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Physics

Year 3
Summary

Chapter 3 Energy
3
Chapter 5 Expansion
5
Chapter 8 Measuring heat
6
Chapter 11 Pushes & Pulls
7
Chapter 13 Pressure
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Chapter 14 Forces
10
Chapter 15 Turning Forces
11
Chapter 16 Work, Energy and Power
12
Chapter 17 Machines
13
Chapter 23 Reflection
14
Chapter 24 Curved mirrors
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2

Chapter 25 Refraction
18
Chapter 26 Lenses
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Chapter 30 Static electricity
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Chapter 31 circuits
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Chapter 3 Energy
Energy can exists in different forms:

Chemical energy (food)


Thermal energy (heat)
Light energy
Sound energy
Elastic potential energy
Gravitational potential energy
Kinetic energy (movement)
Electrical energy
Nuclear energy

Renewable sources of energy are :

Solar energy
Biomass
Wind energy
Wave energy
Hydro-electric energy
Tidal energy
Geothermal energy

You need 40km2 of solar panels to equal the amount of


energy produced by a modern power station.
You need 20km of floats to equal the amount of energy
produced by a modern power station.

You need 2000 windmills to equal the amount of energy


produced by a modern power station.

Chapter 5 Expansion
When objects get hotter they grow bigger. We say the
expand.
When objects cool down they get smaller. We say they
contract.

A bi-metallic strip is made of two metal strips with


different expansion coefficients (often brass and iron)
which are placed side by side and then riveted or
welded together.

A bimetallic strip is used in a fire alarm or as an


Electrical thermostat.
Bi-metalic strip
Fire alarm
contact

When it gets too hot the bi-metallic strip will bend and
make contact with the contact and completes the circuit
causing a current to flow and the alarm to sound.
Chapter 8 Measuring Heat
All moving molecules of an object have internal energy.
Its internal energy increases. Like all other forms of
energy, internal energy is measured in a unit called
joule (J). A math produces 2000J = 2KJ to burn up
completely. 1,000J=1KJ , 1,000,000J=1MJ.
Your body needs a total of 10 MJ per day. While sleeping
you use about 4KJ every minute.
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The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount


of energy that is used to raise the temperature of 1Kg
of the substance by 1

Energy needed=specific heat capacity mass changethemperature

joules J /kg kg

Material
Water
Meths
Paraffin
Ice
Aluminium
Sand
Copper
Mercury

Specific heat capacity


J/Kg C
4200
2500
2200
2100
880
800
380
140

Chapter 11 Pushes and Pulls


Pushes and pulls are forces. Whenever we are pushing
or pulling, lifting or bending, we are exerting a force.
Forces can :
Change the speed of an object
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Change the direction of an object


Change the shape of an object
Weight is a very common force. Weight is the force of
gravity due to the pull of the Earth.
If an object is taken to the Moon, it weighs about onesixth as much, because the Moon is smaller than the
Earth.
In outer space objects become weightless.
Hookes Law : The extension of a spring is
proportional to the force pulling it (up to the limit
of proportionality).

Forces are measured in units called newtons (N)


A mass of 1kg (here on Earth) weights almost 10
newtons.

Weight on Earth=mass 10

newtons kg N /kg

The mass of an object is the amount of matter in it. It is


measured in kilograms (kg). the mass of a book is
around 1kg.
We say masses have inertia, a reluctance to start
moving.
Newtons First Law : Every mass stays at rest or
moves at constant speed in a straight line unless
a resultant force acts on it.

Chapter 13 Pressure
9

Pressure(N /m2)=

force ( newtons)
area( square metres)

A force acting over a small area gives a larger pressure.


The pressure exerted on us by the atmosphere is
100,000 newtons per square metre.

A mercury barometer :

10

Chapter 14 Forces
Friction is a very common force. Whenever one surface
slides over another, friction always tries to oppose the
movement. Friction is often nuisance, because it wastes
energy.
Ways to reduce friction :

Polishing the surface


Lubricating with oil
Separate by air
Rolling instead of sliding
Streamlining

Newtons 3rd Law : The action force and the


reaction force are equal and opposite.
Forces are shown in a Free-body force diagram :

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Chapter 15 Turning forces


Moment of a force = force(N) x perpendicular

In equilibrium : total anti-clockwise moment =


total clockwise moment.

12

The centre of gravity is the point through which the


whole weight of the object seem to act. An object can
be stable, unstable or neutral equilibrium depending on
the position of its centre of gravity. To be more stable an
object needs a low centre of mass and a wide base.

Chapter 16 Work, Power and Energy


1 joule is the power needed to move a force of 1
newton through a distance of 1 metre.
work done=force distance moved
( joules)( newtons)(metres)

The principle of Conservation of energy : energy


can be changed from one form to another, but it
cannot be created or destroyed.
13

Work done=Energy transfered

Efficiency=

usefull energy output


100
total energy input

ChangeE potential ( J )=weight(N ) height (m)


ChangeE gravity ( J )=mass ( kg ) g height ( m )

( g=10 on earth )
Eelastic =average force distance
1
2
Ekinetic = mass speed
2
Power=

work done
time taken

Chapter 17 Machines
Some machines are :

Levers

ramps
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pulleys

Machines are less than 100% efficient because of


friction.

Chapter 23 Reflection
Angle I
normal
Angle R

The angle with which the ray hits the object is called
the angle of incidence
The middle dotted line is the normal
15

The angle with which the ray reflects from the object is
called the angle of Refraction

If an object reflects light the angle of incidence equals


the angle of reflection.
If you want to draw the outgoing ray :
1 draw an normal ;
2 measure angle I ;
3 draw angle R the same amount of degrees as angle I.

A periscope :

A pheriscope are 2 mirrors at an angle of 90 degrres


wich let you look straight but than at an higher level.
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An image in a plane mirror

Draw the reflection of an object in a mirror :


1 draw the image of the object
2 make 2 rays from the eye to the imaged object
(behind the mirror dotted lines)
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3 finish it by connecting the not dotted lines with the


non-mirrored object

Chapter 24 Curved mirrors


There are two kind of curved mirrors :
A mirror that curves in called a concave mirror.

Parallel rays of light are reflected through the focal


point of a
concaved mirror.

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A mirror that curves outwards called a convex


mirror.

Parallel rays of light are reflected so that they seem


to come from the focal point of a convex mirror.

Chapter 25 refraction
If a ray of air goes in to another substance it is
refracted.
Refractive index =

sin ( angle I )
sin(angle R)

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Refractive index petrol = 1.45


Refractive index diamond = 2.43

Chapter 26 Lenses
There are two kind of lenses :
A lens that curves in called a concave mirror.
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Parallel rays of light are refracted so that they


seem to come from the focal point of a concaved
lens.
A lens that curves outwards called a convex mirror.

Parallel rays of light are refracted through the focal


point of a
convex lens.
Chapter 30 Static energy
Like electric charges repel whereas unlike electric
charges repel.
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Chapter 31
For an electric current to flow, there must be a
complete circuit, with no gaps.
The symbols for components of a simple circuit :

Th
ere are series and parallel circuits :

resistance=

p . d .(V )
current ( I )

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