Chapter 8: Symmetrical Short
Circuits
Fundamentals
Effects of Network Impedances
Examples
Use of Bus Impedance Matrix
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
Threephase ShortCircuit on an
Unloaded Generator
Subtransient and transient AC currents
Decaying sinusoids
DC current
Decaying unidirectional
Steadystate AC currents
Small doublefrequency term
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
Generator Short Circuit Currents
5
0
T
Ia(t)
k
Ia
10
15
0.1
0.2
0.3
T
k
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.3
T
k
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
10
Ib
T
Ib(t)
k
10
Ic(t) k
Ic
8 Symmetrical short circuits
t [sec]T k
Notes on Power System Analysis
Subtransient current I
and envelope of AC current
I
3
Iac T
Iac
2
I''
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
time k[sec]
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
AC transient and subtransient current
10
Iac T
I 1
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
T
8 Symmetrical short circuits
1.2
1.4
1.8
1.6
Notes on Power System Analysis
Subtransient Current
Peak value of the AC current I"
Prefault voltage of generator is E
I" = E/Xd"
where Xd" is the generator subtransient reactance
(usually tabulated)
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
Effect of Network Impedances
Consider a generator feeding a transformer
feeding a line with a short circuit on it
Total impedance to the fault:
Z = 0 + j (Xd"+Xtransf+Xline)
where the resistance has been ignored
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
Small Example System
T1
T2
G1
40 ohms
13.8 kV 115 kV
G2
50 ohms
G1: 50 MVA 13.8 kV
G2: 150 MVA 14.4 kV
115 kV
X" = 20%
X" = 20%
T1: 50 MVA 13.8 kV : 115 kV
T2: 150 MVA 14.4 kV : 115 kV
8 Symmetrical short circuits
14.4 kV
Notes on Power System Analysis
X" = 10%
X" = 10%
8
Solution of Example System
1) Obtain impedance values:
G1: 50 MVA 13.8 kV Xd" = 20%
G1: 150 MVA 14.4 kV Xd" = 20%
T1: 50 MVA 13.8 : 115 kV X = 10%
T2: 150 MVA 14.4 : 115 kV X = 10%
L1: X = 40 ohms
L2: X = 50 ohms
All resistances much smaller than reactances
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
2) Convert impedances to per unit on a base of 100 MVA:
G1: Xd" = 0.20 100 / 50 = 0.400 pu
G2: Xd" = 0.20 100 / 150 = 0.1333 pu
T1: X = 0.10 100 / 50 = 0.200 pu
T2: X = 0.10 100 / 150 = 0.0667 pu
Zbase = (115 kV)2 / 100 MVA = 132.2 ohms
L1: X = 40 ohms / 132.2 ohms = 0.302 pu
L2: X = 50 ohms / 132.2 ohms = 0.378 pu
3) Draw the impedance diagram with a short circuit at the
point of the fault
4) Solve the circuit for the currents and any voltages that may
be desired
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
10
j0.302
j0.40
j0.20
j0.378
+
1.0

j0.0667
j0.1333
+
1.0

(a) Equivalent circuit for fault calculations
j0.60
j0.368
+
I2
I1
1.0
If
1.0

(b) Equivalent circuit after network reductions
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
11
Combine impedances in series and parallel:
X1 = 0.400 + 0.200 = 0.600 pu
XLeq = 1 / (1 / .302 + 1 / .378) = 0.1679 pu
X2 = 0.1679 + 0.0667 + 0.1333 = 0.368 pu
I1 = 1 / j 0.600 = j 1.667 pu
I2 = 1 / j 0.368 pu = j 2.72 pu
If = I1 + I2 = 1.67 + 2.72 = 4.39 pu
V1 = 1.0  j 0.400 (j 1.667) = 1.0  0.667 = 0.333 pu
Convert back to amps and volts:
Ibase(HV) = 100 MVA / (1.732 115 kV) = 502 A
I1 = 1.667 502 A = 837 A
I2 = 2.72 502 A = 1365 A
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
12
Sometimes the results are given in MVA (at nominal voltage):
S1 = 1.667 100 MVA = 166.7 MVA
S2 = 2.72 100 MVA = 272 MVA
If the currents on the lowvoltage side of T1 are desired:
Ibase = 100 MVA / (1.732 13.8 kV) = 4.18 kA
I = 1.667 4.18 kA = 6.97 kA
If the transformer delta winding currents are needed:
Idelta = 6.97 kA / 1.732 = 4.02 kA
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
13
Multimachine Case
For a few generators, use Thevenins
Theorem:
Replace network with its equivalent at the point
of the fault
Opencircuit voltage is the prefault system
voltage (usually 1.0 per unit)
Also use Superposition Theorem
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
14
8.3%
G1 36.8 MVA X = 29%
W
2.6%
P
32%
T1 42.4 MVA X = 10.6%
2%
7.8%
Z
L
T2 4.32 MVA X = 7.5%
G2 3.75 MVA X = 34%
7.2%
115 kV LINES Z IN PER UNIT ON 100 MVA
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
15
0.083
0.026
0.32
0.072
0.02
0.25
0.788
1.736
9.07
0.078
(a) CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR 3PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT AT D
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
16
0.083
0.0196
0.02
0.00478
0.072
0.0589
P
1.038
10.81
(b) AFTER DELTAWYE CONVERSION ON WLP
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
17
0.0823
1.038
10.81
+
1

If
(c) AFTER NETWORK REDUCTIONS.
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
18
1/Zth = (1/0.0823) + (1/1.038) + (1/10.81) = 13.21 per unit
Zth = 0.0757 per unit
I1 = 1.0 / 1.038 = 0.963 per unit
I2 = 1.0 / 10.81 = 0.0925 per unit
I3 = 1.0 / 0.0823 = 12.15 per unit
If = 12.15 + 0.0925 + 0.963 = 13.21 per unit
Ibase = 100 MVA / (1.732 115 kV) = 502 A
If = 13.21 502 A = 6630 A
Current division:
From W: 12.15 .1309 / .2335 = 6.81 per unit
From L: 12.15 .1026 / .2335 = 5.34 per unit
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
19
ShortCircuit MVA
Thevenin equivalents of systems are
sometimes given as shortcircuit MVA
values:
ScMVA = Isc(per unit) (Base MVA)
so Xth = E/Isc = 1/Isc
or Xth = (Base MVA)/(ScMVA) in per unit
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
20
Load Currents
Neglect load currents for typical shortcircuit studies
The load currents can be found from a loadflow study and added to the results of the
shortcircuit study, if needed
See the notes section 22 for alternative
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
21
Multimachine Study
In practice, there are a large number of
generators and hand calculations are
impractical
Development of matrix methods is simple
as demonstrated in the next lecture.
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
22
Matrix Methods
For systems with more than a few
generators, use matrix methods to set up the
circuits for shortcircuit studies
Nodal admittance matrix is easy to calculate
Nodal impedance matrix is more difficult to
calculate but gives shortcircuit currents easily
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
23
Example
1
I1
j 4.0
j 5.0
I2
j 3.0
j 0.1
3
j 0.5
Admittances in per unit
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
24
Example
Nodal analysis:
I1 = j 9.0 V1 + j 4.0 V2 + j 5.0 V3
I2 = j 4.0 V1 j 7.1 V2 + j 3.0 V3
0 = j 5.0 V1 + j 3.0 V2 j 8.5 V3
or I = Ybus V
where Ybus is the nodal admittance matrix
or bus admittance matrix
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
25
Bus Impedance Matrix
Solve for V in terms of I:
Then V = Ybus1 I = Zbus I
where Zbus is the nodal impedance matrix or
bus impedance matrix
The bus impedance matrix can be computed
by inverting the bus admittance matrix or by
direct formation
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
26
Another Example
Branch
Number
Bus
Numbers
Impedance [per
unit]
Admittance
[per unit]
0.00 + j0.20
0.00  j5.00
0.00 + j0.25
0.00  j4.00
0.00 + j0.40
0.00  j2.50
0.00 + j0.10
0.00  j10.0
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Bus
Number
Admittance
[per unit]
0.00 j0.80
0.00 j0.80
0.00 j0.00
0.00 j0.60
Notes on Power System Analysis
27
Ybus
j 9.80
j 5.00
j 4.00
j 0.00
j 5.00
j 8.30
j 2.50
j 0.00
j 4.00
j 2.50
j 16.5
j 10.0
j 0.00
j 0.00
j 10.0
j 10.6
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
28
Zbus
j 0.5036
j 0.4357
j 0.4392
j 0.4143
j 0.4357
j 0.5117
j 0.4277
j 0.4035
j 0.4392
j 0.4277
j 0.5415
j 0.5108
j 0.4143
j 0.4035
j 0.5108
j 0.5762
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
29
ShortCircuit Calculations with Zbus
4
Remainder of system
Fault
0
4
3
2
1
+
1

+
1
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
30
DV1
1
DV3
Z11
Z12
Z13
Z21
Z22
Z23
If
Z31
Z32
Z33
DVi is voltage of node i to 0 node,
Vi = 1+DVi is voltage of node i to ground
If = 1/Z22
DV1 =  Z12 /Z22
V1 = 1  Z12 /Z22
8 Symmetrical short circuits
DV3 = Z32 /Z22
V3 = 1  Z32 /Z22
Notes on Power System Analysis
31
Last Example
Zbus
j 0.5036
j 0.4357
j 0.4392
j 0.4143
j 0.4357
j 0.5117
j 0.4277
j 0.4035
j 0.4392
j 0.4277
j 0.5415
j 0.5108
j 0.4143
j 0.4035
j 0.5108
j 0.5762
Fault at bus k: I k= 1/Zkk
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Vj = 1  Zjk /Zkk
Notes on Power System Analysis
32
Fault at bus k is threephase short circuit
k
Ik
V1
V2
V3
V4
j 1.986
0.0
0.1349
0.1278
0.1772
j 1.954
0.1487
0.0
j 1.847
0.1889
j 1.735
0.2809
8 Symmetrical short circuits
0.1643
0.2116
0.2102
0.0
0.0566
0.2998
0.1135
0.0
Notes on Power System Analysis
33
Adding a Branch to Zbus
Suppose an existing Zbus needs to be
modified to add a new branch.
Four cases:
1. Radial branch connecting a new bus to the
reference node
2. Radial branch connecting a new bus to an existing
system bus
3. A branch from an existing system bus to the
reference node
4. A branch between two existing buses
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
34
Case 1 is straightforward
Add a new axis (row and column n+1) to the Z
matrix for the new bus having the branch
impedance z in the diagonal and zeros offdiagonal
Znew =
8 Symmetrical short circuits
1 ... n
n+1
0...
0
1...
0 ... 0
n+1
Notes on Power System Analysis
35
Case 2 a new branch from old bus p to new
bus q (= n+1)
A current Iq injected into q has the same effect
on the existing system as if it were injected at p
Copy axis p to a new axis q and
Zqq = z + Zpp
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
36
1 ... n
n+1
Z1p...
Znp
1...
Zp1 ... Zpn
Zpp+ z
n+1
Znew =
where 1 p n
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
37
Case 3 a new branch from old bus p to the
reference node (loopclosing)
Add a new axis by the algorithm of Case 2,
creating a fictitious new bus
Short the new bus to reference (it now has zero
voltage)
Use Kron reduction to eliminate the new axis of
the matrix
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
38
Case 4 a new branch z between two existing
buses p and q (loop closing)
Create a new axis (row and column) to
represent the new loop created
Diagonal:
Zn+1,n+1 = Zpp+ZqqZpqZqp+z
Off diagonal:
Zn+1, j = ZpjZqj
Zi, n+1 = ZipZiq
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
39
Case 4 (continued):
Use Kron reduction to eliminate the new axis
representing the loop
Zijnew = Zij (Zi, n+1 Zn+1,j )/ Z n+1,n+1
Notice that this will change almost every
element in the existing part of the matrix
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
40
Zbus Building Method
The Zbus modification outline above can
also be used to create Zbus, by starting with
any Case 1 branch to get the 1 1 matrix
for the starting point:
Z=z
Then proceed to add other branches in any
convenient order
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
41
Removing a Branch
Any branch (of impedance z) may be
removed during a study by adding a new
branch in parallel with impedance of z
Zeq = z2/(zz) = z/0 an open circuit
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
42
Axis Discarding Method
Largescale systems have full Zbus matrices
that can be difficult to store and use
Instead we can store the sparse LU factors (as
discussed previously)
Or we can discard unneeded axes by simply
striking them off (if their current injections are
zero)
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
43
Axis Discarding
If I1= 0 and we dont need V1 then:
V1 = Z11 I1 + Z12 I2 + Z13 I3
V2 = Z21 I1 + Z22 I2 + Z23 I3
V3 = Z31 I1 + Z32 I2 + Z33 I3
becomes:
V2 = Z22 I2 + Z23 I3
V3 = Z32 I2 + Z33 I3
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
44
Axis Discarding
Axis discarding for shortcircuit calculation:
Divide system into study system and external
system
Start building Z matrix in external system
After all branches are added to external node,
its axis is discarded
All study system nodes are kept
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
45
Example: Set up Z matrix, discarding all axes except 1, 2 and 5
Bus Numbers
Branch Z [pu]
0.0175
0.0185
0.1983
0.1763
0.1737
0.1160
0.0420
0.0820
0.0414
0.0599
0.2000
0.0379
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
46
Solution: Add 06
Add 67
Discard 6
Add 73
Add 71
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Z=
Z=
Z=
Z=
Z=
j 0.0185
j 0.0185
j 0.0185
j 0.0185
j 0.0564
j 0.0564
j 0.0564
j 0.0564
j 0.0978
j 0.0564
j 0.0564
j 0.0564
j 0.0564
j 0.0978
j 0.0564
j 0.0564
j 0.0564
j 0.2301
j 0.0564
Notes on Power System Analysis
47
Discard 7
Add 31
Z=
Z=
j 0.0978
j 0.0564
j 0.0564
j 0.2301
j 0.0978
j 0.0564
j 0.0414
j 0.0564
j 0. 2301
j 0.1737
j 0.0414
j 0.1737
j 0.3914
Kron reduction on L: Z =
j 0.09342
j 0.07477
j 0.07477
j 0.15301
Continue this process, adding 34, 35, 38
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
48
Discard 3: Z = j
0.15301
0.07477
0.07477
0.07477
0.07477
0.13542
0.09342
0.09342
0.07477
0.09342
0.17542
0.09342
0.07477
0.09342
0.09342
0.15332
Add 48 creating fictitious loop axis L. Note that 4 and 8
are to be immediately discarded, so there is no need to compute
those elements in the Kron reduction
Result: Z = j
8 Symmetrical short circuits
0.15301
0.07477
0.07477
0.17542
Notes on Power System Analysis
49
Add 10 perform Kron Reduction. Then add 25 and 12
and perform another Kron Reduction:
Z= j
0.01556
0.01004
0.01208
0.01004
0.10280
0.06856
0.01208
0.06856
0.12090
Fault at bus 2:
If = 1/j0.1209 = j 8.27 per unit
V5 = 1  j0.06856/j0.1209 = 0.433 per unit
I52 = (V5V2)/z52 = (0.4330.00)/j0.116 = j 3.73 per unit
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
50
BusTie Circuit Breakers
A normallyopen circuit breaker may
connect two buses when closed
Study might require closing and/or opening of
bustie circuit breaker
Need to represent a zeroimpedance branch that
can be opened
Add z in series with z between buses
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
51
BusTie Circuit Breakers
1
Circuit
representation
NC
NO
NC
Zg1
Zg2
Oneline
diagram
0
z
N+1
2
Fictitious new bus
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
52
Circuit Breaker Application
Circuit Breakers
ANSI Simplified Methods
Momentary Duty and Ratings
Interrupting Duty and Ratings
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
53
Circuit Breakers
Interrupt faults
SF6 Generator
Breaker
SF6 HV
Breaker
Vacuum
MV Breaker
Air LV
Breaker
Not on same scale
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
54
Relays
(logic elements)
Electromechanical
Overcurrent Relay
Digital Electronic
Digital Electronic
Overcurrent Relays Multifunction Relay
Logic built into most LV breakers
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
55
Expulsion Fuse Cutout
LINE TERMINAL
BRACKET
EXPULSION TUBE
PORCELAIN
SUPPORT
LINE TERMINAL
8 Symmetrical short circuits
OPEN TYPE FUSE CUTOUT
(NOT TO SCALE)
Notes on Power System Analysis
56
Fusible Link
TINPLATED BUTTON HEAD
TIN FUSIBLE ELEMENT
TUBE
CUTAWAY VIEW OF TYPICAL FUSE LINK
(NOT TO SCALE)
LEADER
Tin fusible element shown
Other types are also available
Link fits inside expulsion tube
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
57
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
58
Theory
Sudden threephase short circuit on a
generator with external reactance Xe
ia(t) = 2 Iac(t) cos(wt+q) + 2 I" et/Ta
Iac(t) = (I"I')et/T"d + (I'I)et/T'd + I
I"=E/(X"d+Xe)
I'=E/(X'd+Xe)
I=E/(Xd+Xe)
T"d=T"do(X"d+Xe)/(Xd+Xe),
T'd=T'do(X'd+Xe)/(Xd+Xe)
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
59
E = prefault voltage (rms) usually 1.0 pu
Idc(t) = 2 I" et/Ta
Irms(t) = [Iac(t)2 + Idc (t) 2]1/2
This is rigorous:
Momentary duty is Irms at 0.5 cycle and
interrupting duty is Irms at contact parting time
of breaker
Usually use simplified methods, discussed next
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
60
Circuit Breakers
Basically, an AC circuit breaker is a piece
of switchgear that can
withstand the momentary shortcircuit current
interrupt the shortcircuit current at the current
zero following contact parting
withstand the transient recovery voltage across
its open contacts
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
61
Interrupting time
Contact parting time
Tripping
delay
Opening
time
Arcing
time
t
Initiation
of short
circuit
Trip
circuit
energized
Primary
contacts
part
Arc on
primary
contacts
extinguished
Sequence of events in AC circuit breaking: after relays
detect fault and energize trip coil, breaker contacts open,
arc is established and then extinguished at a current zero
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
62
Simplified Methods (ANSI)
Circuit breakers in the US are rated per
ANSI standards, by
momentary (or firstcycle or closing and
latching) rating, and
interrupting rating on either:
total current rating (older breakers)
symmetrical current rating (new breakers)
We compute both first cycle and interrupting
duties to compare with ratings
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
63
Simplified Method
Simplified method method is based on
calculation of Thevenin reactance Xth at the
point of the fault, then I = E/Xth
If resistance is significant, calculate Zth =
(Rth2 + Xth2)1/2, and I = E/Zth
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
64
Firstcycle duties
Breakers that are rated on a total current
basis
momentary rating must exceed the calculated
firstcycle duty
Breakers that are rated on a symmetrical
current basis
closing and latching capability must exceed the
firstcycle duty
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
65
Firstcycle duties
Look up machine reactances from tables in
ANSI standards
HV (and MV) circuit breakers (above 1000 V)
use
ANSI C37.5 (total interrupting rating)
ANSI C37.010 (symmetrical interrupting rating)
LV circuit breakers and fuses use
ANSI C37.13
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
66
Firstcycle duties for HV and MV circuit breakers
Turbogenerators, hydrogenerators, and condensers
1.00 Xd"
Hydrogenerators (no damper
windings)
0.75 Xd'
Synchronous motors
1.00 Xd"
above 1000 hp at
1800 rpm or less
above 250 hp at
3600 rpm
Induction motors
50  1000 hp at 1800
rpm or less
50  250 hp at 3600
rpm
Below 50 hp
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
1.00 Xd"
1.20 Xd"
neglect
67
Firstcycle duties
Compute I" using the appropriate reactances
in the shortcircuit study
The firstcycle duty is 1.60 I"
approximates the duty on the breaker during the
first half cycle of shortcircuit current.
breaker must be able to close and latch, while
withstanding the mechanical forces produced
by this large current
compare to breaker momentary rating
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
68
LV CB and Fuses
For LV circuit breakers and fuses, see ANSI
C37.13 for reactances and multipliers to
estimate the momentary current
LV circuit breakers can be power circuit
breakers or moldedcase circuit breakers
LV power CB must close and latch into a fault to
allow coordination with downstream devices
moldedcase circuit breakers often use blowoff
contacts that limit current (magnetic forces push
contacts apart before trip mechanism unlatches)
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
69
System X/R Ratio
If a fault is near a large generator, the
system X/R ratio can be large
Simplified method needs some modification for
X/R >15, then either:
derate breaker interrupting rating by 80%, or
use the method given in ANSI C37.010
We need to discuss the X/R ratio calculation
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
70
System X/R
Every generator has its own X/R, but a safe
approximation is as follows:
Find the Thevenin reactance seen from the
fault, neglecting all resistances, call that Xth
Find the Thevenin resistance seen from the
fault, neglecting all reactances, call that Rth
Then X/R ratio = Xth/Rth
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
71
Interrupting Rating
Total current basis (older breakers)
Interrupting rating based on total
(asymmetrical) current including ac and dc
components. See notes section 2.7
Symmetrical current basis (new breakers)
Interrupting rating based on symmetrical
current (ac component only)
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
72
Symmetrical interrupting duties for HV and MV circuit breakers
Turbogenerators, hydrogenerators, and condensers
1.00 Xd"
Hydrogenerators (no damper
windings)
0.75 Xd'
Synchronous motors
1.50 Xd"
above 1000 hp at
1800 rpm or less
above 250 hp at
3600 rpm
Induction motors
50  1000 hp at 1800
rpm or less
50  250 hp at 3600
rpm
Below 50 hp
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
1.50 Xd"
3.00 Xd"
neglect
73
Symmetrical interrupting rating
Calculate I = E/X for 3phase and for 1phaseground short circuits
Circuit breaker is adequate for any X/R if
3phase sc I 80% of the interrupting rating,
and
1phaseground sc I 70% of the interrupting
rating
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
74
Symmetrical interrupting rating
Calculate X/R, if it exceeds 15 then
Look up multiplying factor from ANSI
C37.010 (also Fig. 2.7.3 in notes)
Multiply the factor by I" to estimate the breaker
interrupting duty
If the interrupting duty interrupting rating,
then the breaker is adequate
If X/R 15, then multiplying factor is 1.00
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
75
Breaker Ratings
ANSI C37.06 has ratings for HV breakers
with symmetrical interrupting ratings:
rated max voltage
rated voltage range factor K
rated shortcircuit current
plus other ratings
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
76
K factor
If K = 1, then interrupting rating = rated
shortcircuit current
If K > 1, then interrupting rating is inversely
proportional to the operating voltage, up to
a limit of K times the rated shortcircuit
current
Breaker has an operating region with a MVA
rating
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
77
Example
Vmax = 15 kV, Iscrated = 19.0 kA, K=2.27,
apply at 13 kV:
Interrupting rating = 19 kA15 kV/13 kV = 21.9
kA
Check maximum int rating = KIscrated =
2.2719.0 kA = 43.1 kA
Interrupting rating = 21.9 kA
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
78
45
40
Iint rated( V )
35
kA
Isc rated.K
kA
30
25
20
15
10
15
Vmax
V
kV
8 Symmetrical short circuits
K
kV
Notes on Power System Analysis
79
As V decreases from its maximum, the
interrupting rating increases up to a
maximum of K rated sc current at
Vmax/K
Note that the close and latch capability is
1.6 K rated shortcircuit current
8 Symmetrical short circuits
Notes on Power System Analysis
80