comply with IPC J-STD-004A – Requirements for Soldering Fluxes and IPC-A-
610C (Amendment 1) – Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies.
All Ball Grid Array (BGA) reballing procedures must use SAC 305 alloy in order to be reused in
lead free processing, failure to do so will result in poor joint reliability and potential latent failures.
Maximum thermal cycling of a number of lead free components is only rated for one cycle only
(e.g. LEDs, ceramic capacitors, etc.). Components of this nature should never be touched up, but
completed replaced to prevent latent failure and comprise the quality and reliability of the overall assembly.
Always review the component datasheet before performing any lead free rework due to the tighter
soldering tolerances and restrictions.
The lead free category code (See RoHS Identification – Solder Finish Identification) shall be
permanently obscured should any modification or repair with a lead-bearing material be used instead of a
lead free solder during repair or rework procedure.

Wave Soldering
Wave solder is the process of soldering components to a PCB (usually TH, although in some cases
SMT may also be wave soldered) by applying liquid flux, pre-heating, and then exposing the bottom side to
a bath of molten solder. While less repeatable than SMT reflow soldering, with the proper controls wave
solder can still achieve very high yields in an efficient manner.

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Wave Pallet Material

Wave pallets are available in a variety of materials including a number of emerging high
temperature and ESD safe polymers. Common materials include various grades of FR-4 (G10 and G11 are
the most common), Durostone, Glastic composite, Vonroll composite, etc. Although any of these materials
are compatible with lead free processing, only a select number of these are compatible with lead free
processing. As a general rule, the wave pallet material must be able to withstand at least 300 ° C and must
be ESD safe in order to be considered suitable for lead free production. Some recommended wave pallet
materials including ESD Durostone, Glastic composite CBC etc. In addition, mechanical pallet hold downs
must also be reviewed to ensure processing compatibility. Existing customers considering to transition
their existing products to lead free must consider the additional cost of replacing existing wave pallets if
necessary.

Soldering Requirements

Lead free wave preheat temperature will increase to compensate Wave solder temperatures up to
260 C, possibly to 270 C

Mechanical Assembly
Any work done to a board after it has been soldered is usually classified as mechanical assembly.
This includes depanelization, press-fit connectors, screws, rivets, brackets, shields, labels, card mating,
etc… Mechanical assembly processes vary widely, but depending on the process should be automated as
much as possible. This will normally mean a custom support fixture to secure the PCB and whatever
components are being assembled, so that one person can easily perform the task.

All mechanical hardware must comply with IPC J-STD-001CS – Space applications Electronic
Hardware Addendum to Requirements for Soldered Electrical and Electronic Assemblies.

Press-Fit Connectors

On a PCB that has been properly laid out, press fit connectors provide an excellent alternative to
multiple-pass wave solder. With the proper tooling, press-fit can be a very repeatable, high-yield, and
efficient process.

PCB Thickness: A PCB thickness of at least 0.093” (2.36mm) is preferred whenever press-fit connectors
are to be used.
Copper Plating: Press-fit connector pins will inherently dig into the barrel of the plated through-holes. As
such, the copper plating inside these barrels must be at least 0.0010” (25.4 µm).

SMTC Internal Use Only

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