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# Chapter 8: Symmetrical Short

Circuits
Fundamentals
Effects of Network Impedances
Examples
Use of Bus Impedance Matrix
8 Symmetrical short circuits

## Notes on Power System Analysis

Three-phase Short-Circuit on an
Subtransient and transient AC currents
Decaying sinusoids

DC current
Decaying unidirectional

Small double-frequency term
8 Symmetrical short circuits

5

0
T
Ia(t)
k

Ia

10

15

0.1

0.2

0.3
T
k

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.1

0.2

0.3
T
k

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

10

Ib
T
Ib(t)
k

10

Ic(t) k
Ic

t [sec]T k

## Notes on Power System Analysis

Subtransient current I
and envelope of AC current
I

3
Iac T

Iac
2

I''

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

time k[sec]
8 Symmetrical short circuits

10

Iac T

I 1

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
T

1.2

1.4

1.8

1.6

## Notes on Power System Analysis

Subtransient Current
Peak value of the AC current I"
Prefault voltage of generator is E
I" = E/Xd"
where Xd" is the generator subtransient reactance
(usually tabulated)

## Effect of Network Impedances

Consider a generator feeding a transformer
feeding a line with a short circuit on it
Total impedance to the fault:
Z = 0 + j (Xd"+Xtransf+Xline)
where the resistance has been ignored

T1

T2

G1

40 ohms

13.8 kV 115 kV

G2

50 ohms

## G1: 50 MVA 13.8 kV

G2: 150 MVA 14.4 kV

115 kV

X" = 20%
X" = 20%

## T1: 50 MVA 13.8 kV : 115 kV

T2: 150 MVA 14.4 kV : 115 kV
8 Symmetrical short circuits

14.4 kV

X" = 10%
X" = 10%
8

## Solution of Example System

1) Obtain impedance values:
G1: 50 MVA 13.8 kV Xd" = 20%
G1: 150 MVA 14.4 kV Xd" = 20%
T1: 50 MVA 13.8 : 115 kV X = 10%
T2: 150 MVA 14.4 : 115 kV X = 10%
L1: X = 40 ohms
L2: X = 50 ohms
All resistances much smaller than reactances

## 2) Convert impedances to per unit on a base of 100 MVA:

G1: Xd" = 0.20 100 / 50 = 0.400 pu
G2: Xd" = 0.20 100 / 150 = 0.1333 pu
T1: X = 0.10 100 / 50 = 0.200 pu
T2: X = 0.10 100 / 150 = 0.0667 pu
Zbase = (115 kV)2 / 100 MVA = 132.2 ohms
L1: X = 40 ohms / 132.2 ohms = 0.302 pu
L2: X = 50 ohms / 132.2 ohms = 0.378 pu
3) Draw the impedance diagram with a short circuit at the
point of the fault
4) Solve the circuit for the currents and any voltages that may
be desired
8 Symmetrical short circuits

10

j0.302
j0.40

j0.20
j0.378

+
1.0
-

j0.0667

j0.1333
+
1.0
-

j0.60

j0.368

+
I2

I1

1.0

If

1.0
-

## (b) Equivalent circuit after network reductions

8 Symmetrical short circuits

11

## Combine impedances in series and parallel:

X1 = 0.400 + 0.200 = 0.600 pu
XLeq = 1 / (1 / .302 + 1 / .378) = 0.1679 pu
X2 = 0.1679 + 0.0667 + 0.1333 = 0.368 pu
I1 = 1 / j 0.600 = -j 1.667 pu
I2 = 1 / j 0.368 pu = -j 2.72 pu
If = I1 + I2 = 1.67 + 2.72 = 4.39 pu
V1 = 1.0 - j 0.400 (-j 1.667) = 1.0 - 0.667 = 0.333 pu
Convert back to amps and volts:
Ibase(HV) = 100 MVA / (1.732 115 kV) = 502 A
I1 = 1.667 502 A = 837 A
I2 = 2.72 502 A = 1365 A
8 Symmetrical short circuits

12

## Sometimes the results are given in MVA (at nominal voltage):

S1 = 1.667 100 MVA = 166.7 MVA
S2 = 2.72 100 MVA = 272 MVA
If the currents on the low-voltage side of T1 are desired:
Ibase = 100 MVA / (1.732 13.8 kV) = 4.18 kA
I = 1.667 4.18 kA = 6.97 kA
If the transformer delta winding currents are needed:
Idelta = 6.97 kA / 1.732 = 4.02 kA

## Notes on Power System Analysis

13

Multimachine Case
For a few generators, use Thevenins
Theorem:
Replace network with its equivalent at the point
of the fault
Open-circuit voltage is the prefault system
voltage (usually 1.0 per unit)

14

8.3%

W
2.6%
P

32%

2%
7.8%
Z
L

## T2 4.32 MVA X = 7.5%

G2 3.75 MVA X = 34%

7.2%
115 kV LINES Z IN PER UNIT ON 100 MVA

15

0.083

0.026
0.32

0.072

0.02

0.25

0.788

1.736

9.07

0.078

16

0.083

0.0196
0.02

0.00478
0.072

0.0589

P
1.038
10.81

## Notes on Power System Analysis

17

0.0823
1.038
10.81
+
1
-

If
(c) AFTER NETWORK REDUCTIONS.

18

## 1/Zth = (1/0.0823) + (1/1.038) + (1/10.81) = 13.21 per unit

Zth = 0.0757 per unit
I1 = 1.0 / 1.038 = 0.963 per unit
I2 = 1.0 / 10.81 = 0.0925 per unit
I3 = 1.0 / 0.0823 = 12.15 per unit
If = 12.15 + 0.0925 + 0.963 = 13.21 per unit
Ibase = 100 MVA / (1.732 115 kV) = 502 A
If = 13.21 502 A = 6630 A
Current division:
From W: 12.15 .1309 / .2335 = 6.81 per unit
From L: 12.15 .1026 / .2335 = 5.34 per unit

## Notes on Power System Analysis

19

Short-Circuit MVA
Thevenin equivalents of systems are
sometimes given as short-circuit MVA
values:
ScMVA = Isc(per unit) (Base MVA)
so Xth = E/Isc = 1/Isc
or Xth = (Base MVA)/(ScMVA) in per unit

## Notes on Power System Analysis

20

Neglect load currents for typical shortcircuit studies
The load currents can be found from a loadflow study and added to the results of the
short-circuit study, if needed
See the notes section 2-2 for alternative

## Notes on Power System Analysis

21

Multimachine Study
In practice, there are a large number of
generators and hand calculations are
impractical
Development of matrix methods is simple
as demonstrated in the next lecture.

## Notes on Power System Analysis

22

Matrix Methods
For systems with more than a few
generators, use matrix methods to set up the
circuits for short-circuit studies
Nodal admittance matrix is easy to calculate
Nodal impedance matrix is more difficult to
calculate but gives short-circuit currents easily

## Notes on Power System Analysis

23

Example
1

I1

-j 4.0

-j 5.0

I2

-j 3.0
-j 0.1

3
-j 0.5
8 Symmetrical short circuits

## Notes on Power System Analysis

24

Example
Nodal analysis:
I1 = -j 9.0 V1 + j 4.0 V2 + j 5.0 V3
I2 = j 4.0 V1 j 7.1 V2 + j 3.0 V3
0 = j 5.0 V1 + j 3.0 V2 j 8.5 V3
or I = Ybus V
where Ybus is the nodal admittance matrix

25

## Bus Impedance Matrix

Solve for V in terms of I:

## Then V = Ybus-1 I = Zbus I

where Zbus is the nodal impedance matrix or
bus impedance matrix
The bus impedance matrix can be computed
by inverting the bus admittance matrix or by
direct formation

26

Another Example
Branch
Number

Bus
Numbers

Impedance [per
unit]

[per unit]

0.00 + j0.20

0.00 - j5.00

0.00 + j0.25

0.00 - j4.00

0.00 + j0.40

0.00 - j2.50

0.00 + j0.10

0.00 - j10.0

Bus
Number

[per unit]

0.00 j0.80

0.00 j0.80

0.00 j0.00

0.00 j0.60

27

Ybus

-j 9.80

j 5.00

j 4.00

j 0.00

j 5.00

-j 8.30

j 2.50

j 0.00

j 4.00

j 2.50

-j 16.5

j 10.0

j 0.00

j 0.00

j 10.0

-j 10.6

28

Zbus

j 0.5036

j 0.4357

j 0.4392

j 0.4143

j 0.4357

j 0.5117

j 0.4277

j 0.4035

j 0.4392

j 0.4277

j 0.5415

j 0.5108

j 0.4143

j 0.4035

j 0.5108

j 0.5762

29

## Short-Circuit Calculations with Zbus

4

Remainder of system

Fault
0

4
3
2

1
+
1
-

+
1

30

DV1
-1

DV3

Z11

Z12

Z13

Z21

Z22

Z23

-If

Z31

Z32

Z33

## DVi is voltage of node i to 0 node,

Vi = 1+DVi is voltage of node i to ground
If = 1/Z22

## DV1 = - Z12 /Z22

V1 = 1 - Z12 /Z22
8 Symmetrical short circuits

## DV3 =- Z32 /Z22

V3 = 1 - Z32 /Z22

31

Last Example

Zbus

j 0.5036

j 0.4357

j 0.4392

j 0.4143

j 0.4357

j 0.5117

j 0.4277

j 0.4035

j 0.4392

j 0.4277

j 0.5415

j 0.5108

j 0.4143

j 0.4035

j 0.5108

j 0.5762

## 8 Symmetrical short circuits

Vj = 1 - Zjk /Zkk

32

k

Ik

V1

V2

V3

V4

-j 1.986

0.0

0.1349

0.1278

0.1772

-j 1.954

0.1487

0.0

-j 1.847

0.1889

-j 1.735

0.2809

0.1643

0.2116

0.2102

0.0

0.0566

0.2998

0.1135

0.0

33

## Suppose an existing Zbus needs to be

modified to add a new branch.
Four cases:
1. Radial branch connecting a new bus to the
reference node
2. Radial branch connecting a new bus to an existing
system bus
3. A branch from an existing system bus to the
reference node
4. A branch between two existing buses

## Notes on Power System Analysis

34

Case 1 is straightforward
Add a new axis (row and column n+1) to the Z
matrix for the new bus having the branch
impedance z in the diagonal and zeros offdiagonal

Znew =

1 ... n

n+1

0...
0

1...

0 ... 0

n+1

35

## Case 2 a new branch from old bus p to new

bus q (= n+1)
A current Iq injected into q has the same effect
on the existing system as if it were injected at p
Copy axis p to a new axis q and
Zqq = z + Zpp

36

1 ... n

n+1

Z1p...
Znp

1...

Zpp+ z

n+1

Znew =

where 1 p n

37

## Case 3 a new branch from old bus p to the

reference node (loop-closing)
Add a new axis by the algorithm of Case 2,
creating a fictitious new bus
Short the new bus to reference (it now has zero
voltage)
Use Kron reduction to eliminate the new axis of
the matrix

38

## Case 4 a new branch z between two existing

buses p and q (loop closing)
Create a new axis (row and column) to
represent the new loop created
Diagonal:
Zn+1,n+1 = Zpp+Zqq-Zpq-Zqp+z

Off diagonal:
Zn+1, j = Zpj-Zqj
Zi, n+1 = Zip-Ziq

## Notes on Power System Analysis

39

Case 4 (continued):
Use Kron reduction to eliminate the new axis
representing the loop
Zijnew = Zij (Zi, n+1 Zn+1,j )/ Z n+1,n+1

## Notice that this will change almost every

element in the existing part of the matrix

40

## Zbus Building Method

The Zbus modification outline above can
also be used to create Zbus, by starting with
any Case 1 branch to get the 1 1 matrix
for the starting point:
Z=z

## Then proceed to add other branches in any

convenient order
8 Symmetrical short circuits

## Notes on Power System Analysis

41

Removing a Branch
Any branch (of impedance z) may be
removed during a study by adding a new
branch in parallel with impedance of z
Zeq = -z2/(z-z) = -z/0 an open circuit

## Notes on Power System Analysis

42

Large-scale systems have full Zbus matrices
that can be difficult to store and use
Instead we can store the sparse LU factors (as
discussed previously)
Or we can discard unneeded axes by simply
striking them off (if their current injections are
zero)

## Notes on Power System Analysis

43

If I1= 0 and we dont need V1 then:
V1 = Z11 I1 + Z12 I2 + Z13 I3
V2 = Z21 I1 + Z22 I2 + Z23 I3
V3 = Z31 I1 + Z32 I2 + Z33 I3

becomes:
V2 = Z22 I2 + Z23 I3
V3 = Z32 I2 + Z33 I3

## Notes on Power System Analysis

44

Divide system into study system and external
system
Start building Z matrix in external system
After all branches are added to external node,
All study system nodes are kept

45

Bus Numbers

Branch Z [pu]

0.0175

0.0185

0.1983

0.1763

0.1737

0.1160

0.0420

0.0820

0.0414

0.0599

0.2000

0.0379

46

Z=
Z=
Z=

Z=

Z=

j 0.0185

j 0.0185

j 0.0185

j 0.0185

j 0.0564

j 0.0564

j 0.0564

j 0.0564

j 0.0978

j 0.0564

j 0.0564

j 0.0564

j 0.0564

j 0.0978

j 0.0564

j 0.0564

j 0.0564

j 0.2301

j 0.0564

## Notes on Power System Analysis

47

Z=

Z=

j 0.0978

j 0.0564

j 0.0564

j 0.2301

j 0.0978

j 0.0564

j 0.0414

j 0.0564

j 0. 2301

-j 0.1737

j 0.0414

-j 0.1737

j 0.3914

Kron reduction on L: Z =

j 0.09342

j 0.07477

j 0.07477

j 0.15301

48

0.15301

0.07477

0.07477

0.07477

0.07477

0.13542

0.09342

0.09342

0.07477

0.09342

0.17542

0.09342

0.07477

0.09342

0.09342

0.15332

## Add 4-8 creating fictitious loop axis L. Note that 4 and 8

are to be immediately discarded, so there is no need to compute
those elements in the Kron reduction
Result: Z = j

0.15301

0.07477

0.07477

0.17542

## Notes on Power System Analysis

49

and perform another Kron Reduction:

Z= j

0.01556

0.01004

0.01208

0.01004

0.10280

0.06856

0.01208

0.06856

0.12090

Fault at bus 2:
If = 1/j0.1209 = -j 8.27 per unit
V5 = 1 - j0.06856/j0.1209 = 0.433 per unit
I52 = (V5-V2)/z52 = (0.433-0.00)/j0.116 = -j 3.73 per unit

50

## Bus-Tie Circuit Breakers

A normally-open circuit breaker may
connect two buses when closed
Study might require closing and/or opening of
bus-tie circuit breaker
Need to represent a zero-impedance branch that
can be opened
Add z in series with z between buses

51

## Bus-Tie Circuit Breakers

1

Circuit
representation

NC
NO

NC

Zg1
Zg2

One-line
diagram
0

-z

N+1

2
Fictitious new bus

52

## Circuit Breaker Application

Circuit Breakers
ANSI Simplified Methods
Momentary Duty and Ratings
Interrupting Duty and Ratings

53

Circuit Breakers
Interrupt faults

SF6 Generator
Breaker

SF6 HV
Breaker

Vacuum
MV Breaker

Air LV
Breaker

## Not on same scale

8 Symmetrical short circuits

## Notes on Power System Analysis

54

Relays
(logic elements)

Electromechanical
Overcurrent Relay

Digital Electronic
Digital Electronic
Overcurrent Relays Multifunction Relay

## Logic built into most LV breakers

8 Symmetrical short circuits

55

LINE TERMINAL

BRACKET

EXPULSION TUBE
PORCELAIN
SUPPORT

LINE TERMINAL

(NOT TO SCALE)

## Notes on Power System Analysis

56

TIN FUSIBLE ELEMENT

TUBE

(NOT TO SCALE)

## Tin fusible element shown

Other types are also available
8 Symmetrical short circuits

57

## Notes on Power System Analysis

58

Theory
Sudden three-phase short circuit on a
generator with external reactance Xe
ia(t) = 2 Iac(t) cos(wt+q) + 2 I" e-t/Ta
Iac(t) = (I"-I')e-t/T"d + (I'-I)e-t/T'd + I
I"=E/(X"d+Xe)
I'=E/(X'd+Xe)
I=E/(Xd+Xe)
T"d=T"do(X"d+Xe)/(Xd+Xe),
T'd=T'do(X'd+Xe)/(Xd+Xe)

59

## E = prefault voltage (rms) usually 1.0 pu

Idc(t) = 2 I" e-t/Ta
Irms(t) = [Iac(t)2 + Idc (t) 2]1/2
This is rigorous:
Momentary duty is Irms at 0.5 cycle and
interrupting duty is Irms at contact parting time
of breaker
Usually use simplified methods, discussed next

## Notes on Power System Analysis

60

Circuit Breakers
Basically, an AC circuit breaker is a piece
of switchgear that can
withstand the momentary short-circuit current
interrupt the short-circuit current at the current
zero following contact parting
withstand the transient recovery voltage across
its open contacts

## Notes on Power System Analysis

61

Interrupting time
Contact parting time
Tripping
delay

Opening
time

Arcing
time

t
Initiation
of short
circuit

Trip
circuit
energized

Primary
contacts
part

Arc on
primary
contacts
extinguished

## Sequence of events in AC circuit breaking: after relays

detect fault and energize trip coil, breaker contacts open,
arc is established and then extinguished at a current zero
8 Symmetrical short circuits

62

## Simplified Methods (ANSI)

Circuit breakers in the US are rated per
ANSI standards, by
momentary (or first-cycle or closing and
latching) rating, and
interrupting rating on either:
total current rating (older breakers)
symmetrical current rating (new breakers)

## We compute both first cycle and interrupting

duties to compare with ratings
8 Symmetrical short circuits

## Notes on Power System Analysis

63

Simplified Method
Simplified method method is based on
calculation of Thevenin reactance Xth at the
point of the fault, then I = E/Xth
If resistance is significant, calculate Zth =
(Rth2 + Xth2)1/2, and I = E/Zth

## Notes on Power System Analysis

64

First-cycle duties
Breakers that are rated on a total current
basis
momentary rating must exceed the calculated
first-cycle duty

## Breakers that are rated on a symmetrical

current basis
closing and latching capability must exceed the
first-cycle duty

## Notes on Power System Analysis

65

First-cycle duties
Look up machine reactances from tables in
ANSI standards
HV (and MV) circuit breakers (above 1000 V)
use
ANSI C37.5 (total interrupting rating)
ANSI C37.010 (symmetrical interrupting rating)

ANSI C37.13

66

## First-cycle duties for HV and MV circuit breakers

Turbo-generators, hydrogenerators, and condensers

1.00 Xd"

## Hydro-generators (no damper

windings)

0.75 Xd'

Synchronous motors

1.00 Xd"
above 1000 hp at
1800 rpm or less
above 250 hp at
3600 rpm

Induction motors

50 - 1000 hp at 1800
rpm or less
50 - 250 hp at 3600
rpm
Below 50 hp

## Notes on Power System Analysis

1.00 Xd"

1.20 Xd"

neglect
67

First-cycle duties
Compute I" using the appropriate reactances
in the short-circuit study
The first-cycle duty is 1.60 I"
approximates the duty on the breaker during the
first half cycle of short-circuit current.
breaker must be able to close and latch, while
withstanding the mechanical forces produced
by this large current
compare to breaker momentary rating
8 Symmetrical short circuits

## Notes on Power System Analysis

68

LV CB and Fuses
For LV circuit breakers and fuses, see ANSI
C37.13 for reactances and multipliers to
estimate the momentary current
LV circuit breakers can be power circuit
breakers or molded-case circuit breakers
LV power CB must close and latch into a fault to
allow coordination with downstream devices
molded-case circuit breakers often use blow-off
contacts that limit current (magnetic forces push
contacts apart before trip mechanism unlatches)
8 Symmetrical short circuits

69

## System X/R Ratio

If a fault is near a large generator, the
system X/R ratio can be large
Simplified method needs some modification for
X/R >15, then either:
derate breaker interrupting rating by 80%, or
use the method given in ANSI C37.010

## Notes on Power System Analysis

70

System X/R
Every generator has its own X/R, but a safe
approximation is as follows:
Find the Thevenin reactance seen from the
fault, neglecting all resistances, call that Xth
Find the Thevenin resistance seen from the
fault, neglecting all reactances, call that Rth
Then X/R ratio = Xth/Rth

## Notes on Power System Analysis

71

Interrupting Rating
Total current basis (older breakers)
Interrupting rating based on total
(asymmetrical) current including ac and dc
components. See notes section 2.7

## Symmetrical current basis (new breakers)

Interrupting rating based on symmetrical
current (ac component only)

72

## Symmetrical interrupting duties for HV and MV circuit breakers

Turbo-generators, hydrogenerators, and condensers

1.00 Xd"

## Hydro-generators (no damper

windings)

0.75 Xd'

Synchronous motors

1.50 Xd"
above 1000 hp at
1800 rpm or less
above 250 hp at
3600 rpm

Induction motors

50 - 1000 hp at 1800
rpm or less
50 - 250 hp at 3600
rpm
Below 50 hp

1.50 Xd"

3.00 Xd"

neglect
73

## Symmetrical interrupting rating

Calculate I = E/X for 3-phase and for 1phase-ground short circuits
Circuit breaker is adequate for any X/R if
3-phase sc I 80% of the interrupting rating,
and
1-phase-ground sc I 70% of the interrupting
rating

74

## Symmetrical interrupting rating

Calculate X/R, if it exceeds 15 then
Look up multiplying factor from ANSI
C37.010 (also Fig. 2.7.3 in notes)
Multiply the factor by I" to estimate the breaker
interrupting duty
If the interrupting duty interrupting rating,

## If X/R 15, then multiplying factor is 1.00

8 Symmetrical short circuits

## Notes on Power System Analysis

75

Breaker Ratings
ANSI C37.06 has ratings for HV breakers
with symmetrical interrupting ratings:

## rated max voltage

rated voltage range factor K
rated short-circuit current
plus other ratings

## Notes on Power System Analysis

76

K factor
If K = 1, then interrupting rating = rated
short-circuit current
If K > 1, then interrupting rating is inversely
proportional to the operating voltage, up to
a limit of K times the rated short-circuit
current
Breaker has an operating region with a MVA
rating
8 Symmetrical short circuits

## Notes on Power System Analysis

77

Example
Vmax = 15 kV, Iscrated = 19.0 kA, K=2.27,
apply at 13 kV:
Interrupting rating = 19 kA15 kV/13 kV = 21.9
kA
Check maximum int rating = KIscrated =
2.2719.0 kA = 43.1 kA
Interrupting rating = 21.9 kA

78

45

40

Iint rated( V )

35

kA
Isc rated.K
kA

30

25

20

15

10

15

Vmax
V
kV

K
kV

79

## As V decreases from its maximum, the

interrupting rating increases up to a
maximum of K rated sc current at
Vmax/K
Note that the close and latch capability is
1.6 K rated short-circuit current

80