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Dengjun YAN Int.

Journal of Engineering Research and Applications


ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 10, (Part - 3) October 2015, pp.49-56
RESEARCH ARTICLE

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OPEN ACCESS

Transient Dynamic Analyzing for Induction Motor Design Based


on combine Simulation of electromagnetic field and electronic
circuit
Dengjun YAN, Ruifang LIU
Stanley Black & Decker Towson, MD 20128 USA
Elec. Eng. Dept. Beijing Jiaotong University Haidian, Beijing, 100044 China

Abstract
The paper introduces an industrial application of field-circuit-mechanical combined simulation on the induction
motor design, which is driven with power electronic circuit, VFD(Varied Frequency Driver). The time variant
electromagnetic field is calculated with time stepping Finite Element method, while VFD circuit is simulated
real time with cSpice technology which have been implanted in the Maxwell software.
Key words: time stepping FEA, Transient dynamic simulation, Maxwell, VFD, motor design

I.

Introduction

Facing the engineering development that VFD


has become into the essential accessory for the
industrial application of induction motor, combining
simulation has been recently developed, which
integrates complete circuit-fieldmechanical couplings model to study the whole
system behavior, and has been hoped to become into
one of the universal software tools [].
Time-stepping FEA is the traditional and effective
method to investigate the Induction Motor
electromagnetic performance during the dynamic
transient process, which has been widely used in the
motor design, such as improving the starting torque,
diagnosing the bar broken fault, and the FOC
study(Field Orientation Control). The advantage of
time stepping FEA over the magnetostatic FEA is
that Time Stepping FEA is able to consider the eddy
current effect, lamination steel saturation, and
mechanical torque ripple induced by the slot or
tooth[2]. For the circuit simulation, cSpice open
source software developed by the California
University has been widly accepted and developed
into several commercial sofewares, such as pSpice,
H-Spice, and LTspice[3].
So, combined simulation of field-circuit-mechanic
based on the external control circuit analysis and
internal electromagnetic field calculation can help the
electrical engineers to thoroughly understand the
motor dynamic response when the motor is driven

with the switch mode power supply, say PWM. Also


the compound simulation can be very useful to antiunexpected disturb and improve the control algorithm.
The papers study has been based on Maxwell 16.0
software, where an induction motor is driven with the
3 phases full bridge inverter. From the simulation
results, some hardly forecasted phenomena, such as
torque ripple, current harmonic, voltage spike, and
switch process, have been successfully observed,
which are to be used in the thereafter application, i.e.
products performance improvement. The papers
exploration has shown that the precise numerical
analysis for the whole system design is practicable.

II.

System Model

The typical VFD structure usually consists of


two stages[4,5], as shown in figure 1. In the first stage,
industrial power source with lower frequency 5/60Hz,
single phase or three phases, is converted into DC
power supply by bridge rectifier or with the advance
boost or chop circuit to improve the power factor and
harmonic distortion. Filter capacitor is determined by
the load level. In the second stage, i.e. after the filter,
DC power source is inverted into 3-phases high
frequency AC power source feeding to the load,
induction motor, where PWM (Pulse Width
Modulation) technique is used to control the VFD
output, which is applied directly to the motor three
phase winding terminals according to the motor
status and the control strategy.

Figure 1 Typical VFD structure


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Dengjun YAN Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications


ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 10, (Part - 3) October 2015, pp.49-56

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The VFD model mentioned above has been built with Maxwell Circuit Editor as shown in the figure 2,
which consists of four modules: VFD simplified circuit, Motor stator / rotor winding, control signal, and
electronic element model.

Figure 2 Simulating Circuit Model based on Maxwell Circuit Editor


VFD circuit is made up with the following power
electronic elements: one AC power source (230V
50Hz), one filter capacitor (100uF), four rectify
diodes or rectifier bridge, 3 phases power driver with
6 switches (two status ON/OFF, representing either
IGBT or MOSFET), and 12 Diodes distributing on
the six bridge branches.
Three phases windings A/B/C in induction motor
stator are symbolized with LPhaseA/B/C in
respectively, which are star connected located on the
right side of Figure 2. Rotor windings are symbolized
with Lbri (i [1,5]) in the right bottom corner, where
R180-186 represents the end ring resistor. The leakage
inductance of the end ring is ignored. These 8
inductances, LPhaseA/B/C and Lbr1/2/3/4/5 are
representing the motor conductors in the 2D FEM
model. The inductances value, including selfinductance and mutual inductance between any two
of them are calculated through FEA. Then current in
these inductance are calculated by cSpice. So these 8
inductances are working as the connecting port or
interface between electronic circuit simulation and
magnetic field calculation.
Control module, left bottom corner, represents the
controller usually based on the programmable

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Integrate Circuit chip embedded all kinds of control


program, say PWM.
Elements model, right top corner, describes two
kinds of power electronic elements, Switch Units
(either IGBT or MOSFET), and DIODEs.

III.

Control Method

There are several kinds of algorithms to control


the switch ON/OFF. In the paper, six step trapezoidal
method is adopted [Error! Reference source not
found.,7]. The method, usually named as six-step
commutation methods too, has been widely used in
the BLDC drive (Brushless Permanent Magnet DC
Motor), with the position signal provided by the Hall
sensor. Six Step refers to the six stages in one electric
cycle, i.e. 360o. The driver status will be changed at
every 60o.
When the conducting angle is 180o, the driver
status will be changed in the consequence [1 0 0] ->
[1 1 0] -> [0 1 0] -> [0 1 1] -> [0 0 1] -> [1 0 1] -> [1
0 0], according to the switch status only on the upper
arm [Q1 Q3 Q5], which is described in the below
table 50in detail.

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Dengjun YAN Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications


ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 10, (Part - 3) October 2015, pp.49-56

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Table 1 Time Sequence of Switches ON/OFF Status when 180 o Conducting Angle
Status
Electrical
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Angle
[ Q1 Q3 Q5 ]
[ Q2 Q4
[0,
60]
ON
ON
OFF OFF OFF OFF [ 1 0 0 ]
[1 0
[60, 120]
ON
ON
ON
OFF OFF OFF [ 1 1 0 ]
[1 0
[120, 180]
OFF ON
ON
ON
OFF OFF [ 0 1 0 ]
[1 1
OFF [ 0 1 1 ]
[0 1
[180, 240]
OFF OFF ON
ON
ON
[240, 300]
OFF OFF OFF OFF ON
ON
[0 0 1 ]
[0 1
OFF OFF OFF ON
[1 0 1 ]
[0 0
[300, 360]
ON
ON
But in general application, 180ois the upper limit
of the conducting angle due to the ON/OFF time
delay of the MOSFET/IGBT, otherwise the driver
will be put under the short circuit risk. In order to
avoid the short circuit happen, the two switches on
the same arm are forbidden to be ON at the same
time, i.e. the conducting angle shouldnt greater than
180o. On the other side, there should be at least one
switch ON in the upper arm, i.e. the conducting angle
shouldnt be less than 120o. So the conducting angle
is set in the range of [120o, 180o].
When the conducting angle is 120o, each switch
is to be ON in two continual 60o period, i.e. the upper
bridge switch is ON for 120o, then both of the two

Q6 ]
1 ]
0 ]
0 ]
0 ]
1 ]
1 ]

switches on the same arm will be turn to OFF for 60o,


then the lower bridge switch will be ON for another
120o, then both OFF again and finish one cycle. The
period of both OFF is called dead period, during
which the freewheeling diode embedded in
IGBT/MOSFET plays an important role.
The below table [2] shows the control signal
time sequence applied on the 6 switches. Any other
detail situations when the conducting angle is
between [120o, 180o] are not given out here to avoid
the redundant. Instead the waveform of the control
signal is shown in the Figure 3, where 1 means the
upper switch ON, while -1 means the lower switch
ON, and conducting angle 145o.

Table 2 Time Sequence of Switches ON/OFF Status when 120 o Conducting Angle
Status
Electrical Angle
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
[ Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 ]
[0,
60]
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
[1 1 0 0 0 0]
[60, 120]
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
[0 1 1 0 0 0]
[120, 180]
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
[0 0 1 1 0 0]
[180, 240]
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
[0 0 0 1 1 0]
[240, 300]
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
[0 0 0 0 1 1]
[300, 360]
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
[1 0 0 0 0 1]

Figure 3 Control Signal Applied on the Switches Q1/2/3/4/5/6

IV.

Motor Input

Motor input, ABC three phase stator windings, are connected to the middle point of three bridge arm, UVW.
The voltage level at UVW are the motor inputs to ABC windings. Both of the phase voltage and line voltage are
listed in the below table when the conducting angle is in the range of [120o, 180o].

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51 | P a g e

Dengjun YAN Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications


ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 10, (Part - 3) October 2015, pp.49-56

Phase Voltage
Va
Vb
1
TBD(1)
TBD(0) 1
0
1
0
TBD(0)
TBD(1) 0
1
0

Table 3 Voltage Level on Stator Winding Terminal


Line Voltage
Vc
Status
Vab
Vbc
0
110
[1 --> 0]
[0 --> 1]
0
010
[0 --> -1] 1
TBD(1) 011
-1
[1 --> 0]
1
001
[-1 --> 0] [0 --> -1]
1
101
[0 --> 1]
-1
TBD(0) 100
1
[-1 --> 0]

In the table 3, 1 refers to the bus voltage, TBD (0)


refers to the transient process when the voltage
switch from bus voltage to ground, while TBD(1)
from ground to bus voltage. When both of the upper
and lower switch OFF in the one arm, the status, the
voltage level at the middle point, is determined by
forward conducting time of the freewheel diode in
the driver bridge, either 1 or 0, which is determined
by the motor load current and winding inductance.
For instance, when the freewheeling diode on the
upper arm ON, it is 1 (Vbus+0.7); when, lower arm
ON, it is 0( -0.7).
Soft switch technology is used in the engineering,
but here skipped, because it is not the papers
concerning. The simulated voltage waves at UVW
are shown in the figure 5 and 9.

V.

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Vca
1
[1 --> 0]
[0 --> -1]
-1
[-1 --> 0]
[0 --> 1]

save the calculating time. Total number of the Finite


Element meshes is about 5000 with the region in air
gap refined.
The transient performance is studied with 2D
FEM model under the specified rotation speed. In
order to illustrate the result and avoid the redundant,
only two typical operation, rotor locked and rated
speed, are shown below, consisting phase voltage,
stator current, rotor current, and mechanical torque.
The electromagnetic field distribution during the
movement is shown in the Fig 4. Fig 5&9 is the stator
winding phase voltage, where switch transient
process are observed. Fig 6&10 is the stator winding
current, where the harmonic and distortion are
observed. Fig &&11 is the rotor current. Fig 8&12 is
the transient torque, where the mechanical ripple and
the vibration could be deduced.

Result

An induction motor with 12 slots in stator and 10


cage bars in the rotor has been simulated with
MaxWell software, which is split into half period to

Figure 4 Electromagnetic Field Distribution when Motor Rotating

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52 | P a g e

Dengjun YAN Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications


ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 10, (Part - 3) October 2015, pp.49-56

www.ijera.com

Phase Voltage (Wr=20621rpm ACsin138V WindLoss=93)

Maxwell2DDesign1

150.00

Curve Info
NodeVoltage(IVphA)
Setup1 : Transient
NodeVoltage(IVphB)
Setup1 : Transient
NodeVoltage(IVphC)
Setup1 : Transient

100.00

NodeVoltage(IVcFilter)
Setup1 : Transient

Y1

50.00

0.00

-50.00

-100.00

-150.00
0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00
Time [ms]

20.00

25.00

30.00

Figure 5 Stator Winding Voltage when Motor Running at the Rated Speed
Stator Winding Currents (Wr=20621rpm ACsin138V WindLoss=93)

Maxwell2DDesign1

15.00

Curve Info
Current(PhaseA)
Setup1 : Transient
Current(PhaseB)
Setup1 : Transient
Current(PhaseC)
Setup1 : Transient

10.00

Y1 [A]

5.00

0.00

-5.00

-10.00

-15.00
0.00

5.00

Figure 6

10.00

15.00
Time [ms]

20.00

25.00

30.00

Stator Winding Current when Motor Running at the Rated Speed


Rotor Bar Current (Wr=20621rpm ACsin138V WindLoss=93)

Maxwell2DDesign1

800.00

Curve Info
Current(br1)
Setup1 : Transient
Current(br3)
Setup1 : Transient

600.00

Current(br5)
Setup1 : Transient

400.00

Y1 [A]

200.00

0.00

-200.00

-400.00

-600.00
0.00

5.00

Figure 7
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10.00

15.00
Time [ms]

20.00

25.00

30.00

Rotor Cage Bar Current when Motor Running at the Rated Speed
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Dengjun YAN Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications


ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 10, (Part - 3) October 2015, pp.49-56

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Torque (Wr=20621rpm ACsin138V WindLoss=93)

Maxwell2DDesign1

800.00

1.00

Curve Info

600.00

Y Axis

NodeVoltage(IVcAC)
Setup1 : Transient

Y2

NodeVoltage(IVcFilter)
Setup1 : Transient

Y2
0.90

Tor_Moving_Band.Torque
Setup1 : Transient

Y3

TorShaft.Torque
Setup1 : Transient

Y3
0.80

400.00

200.00

0.60
Y2

Y3 [mNewtonMeter]

0.70

0.50

0.00

0.40
-200.00
0.30

-400.00
0.20

-600.00

0.10
0.00

5.00

10.00

Figure 8

15.00
Time [ms]

20.00

25.00

30.00

Mechanical Torque when Motor Running at the Rated Speed


Phase Voltage (Wr=0rpm ACsin138V WindLoss=0)

Maxwell2DDesign1

125.00

Curve Info
NodeVoltage(IVphA)
Setup1 : Transient
NodeVoltage(IVphB)
Setup1 : Transient

100.00

NodeVoltage(IVphC)
Setup1 : Transient
NodeVoltage(IVcFilter)
Setup1 : Transient

75.00

50.00

Y1

25.00

0.00

-25.00

-50.00

-75.00

-100.00
0.00

5.00

10.00

Figure 9

15.00
Time [ms]

20.00

25.00

30.00

Stator Winding Voltage when Rotor Locked


Stator Winding Currents (Wr=0rpm ACsin138V WindLoss=0)

Maxwell2DDesign1

15.00

Curve Info
Current(PhaseA)
Setup1 : Transient
Current(PhaseB)
Setup1 : Transient

10.00

Current(PhaseC)
Setup1 : Transient

5.00

Y1 [A]

0.00

-5.00

-10.00

-15.00

-20.00
0.00

5.00

10.00

Figure 10
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15.00
Time [ms]

20.00

25.00

30.00

Stator Winding Current when Rotor Locked


54 | P a g e

Dengjun YAN Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications


ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 10, (Part - 3) October 2015, pp.49-56

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Rotor Bar Current (Wr=0rpm ACsin138V WindLoss=0)

Maxwell2DDesign1

1000.00

Curve Info
Current(br1)
Setup1 : Transient
Current(br3)
Setup1 : Transient

750.00

Current(br5)
Setup1 : Transient

500.00

Y1 [A]

250.00

0.00

-250.00

-500.00

-750.00
0.00

5.00

10.00

Figure 11

15.00
Time [ms]

20.00

25.00

30.00

Rotor Cage Bar Current when Rotor Locked


Torque (Wr=0rpm ACsin138V WindLoss=0)

Maxwell2DDesign1

1000.00

1.00

Curve Info

800.00

Y Axis

NodeVoltage(IVcAC)
Setup1 : Transient

Y2

NodeVoltage(IVcFilter)
Setup1 : Transient

Y2
0.90

Tor_Moving_Band.Torque
Setup1 : Transient

Y3

TorShaft.Torque
Setup1 : Transient

Y3
0.80

600.00

0.70

0.60
Y2

Y3 [mNewtonMeter]

400.00

200.00
0.50
0.00
0.40

-200.00
0.30

-400.00

0.20

-600.00

0.10
0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00
Time [ms]

20.00

25.00

30.00

Figure 12 Mechanical Torque when Rotor Locked

VI.

Conclusion

The compounding numerical simulation based


on time-stepping Finite Element Analysis for motor
electromagnetic field and cSpice electronic circuit
simulation for the motor driver, having combined
magnetic, electric, thermal and mechanical together,
can thoroughly investigate the motor transient
behavior when the modern power electronic
technology, say PWM control, is used.
The paper has shown that some hardly forecasted
phenomena, such as torque ripple, current harmonic,
voltage spike, and switch process, could be simulated
with the compounding numerical simulation. All of
them can benefit the motor performance
improvement and life time extend. The additional
benefit can even include the motor driver design and
feedback control strategy improvement.

Reference
[1.]

[2.]

[3.]

[4.]

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Luigi Alberti, A Modern Analysis Approach


of Induction Motor for Variable Speed
Applications
Ruifang Liu, Minqiang Hu, Dengjun YAN.
Field circuit coupled time stepping finite
element analysis on permanent magnet
brushless DC motors. Electrical Machines
and Systems, 2005. ICEMS 2005.
Proceedings of the Eighth International
Conference on (Volume:3 ), NanJing, China,
Sep. 2005
Babak Asghari, Venkata Dinavahi, and
Michel Rioual et al. Interfacing techniques
for electromagnetic field and circuit
simulation programs. IEEE Trans on Power
Delivery, Vol.24, No.2, April 2009.
Domenico Arrigo, L6234 THREE PHASE
MOTOR DRIVER, STMicroelectronics
Application note, AN1088, 2001
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Dengjun YAN Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications


ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 10, (Part - 3) October 2015, pp.49-56
[5.]

[6.]

[7.]

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Abhijit D. Pathak, Mosfet/Igbt Drivers


Theory And Applications, Ixys Corp.,
Ixan0010, 2001
Lee, Shiyoung, et al., "A Comparison Study
of the Commutation Methods for the ThreePhase Permanent Magnet Brushless DC
Motor." http://www.magnelab.com/uploads/
4c51d9ba6fe5a.pdf.
R8C/25 Group, Six Step Trapezoidal
Control of a BLDC Motor Using Back-EMF,
RENESAS Application Note, April, 2010

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